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Sample records for abrogates antibody production

  1. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Abrogates Conjugate-Induced Germinal Center Reaction and Depletes Antibody Secreting Cell Pool, Causing Hyporesponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnarson, Stefania P.; Benonisson, Hreinn; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Jonsdottir, Ingileif

    2013-01-01

    Background Plain pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) booster administered during second year of life has been shown to cause hyporesponsiveness. We assessed the effects of PPS booster on splenic memory B cell responses and persistence of PPS-specific long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Methods Neonatal mice were primed subcutanously (s.c.) or intranasally (i.n.) with pneumococcal conjugate (Pnc1-TT) and the adjuvant LT-K63, and boosted with PPS+LT-K63 or saline 1, 2 or 3 times with 16 day intervals. Seven days after each booster, spleens were removed, germinal centers (GC), IgM+, IgG+ follicles and PPS-specific antibody secreting cells (AbSC) in spleen and BM enumerated. Results PPS booster s.c., but not i.n., compromised the Pnc1-TT-induced PPS-specific Abs by abrogating the Pnc1-TT-induced GC reaction and depleting PPS-specific AbSCs in spleen and limiting their homing to the BM. There was no difference in the frequency of PPS-specific AbSCs in spleen and BM between mice that received 1, 2 or 3 PPS boosters s.c.. Repeated PPS+LT-K63 booster i.n. reduced the frequency of PPS-specific IgG+ AbSCs in BM. Conclusions PPS booster-induced hyporesponsiveness is caused by abrogation of conjugate-induced GC reaction and depletion of PPS-specific IgG+ AbSCs resulting in no homing of new PPS-specific long-lived plasma cells to the BM or survival. These results should be taken into account in design of vaccination schedules where polysaccharides are being considered. PMID:24069152

  2. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  3. Developing recombinant HPA-1a-specific antibodies with abrogated Fcgamma receptor binding for the treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ghevaert, Cedric; Wilcox, David A; Fang, Juan; Armour, Kathryn L; Clark, Mike R; Ouwehand, Willem H; Williamson, Lorna M

    2008-08-01

    Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) is caused by maternal generation of antibodies specific for paternal platelet antigens and can lead to fetal intracranial hemorrhage. A SNP in the gene encoding integrin beta3 causes a clinically important maternal-paternal antigenic difference; Leu33 generates the human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a), whereas Pro33 generates HPA-1b. As a potential treatment to prevent fetal intracranial hemorrhage in HPA-1a alloimmunized pregnancies, we generated an antibody that blocks the binding of maternal HPA-1a-specific antibodies to fetal HPA-1a1b platelets by combining a high-affinity human HPA-1a-specific scFv (B2) with an IgG1 constant region modified to minimize Fcgamma receptor-dependent platelet destruction (G1Deltanab). B2G1Deltanab saturated HPA-1a+ platelets and substantially inhibited binding of clinical HPA-1a-specific sera to HPA-1a+ platelets. The response of monocytes to B2G1Deltanab-sensitized platelets was substantially less than their response to unmodified B2G1, as measured by chemiluminescence. In addition, B2G1Deltanab inhibited chemiluminescence induced by B2G1 and HPA-1a-specific sera. In a chimeric mouse model, B2G1 and polyclonal Ig preparations from clinical HPA-1a-specific sera reduced circulating HPA-1a+ platelets, concomitant with transient thrombocytopenia. As the Deltanab constant region is uninformative in mice, F(ab')2 B2G1 was used as a proof of principle blocking antibody and prevented the in vivo platelet destruction seen with B2G1 and polyclonal HPA-1a-specific antibodies. These results provide rationale for human clinical studies.

  4. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  6. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  7. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  8. Rubella antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products.

    PubMed

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W

    2017-08-03

    Rubella antibodies are not routinely measured in immunoglobulin products and there is a lack of information on the titer in Australian products. To facilitate future studies of the effectiveness of passive immunisation for preventing rubella and congenital rubella syndrome, this study measured the concentration of rubella-specific antibodies in Australian intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) human immunoglobulin products suitable for post-exposure prophylaxis using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. The GMT ± GSD for the IM product was 19 ± 1.2 IU/mg (2980 ± 1.2 IU/mL). The GMT ± GSD for the IV product was 12 ± 1.5 IU/mg (729 ± 1.5 IU/mL). At present, Australian guidelines recommend offering non-immune pregnant women exposed to rubella 20 mL of intramuscular immunoglobulin within 72 hours of exposure. This equates to 42,160 IU of rubella antibodies if the lowest titer obtained for the Australian IM product is considered. The same dose would be delivered by 176 mL of the Australian IV product at the lowest measured rubella-specific antibody titer.

  9. Developing recombinant HPA-1a–specific antibodies with abrogated Fcγ receptor binding for the treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Ghevaert, Cedric; Wilcox, David A.; Fang, Juan; Armour, Kathryn L.; Clark, Mike R.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Williamson, Lorna M.

    2008-01-01

    Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) is caused by maternal generation of antibodies specific for paternal platelet antigens and can lead to fetal intracranial hemorrhage. A SNP in the gene encoding integrin β3 causes a clinically important maternal-paternal antigenic difference; Leu33 generates the human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a), whereas Pro33 generates HPA-1b. As a potential treatment to prevent fetal intracranial hemorrhage in HPA-1a alloimmunized pregnancies, we generated an antibody that blocks the binding of maternal HPA-1a–specific antibodies to fetal HPA-1a1b platelets by combining a high-affinity human HPA-1a–specific scFv (B2) with an IgG1 constant region modified to minimize Fcγ receptor–dependent platelet destruction (G1Δnab). B2G1Δnab saturated HPA-1a+ platelets and substantially inhibited binding of clinical HPA-1a–specific sera to HPA-1a+ platelets. The response of monocytes to B2G1Δnab-sensitized platelets was substantially less than their response to unmodified B2G1, as measured by chemiluminescence. In addition, B2G1Δnab inhibited chemiluminescence induced by B2G1 and HPA-1a–specific sera. In a chimeric mouse model, B2G1 and polyclonal Ig preparations from clinical HPA-1a–specific sera reduced circulating HPA-1a+ platelets, concomitant with transient thrombocytopenia. As the Δnab constant region is uninformative in mice, F(ab′)2 B2G1 was used as a proof of principle blocking antibody and prevented the in vivo platelet destruction seen with B2G1 and polyclonal HPA-1a–specific antibodies. These results provide rationale for human clinical studies. PMID:18654666

  10. Abrogation of Antibody-Induced Arthritis in Mice by a Self-Activating Viridin Prodrug and Association With Impaired Neutrophil and Endothelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Stangenberg, Lars; Ellson, Chris; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Yuan, Hushan; Blois, Joseph; Smith, Ralph A.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Weissleder, Ralph; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test a novel self-activating viridin (SAV) prodrug that slowly releases wortmannin, a potent phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, in a model of antibody-mediated inflammatory arthritis. Methods The SAV prodrug was administered to K/BxN mice or to C57BL/6 (B6) mice that had been injected with K/BxN serum. Ankle thickness was measured, and histologic changes were scored after a 10-day disease course (serum-transfer arthritis). Protease activity was measured by a near-infrared imaging approach using a cleavable cathepsin–selective probe. Further near-infrared imaging techniques were used to analyze early changes in vascular permeability after serum injection, as well as neutrophil–endothelial cell interactions. Neutrophil functions were assessed using an oxidative burst assay as well as a degranulation assay. Results SAV prevented ankle swelling in mice with serum-transfer arthritis in a dose-dependent manner. It also markedly reduced the extent of other features of arthritis, such as protease activity and histology scores for inflammation and joint erosion. Moreover, SAV was an effective therapeutic agent. The underlying mechanisms for the antiinflammatory activity were manifold. Endothelial permeability after serum injection was reduced, as was firm neutrophil attachment to endothelial cells. Endothelial cell activation by tumor necrosis factor α was impeded by SAV, as measured by the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule. Crucial neutrophil functions, such as generation of reactive oxygen species and degranulation of protease-laden vesicles, were decreased by SAV administration. Conclusion A novel SAV prodrug proved strongly antiinflammatory in a murine model of antibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. Its activity could be attributed, at least in part, to the inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell functions. PMID:19644878

  11. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-11-26

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlatedmore » with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases.« less

  12. Cysteine mutagenesis improves the production without abrogating antigenicity of a recombinant protein vaccine candidate for human chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Seid, Christopher A; Jones, Kathryn M; Pollet, Jeroen; Keegan, Brian; Hudspeth, Elissa; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; McAtee, C Patrick; Versteeg, Leroy; Gutierrez, Amanda; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Respress, Jonathan L; Strych, Ulrich; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2017-03-04

    A therapeutic vaccine for human Chagas disease is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership. The aim of the vaccine is to significantly reduce the parasite burden of Trypanosoma cruzi in humans, either as a standalone product or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Vaccination of mice with Tc24 formulated with monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant results in a Th1 skewed immune response with elevated IgG2a and IFNγ levels and a statistically significant decrease in parasitemia following T. cruzi challenge. Tc24 was therefore selected for scale-up and further evaluation. During scale up and downstream process development, significant protein aggregation was observed due to intermolecular disulfide bond formation. To prevent protein aggregation, cysteine codons were replaced with serine codons which resulted in the production of a non-aggregated and soluble recombinant protein, Tc24-C4. No changes to the secondary structure of the modified molecule were detected by circular dichroism. Immunization of mice with wild-type Tc24 or Tc24-C4, formulated with E6020 (TLR4 agonist analog to MPLA) emulsified in a squalene-oil-in-water emulsion, resulted in IgG2a and antigen specific IFNγ production levels from splenocytes that were not significantly different, indicating that eliminating putative intermolecular disulfide bonds had no significant impact on the immunogenicity of the molecule. In addition, vaccination with either formulated wild type Tc24 or Tc24-C4 antigen also significantly increased survival and reduced cardiac parasite burden in mice. Investigations are now underway to examine the efficacy of Tc24-C4 formulated with other adjuvants to reduce parasite burden and increase survival in pre-clinical studies.

  13. Cysteine mutagenesis improves the production without abrogating antigenicity of a recombinant protein vaccine candidate for human chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kathryn M.; Keegan, Brian; Hudspeth, Elissa; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; McAtee, C. Patrick; Versteeg, Leroy; Gutierrez, Amanda; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Respress, Jonathan L.; Strych, Ulrich; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A therapeutic vaccine for human Chagas disease is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership. The aim of the vaccine is to significantly reduce the parasite burden of Trypanosoma cruzi in humans, either as a standalone product or in combination with conventional chemotherapy. Vaccination of mice with Tc24 formulated with monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant results in a Th1 skewed immune response with elevated IgG2a and IFNγ levels and a statistically significant decrease in parasitemia following T. cruzi challenge. Tc24 was therefore selected for scale-up and further evaluation. During scale up and downstream process development, significant protein aggregation was observed due to intermolecular disulfide bond formation. To prevent protein aggregation, cysteine codons were replaced with serine codons which resulted in the production of a non-aggregated and soluble recombinant protein, Tc24-C4. No changes to the secondary structure of the modified molecule were detected by circular dichroism. Immunization of mice with wild-type Tc24 or Tc24-C4, formulated with E6020 (TLR4 agonist analog to MPLA) emulsified in a squalene-oil-in-water emulsion, resulted in IgG2a and antigen specific IFNγ production levels from splenocytes that were not significantly different, indicating that eliminating putative intermolecular disulfide bonds had no significant impact on the immunogenicity of the molecule. In addition, vaccination with either formulated wild type Tc24 or Tc24-C4 antigen also significantly increased survival and reduced cardiac parasite burden in mice. Investigations are now underway to examine the efficacy of Tc24-C4 formulated with other adjuvants to reduce parasite burden and increase survival in pre-clinical studies. PMID:27737611

  14. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  15. Production and assay of forskolin antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, L.T.; Ho, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Forskolin (Fo), a cardiovascular active diterpene of plant origin, has been widely used as a research tool in regulation of the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase (AC). A linear relationship of Fo binding to plasma membrane with activation of AC has been reported. The present abstract describes the production and assay of Fo antibodies (AB). 7-0-Hemisuccinyl-7-deacetyl Fo, coupled to either human serum albumin or goat IgG, was injected into goats to elicit AB to Fo haptan. AB to Fo in antiserum or an isolated IgG fraction was tested by two assay methods, a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-Fo as a tracermore » and a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using horse radish peroxidase-rabbit anti goat IgG as indicator. The titers for Fo antiserum were 4000-10,000. In the defined assay condition, approximately 20-25% of the added /sup 3/H-Fo was found to bind to AB. The bound radioactivity was displaced by Fo-HSA or Fo-goat IgG or free unlabelled Fo ranging from 0.5-50 pmol/tube, or 5-500 nM. The IC/sub 50/ was approximately 8-10 pmol/tube or 80-100 nM. The binding of HRP-rabbit anti goat IgG in the ELISA was inhibited by proper Fo conjugate. The development of methods for production and assay for Fo AB may be useful in the study of mechanism of activation of AC by Fo and Fo-like compound.« less

  16. Antibodies production and the maintenance of the immunological memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A.

    2006-02-01

    In this work we have considered the R. Nayak et al. [Immunology 102, 387 (2001)] biological model - Relay Hypothesis - to study the time evolution of the clonal repertoire, including the populations of antibodies. Our results suggest that the decrease of the production of antibodies favors the global maintenance of immune memory.

  17. Proteins improving recombinant antibody production in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimiya, Daisuke

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian cells have been successfully used for the industrial manufacture of antibodies due to their ability to synthesize antibodies correctly. Nascent polypeptides must be subjected to protein folding and assembly in the ER and the Golgi to be secreted as mature proteins. If these reactions do not proceed appropriately, unfolded or misfolded proteins are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins or intracellular antibody crystals accompanied by this failure triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can considerably attenuate the levels of translation, folding, assembly, and secretion, resulting in reduction of antibody productivity. Accumulating studies by omics-based analysis of recombinant mammalian cells suggest that not only protein secretion processes including protein folding and assembly but also translation are likely to be the rate-limiting factors for increasing antibody production. Here, this review describes the mechanism of antibody folding and assembly and recent advantages which could improve recombinant antibody production in mammalian cells by utilizing proteins such as ER chaperones or UPR-related proteins.

  18. Antibody production using a ciliate generates unusual antibody glycoforms displaying enhanced cell-killing activity

    PubMed Central

    Calow, Jenny; Bockau, Ulrike; Struwe, Weston B.; Nowaczyk, Marc M.; Loser, Karin; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody glycosylation is a key parameter in the optimization of antibody therapeutics. Here, we describe the production of the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody rituximab in the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. The resulting antibody demonstrated enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we attribute to unusual N-linked glycosylation. Detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis revealed afucosylated, oligomannose-type glycans, which, as a whole, displayed isomeric structures that deviate from the typical human counterparts, but whose branches were equivalent to fragments of metabolic intermediates observed in human glycoproteins. From the analysis of deposited crystal structures, we predict that the ciliate glycans adopt protein-carbohydrate interactions with the Fc domain that closely mimic those of native complex-type glycans. In addition, terminal glucose structures were identified that match biosynthetic precursors of human glycosylation. Our results suggest that ciliate-based expression systems offer a route to large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies exhibiting glycosylation that imparts enhanced cell killing activity. PMID:27594301

  19. [Batch release of immunoglobulin and monoclonal antibody products].

    PubMed

    Gross, S

    2014-10-01

    The Paul-Ehrlich Institute (PEI) is an independent institution of the Federal Republic of Germany responsible for performing official experimental batch testing of sera. The institute decides about the release of each batch and performs experimental research in the field. The experimental quality control ensures the potency of the product and also the absence of harmful impurities. For release of an immunoglobulin batch the marketing authorization holder has to submit the documentation of the manufacture and the results of quality control measures together with samples of the batch to the PEI. Experimental testing is performed according to the approved specifications regarding the efficacy and safety. Since implementation of the 15th German drug law amendment, the source of antibody is not defined anymore. According to § 32 German drug law, all batches of sera need to be released by an official control laboratory. Sera are medicinal products, which contain antibodies, antibody fragments or fusion proteins with a functional antibody portion. Therefore, all batches of monoclonal antibodies and derivatives must also be released by the PEI and the marketing authorization holder has to submit a batch release application. Under certain circumstances a waiver for certain products can be issued with regard to batch release. The conditions for such a waiver apply to the majority of monoclonal antibodies.

  20. Probiotics Stimulate Production of Natural Antibodies in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-01-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation. PMID:16960107

  1. Trends in capacity utilization for therapeutic monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Langer, Eric S

    2009-01-01

    The administration of high doses of therapeutic antibodies requires large-scale, efficient, cost effective manufacturing processes. An understanding of how the industry is using its available production capacity is important for production planning, and facility expansion analysis. Inaccurate production planning for therapeutic antibodies can have serious financial ramifications. In the recent 5(th) Annual Report and Survey of Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Capacity and Production, 434 qualified respondents from 39 countries were asked to indicate, among other manufacturing issues, their current trends and future predictions with respect to the production capacity utilization of monoclonal antibodies in mammalian cell culture systems. While overall production of monoclonals has expanded dramatically since 2003, the average capacity utilization for mammalian cell culture systems, has decreased each year since 2003. Biomanufacturers aggressively attempt to avoid unanticipated high production demands that can create a capacity crunch. We summarize trends associated with capacity utilization and capacity constraints which indicate that biopharmaceutical manufacturers are doing a better job planning for capacity. The results have been a smoothing of capacity use shifts and an improved ability to forecast capacity and outsourcing needs. Despite these data, today, the instability and financial constraints caused by the current global economic crisis are likely to create unforeseen shifts in our capacity utilization and capacity expansion trends. These shifts will need to be measured in subsequent studies.

  2. Do Australian immunoglobulin products meet international measles antibody titer standards?

    PubMed

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W

    2017-03-04

    The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titer of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2). Measles titres in Australian IM and IV immunoglobulins ranged from 51 to 76 IU/mL and 6 to 24 IU/mL respectively, as measured by PRNT calibrated to the WHO 3 rd international standard. ELISA titres were variable but higher than PRNT titres in all tested samples. Measles antibody titres in Australian immunoglobulin products meet consensus-prescribed international thresholds. Development of a convenient, standardized, readily accessible assay for determination of measles titres in immunoglobulin products would be useful for future studies and facilitate international comparisons.

  3. The Influence of Immunosuppressive Agents on the Risk of De Novo Donor-Specific HLA Antibody Production in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Jacqueline G.; Samaniego, Millie; Barrio, Marta Crespo; Potena, Luciano; Zeevi, Adriana; Djamali, Arjang; Cozzi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Production of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) is a major risk factor for acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection and graft loss after all solid organ transplantation. In this article, we review the data available on the risk of individual immunosuppressive agents and their ability to prevent dnDSA production. Induction therapy with rabbit antithymocyte globulin may achieve a short-term decrease in dnDSA production in moderately sensitized patients. Rituximab induction may be beneficial in sensitized patients, and in abrogating rebound antibody response in patients undergoing desensitization or treatment for antibody-mediated rejection. Use of bortezomib for induction therapy in at-risk patients is of interest, but the benefits are unproven. In maintenance regimens, nonadherent and previously sensitized patients are not suitable for aggressive weaning protocols, particularly early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal without lymphocyte-depleting induction. Early conversion to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor monotherapy has been reported to increase the risk of dnDSA formation, but a combination of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor and reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor does not appear to alter the risk. Early steroid therapy withdrawal in standard-risk patients after induction has no known dnDSA penalty. The available data do not demonstrate a consistent effect of mycophenolic acid on dnDSA production. Risk minimization for dnDSA requires monitoring of adherence, appropriate risk stratification, risk-based immunosuppression intensity, and prospective DSA surveillance. PMID:26680372

  4. Hybridization-based antibody cDNA recovery for the production of recombinant antibodies identified by repertoire sequencing.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Alemán, Javier; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Ovilla-Muñoz, Marbella; Godoy-Lozano, Elizabeth; Velázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Valdovinos-Torres, Humberto; Gómez-Barreto, Rosa E; Martinez-Barnetche, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire is enabling a thorough analysis of B cell diversity and clonal selection, which may improve the novel antibody discovery process. Theoretically, an adequate bioinformatic analysis could allow identification of candidate antigen-specific antibodies, requiring their recombinant production for experimental validation of their specificity. Gene synthesis is commonly used for the generation of recombinant antibodies identified in silico. Novel strategies that bypass gene synthesis could offer more accessible antibody identification and validation alternatives. We developed a hybridization-based recovery strategy that targets the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDRH3) for the enrichment of cDNA of candidate antigen-specific antibody sequences. Ten clonal groups of interest were identified through bioinformatic analysis of the heavy chain antibody repertoire of mice immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL). cDNA from eight of the targeted clonal groups was recovered efficiently, leading to the generation of recombinant antibodies. One representative heavy chain sequence from each clonal group recovered was paired with previously reported anti-HEL light chains to generate full antibodies, later tested for HEL-binding capacity. The recovery process proposed represents a simple and scalable molecular strategy that could enhance antibody identification and specificity assessment, enabling a more cost-efficient generation of recombinant antibodies.

  5. Monoclonal antibody production using a new supermacroporous cryogel bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nilsang, Suthasinee; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva; Galaev, Igor Yu; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar; Holmdahl, Rikard; Mattiasson, Bo; Kumar, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    A supermacroporous cryogel bioreactor has been developed to culture hybridoma cells for long-term continuous production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Hybridoma clone M2139, secreting antibodies against J1 epitope (GERGAAGIAGPK; amino acids, 551-564) of collagen type II, are immobilized in the porous bed matrix of a cryogel column (10 mL bed volume). The cells got attached to the matrix within 48 h after inoculation and grew as a confluent sheet inside the cryogel matrix. Cells were in the lag phase for 15 days and secreted mAb into the circulation medium. Glucose consumption and lactic acid production were also monitored, and during the exponential phase (approximately 20 days), the hybridoma cell line consumed 0.75 mM day-1 glucose, produced 2.48 mM day-1 lactic acid, and produced 6.5 microg mL-1 day-1 mAb during the exponential phase. The mAb concentration reached 130 microg mL-1 after continuous run of the cryogel column for 36 days. The yield of the mAb after purification was 67.5 mg L-1, which was three times greater than the mAb yield obtained from T-flask batch cultivation. Even after the exchange of medium reservoir, cells in the cryogel column were still active and had relatively stable mAb production for an extended period of time. The bioreactor was operated continuously for 55 days without any contamination. The results from ELISA as well as arthritis experiments demonstrate that the antibodies secreted by cells grown on the cryogel column did not differ from antibodies purified from the cells grown in commercial CL-1000 culture flasks. Thus, supermacroporous cryogels can be useful as a supporting material for productive hybridoma cell culture. Cells were found to be viable inside the porous matrix of the cryogel during the study period and secreted antibodies continuously. The antibodies thus obtained from the cryogel reactor were found to be functionally active in vivo, as demonstrated by their capacity to induce arthritis in mice.

  6. Production of monoclonal antibody to acaricide dicofol and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hongsibsong, Surat; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Suphavilai, Chaisuree; Wipasa, Jiraprapa; Pattarawarapan, Mookda; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2010-12-01

    In Thailand detection of acaricide dicofol residues has been sporadically performed due to the limitation of analytical techniques. Conventional analytical methods for detecting dicofol residues most often use chromatographic-based techniques. Our ultimate aim is to develop an alternative method for rapidly analyzing dicofol residues in vegetables and fruit samples. Here we report the production of monoclonal antibodies specific to dicofol and its derivatives. Hapten-protein carriers were prepared by linking succinic anhydride to dichlorobenzhydrol (DCBH), which was then conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oval albumin (OVA). DCBH-BSA conjugate was used as immunogen while DCBH-OVA conjugate was used as capture antigen for competitive inhibition assay. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with DCBH-BSA conjugate subcutaneously, and antibody (Ab) level was determined 2 weeks after the last immunization. Spleen cells producing high titer antibody were isolated and fused with myeloma cells of P3.X6.Ag8.653. After limiting dilutions, antibody produced by one clone had high affinity, which was found to be of IgG1 with κ light chain. Specificity and inhibition concentrations of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) were determined by competitive indirect ELISA with dicofol, and its 50% (IC(50)) was 0.28 μg/mL. Working ranges of the developed immunoassay were from 0.07 to 25 μg/mL. Hence, the prepared MAb will be able to be applied for immunoassay development for detecting dicofol residue in vegetables and fruits far below the maximum residue limit such that 5 g of fruits and berries can be detected below 0.1 mg/kg.

  7. Cancer vaccines inducing antibody production: more pros than cons.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Singer, Josef

    2011-09-01

    To date, passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies is a well-established option in clinical oncology. By contrast, anticancer vaccines are less advanced, with the exception of successfully applied prophylactic vaccines against oncogenic virus infections. The creation of therapeutic vaccines is still a great challenge mostly due to the self-nature of tumor antigens. Therapeutic vaccines may be based on patient-specific material including pulsed effector cells, or tumor-associated antigens and derivatives thereof, such as peptides, mimotopes and nucleic acids. The latter represents a more universal approach, which would set an ideal economic framework resulting in broad patient access. In this article we focus on cancer vaccines for antibody production, in particular mimotope vaccines. The collected evidence suggests that they will open up new treatment options in minimal residual disease and early stage disease.

  8. Microchip assays for screening monoclonal antibody product quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Tang, Kaiyan; Lee, Maximilian; Flynn, Gregory C

    2008-12-01

    Microchip CE-SDS was evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to conventional CE-SDS for monitoring monoclonal antibody protein quality. A commercial instrument (LabChip) 90) was used to separate dodecyl sulfate coated proteins through a sieving polymer based on the proteins' sizes. Under reducing conditions, the microchip CE-SDS separation was similar to that of conventional CE-SDS, providing reasonable resolution of the non-glycosylated and the glycosylated heavy chains. The fluorescence detection on LabChip 90 using non-covalent fluorescent labeling method was about as sensitive as the 220 nm UV detection used in a conventional CE instrument. A simple glycan typing assay was developed for the reducing microchip CE-SDS format. Antibodies, either pure or in crude cell culture media are treated with Endoglycosidase H, which specifically cleaves the hybrid and high mannose type glycans. A heavy chain migration shift on reducing CE-SDS resulting from the loss of glycan is used to measure the level of high mannose/hybrid type glycans as a percentage of the total glycans. Microchip CE-SDS, under both non-reducing and reducing conditions, can be used in a variety of antibody product screening assays. The microchip analyses provide sufficient resolution and sensitivity for this purpose but on a time scale approximately 70 times faster (41 s versus 50 min per sample) than conventional CE separation under typical operational conditions.

  9. NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  10. NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution. Submissions will be accepted through July 11, 2014.

  11. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution. Submissions will be accepted through July 9, 2012.

  12. [Techniques for rapid production of monoclonal antibodies for use with antibody technology].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Haruhiko

    2012-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (Mab), due to its specific binding ability to a target protein, can potentially be one of the most useful tools for the functional analysis of proteins in recent proteomics-based research. However, the production of Mab is a very time-consuming and laborious process (i.e., preparation of recombinant antigens, immunization of animals, preparation of hybridomas), making it the rate-limiting step in using Mabs in high-throughput proteomics research, which heavily relies on comprehensive and rapid methods. Therefore, there is a great demand for new methods to efficiently generate Mabs against a group of proteins identified by proteome analysis. Here, we describe a useful method called "Antibody proteomic technique" for the rapid generations of Mabs to pharmaceutical target, which were identified by proteomic analyses of disease samples (ex. tumor tissue, etc.). We also introduce another method to find profitable targets on vasculature, which is called "Vascular proteomic technique". Our results suggest that this method for the rapid generation of Mabs to proteins may be very useful in proteomics-based research as well as in clinical applications.

  13. A tetravalent dengue nanoparticle stimulates antibody production in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Elisângela F; Orsi, Mariana; Andrade, Angela L; Domingues, Rosana Z; Silva, Breno M; de Araújo, Helena R C; Pimenta, Paulo F P; Diamond, Michael S; Rocha, Eliseu S O; Kroon, Erna G; Malaquias, Luiz C C; Coelho, Luiz F L

    2012-03-22

    Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Infection with a single Dengue virus (DENV) serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients experiencing secondary infection with a different serotype progresses to the severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat dengue infections. Biodegradable nanoparticles coated with proteins represent a promising method for in vivo delivery of vaccines. Here, we used a murine model to evaluate the IgG production after administration of inactivated DENV corresponding to all four serotypes adsorbed to bovine serum albumin nanoparticles. This formulation induced a production of anti-DENV IgG antibodies (p < 0.001). However, plaque reduction neutralization assays with the four DENV serotypes revealed that these antibodies have no neutralizing activity in the dilutions tested. Our results show that while the nanoparticle system induces humoral responses against DENV, further investigation with different DENV antigens will be required to improve immunogenicity, epitope specicity, and functional activity to make this platform a viable option for DENV vaccines.

  14. Reagent Target Request for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Antibody Characterization Program provides reagents and other critical resources to support protein/peptide measurements and analysis. In an effort to produce and distribute well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, the program is seeking cancer related protein targets for antibody production and characterization for distribution to the research community. Submission Period: May 20, 2011 - July 1, 2011.

  15. An oral microjet vaccination system elicits antibody production in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aran, Kiana; Chooljian, Marc; Paredes, Jacobo; Rafi, Mohammad; Lee, Kunwoo; Kim, Allison Y; An, Jeanny; Yau, Jennifer F; Chum, Helen; Conboy, Irina; Murthy, Niren; Liepmann, Dorian

    2017-03-08

    Noninvasive immunization technologies have the potential to revolutionize global health by providing easy-to-administer vaccines at low cost, enabling mass immunizations during pandemics. Existing technologies such as transdermal microneedles are costly, deliver drugs slowly, and cannot generate mucosal immunity, which is important for optimal immunity against pathogens. We present a needle-free microjet immunization device termed MucoJet, which is a three-dimensional microelectromechanical systems-based drug delivery technology. MucoJet is administered orally, placed adjacent to the buccal tissue within the oral cavity, and uses a self-contained gas-generating chemical reaction within its two-compartment plastic housing to produce a high-pressure liquid jet of vaccine. We show that the vaccine jet ejected from the MucoJet device is capable of penetrating the buccal mucosal layer in silico, in porcine buccal tissue ex vivo, and in rabbits in vivo. Rabbits treated with ovalbumin by MucoJet delivery have antibody titers of anti-ovalbumin immunoglobulins G and A in blood serum and buccal tissue, respectively, that are three orders of magnitude higher than rabbits receiving free ovalbumin delivered topically by a dropper in the buccal region. MucoJet has the potential to accelerate the development of noninvasive oral vaccines, given its ability to elicit antibody production that is detectable locally in the buccal tissue and systemically via the circulation. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Production of human monoclonal antibody in eggs of chimeric chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile; Albanese, Jenny; Beenhouwer, David O; Cardarelli, Pina M; Cuison, Severino; Deng, David F; Deshpande, Shrikant; Diamond, Jennifer H; Green, Lynae; Halk, Edward L; Heyer, Babette S; Kay, Robert M; Kerchner, Allyn; Leighton, Philip A; Mather, Christine M; Morrison, Sherie L; Nikolov, Zivko L; Passmore, David B; Pradas-Monne, Alicia; Preston, Benjamin T; Rangan, Vangipuram S; Shi, Mingxia; Srinivasan, Mohan; White, Steven G; Winters-Digiacinto, Peggy; Wong, Susan; Zhou, Wen; Etches, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    The tubular gland of the chicken oviduct is an attractive system for protein expression as large quantities of proteins are deposited in the egg, the production of eggs is easily scalable and good manufacturing practices for therapeutics from eggs have been established. Here we examined the ability of upstream and downstream DNA sequences of ovalbumin, a protein produced exclusively in very high quantities in chicken egg white, to drive tissue-specific expression of human mAb in chicken eggs. To accommodate these large regulatory regions, we established and transfected lines of chicken embryonic stem (cES) cells and formed chimeras that express mAb from cES cell-derived tubular gland cells. Eggs from high-grade chimeras contained up to 3 mg of mAb that possesses enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), nonantigenic glycosylation, acceptable half-life, excellent antigen recognition and good rates of internalization.

  17. cAMP is an essential signal in the induction of antibody production by B cells but inhibits helper function of T cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, K M; Hoffmann, M K

    1985-09-01

    Dibutyryl cAMP and IL 1 were found to stimulate antigen-specific and polyclonal antibody production when added together to cultures of highly purified B cells. We propose that IL 1 and an elevation in cytoplasmic cAMP represent minimal signal requirements for B cell activation. In contrast to its effect on B cells, dibutyryl cAMP inhibited helper T cell activity. Cyclic AMP suppressed the production of IL 2 and T cell replacing factor (TRF) by T cells and thus abrogated the ability of helper T cells to enhance SRBC-specific antibody production by B cells. Cyclic AMP did not inhibit the generation by T cells of B cell growth factor (BCGF). BCGF, not normally detected in Con A supernatant, was found in the culture supernatant of spleen cells that were stimulated with Con A in the presence of cAMP. Our findings indicate that cAMP blocks the production of an inhibitor of BCGF activity. cAMP had no effect on the production by macrophages of IL 1.

  18. TIM-1 signaling in B cells regulates antibody production

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Juan; Usui, Yoshihiko; Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023

    Highlights: {yields} TIM-1 is highly expressed on anti-IgM + anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. {yields} Anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and Ig production on activated B cell in vitro. {yields} TIM-1 signaling regulates Ab production by response to TI-2 and TD antigens in vivo. -- Abstract: Members of the T cell Ig and mucin (TIM) family have recently been implicated in the control of T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we found TIM-1 expression on anti-IgM- or anti-CD40-stimulated splenic B cells, which was further up-regulated by the combination of anti-IgM and anti-CD40 Abs. On the other hand, TIM-1 ligand was constitutively expressedmore » on B cells and inducible on anti-CD3{sup +} anti-CD28-stimulated CD4{sup +} T cells. In vitro stimulation of activated B cells by anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and expression of a plasma cell marker syndecan-1 (CD138). We further examined the effect of TIM-1 signaling on antibody production in vitro and in vivo. Higher levels of IgG2b and IgG3 secretion were detected in the culture supernatants of the anti-TIM-1-stimulated B cells as compared with the control IgG-stimulated B cells. When immunized with T-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, TNP-specific IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 Abs were slightly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice. When immunized with T-dependent antigen OVA, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE Abs were significantly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice as compared with the control IgG-treated mice. These results suggest that TIM-1 signaling in B cells augments antibody production by enhancing B cell proliferation and differentiation.« less

  19. Recommendations on risk-based strategies for detection and characterization of antibodies against biotechnology products.

    PubMed

    Koren, Eugen; Smith, Holly W; Shores, Elizabeth; Shankar, Gopi; Finco-Kent, Deborah; Rup, Bonita; Barrett, Yu-Chen; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Gorovits, Boris; Gupta, Shalini; Parish, Thomas; Quarmby, Valerie; Moxness, Michael; Swanson, Steven J; Taniguchi, Gary; Zuckerman, Linda A; Stebbins, Christopher C; Mire-Sluis, Anthony

    2008-04-20

    The appropriate evaluation of the immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals is of major importance for their successful development and licensure. Antibodies elicited by these products in many cases cause no detectable clinical effects in humans. However, antibodies to some therapeutic proteins have been shown to cause a variety of clinical consequences ranging from relatively mild to serious adverse events. In addition, antibodies can affect drug efficacy. In non-clinical studies, anti-drug antibodies (ADA) can complicate interpretation of the toxicity, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data. Therefore, it is important to develop testing strategies that provide valid assessments of antibody responses in both non-clinical and clinical studies. This document provides recommendations for antibody testing strategies stemming from the experience of contributing authors. The recommendations are intended to foster a more unified approach to antibody testing across the biopharmaceutical industry. The strategies proposed are also expected to contribute to better understanding of antibody responses and to further advance immunogenicity evaluation.

  20. [Production and characterization of specific monoclonal antibody against Porphyromonas endodontalis].

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Sun, C; Tan, J

    1995-11-01

    Porphyromonas endodontalis was known to be important microorganisms in the etiology of pulp and apical infection. In this paper, we generated hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibody against Porphyromonas endodontalis ATCC 35406. The specificity of the monoclonal antibody was examined by ELISA against a battery organisms (109 Strains). The results indicated that the monoclonal antibody did not react with any non-Porphy romanas endodontalis (104 Strains). So our monoclonal antibody is specific for Porphyromanas endodontalis and can be used in clinical samples for detection of pulp and apical infections.

  1. Antibodies enhance CXCL10 production during RSV infection of infant and adult immune cells.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Marloes; Schreurs, Inge; Jans, Jop; Heldens, Jacco; de Groot, Ronald; de Jonge, Marien I; Ferwerda, Gerben

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a major burden in infants below three months of age, when the primary immune response is mainly dependent on innate immunity and maternal antibodies. We investigated the influence of antibodies on innate immunity during RSV infection. PBMCs from infants and adults were stimulated with live RSV and inactivated RSV in combination with antibody-containing and antibody-depleted serum. The immune response was determined by transcriptome analysis and chemokine levels were measured using ELISA and flow cytometry. Microarray data showed that CXCL10 gene transcription was RSV dependent, whereas CXCL11 and IFNα were upregulated in an antibody-dependent manner. Although the presence of antibodies reduces RSV infection rate, it enhances the innate immune response. In adult immune cells, antibodies enhance CXCL10, CXCL11, IFNα and IFNγ production in response to RSV infection. Contrary, in infant immune cells only CXCL10 was enhanced in an antibody-dependent manner. Monocytes are the main source of CXCL10 and they produce CXCL10 in both an antibody- and virus-dependent manner. This study shows that antibodies enhance CXCL10 production in infant immune cells. CXCL10 has been implicated in exuberating the inflammatory response during viral infections and antibodies could therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of RSV infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of a Chaetomium globosum Enolase Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Lemons, Angela R.; Rittenour, William R.; Hettick, Justin M.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in North America. Methods to detect Chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. In this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for C. globosum enolase. MAb 1C7, a murine IgG1 isotype MAb, was produced and reacted with recombinant C. globosum enolase (rCgEno) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a putative C. globosum enolase in a Western blot. Epitope mapping showed MAb 1C7 specific reactivity to an enolase decapeptide, LTYEELANLY, that is highly conserved within the fungal class Sordariomycetes. Cross-reactivity studies showed MAb 1C7 reactivity to C. atrobrunneum but not C. indicum. MAb 1C7 did not react with enolase from Aspergillus fumigatus, which is divergent in only two amino acids within this epitope. The results of this study suggest potential utility of MAb 1C7 in Western blot applications for the detection of Chaetomium and other Sordariomycetes species. PMID:25495488

  3. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Chusri, Manaspong; Wongphanit, Pitikarn; Palaga, Tanapat; Puthong, Songchan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Komolpis, Kittinan

    2013-01-01

    Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic approved for the treatment of infections in animals. Because of the side effects to consumers of animal products, the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of enrofloxacin in animal tissues for consumption are regulated. In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against enrofloxacin was prepared and characterized for the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The obtained mAb, Enro44, was highly specific for enrofloxacin and had a 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 1.99 ng/ml in a competitive ELISA, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.50 ng/ml. The cross-reactivity of the mAb with other quinolones and fluoroquinolones was lower than 0.01%. The subclass of the mAb Enro44 was identified as IgG1. The antigen (Ag)-captured direct competitive ELISA using the mAb Enro44 was tested on different spiked samples, including chicken muscle, cattle milk, and cattle urine, and the assay demonstrated recoveries of 82-112%, 80-125%, and 78-124%, respectively. Furthermore, the quantitation of enrofloxacin obtained from the ELISA and from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was in good agreement, with the linear regression coefficient between 0.933 and 1.056. The cDNAs encoding a heavy-chain Fd fragment (VH and CH1) and a light chain of the mAb Enro44 were cloned and sequenced. Taken together, the results obtained reveal a potential use of this mAb in an ELISA for the detection of enrofloxacin in food samples. The information of amino acid sequence of this mAb will be useful for further modification and production of the mAb in a bioreactor.

  4. Antibody production studied by means of the LHG assay*

    PubMed Central

    Wortis, H. H.; Taylor, R. B.; Dresser, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    By means of a modified plaque assay the numbers of cells producing 19S antibody (direct PFC) and 7S antibody (developed PFC) have been studied separately. Significant and somewhat surprising differences in the responses of the two kinds of antibody-producing cell have been noted. It is clear that the route of injection of the antigen is of importance in determining the response in the spleen. The response of both types of PFC was found to be biphasic. The total increase in spleen cell number after immunization was not readily accounted for by the increase in specific PFC. PMID:5954775

  5. IL-2 infusion abrogates humoral immune responses in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, D J; Prentice, H G; Heslop, H E; Bello, C; Brenner, M K

    1992-01-01

    Although IL-2 infusion enhances cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with neoplastic disease, administration is paradoxically associated with a modest fall in total serum IgG and an increased risk of infection. We now show that the adverse effects of IL-2 infusion on the humoral immune system are substantial. Although IL-2 induces the B cell growth and differentiating factors IL-4 and IL-6, infusion abrogates primary antibody responses entirely and reduces secondary antibody responses 50-fold following antigen challenge. There is no evidence of the generation of cells with suppressive activity on B cells but IL-2 increases the ratio of circulating virgin:memory cells. These results may help to explain the increased rate of bacterial infection in patients receiving IL-2. As IL-2 plays a central role in the generation of an immune response, the finding that it is also sufficiently immunosuppressive to inhibit primary- and secondary-type antibody responses suggests that exploration of the underlying mechanisms may provide insights into immune system homeostasis and may offer new approaches to therapeutic immunosuppression. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1544235

  6. The effect of parenteral immunisation on antibody production in the pig colon.

    PubMed

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-11-30

    Local and systemic antibody production was studied in pigs to compare responses to live and killed bacterial antigen and purified protein antigen, with and without prior mucosal stimulation. Recovery from challenge with live bacteria and intramuscular injection with killed bacteria gave rise to similar high levels of serum IgG antibody, but the ratio of specific IgA to IgG in the colon was significantly higher after infection than following vaccination with killed bacteria. Vaccination with a protein antigen gave rise to serum and local antibody production. Prior feeding of the antigen had a tolerising effect on the serum antibody response, but production of IgG and IgA antibody by the colon was not suppressed.

  7. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution. Submissions will be accepted through February 5, 2016.

  8. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution. Submissions will be accepted through July 12, 2013.

  9. Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution. The program from The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research provides reagents and other critical resources that support protein and/or peptide measurements and analysis.

  10. ELISA measurement of specific antibodies to phosphorylated tau in intravenous immunoglobulin products.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, David A; Klaver, Andrea C; Coffey, Mary P

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products were recently studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Pilot studies produced encouraging results but phase II and III trials gave disappointing results; a further study is in progress. IVIG products contain antibodies to tau protein, the main component of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The tau used to detect IVIG's anti-tau antibodies in previous studies was non-phosphorylated recombinant human tau-441, but NFT-associated tau is extensively phosphorylated. The objective of this study was to determine if various IVIG products contain specific antibodies to phosphorylated tau (anti-pTau antibodies). ELISAs were used to evaluate binding of six IVIG products to a 12 amino acid peptide, tau 196-207, which was phosphorylated ("pTau peptide") or non-phosphorylated ("non-pTau peptide") at Serine-199 and Serine-202. Both amino acid residues are phosphorylated in AD NFTs. Each IVIG's "anti-pTau antibody ratio" was calculated by dividing its binding to the pTau peptide by its binding to the non-pTau peptide. Seven experiments were performed and data were pooled, with each experiment contributing one data point from each IVIG product. Mean anti-pTau antibody ratios greater than 1.0, suggesting specific antibodies to phosphorylated tau, were found for three IVIG products. Because administration of antibodies to phosphorylated tau has been found to reduce tau-associated pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy, increasing the levels of anti-pTau antibodies, together with other selected antibodies such as anti-Aβ, in IVIG might increase its ability to slow AD's progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against ochratoxin B.

    PubMed

    Heussner, Alexandra H; Moeller, Ines; Day, Billy W; Dietrich, Daniel R; O'Brien, Evelyn

    2007-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against ochratoxin B (OTB) were generated by immunizing Balb/c mice with OTB conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) via carbodiimide reactions with CHMC and EDAC. A stable hybridoma cell line 2F1.E10 was produced by fusion of murine splenocytes and myeloma cells. The obtained antibodies were characterized using an indirect competitive ELISA. The detection limit was calculated (27+/-2 nM OTB) and 50% binding inhibition was reached at 500 nM free OTB. A low cross-reactivity to ochratoxin A (OTA) of 3.3% and no cross-reactivities to either coumarin or DL-phenylalanine were observed, suggesting a highly specific OTB antibody. The antibody type was identified as IgG class 1 with the light chain being of the kappa configuration. These antibodies can be used in an indirect competitive ELISA to detect OTB in the nanomolar to micromolar concentration range and may be useful for the analysis of contaminated food items.

  12. Acquired Downregulation of Donor-Specific Antibody Production After ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, M; Saito, K; Nakagawa, Y; Imai, N; Ito, Y; Aoki, T; Kamimura, M; Narita, I; Tomita, Y; Takahashi, K

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of long-term B cell immunity against donor blood group antigens in recipients who undergo ABO-incompatible (ABOi) living-donor kidney transplantation (LKTx) is unknown. To address this question, we evaluated serial anti-A and anti-B antibody titers in 50 adult recipients. Donor-specific antibody titers remained low (≤1:4) in 42 recipients (84%). However, antibodies against nondonor blood group antigens were continuously produced in recipients with blood type O. We stimulated recipients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro to investigate whether B cells produced antibodies against donor blood group antigens in the absence of graft adsorption in vivo. Antibodies in cell culture supernatant were measured using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Thirty-five healthy volunteers and 57 recipients who underwent ABO-compatible LKTx served as controls. Antibody production in vitro against donor blood group antigens by cells from ABOi LKTx patients was lower than in the control groups. Immunoglobulin deposits were undetectable in biopsies of grafts of eight recipients with low antibody titers (≤1:4) after ABOi LKTx. One patient with blood type A1 who received a second ABOi LKTx from a type B donor did not produce B-specific antibodies. These findings suggest diminished donor-specific antibody production function in the setting of adult ABOi LKTx. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Antibodies against Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Virus in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) has changed over the last two decades, indicating a declining incidence of HAV and HBV infections. Therefore, vaccinations against HAV and HBV are recommended for unimmunized people before traveling to an endemic area. Unfortunately, primary antibody deficiency (PAD) patients can only obtain humoral immunity through intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) replacement and not from vaccination because of a defect in antibody production. However, few studies have analyzed the titers of antibodies against HAV or HBV in IVIG products. In this study, the titers of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies were measured in nineteen lots of IVIG products from five manufacturers from three countries (A, B from Korea; C, D from Japan; and E from the USA), and trough titers in plasma were estimated. Concentrations of anti-HAV antibody ranged from 1,888-8,927 mIU/mL and estimated trough titers exceeded the minimal protective value in all evaluated IVIG products. Concentrations of anti-HBs antibody ranged from 438-965 mIU/mL in products A and B and were 157, 123, and 1,945 mIU/mL in products C, D, and E, respectively. Estimated trough titers in products A, B, and E exceeded the minimal protective value but those in products C and D did not reach this threshold. These data demonstrated that available IVIG products generally provide sufficient antibodies against HAV and HBV to protect patients with PAD, although the trough concentrations of anti-HBs antibody in two IVIG products did not reach the minimum protective value.

  14. Recovery and purification process development for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junfen; Winter, Charles; Bayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently in development, and many companies have multiple antibodies in their pipelines. Current methodology used in recovery processes for these molecules are reviewed here. Basic unit operations such as harvest, Protein A affinity chromatography and additional polishing steps are surveyed. Alternative processes such as flocculation, precipitation and membrane chromatography are discussed. We also cover platform approaches to purification methods development, use of high throughput screening methods, and offer a view on future developments in purification methodology as applied to mAbs. PMID:20647768

  15. Production of a Human Antibody Library in the Phage-Display Vector pSEX81.

    PubMed

    Welschof, M; Little, M; Dörsam, H

    1998-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are more suitable than MAbs of animal origin for clinical applications because of lower hypersensitivity reactions, less formation of circulating immune complexes and lower anti-immunoglobulin responses The classical production of human MAbs via the hybridoma technique or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation is limited by the instability of cell lines, low antibody production, and the problems of imununizing humans with certain antigens (1,2). A promising alternative 1s the production of human recombinant antibodies (3). Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to clone human antibody genes in vectors and to generate antibody expression libraries (4-7). One approach has been to amplify and recombine the IgG repertoire of an "immunized" donor. This has been used to isolate several antibodies related to diseases (8,9). In order to obtain more universal antibody libraries the naive IgM repertoire of several "unimmunized" donors were pooled (10,12). The complexity of the combinatorial libraries has been further increased by creating the so-called "semisynthetic" antibody libraries (22-14).

  16. Production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the microsporidium Enterocytozoon bieneusi.

    PubMed

    Accoceberry, I; Thellier, M; Desportes-Livage, I; Achbarou, A; Biligui, S; Danis, M; Datry, A

    1999-12-01

    Several hybridomas producing antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were established by fusion of mouse myeloma SP2/O with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized against whole spores (protocol 1) or chitinase-treated spores (protocol 2) of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and were cloned twice by limiting dilutions. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 3B82H2 from protocol 1, isotyped as immunoglobulin M (IgM), and 6E52D9 from protocol 2, isotyped as IgG, were expanded in both ascites and culture. IFAT with the MAbs showed that both MAbs reacted exclusively with the walls of the spores of E. bieneusi, strongly staining the surface of mature spores, and produced titers of greater than 4,096. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the specific reactivities of both antibodies. No cross-reaction, either with the spores of the other intestinal microsporidium species Encephalitozoon intestinalis or with yeast cells, bacteria, or any other intestinal parasites, was observed. The MAbs were used to identify E. bieneusi spores in fecal specimens from patients suspected of having intestinal microsporidiosis. The IFAT was validated against standard staining methods (Chromotrope 2R and Uvitex 2B) and PCR. We report here the first description and characterization of two MAbs specific for the spore wall of E. bieneusi. These MAbs have great potential for the demonstration and species determination of E. bieneusi, and their application in immunofluorescence identification of E. bieneusi in stool samples could offer a new diagnostic tool for clinical laboratories.

  17. 34 CFR 303.103 - Abrogation of State sovereign immunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. 303.103 Section... System State Conformity with Part C of the Act and Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity § 303.103 Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. (a) General. A State is not immune under the 11th amendment of the...

  18. 34 CFR 303.103 - Abrogation of State sovereign immunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. 303.103 Section... System State Conformity with Part C of the Act and Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity § 303.103 Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. (a) General. A State is not immune under the 11th amendment of the...

  19. 34 CFR 303.103 - Abrogation of State sovereign immunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. 303.103 Section... System State Conformity with Part C of the Act and Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity § 303.103 Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. (a) General. A State is not immune under the 11th amendment of the...

  20. Ribosome display: next-generation display technologies for production of antibodies in vitro.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue; Khan, Farid

    2005-06-01

    Antibodies represent an important and growing class of biologic research reagents and biopharmaceutical products. They can be used as therapeutics in a variety of diseases. With the rapid expansion of proteomic studies and biomarker discovery, there is a need for the generation of highly specific binding reagents to study the vast number of proteins encoded by the genome. Display technologies provide powerful tools for obtaining antibodies. Aside from the preservation of natural antibody repertoires, they are capable of exploiting diversity by DNA recombination to create very large libraries for selection of novel molecules. In contrast to in vivo immunization processes, display technologies allow selection of antibodies under in vitro-defined selection condition(s), resulting in enrichment of antibodies with desired properties from large populations. In addition, in vitro selection enables the isolation of antibodies against difficult antigens including self-antigens, and this can be applied to the generation of human antibodies against human targets. Display technologies can also be combined with DNA mutagenesis for antibody evolution in vitro. Some methods are amenable to automation, permitting high-throughput generation of antibodies. Ribosome display is considered as representative of the next generation of display technologies since it overcomes the limitations of cell-based display methods by using a cell-free system, offering advantages of screening larger libraries and continuously expanding new diversity during selection. Production of display-derived antibodies can be achieved by choosing one of a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-based expression systems. In the near future, cell-free protein synthesis may be developed as an alternative for large-scale generation of antibodies.

  1. Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, O; Hirahashi, T; Katoh, T; Miyajima, H; Hirano, T; Okuwaki, Y

    1998-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated antibody productions of IgA and other classes, such as IgE and IgG1, in mice as possible evidence of the protective effects of Spirulina toward food allergy and microbial infection. An increase of IgE antibody level in the serum was observed in the mice that were orally immunized with crude shrimp extract as an antigen (Ag group). The antibody level, however, was not further enhanced by treatment with Spirulina extract (SpHW). IgG1 antibody, on the other hand, which was increased by antigen administration, was further enhanced by Spirulina extract. It was noted that the IgA antibody level in the intestinal contents was significantly enhanced by treatment with Spirulina extract concurrently ingested with shrimp antigen, in comparison with that of the Ag group treated with shrimp antigen alone. An enhancement of IgA antibody production by Spirulina extract was also observed in culture supernatant of lymphoid cells, especially in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node from mice treated with Spirulina extract for 4 weeks before antigen stimulation. These results suggest that Spirulina may at least neither induce nor enhance allergic reaction such as food allergy dependent on an IgE antibody, and that when ingested both concurrently with antigen and before antigen stimulation, it may significantly enhance the IgA antibody level to protect against allergic reaction.

  2. An efficient route to bispecific antibody production using single-reactor mammalian co-culture

    PubMed Central

    Shatz, Whitney; Ng, Domingos; Dutina, George; Wong, Athena W.; Sonoda, Junichiro; Scheer, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bispecific antibodies have shown promise in the clinic as medicines with novel mechanisms of action. Lack of efficient production of bispecific IgGs, however, has limited their rapid advancement. Here, we describe a single-reactor process using mammalian cell co-culture production to efficiently produce a bispecific IgG with 4 distinct polypeptide chains without the need for parallel processing of each half-antibody or additional framework mutations. This method resembles a conventional process, and the quality and yield of the monoclonal antibodies are equal to those produced using parallel processing methods. We demonstrate the application of the approach to diverse bispecific antibodies, and its suitability for production of a tissue specific molecule targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and klotho β that is being developed for type 2 diabetes and other obesity-linked disorders. PMID:27680183

  3. Production of Murine Monoclonal Antibodies using Traditional and Novel Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    1 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Sandra J . Johnson 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include...users should direct such requests to the National Technical Information Service. Acknowledgments The author would like to acknowledge Dr. Bonnie J ...Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and Practice; Academic Press: London, 1996. Goyache, Joaquin; Orden, Jose A.; Blanco , Jose L.; Hernandez , Javier

  4. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed against the Microsporidium Enterocytozoon bieneusi

    PubMed Central

    Accoceberry, Isabelle; Thellier, Marc; Desportes-Livage, Isabelle; Achbarou, Abderrahim; Biligui, Sylvestre; Danis, Martin; Datry, Annick

    1999-01-01

    Several hybridomas producing antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were established by fusion of mouse myeloma SP2/O with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized against whole spores (protocol 1) or chitinase-treated spores (protocol 2) of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and were cloned twice by limiting dilutions. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 3B82H2 from protocol 1, isotyped as immunoglobulin M (IgM), and 6E52D9 from protocol 2, isotyped as IgG, were expanded in both ascites and culture. IFAT with the MAbs showed that both MAbs reacted exclusively with the walls of the spores of E. bieneusi, strongly staining the surface of mature spores, and produced titers of greater than 4,096. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the specific reactivities of both antibodies. No cross-reaction, either with the spores of the other intestinal microsporidium species Encephalitozoon intestinalis or with yeast cells, bacteria, or any other intestinal parasites, was observed. The MAbs were used to identify E. bieneusi spores in fecal specimens from patients suspected of having intestinal microsporidiosis. The IFAT was validated against standard staining methods (Chromotrope 2R and Uvitex 2B) and PCR. We report here the first description and characterization of two MAbs specific for the spore wall of E. bieneusi. These MAbs have great potential for the demonstration and species determination of E. bieneusi, and their application in immunofluorescence identification of E. bieneusi in stool samples could offer a new diagnostic tool for clinical laboratories. PMID:10565939

  5. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang

    2010-03-01

    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  6. A novel redox method for rapid production of functional bi-specific antibodies for use in early pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Carlring, Jennifer; De Leenheer, Evy; Heath, Andrew William

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate here a rapid alternative method for the production of functional bi-specific antibodies using the mild reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MESNA). Following reduction of a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies with MESNA to break inter heavy chain bonds, this solution is dialysed under oxidising conditions and antibodies are allowed to reform. During this reaction a mixture of antibodies is formed, including parental antibodies and bi-specific antibody. Bi-specific antibodies are purified over two sequential affinity columns. Following purification, bi-specificity of antibodies is determined in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and by flow cytometry. Using this redox method we have been successful in producing hybrid and same-species bi-specific antibodies in a time frame of 6-10 working days, making this production method a time saving alternative to the time-consuming traditional heterohybridoma technology for the production of bi-specific antibodies for use in early pilot studies. The use of both rat and mouse IgG antibodies forming a rat/mouse bi-specific antibody as well as producing a pure mouse bi-specific antibody and a pure rat bi-specific antibody demonstrates the flexibility of this production method.

  7. Antibody production in rabbits administered Freund's complete adjuvant and carprofen concurrently.

    PubMed

    Fishback, Joanna E; Stronsky, Sabrina M; Green, Catherine A; Bean, Krystal D; Froude, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-01

    Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) is a commonly used immunopotentiator that can boost polyclonal antibody production in animal models such as rabbits, but FCA is also known to cause inflammation and pain. It is important to balance the welfare of animals with the goal of efficiently producing antibodies, but little is known about how common treatments for pain and inflammation, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), affect the production of polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to measure polyclonal antibody production in rabbits that were administered FCA either with or without a concurrent treatment of a NSAID, carprofen. Rabbits were divided into two groups and were administered identical treatments of an antigen with adjuvant, and the treatment group also received carprofen injections at different stages of the study. Carprofen treatment did not significantly affect polyclonal antibody production, which suggests that carprofen and other NSAIDs can be used alongside FCA in rabbits to achieve desired levels of antibody production while minimizing pain and distress associated with the use of FCA.

  8. Design and construction of immune phage antibody library against Tetanus neurotoxin: Production of single chain antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Sadreddini, Sanam; Seifi-Najmi, Mehrnosh; Ghasemi, Babollah; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Alinejad, Vahideh; Sadreddini, Sevil; Younesi, Vahid; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-12-23

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is composed of a light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) polypeptides, released by anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani and can cause fatal life-threatening infectious disease. Toxin HC and LC modules represents receptor binding and zinc metalloprotease activity, respectively. The passive administration of animal-derived antibodies against tetanus toxin has been considered as the mainstay therapy for years. However, this treatment is associated with several adverse effects due to the presence of anti-isotype antibodies. In the present study, we have produced the fully human single chain antibody fragments (HuScFv) from two human antibody phage display libraries. Twenty-four different HuscFvs were isolated from two anti TeNT immune libraries. Our produced human ScFv (HuScFv) were converted to IgG platform and analyzed regarding their specific reactivity to TeNT. All of the selected scFvs have the same VL but different VH. Three HuscFvs from the first library (TTX15, 51, 75) and two HuscFvs from the second library (TTX16, 20) were chosen to convert to IgG1 using pOptiVEC and pcDNA3.3 systems. Production of IgG1 from transfected DG44 and binding capacity of them to tetanus toxin and toxoid were measured by ELISA. ELISA results showed no detectable production of TTX16 and TTX20 IgG1. Although, TTX51 and TTX75 were converted and produced as IgG1, no reactivity to tetanus toxin and toxoid was observed. However, TTX15 was successfully produced as whole IgG1 platform with reactivity to both tetanus toxin and toxoid. The latter would be an appropriate replacement for conventional polyclonal antibodies if would meet the further characterization including specificity determination, affinity measurement and toxin neutralizing assays. Our results demonstrated production of functional IgG1 derived from TTX15 scFv and might be an appropriate replacement for polyclonal Tetabulin but it needs further characterization.

  9. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Hadi; Valedkarimi, Zahra; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Kazemi, Tohid; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab')2 can be used for animal’s immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme and F(ab')2 fragment was purified by gel filtration separation method. For production of polyclonal antibody, rabbit was immunized by purified F(ab')2 and antibody production was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified anti-IgG F(ab')2 was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Ion exchange chromatography purification yielded 38 mg of human IgG antibody. The results of SDS-PAGE in reduced and non-reduced conditions showed bands with 25-30 kDa molecular weight (MW) and 50-kDa respectively and a distinct band with 150 kDa MW. The results of non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment showed one band in 90 kDa and a band in 150 kDa MW position. Purification by Ion exchange chromatography method resulted about 12 mg rabbit polyclonal antibody. Flow cytometry showed generated polyclonal antibody had an acceptable activity compared to commercial antibody. Taking together, purified IgG F(ab')2 and polyclonal anti-IgG F(ab')2 are useful tools in biomedical and biochemical researches and diagnostic kits. PMID:29326789

  10. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Hadi; Valedkarimi, Zahra; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Kazemi, Tohid; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab') 2 can be used for animal's immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme and F(ab') 2 fragment was purified by gel filtration separation method. For production of polyclonal antibody, rabbit was immunized by purified F(ab') 2 and antibody production was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified anti-IgG F(ab') 2 was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Ion exchange chromatography purification yielded 38 mg of human IgG antibody. The results of SDS-PAGE in reduced and non-reduced conditions showed bands with 25-30 kDa molecular weight (MW) and 50-kDa respectively and a distinct band with 150 kDa MW. The results of non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab') 2 fragment showed one band in 90 kDa and a band in 150 kDa MW position. Purification by Ion exchange chromatography method resulted about 12 mg rabbit polyclonal antibody. Flow cytometry showed generated polyclonal antibody had an acceptable activity compared to commercial antibody. Taking together, purified IgG F(ab') 2 and polyclonal anti-IgG F(ab') 2 are useful tools in biomedical and biochemical researches and diagnostic kits.

  11. Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-06-01

    Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A high-throughput pipeline for the production of synthetic antibodies for analysis of ribonucleoprotein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hong; Laver, John D.; Jeon, Jouhyun; Singh, Fateh; Ancevicius, Kristin; Fan, Yujie; Cao, Wen Xi; Nie, Kun; Yang, Zhenglin; Luo, Hua; Wang, Miranda; Rissland, Olivia; Westwood, J. Timothy; Kim, Philip M.; Smibert, Craig A.; Lipshitz, Howard D.; Sidhu, Sachdev S.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs plays an essential role in the control of gene expression. mRNAs are regulated in ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) along with associated protein and noncoding RNA (ncRNA) cofactors. A global understanding of post-transcriptional control in any cell type requires identification of the components of all of its RNP complexes. We have previously shown that these complexes can be purified by immunoprecipitation using anti-RBP synthetic antibodies produced by phage display. To develop the large number of synthetic antibodies required for a global analysis of RNP complex composition, we have established a pipeline that combines (i) a computationally aided strategy for design of antigens located outside of annotated domains, (ii) high-throughput antigen expression and purification in Escherichia coli, and (iii) high-throughput antibody selection and screening. Using this pipeline, we have produced 279 antibodies against 61 different protein components of Drosophila melanogaster RNPs. Together with those produced in our low-throughput efforts, we have a panel of 311 antibodies for 67 RNP complex proteins. Tests of a subset of our antibodies demonstrated that 89% immunoprecipitate their endogenous target from embryo lysate. This panel of antibodies will serve as a resource for global studies of RNP complexes in Drosophila. Furthermore, our high-throughput pipeline permits efficient production of synthetic antibodies against any large set of proteins. PMID:26847261

  13. A methodological approach for production and purification of polyclonal antibody against dog IgG.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Somayeh; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Nozari, Samira; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Antibodies are a class of biomolecules that has an important role in the immune system and lots of applications in biotechnological methods and in pharmaceutics. Production and purification of antibodies in laboratory animals is one of the first ways to manufacture of these prominent tools. The obtained antibodies from these process could be used in various types of bioassay techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay, etc. Also, antibodies employed in diagnostics applications in humans and other animals in order to detect specific antigens. In this study, we aimed to produce and purify anti-dog IgG via immunizing rabbits with dog IgG in combination with Freund's adjuvant. Polyclonal IgG were purified by ion exchange chromatography and then the purified antibody was labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HPR). Direct ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer and cross-reactivity of HRP conjugated IgG. The purity of various IgG preparations and the optimum dilution of prepared HRP conjugated IgG, respectively, was about 95.00% and 1:8000. This study showed that efficiency ion-exchange chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG antibodies. This antibody could be a useful tool for future dog immune diagnosis tests. This product characterization shown here sets the foundations for future work on dog IgGs.

  14. [Production of the monoclonal antibodies to the rabies virus nucleoprotein].

    PubMed

    Gribencha, S V; Kozlov, A Iu; Kostina, L V; Elakov, A L; Losich, M A; Tsibezov, V V; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I

    2013-01-01

    Five hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the nucleocapsid protein of the rabies virus were obtained through the fusion of the SP2/0 murine myeloma cells with splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with fixed rabies virus (CVS strain). All hybridomas secret MAbs of the IgG class that display different specificity to the nucleocapsids of rabies and rabies-related viruses. MAbs 2ell showed the specificity for the prevalent in Russia rabies viruses that are similar to commercially available anti-rabies conjugate.

  15. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored.

  16. Molecular basis of high viscosity in concentrated antibody solutions: Strategies for high concentration drug product development

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Dheeraj S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Satish K.; Goswami, Sumit; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Effective translation of breakthrough discoveries into innovative products in the clinic requires proactive mitigation or elimination of several drug development challenges. These challenges can vary depending upon the type of drug molecule. In the case of therapeutic antibody candidates, a commonly encountered challenge is high viscosity of the concentrated antibody solutions. Concentration-dependent viscosity behaviors of mAbs and other biologic entities may depend on pairwise and higher-order intermolecular interactions, non-native aggregation, and concentration-dependent fluctuations of various antibody regions. This article reviews our current understanding of molecular origins of viscosity behaviors of antibody solutions. We discuss general strategies and guidelines to select low viscosity candidates or optimize lead candidates for lower viscosity at early drug discovery stages. Moreover, strategies for formulation optimization and excipient design are also presented for candidates already in advanced product development stages. Potential future directions for research in this field are also explored. PMID:26736022

  17. TSH Receptor Signaling Abrogation by a Novel Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Realubit, Ronald B.; Karan, Charles; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves’ disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS). The identification of the TSHR antagonist was performed using a transcription-based TSH-inhibition bioassay. TSHR-expressing CHO cells, which also expressed a luciferase-tagged CRE response element, were optimized using bovine TSH as the activator, in a 384 well plate format, which had a Z score of 0.3–0.6. Using this HTS assay, we screened a diverse library of ~80,000 compounds at a final concentration of 16.7 μM. The selection criteria for a positive hit were based on a mean signal threshold of ≥50% inhibition of control TSH stimulation. The screening resulted in 450 positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0.56%. A secondary confirmation screen against TSH and forskolin – a post receptor activator of adenylyl cyclase – confirmed one TSHR-specific candidate antagonist molecule (named VA-K-14). This lead molecule had an IC50 of 12.3 μM and a unique chemical structure. A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations. In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. Furthermore, this molecule was capable of inhibiting TSHR stimulation by GD patient sera and monoclonal-stimulating TSHR antibodies. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has

  18. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy.

    PubMed

    Żaczek, Maciej; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Owczarek, Barbara; Kopciuch, Agnieszka; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  19. Process performance and product quality in an integrated continuous antibody production process.

    PubMed

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinebach, Fabian; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Continuous manufacturing is currently being seriously considered in the biopharmaceutical industry as the possible new paradigm for producing therapeutic proteins, due to production cost and product quality related benefits. In this study, a monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell line was cultured in perfusion mode and connected to a continuous affinity capture step. The reliable and stable integration of the two systems was enabled by suitable control loops, regulating the continuous volumetric flow and adapting the operating conditions of the capture process. For the latter, an at-line HPLC measurement of the harvest concentration subsequent to the bioreactor was combined with a mechanistic model of the capture chromatographic unit. Thereby, optimal buffer consumption and productivity throughout the process was realized while always maintaining a yield above the target value of 99%. Stable operation was achieved at three consecutive viable cell density set points (20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL), together with consistent product quality in terms of aggregates, fragments, charge isoforms, and N-linked glycosylation. In addition, different values for these product quality attributes such as N-linked glycosylation, charge variants, and aggregate content were measured at the different steady states. As expected, the amount of released DNA and HCP was significantly reduced by the capture step for all considered upstream operating conditions. This study is exemplary for the potential of enhancing product quality control and modulation by integrated continuous manufacturing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 298-307. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Production of human monoclonal IgG antibodies against Rhesus (D) antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, D; Feinberg, M B; Teng, N N; Kaplan, H S

    1984-01-01

    An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B-cell line ( LB4r ) producing anti-Rhesus [Rho(D) antigen] antibody was fused with a non-immunoglobulin-producing mouse-human heteromyeloma ( SHM - D33 ) and selected in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium containing 0.5 microM ouabain. Surviving hybrids found to secrete specific anti-Rho(D) antibody were cloned by limiting dilution. Two clones (D4-B2 and E10-C1) producing high levels (12 and 20 micrograms/ml per 10(6) cells per 24 hr, respectively) of monospecific antibody (IgG3, lambda chain) were selected for expansion and further characterization. Compared to the parental cell line ( LB4r ), these hybridoma cell lines presented several advantages: antibody production was increased 10-fold, cloning efficiency was improved, and the EBV genome was not retained. Antibody production has been stable for greater than 8 months. These human monoclonal anti-Rho(D) antibodies have demonstrated utility in routine blood-group typing. They may also prove useful in the biochemical and genetic characterization of the Rh antigen system. Most important, they offer a source of Rh-immune globulin for the prevention of Rh immunization and alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn. Images PMID:6427767

  1. Production of monoclonal antibody for the detection of meat and bone meal in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Huang, Tung-Shi; Seymour, Thomas A; Wei, Cheng-i; Kempf, Stephen C; Bridgman, C Roger; Clemens, Roger A; An, Haejung

    2004-12-15

    For the detection of prohibited meat and bone meal (MBM) in animal feed, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against heat-stable h-caldesmon purified from bovine intestinal smooth muscle. The obtained hybridoma cells were screened against extracts of the bovine MBM and heat-treated smooth muscle, and MAb 5E12 was identified as having the best performance. Antibody 5E12 did not react with animal feed, milk product, plant proteins, and other ingredients used for commercial animal feed except for the gelatin. This antibody diluted to 100-fold was able to detect MBM mixed in animal feed at 0.05% in an ELISA, and it showed strong affinity toward bovine smooth muscle autoclaved at 130 degrees C. Therefore, this antibody can be used in the ELISA system for field testing of the presence of MBM in animal feed.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.; Branscomb, E.W.; Grabske, R.J.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguishing between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype. 4 figs.

  3. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Ronald H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Bigbee, William L.; Stanker, Larry H.; Branscomb, Elbert W.; Grabske, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguish between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype.

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the antibiotic tilmicosin.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ross C; Creemer, Lawrence C; Ziprin, Richard L; Nisbet, David J

    2005-12-14

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were developed that specifically bind tilmicosin. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates were used for the immunogen and plate coating antigen, respectively. The conjugates were synthesized by different methods, resulting in different linkages. Six hybridoma cell lines were isolated that produced Mabs that competed with tilmicosin, and have IgG1 isotype. The Til-1 and Til-5 Mabs had IC50 values for tilmicosin of 9.6 and 6.4 ng/well (48 and 32 ng/mL), respectively, and limits of detection at IC20 of 1.84 and 0.89 ng/well (9.2 and 4.45 ng/mL), respectively. The Mabs demonstrated high cross-reactivity to the macrolides containing 3,5-dimethylpiperidine at C20 and the amino sugar at C5. No cross-reactivity was observed for tylosin and other macrolides that did not contain 3,5-dimethylpiperidine. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the antibiotic tilmicosin by use of the developed Mabs. These Mabs may be excellent candidates for the determination and immunolocalization of tilmicosin.

  5. Inhibition of in vitro Histophilus somni biofilm production by recombinant Hsp60 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zarankiewicz, T; Madej, J; Galli, J; Bajzert, J; Stefaniak, T

    2012-01-01

    Histophilus somni is an opportunistic pathogen causing respiratory, genitourinary and generalized infections in cattle. An important virulence factor is its ability to produce a biofilm. The aim of this work was to confirm that H. somni Hsp60 (Gro-EL) is a constituent of the biofilm produced by this bacterium in vitro and to check whether or not the presence of a specific antibody within the culture medium can inhibit biofilm production. Biofilm production by H. somni cultured in vitro was confirmed by crystalline violet staining. The presence of Hsp60 in the biofilm was confirmed by using specific antibodies produced in a mouse and goat hyperimmunized with H. somni recombinant Hsp60 (rHsp60). Large complexes of biofilm stained with Hsp60 antibodies were microscopically detected. This indicates that the Hsp60 protein is a common constituent of the biofilm produced by H. somni in vitro. In a second experiment, mouse serum containing anti-H. somni rHsp60 antibodies was added to an H. somni culture. It was found that the presence of anti-rHsp60 antibodies in the culture medium inhibited biofilm production in vitro. Only small biofilm particles were seen in the presence of the specific antibody, whereas in control cultures (without specific antiserum) large biofilm complexes were produced. The results indicate that antibodies specific to Hsp60 may be useful for preventing H. somni biofilm formation in vitro. If this also occurs in vivo, it may be helpful for eradicating H. somni infection in cattle through the elimination of carriers. Further in vivo studies are needed to confirm this idea.

  6. Enhanced production of a single domain antibody with an engineered stabilizing extra disulfide bond.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinny L; Goldman, Ellen R; Zabetakis, Dan; Walper, Scott A; Turner, Kendrick B; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Anderson, George P

    2015-10-09

    Single domain antibodies derived from the variable region of the unique heavy chain antibodies found in camelids yield high affinity and regenerable recognition elements. Adding an additional disulfide bond that bridges framework regions is a proven method to increase their melting temperature, however often at the expense of protein production. To fulfill their full potential it is essential to achieve robust protein production of these stable binding elements. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that decreasing the isoelectric point of single domain antibody extra disulfide bond mutants whose production fell due to the incorporation of the extra disulfide bond would lead to recovery of the protein yield, while maintaining the favorable melting temperature and affinity. Introduction of negative charges into a disulfide bond mutant of a single domain antibody specific for the L1 antigen of the vaccinia virus led to approximately 3.5-fold increase of protein production to 14 mg/L, while affinity and melting temperature was maintained. In addition, refolding following heat denaturation improved from 15 to 70 %. It also maintained nearly 100 % of its binding function after heating to 85 °C for an hour at 1 mg/mL. Disappointingly, the replacement of neutral or positively charged amino acids with negatively charged ones to lower the isoelectric point of two anti-toxin single domain antibodies stabilized with a second disulfide bond yielded only slight increases in protein production. Nonetheless, for one of these binders the charge change itself stabilized the structure equivalent to disulfide bond addition, thus providing an alternative route to stabilization which is not accompanied by loss in production. The ability to produce high affinity, stable single domain antibodies is critical for their utility. While the addition of a second disulfide bond is a proven method for enhancing stability of single domain antibodies, it frequently comes at the cost of reduced

  7. A study of the influence of experimentally induced hypothyroidism on antibody production and decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, Douglas E.; Howland, Joe W.; Michaelson, Solomon

    1962-01-01

    The effect of hypothyroidism induced by intravenous injections of I 131 on antibody production, the anamnestic response, and on antibody decay rate, compared to normal animals, was studied in 63 rabbits. After initial antigenic stimulation, normal animals reached a higher peak titer on an average of 5 days earlier than hypothyroid animals. Antibody half-life in these animals, as measured by time for antibody concentration to fall 50% from peak titer, was 11.4 days in normal compared to 21.3 days in hypothyroid animals. Following a second antigenic stimulation, normal rabbits reached a peak titer in an average of 6.4 days comparedmore » to 15 days for hypothyroid animals. The half-life for both groups was measured by determining the rate of disappearance of passively infused antibody. The half-life, thus measured, in normals was 2.4 plus or minus 0.2 days and was 8.8 plus or minus 1.9 days for hypothyroid animals. The time required for serum-tissue equilibration of infused antibody in normals was 1.0 plus or minus 0.00 days compared to 2.3 plus or minus 1.5 days in hypothyroid animals.« less

  8. Optimization of a methamphetamine conjugate vaccine for antibody production in mice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Misty W; Gunnell, Melinda G; Tawney, Rachel; Owens, S Michael

    2016-06-01

    There are still no approved medications for treating patients who abuse methamphetamine. Active vaccines for treating abuse of nicotine and cocaine are in clinical studies, but have not proven effective seemingly due to inadequate anti-drug antibody production. The current studies aimed to optimize the composition, adjuvant and route of administration of a methamphetamine conjugate vaccine, ICKLH-SMO9, in mice with the goal of generating significantly higher antibody levels. A range of hapten epitope densities were compared, as were the adjuvants Alhydrogel and a new Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist called GLA-SE. While methamphetamine hapten density did not strongly affect the antibody response, the adjuvant did. Glucopyranosyl lipid A in a stable oil-in-water emulsion (GLA-SE) produced much higher levels of antibody in response to immunization compared with Alhydrogel; immunization with GLA-SE also produced antibodies with higher affinities for methamphetamine. GLA-SE has been used in human studies of vaccines for influenza among others and like some other clinical TLR4 agonists, it is safe and elicits a strong immune response. GLA-SE adjuvanted vaccines are typically administered by intramuscular injection and this also proved effective in these mouse studies. Clinical studies of the ICKLH-SMO9 methamphetamine vaccine adjuvanted with GLA-SE have the potential for demonstrating efficacy by generating much higher levels of antibody than substance abuse vaccines that have unsuccessfully used aluminum-based adjuvants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-amyloid precursor protein antibodies inhibit amyloid-β production by steric hindrance

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Rhian S.; Liddell, J. Eryl; Kidd, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases results in the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We raised two monoclonal antibodies, 2B3 and 2B12, that recognise the β-secretase cleavage site on APP but not Aβ. We hypothesised that these antibodies would reduce Aβ levels via steric hindrance of β-secretase. Both antibodies decreased extracellular Aβ levels from astrocytoma cells, but 2B3 was more potent than 2B12. Levels of soluble sAPPα from the non-amyloidogenic α-secretase pathway and intracellular APP were not affected by either antibody nor were there any effects on cell viability. 2B3 exhibited a higher affinity for APP than 2B12 and its epitope appeared to span the cleavage site while 2B12 bound slightly upstream. Both of these factors probably contribute to its greater effect on Aβ levels. After 60 minutes incubation at pH 4.0, most 2B3 and 2B12 remained bound to their antigen, suggesting that the antibodies will remain bound to APP in the acidic endosomes where β-secretase cleavage probably occurs. Only 2B3 and 2B12, but not control antibodies, inhibited the cleavage of sAPPα by β-secretase in a cell-free assay where effects of antibody internalisation and intracellular degradation were excluded. 2B3 virtually abolished this cleavage. In addition, levels of C-terminal APP fragments, βCTF, generated following β-secretase cleavage, were significantly reduced in cells after incubation with 2B3. These results strongly suggest that anti-cleavage site antibodies can generically reduce Aβ levels via inhibition of β-secretase by steric hindrance and may provide a novel alternative therapy for AD. PMID:21122073

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  11. Quality assurance after process changes of the production of a therapeutic antibody.

    PubMed

    Brass, J M; Krummen, K; Moll-Kaufmann, C

    1996-12-01

    Process development for the production of a therapeutic humanised antibody is a very complex operation. It involves recombinant genetics, verification of a strong expression system, gene amplification, characterisation of a stable host cell expression system, optimisation and design of the mammalian cell culture fermentation system and development of an efficient recovery process resulting in high yields and product quality. Rapid progress in the field and the wish of some pharmaceutical companies for outsourcing their production are the driving forces for process changes relatively late in the development phase. This literature survey is aimed at identifying the limits of acceptable process changes in up scaling of the fermentation and down stream processing of biopharmaceuticals and defining the demand in production validation to prove product equivalency and identity of the isolated, purified therapeutic antibody.

  12. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibody against Recombinant Virus Coat Protein CP42.

    PubMed

    Shibaei, Naeimeh; Majidi, Jafar; Razavi, Khadijeh; Karkhane, Ali Asghar; Sokhandan-Bashir, Nemat; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili

    2017-02-01

    There are many studies related to the production of a ELISA kit for diagnosing virus infections. However, production of most kits depends on purification of whole virus particles, which involves the use of costly equipment and reagents. The purpose of this study was to check out if the anti-CP42 antibodies could be used as a diagnostic assay for detection of Grapevine fanleaf Virus (GFLV). In this study, recombinant GFLV coat protein gene related to selected antigenic determinants was inserted into pET-28a bacterial expression vector and the construct (pET-28a CP42) was cloned into E. coli strain (DE3). Expressed protein was verified with western blotting assay by the use of commercially available anti-GFLV antibody. The recombinant protein was purified using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) resin. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified protein and splenocytes of hyperimmunized mice were fused with murine myeloma Sp2/0 cells. Positive hybridomas were selected by ELISA using CP42 as coating antigen. The results showed that monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific to CP42 has been successfully generated. Efficiency of produced antibody was analyzed by ELISA and western blotting assay using some confirmed grapevine samples. The infection was confirmed previously based on morphological features and ELISA assay, performed using commercial anti-GFLV antibody. The monoclonal antibody reacted with antigen in ELISA and immunoblot method. Our results demonstrated that anti recombinant CP42 monoclonal antibodies are able to diagnose whole virus in infected grapevine sample using ELISA test.

  13. Production and characterization of murine monoclonal antibody against synthetic peptide of CD34.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Leili Aghebati; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Akbari, Aliakbar Movassaghpour

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of hematologic malignancies and immunodeficiency diseases are offered by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a unique self-renewal and differentiation source which most commonly is selected by CD34 surface marker for HSC. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize monoclonal antibody against CD34 antigen for detection of hematopoietic stem cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with two synthetic peptides of CD34 and Spleen cells were fused with SP2/0.Fused cells were grown in hypoxanthine, aminopterine and thymidine (HAT) selective medium and cloned by limiting dilution. Large scale of monoclonal antibodies was produced by mouse ascites production of mAb (in vivo) method. Monoclonal antibody was purified by chromatography. Then reactivity of these antibodies was evaluated in different immunological assays including ELISA, immunofluorescence (IF), western blot (WB) and flowcytometry. In this study, between five positive clone wells, two clones were chosen for limiting dilution. Limiting dilution product was one monoclone (3-D5 monoclone) with absorbance about 2. Isotype of this mAb was identified as IgG1 class with Kappa (κ) light chain. This antibody is highly specific and functional in biomedical applications such as ELISA, flowcytometry, immunofluorescence, and western blot assays.

  14. Effects of egg and yolk weights on yolk antibody (IgY) production in laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Nakano, T; Sunwoo, H H; Paek, B H; Chae, H S; Sim, J S

    1998-02-01

    Twenty 35-wk-old chickens, including 10 Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) and 10 Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens, were used to examine the effects of egg and yolk weights on egg yolk antibody (IgY) production in the two strains of chickens immunized with BSA. The SCWL chickens had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage hen-day production and greater egg and yolk weights than did the RIR chickens. However, the anti-BSA antibody activities determined by ELISA in the serum and the egg yolk were similar (P > 0.05) between the SCWL and RIR chickens. Similarities between the two strains of hens were also observed in protein and total IgY contents (expressed as the percentage of wet weight of yolk) and the percentage of BSA-specific antibody in the total IgY. It was concluded that both the SCWL and RIR chickens immunized with BSA can produce egg yolk IgY containing similar proportions of BSA-specific antibodies. Therefore, the egg yolk weight and the percentage hen-day production, both of which are greater in the SCWL hens, are considered to be important factors for the efficient production of IgY.

  15. Beta-1-3-Glucan effect on sow antibody production and passive immunization of Progeny

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta-glucans are glucose homopolymers known to modulate immunity. Here, the beta-glucan effect on sow antibody production and passive immunization of neonatal pigs was analyzed. Treatments included: 1) Corn-soy fed control group, 2) beta-glucan, 3) App vaccination, and 4) beta-glucan + App vaccinati...

  16. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  17. Production of anti-amoxicillin ScFv antibody and simulation studying its molecular recognition mechanism for penicillins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Hui C; Duan, Chang F; Dong, Jun; Zhao, Guo X; Wang, Jian P; Li, Nan; Liu, Jin Z; Li, Yu W

    2016-11-01

    The molecular recognition mechanism of an antibody for its hapten is very interesting. The objective of this research was to study the intermolecular interactions of an anti-amoxicillin antibody with penicillin drugs. The single chain variable fragment (ScFv) antibody was generated from a hybridoma cell strain excreting the monoclonal antibody for amoxicillin. The recombinant ScFv antibody showed similar recognition ability for penicillins to its parental monoclonal antibody: simultaneous recognizing 11 penicillins with cross-reactivities of 18-107%. The three-dimensional structure of the ScFv antibody was simulated by using homology modeling, and its intermolecular interactions with 11 penicillins were studied by using molecular docking. Results showed that three CDRs are involved in antibody recognition; CDR L3 Arg 100, CDR H3 Tyr226, and CDR H3 Arg 228 were the key contact amino acid residues; hydrogen bonding was the main antibody-drug intermolecular force; and the core structure of penicillin drugs was the main antibody binding position. These results could explain the recognition mechanism of anti-amoxicillin antibody for amoxicillin and its analogs. This is the first study reporting the production of ScFv antibody for penicillins and stimulation studying its recognition mechanism.

  18. Breaching peripheral tolerance promotes the production of HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Kristin M.S.; Harper, Michael S.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2017-01-01

    A subset of characterized HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are polyreactive with additional specificities for self-antigens and it has been proposed immunological tolerance may present a barrier to their participation in protective humoral immunity. We address this hypothesis by immunizing autoimmune-prone mice with HIV-1 Envelope (Env) and characterizing the primary antibody response for HIV-1 neutralization. We find autoimmune mice generate neutralizing antibody responses to tier 2 HIV-1 strains with alum treatment alone in the absence of Env. Importantly, experimentally breaching immunological tolerance in wild-type mice also leads to the production of tier 2 HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies, which increase in breadth and potency following Env immunization. In both genetically prone and experimentally induced mouse models of autoimmunity, increased serum levels of IgM anti-histone H2A autoantibodies significantly correlated with tier 2 HIV-1 neutralization, and anti-H2A antibody clones were found to neutralize HIV-1. These data demonstrate that breaching peripheral tolerance permits a cross-reactive HIV-1 autoantibody response able to neutralize HIV-1. PMID:28698284

  19. A pharmacology guided approach for setting limits on product-related impurities for bispecific antibody manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Sharmila; Sonoda, Junichiro; Tully, Timothy; Williams, Ambrose J; Yang, Feng; Macchi, Frank; Hudson, Terry; Chen, Mark Z; Liu, Shannon; Valle, Nicole; Cowan, Kyra; Gelzleichter, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    bFKB1 is a humanized bispecific IgG1 antibody, created by conjoining an anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1) half-antibody to an anti-Klothoβ (KLB) half-antibody, using the knobs-into-holes strategy. bFKB1 acts as a highly selective agonist for the FGFR1/KLB receptor complex and is intended to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic defects by mimicking the activity of the hormone FGF21. An important aspect of the biologics product manufacturing process is to establish meaningful product specifications regarding the tolerable levels of impurities that copurify with the drug product. The aim of the current study was to determine acceptable levels of product-related impurities for bFKB1. To determine the tolerable levels of these impurities, we dosed obese mice with bFKB1 enriched with various levels of either HMW impurities or anti-FGFR1-related impurities, and measured biomarkers for KLB-independent FGFR1 signaling. Here, we show that product-related impurities of bFKB1, in particular, high molecular weight (HMW) impurities and anti-FGFR1-related impurities, when purposefully enriched, stimulate FGFR1 in a KLB-independent manner. By taking this approach, the tolerable levels of product-related impurities were successfully determined. Our study demonstrates a general pharmacology-guided approach to setting a product specification for a bispecific antibody whose homomultimer-related impurities could lead to undesired biological effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of AS2541019, a novel selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, on antibody production and hamster to rat xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marui, Takanori; Fukahori, Hidehiko; Kawashima, Tomoko; Ito, Misato; Akamatsu, Masahiko; Kaneko, Yoko; Takahashi, Fumie; Imada, Sunao; Morokata, Tatsuaki

    2018-05-05

    B cell-mediated antibodies play a critical role in protecting the body from infections; however, excessive antibody production is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and transplanted organ rejection. Regulation of antibody production is therefore crucial for overcoming these complications. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p110δ (PI3Kδ), a member of the family of PI3K lipid kinases, is a key mediator of B cell activation and proliferation, with a small molecule PI3Kδ inhibitor having been approved for the treatment of B cell lymphoma. However, the effect of PI3Kδ inhibitors on B cell-mediated antibody production has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of the selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, AS2541019, on B cell immunity and antibody production. Our results show that AS2541019 effectively prevented B cell activation and proliferation in vitro, and that oral administration of AS2541019 resulted in significant inhibition of both T-dependent and T-independent de novo antibody production in peripheral blood. Further, in a hamster to rat concordant xenotransplant model, AS2541019 significantly prolonged graft survival time by inhibiting xenoreactive antibody production. Therefore, our study demonstrates that the selective PI3Kδ inhibitor AS2541019 inhibits antibody production through potent inhibitory effects on B cell activation, and can protect against organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production and characterization of anti-human IgG F(ab')2 antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-04-10

    In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method. Purity was assessed by SDS-PAGE method. In non-reduced condition only one band was seen in about 150 kDa MW position and in reduced form, two bands were seen in 50 and 25 kDa MW positions. Rabbit IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme. The antibody fragments solution was applied to Gel filtration column to isolate the F(ab')2. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment resulted in one band in 100 kDa corresponds to F(ab')2 fragment and a band in 150 kDa MW position corresponds to undigested IgG antibodies. The activities of FITC conjugated F(ab')2 fragment and commercial ones were compared using flowcytometry method. The activity results implied that the FITC conjugated- anti human F(ab')2 fragment worked as efficiently as the commercial one.

  2. Depletion of suppressor T cells by 2'-deoxyguanosine abrogates tolerance in mice fed ovalbumin and permits the induction of intestinal delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M

    1986-01-01

    We have re-examined the role of suppressor T cells (Ts) in regulating immune responses to fed proteins by investigating the effect of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) on systemic and intestinal immunity in mice fed ovalbumin (OVA). Administration of dGuo for 10 days abrogated the suppression of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses normally found after feeding OVA, and also prevented the generation of OVA-specific Ts. In parallel, mice given dGuo and fed OVA developed sensitization to OVA in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) after oral challenge with OVA and had increased intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) counts and crypt cell production rates (CCPR) in the jejunal mucosa, indicating the presence of a local DTH response. These findings confirm the importance of Ts in preventing hypersensitivity to dietary protein antigens and suggest that enteropathies associated with food hypersensitivity are due to a defect in Ts activity. PMID:2940171

  3. Methanol induction optimization for scFv antibody fragment production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cunha, A E; Clemente, J J; Gomes, R; Pinto, F; Thomaz, M; Miranda, S; Pinto, R; Moosmayer, D; Donner, P; Carrondo, M J T

    2004-05-20

    Fibronectin splice variant ED B (extracellular domain B) is a promising marker for angiogenesis in growing solid tumors. Currently, recombinant antibodies against ED B are being investigated concerning their potential use, for either therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. Single-chain antibody fragments directed against the ED B can be efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris; thus, a recombinant strain of the methylotropic yeast P. pastoris was used for this work. Three different forms of scFv antibody fragment are found in the supernatant from this fermentation: covalent homodimer, associative homodimer, and monomer. Both homodimeric forms can be converted to the monomeric form (under reducing conditions) and be efficiently radiolabeled, whereas the monomeric form of scFv already present in the supernatant cannot. It was also found that the fraction of protein in the monomeric form is highly dependent on the mode of induction rather than scFv concentration. This suggests that the monomeric form of the scFv present in the supernatant might be a result of events occurring at the expression, secretion, or folding level. A high cell density fermentation protocol was developed by optimizing methanol induction, yielding the highest scFv antibody fragment production rate and product quality; cell concentration at the induction point and specific methanol uptake rate were found to be the most important control variables. A decrease in specific methanol uptake rate led to a higher specific production rate for the scFv antibody fragment (5.4 microg g(cell) h(-1)). Product quality, i.e., percentage of product in a homodimeric form, also increased with the decrease in methanol uptake rate. Furthermore, the volumetric productivity depended on cell concentration at the induction point, increasing with the increase of cell concentration up to 320 g L(-1) wet cell weight (WCW). The reduction of the methanol feeding rate for induction, and consequently of the oxygen uptake rate

  4. Intrathecal antibody production in two cases of yellow fever vaccine associated neurotropic disease in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pires-Marczeski, Fanny Clara; Martinez, Valeria Paula; Nemirovsky, Corina; Padula, Paula Julieta

    2011-12-01

    During the period 2007-2008 several epizootics of Yellow fever with dead of monkeys occurred in southeastern Brasil, Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina. In 2008 after a Yellow fever outbreak an exhaustive prevention campaign took place in Argentina using 17D live attenuated Yellow fever vaccine. This vaccine is considered one of the safest live virus vaccines, although serious adverse reactions may occur after vaccination, and vaccine-associated neurotropic disease are reported rarely. The aim of this study was to confirm two serious adverse events associated to Yellow fever vaccine in Argentina, and to describe the analysis performed to assess the origin of specific IgM against Yellow fever virus (YFV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both cases coincided with the Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease case definition, being clinical diagnosis longitudinal myelitis (case 1) and meningoencephalitis (case 2). Specific YFV antibodies were detected in CSF and serum samples in both cases by IgM antibody-capture ELISA. No other cause of neurological disease was identified. In order to obtain a conclusive diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection the IgM antibody index (AI(IgM) ) was calculated. High AI(IgM) values were found in both cases indicating intrathecal production of antibodies and, therefore, CNS post-vaccinal YFV infection could be definitively associated to YFV vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Concurrent detection of secreted products from human lymphocytes by microengraving: cytokines and antigen-reactive antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Sally C.; Tripuraneni, Vinay; Orban, Tihamer; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Hafler, David A.; Love, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Cell surface determinants, cytokines and antibodies secreted by hematopoietic cells are used to classify their lineage and function. Currently available techniques are unable to elucidate multiple secreted proteins while also assigning phenotypic surface-displayed markers to the individual living cells. Here, a soft lithographic method, microengraving, was adapted for the multiplexed interrogation of populations of individual human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for secreted cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-6), antigen-specific antibodies, and lineage-specific surface-expressed markers. Application of the method to a clinical sample from a recent onset Type 1 diabetic subject with a positive titer of anti-insulin antibodies showed that ~0.58% of circulating CD19+ B cells secreted proinsulin-reactive antibodies of the IgG isotype and 2–3% of circulating cells secreted IL-6. These data demonstrate the utility of microengraving for interrogating multiple phenotypes of single human cells concurrently and for detecting rare populations of cells by their secreted products. PMID:18675591

  6. Production of anti-digoxigenin antibody HRP conjugate for PCR-ELISA DIG detection system.

    PubMed

    Gill, Pooria; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ramezani, Reihaneh; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2006-01-01

    There are several methods used to visualize the end product of polymerase chain reactions. One of these methods is an ELISA-based detection system (PCR-ELISA) which is very sensitive and can be used to measure the PCR products quantitatively by a colorimetric method. According to this technique, copies of DNA segments from genomic DNA are amplified by PCR with incorporation of digoxigenin-11-dUTP. Samples are analyzed in a microtiter plate format by alkaline denaturation and are hybridized to biotinylated allele-specific capture probes bound to streptavidin coated plates. Use of the produced anti-digoxigenin antibody horseradish peroxidase conjugate and the substrate 2,2'-azino-di-3-ethylbenzthiazolinsulfonate (ABTS) detected the hybridized DNA. One of the key components in this procedure is the anti-digoxigenin antibody HRP conjugate. Described here is the preparation, purification, and characterization of anti-digoxigenin antibody HRP conjugate for use in the PCR-ELISA DIG detection system. Several biochemical protocols and modifications were applied to increase the sensitivity and specificity of this conjugate for an efficient and cost-effective product.

  7. Interleukin 6 production in experimental cerebral malaria: modulation by anticytokine antibodies and possible role in hypergammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The production of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was studied during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. IL-6 is present in the serum of mice with ECM, the highest concentrations being observed in mice with full-blown neurological syndrome. High IL-6 levels were also observed, however, in the absence of pathology in nonlethal malaria infection. These data suggest that IL- 6 is produced in large amounts during malaria infection, but does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of ECM. A modulation of IL-6 production in ECM was achieved by in vivo treatment with other anticytokine antibodies: antibodies to interferon (IFN-gamma) or to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) abolished the rise of IL-6, while anti-IL-3 and anti-granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies only partially prevented this rise, suggesting that the two cytokines IFN-gamma and TNF are important intermediates in IL-6 production. Passive immunization against IL-6 did not prevent ECM, but significantly reduced serum IgG levels in malaria-infected mice. Thus, by its effects on B cells, IL-6 may be involved in hypergammaglobulinemia and immune-complex diseases, e.g., glomerulonephritis observed during malaria infection. PMID:2121890

  8. Single pass tangential flow filtration to debottleneck downstream processing for therapeutic antibody production.

    PubMed

    Dizon-Maspat, Jemelle; Bourret, Justin; D'Agostini, Anna; Li, Feng

    2012-04-01

    As the therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) market continues to grow, optimizing production processes is becoming more critical in improving efficiencies and reducing cost-of-goods in large-scale production. With the recent trends of increasing cell culture titers from upstream process improvements, downstream capacity has become the bottleneck in many existing manufacturing facilities. Single Pass Tangential Flow Filtration (SPTFF) is an emerging technology, which is potentially useful in debottlenecking downstream capacity, especially when the pool tank size is a limiting factor. It can be integrated as part of an existing purification process, after a column chromatography step or a filtration step, without introducing a new unit operation. In this study, SPTFF technology was systematically evaluated for reducing process intermediate volumes from 2× to 10× with multiple mAbs and the impact of SPTFF on product quality, and process yield was analyzed. Finally, the potential fit into the typical 3-column industry platform antibody purification process and its implementation in a commercial scale manufacturing facility were also evaluated. Our data indicate that using SPTFF to concentrate protein pools is a simple, flexible, and robust operation, which can be implemented at various scales to improve antibody purification process capacity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0557 TITLE: Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification PRINCIPAL...Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0557 5c. PROGRAM...application is to establish the viability of a new strategy of treating late stage PCa through therapeutic targeting of cholesterol metabolism in vivo

  10. Reminder: NCI Requests Cancer Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to improve rigor and reproducibility, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for monoclonal antibody production and distribution to the scientific community. The program from The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research provides well-characterized

  11. Production of anti-SAG1 IgY antibody against Toxoplasma gondii parasites and evaluation of antibody activity by ELISA method.

    PubMed

    Cakir-Koc, Rabia

    2016-08-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibody, also known as immunoglobulin Y (IgY), is the predominant class of serum immunoglobulin in birds. IgY has many advantages over mammalian antibodies, such as enhanced immunogenicity conserved mammalian proteins exhibited in birds due to their phylogenetic distance, non-invasive rapid, and economical collection system. However, there are limited studies about IgY production against Toxoplasma, which is a worldwide veterinary and public health problem. In this study, the production of specific IgY antibodies against the surface antigen 1 (SAG1) protein of Toxoplasma gondii and the determination of antibody activity via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method were conducted. According to ELISA, Western blot, and NanoDrop results, specific and higher amounts of IgY antibody against SAG1 were obtained with this study. Considering the advantages of IgY and importance of SAG1 for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, it is expected that anti-SAG1 IgY will play an increasing role and gain commercial value in research, diagnostics, and immunotherapy against toxoplasmosis in the future.

  12. Design and operation of a continuous integrated monoclonal antibody production process.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Ulmer, Nicole; Wolf, Moritz; Decker, Lara; Schneider, Veronika; Wälchli, Ruben; Karst, Daniel; Souquet, Jonathan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    The realization of an end-to-end integrated continuous lab-scale process for monoclonal antibody manufacturing is described. For this, a continuous cultivation with filter-based cell-retention, a continuous two column capture process, a virus inactivation step, a semi-continuous polishing step (twin-column MCSGP), and a batch-wise flow-through polishing step were integrated and operated together. In each unit, the implementation of internal recycle loops allows to improve the performance: (a) in the bioreactor, to simultaneously increase the cell density and volumetric productivity, (b) in the capture process, to achieve improved capacity utilization at high productivity and yield, and (c) in the MCSGP process, to overcome the purity-yield trade-off of classical batch-wise bind-elute polishing steps. Furthermore, the design principles, which allow the direct connection of these steps, some at steady state and some at cyclic steady state, as well as straight-through processing, are discussed. The setup was operated for the continuous production of a commercial monoclonal antibody, resulting in stable operation and uniform product quality over the 17 cycles of the end-to-end integration. The steady-state operation was fully characterized by analyzing at the outlet of each unit at steady state the product titer as well as the process (HCP, DNA, leached Protein A) and product (aggregates, fragments) related impurities. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1303-1313, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Production of novel recombinant single-domain antibodies against tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin.

    PubMed

    Rahbarizadeh, F; Rasaee, M J; Forouzandeh Moghadam, M; Allameh, A A; Sadroddiny, E

    2004-06-01

    Recently, the existence of "heavy-chain" antibody in Camelidae has been described. However, as yet there is no data on the binding of this type of antibody to peptides. In addition, there was not any report of production of single-domain antibodies in two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus). In the present study, these questions are addressed. We showed the feasibility of immunizing old world camels, cloning the repertoire of the variable domain of their heavy-chain antibodies, panning and selection, leading to the successful identification of minimum-sized antigen binders. Antigen-specific fragments of the heavy-chain IgGs (V(HH)) are of great interest in biotechnology because they are very stable, highly soluble, and react specifically and with high affinity to the antigens. In this study, we immunized two camels (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) with homogenized cancerous tissues, synthetic peptide, and human milk fat globule membrane (HMFG), and generated two V(HH) libraries displayed on phage particles. Some single-domain antibody fragments have been isolated that specifically recognize the tandem repeat region of MUC1. The camels' single-domain V(HH) harbor the original, intact antigen binding site and reacted specifically and with high affinity to the tandem repeat region of MUC1. Indeed soluble, specific antigen binders and good affinities (in the range of 0.2 x 10(9) M(-1) to 0.6 x 10(9) M(-1)) were identified from these libraries. This is the first example of the isolation of camel anti-peptide V(HH) domains.

  14. Efficient production of Trastuzumab Fab antibody fragments in Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Makoto; Onishi, Hiromasa; Hanagata, Hiroshi; Miyauchi, Akira; Ito, Yuji; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masao

    2018-10-01

    The Brevibacillus expression system has been successfully employed for the efficient productions of a variety of recombinant proteins, including enzymes, cytokines, antigens and antibody fragments. Here, we succeeded in secretory expression of Trastuzumab Fab antibody fragments using B. choshinensis/BIC (Brevibacillus in vivocloning) expression system. In the fed-batch high-density cell culture, recombinant Trastuzumab Fab with amino-terminal His-tag (His-BcFab) was secreted at high level, 1.25 g/liter, and Fab without His-tag (BcFab) at ∼145 mg/L of culture supernatant. His-BcFab and BcFab were purified to homogeneity using combination of conventional column chromatographies with a yield of 10-13%. This BcFab preparation exhibited native structure and functions evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism measurements and size exclusion chromatography. To our knowledge, this is the highest production of Fab antibody fragments in gram-positive bacterial expression/secretion systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of roundup and tordon 202C herbicides on antibody production in mice.

    PubMed

    Blakley, B R

    1997-08-01

    Female CD-1 mice were exposed to Tordon 202C (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] and picloram) or Roundup (glyphosate) in drinking water for 26 d at concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.42% or from 0 to 1.05%, respectively. The mice were inoculated with sheep red blood cells to produce a T-lymphocyte, macrophage dependent antibody response on day 21 of the herbicide exposure period. Tordon 202C dosing reduced weight gain and water consumption at the 0.42% level of exposure. Roundup exposure did not alter weight gain or water consumption. Antibody production was unaffected by Roundup dosing, suggesting that Roundup is unlikely to cause immune dysfunction under normal application conditions. In contrast, all levels of Tordon 202C exposure reduced antibody production by as much as 45%. The immunosuppressive activity of Tordon 202C was associated with levels more than 12 x the normal application level, although it was not determined which component of the formulation was responsible for the immunosuppression effect. The presence of immune alteration subsequent to exposure to Tordon 202C at levels marginally above the normal application levels suggests that chronic exposure to Tordon 202C in the environment has the potential to alter immune function.

  16. Mammalian cell display technology coupling with AID induced SHM in vitro: an ideal approach to the production of therapeutic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chang-Fei; Li, Guan-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Traditional antibody production technology within non-mammalian cell expression systems has shown many unsatisfactory properties for the development of therapeutic antibodies. Nevertheless, mammalian cell display technology reaps the benefits of producing full-length all human antibodies. Together with the developed cytidine deaminase induced in vitro somatic hypermutation technology, mammalian cell display technology provides the opportunity to produce high affinity antibodies that might be ideal for therapeutic application. This review was concentrated on the development of the mammalian cell display technology as well as the activation-induced cytidine deaminase induced in vitro somatic hypermutation technology and their applications for the production of therapeutic antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells for enhanced antibody production.

    PubMed

    Kamachi, Yasuharu; Omasa, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Cell culture platform processes are generally employed to shorten the duration of new product development. A fed-batch process with continuous feeding is a conventional platform process for monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To establish a simplified platform process, the feeding method can be changed from continuous feed to bolus feed. However, this change induces a rapid increase of osmolality by the bolus addition of nutrients. The increased osmolality suppresses cell culture growth, and the final product concentration is decreased. In this study, osmotic resistant CHO host cells were developed to attain a high product concentration. To establish hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells, CHO-S host cells were passaged long-term in a hyper osmotic basal medium. There were marked differences in cell growth of the original and established host cells under iso- (328 mOsm/kg) or hyper-osmolality (over 450 mOsm/kg) conditions. Cell growth of the original CHO host cells was markedly decreased by the induction of osmotic stress, whereas cell growth of the hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells was not affected. The maximum viable cell concentration of hyper osmotic resistant CHO host cells was 132% of CHO-S host cells after the induction of osmotic stress. Moreover, the hyper osmotic resistant characteristic of established CHO host cells was maintained even after seven passages in iso-osmolality basal medium. The use of hyper osmotic resistance CHO host cells to create a monoclonal antibody production cell line might be a new approach to increase final antibody concentrations with a fed-batch process. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Product review on the Anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neil J; Kelly, William J; Liu, Stephen V; Choquette, Karin; Spira, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Immunotherapy as a therapeutic strategy has seized the narrative throughout clinical oncology over the past few years. Once considered a niche treatment for rare cancers, immunotherapy has quickly emerged as the standard of care for many common cancer types. The remarkable rise is largely due to the development of novel checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antibodies targeting PD-1 and PD-L1. Offering promising efficacy with a favorable toxicity profile, these agents have been approved for use in several malignancies and are under investigation for many more. One of the more appealing features is the chance for meaningful, durable response - uncharacteristic for most cancer therapies. Atezolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets PD-L1. Atezolizumab has been approved for use in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and bladder cancer and has shown promising activity in several other types of cancer. Here, we provide a product review for atezolizumab.

  19. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    PubMed

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibody production by the pig colon during infection with Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-09-01

    When 47 pigs were dosed orally with cultures of Treponema hyodysenteriae, 44 (94 per cent) developed swine dysentery. Of those which recovered and were rechallenged, nine of 21 (43 per cent) showed clinical signs, as did one of 10 (10 per cent) challenged on a third occasion. Clinical disease was associated with development of specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies in serum and the local production of IgA in gut mucosal tissues. The appearance of antibody was not directly related to protection but rather indicated either prolonged exposure (in the case of serum IgG) or recent exposure to T hyodysenteriae (for secretory IgA). Infection also resulted in the appearance of IgG and IgA memory cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, these studies indicated that humoral immunity alone is not responsible for the onset of a protective response to T hyodysenteriae in the colon.

  1. Multispecificity of Immunoglobulin M Antibodies Raised against Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Chikazawa, Miho; Otaki, Natsuki; Shibata, Takahiro; Miyashita, Hiroaki; Kawai, Yoshichika; Maruyama, Shoichi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Uchida, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous and complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugars, such as dehydroascorbic acid, react in a nonenzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. AGEs are prevalent in the diabetic vasculature and contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. The presence and accumulation of AGEs in many different cell types affect the extracellular and intracellular structure and function. In the present study, we studied the immune response to the dehydroascorbic acid-derived AGEs and provide multiple lines of evidence suggesting that the AGEs could be an endogenous source of innate epitopes recognized by natural IgM antibodies. Prominent IgM titers to the AGEs were detected in the sera of normal mice and were significantly accelerated by the immunization with the AGEs. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a potentially fatal systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the increased production of autoantibodies, showed significantly higher serum levels of the IgM titer against the AGEs than healthy individuals. A progressive increase in the IgM response against the AGEs was also observed in the SLE-prone mice. Strikingly, a subset of monoclonal antibodies, showing a specificity toward the AGEs, prepared from normal mice immunized with the AGEs and from the SLE mice cross-reacted with the double-stranded DNA. Moreover, they also cross-reacted with several other modified proteins, including the acetylated proteins, suggesting that the multiple specificity of the antibodies might be ascribed, at least in part, to the increased electronegative potential of the proteins. These findings suggest that the protein modification by the endogenous carbonyl compounds, generating electronegative proteins, could be a source of multispecific natural antibodies. PMID:23543734

  2. Benchmarking of commercially available CHO cell culture media for antibody production.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, David; Damjanovic, Lukas; Kaisermayer, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-06-01

    In this study, eight commercially available, chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture media from different vendors were evaluated in batch culture using an IgG-producing CHO DG44 cell line as a model. Medium adaptation revealed that the occurrence of even small aggregates might be a good indicator of cell growth performance in subsequent high cell density cultures. Batch experiments confirmed that the culture medium has a significant impact on bioprocess performance, but high amino acid concentrations alone were not sufficient to ensure superior cell growth and high antibody production. However, some key amino acids that were limiting in most media could be identified. Unbalanced glucose and amino acids led to high cell-specific lactate and ammonium production rates. In some media, persistently high glucose concentrations probably induced the suppression of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, known as Crabtree effect, which resulted in high cell-specific glycolysis rates along with a continuous and high lactate production. In additional experiments, two of the eight basal media were supplemented with feeds from two different manufacturers in six combinations, in order to understand the combined impact of media and feeds on cell metabolism in a CHO fed-batch process. Cell growth, nutrient consumption and metabolite production rates, antibody production, and IgG quality were evaluated in detail. Concentrated feed supplements boosted cell concentrations almost threefold and antibody titers up to sevenfold. Depending on the fed-batch strategy, fourfold higher peak cell concentrations and eightfold increased IgG titers (up to 5.8 g/L) were achieved. The glycolytic flux was remarkably similar among the fed-batches; however, substantially different specific lactate production rates were observed in the different media and feed combinations. Further analysis revealed that in addition to the feed additives, the basal medium can make a considerable

  3. Production of monoclonal antibody against clonazepam for immunoassay of benzodiazepine drugs in swine tissues.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wen C; Cui, Ya L; He, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jing; Wang, Jian P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to produce a generic monoclonal antibody for immunoassay of residues of benzodiazepine drugs in swine tissues. Clonazepam was used to synthesize a hapten that was coupled to bovine serum albumin as an immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibody. Results showed that the obtained monoclonal antibody was able to recognize five benzodiazepine drugs simultaneously (clonazepam, flunitrazepam nitrazepam, diazepam, and oxazepam). The cross-reactivities were in the range of 24-100% and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.2-1.5 ng mL(-1) depending on the drug. Then a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to determine the residues of five benzodiazepines in swine tissues (muscle, liver and kidney). The recoveries of five analytes from the fortified blank samples were in the range of 74.5-96.5% with coefficients of variation lower than 16.7%. Therefore, this immunoassay could be used as a rapid and simple method for the screening of residues of five benzodiazepine drugs in animal-derived foods.

  4. Natural Product Splicing Inhibitors: A New Class of Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) Payloads.

    PubMed

    Puthenveetil, Sujiet; Loganzo, Frank; He, Haiyin; Dirico, Ken; Green, Michael; Teske, Jesse; Musto, Sylvia; Clark, Tracey; Rago, Brian; Koehn, Frank; Veneziale, Robert; Falahaptisheh, Hadi; Han, Xiaogang; Barletta, Frank; Lucas, Judy; Subramanyam, Chakrapani; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Tumey, L Nathan; Sapra, Puja; Gerber, Hans Peter; Ma, Dangshe; Graziani, Edmund I

    2016-08-17

    There is a considerable ongoing work to identify new cytotoxic payloads that are appropriate for antibody-based delivery, acting via mechanisms beyond DNA damage and microtubule disruption, highlighting their importance to the field of cancer therapeutics. New modes of action will allow a more diverse set of tumor types to be targeted and will allow for possible mechanisms to evade the drug resistance that will invariably develop to existing payloads. Spliceosome inhibitors are known to be potent antiproliferative agents capable of targeting both actively dividing and quiescent cells. A series of thailanstatin-antibody conjugates were prepared in order to evaluate their potential utility in the treatment of cancer. After exploring a variety of linkers, we found that the most potent antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) were derived from direct conjugation of the carboxylic acid-containing payload to surface lysines of the antibody (a "linker-less" conjugate). Activity of these lysine conjugates was correlated to drug-loading, a feature not typically observed for other payload classes. The thailanstatin-conjugates were potent in high target expressing cells, including multidrug-resistant lines, and inactive in nontarget expressing cells. Moreover, these ADCs were shown to promote altered splicing products in N87 cells in vitro, consistent with their putative mechanism of action. In addition, the exposure of the ADCs was sufficient to result in excellent potency in a gastric cancer xenograft model at doses as low as 1.5 mg/kg that was superior to the clinically approved ADC T-DM1. The results presented herein therefore open the door to further exploring splicing inhibition as a potential new mode-of-action for novel ADCs.

  5. Efficiency improvement of an antibody production process by increasing the inoculum density.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Volker; Duvar, Sevim; Ziehr, Holger; Burg, Josef; Jockwer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Increasing economic pressure is the main driving force to enhance the efficiency of existing processes. We developed a perfusion strategy for a seed train reactor to generate a higher inoculum density for a subsequent fed batch production culture. A higher inoculum density can reduce culture duration without compromising product titers. Hence, a better capacity utilization can be achieved. The perfusion strategy was planned to be implemented in an existing large scale antibody production process. Therefore, facility and process constraints had to be considered. This article describes the initial development steps. Using a proprietary medium and a Chinese hamster ovary cell line expressing an IgG antibody, four different cell retention devices were compared in regard to retention efficiency and reliability. Two devices were selected for further process refinement, a centrifuge and an inclined gravitational settler. A concentrated feed medium was developed to meet facility constraints regarding maximum accumulated perfundate volume. A 2-day batch phase followed by 5 days of perfusion resulted in cell densities of 1.6 × 10(10) cells L(-1) , a 3.5 fold increase compared to batch cultivations. Two reactor volumes of concentrated feed medium were needed to achieve this goal. Eleven cultivations were carried out in bench and 50 L reactors showing acceptable reproducibility and ease of scale up. In addition, it was shown that at least three perfusion phases can be combined within a repeated perfusion strategy. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Mechanism of Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A Attenuation of CpG-Induced Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Saifee, Jessica F.; Torres, Raul M.; Janoff, Edward N.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) had previously been shown to act as a damage associated molecular pattern with the ability to enhance CpG-A phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-mediated stimulation of IFNα production from human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Examination of the mechanism by which TFAM might influence CpG ODN mediated innate immune responses revealed that TFAM binds directly, tightly and selectively to the structurally related CpG-A, -B, and -C ODN. TFAM also modulated the ability of the CpG-B or -C to stimulate the production of antibodies from human B cells. TFAM showed a dose-dependent modulation of CpG-B, and -C -induced antibody production from human B cells in vitro, with enhancement of high dose and inhibition of low doses of CpG stimulation. This effect was linked to the ability of TFAM to directly inhibit the binding of CpG ODNs to B cells, in a manner consistent with the relative binding affinities of TFAM for the ODNs. These data suggest that TFAM alters the free concentration of the CpG available to stimulate B cells by sequestering this ODN in a TFAM-CpG complex. Thus, TFAM has the potential to decrease the pathogenic consequences of exposure to natural CpG-like hypomethylated DNA in vivo, as well as such as that found in traumatic injury, infection, autoimmune disease and during pregnancy. PMID:27280778

  7. Processing Impact on Monoclonal Antibody Drug Products: Protein Subvisible Particulate Formation Induced by Grinding Stress.

    PubMed

    Gikanga, Benson; Eisner, Devon Roshan; Ovadia, Robert; Day, Eric S; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2017-01-01

    Subvisible particle formation in monoclonal antibody drug product resulting from mixing and filling operations represents a significant processing risk that can lead to filter fouling and thereby lead to process delays or failures. Several previous studies from our lab and others demonstrated the formation of subvisible particulates in mAb formulations resulting from mixing operations using some bottom-mounted mixers or stirrer bars. It was hypothesized that the stress (e.g., shear/cavitation) derived from tight clearance and/or close contact between the impeller and shaft was responsible for protein subvisible particulate generation. These studies, however, could not distinguish between the two surfaces without contact (tight clearance) or between two contacting surfaces (close contact). In the present study we expand on those findings and utilize small-scale mixing models that are able to, for the first time, distinguish between tight clearances and tight contact. In this study we evaluated different mixer types including a top-mounted mixer, several impeller-based bottom-mounted mixers, and a rotary piston pump. The impact of tight clearance/close contact on subvisible particle formation in at-scale mixing platforms was demonstrated in the gap between the impeller and drive unit as well as between the piston and the housing of the pump. Furthermore, small-scale mixing models based on different designs of magnetic stir bars that mimic the tight clearance/close contact of the manufacturing-scale mixers also induced subvisible particles in mAb formulations. Additional small-scale models that feature tight clearance but no close contact (grinding) suggested that it is the repeated grinding/contacting of the moving parts and not the presence of tight clearance in the processing equipment that is the root cause of protein subvisible particulate formation. When multiple mAbs, Fabs (fragment antigen binding), or non-antibody related proteins were mixed in the small

  8. In vitro antigen-induced, antigen-specific antibody production in man. Specific and polyclonal components, kinetics, and cellular requirements

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    A highly specific and reproducible antigen-induced, antigen-specific culture and assay system for antibody production by human peripheral blood B lymphocytes has been developed. The system is clearly T cell and monocyte dependent and is independent of exogenous mitogens. The major factors in our ability to trigger specific antibody production with antigen alone have been the use of extremely low concentrations of antigen in vitro (doses several orders of magnitude below those inducing a peak blastogenic response), careful attention to in vitro cell density and culture vessel geometry, and appreciation of the kinetics of the circulating antigen-inducible B cell repertoire. A dichotomy and overlap between antigen-induced, antigen-specific and antigen-induced, polyclonal responses was observed in the study of doubly immunized individuals. Whereas antibody responses highly specific for the antigen in culture were observed under one set of culture conditions (flat-bottomed vessels, 1.5 x 10(6) cells), switching to another culture system (round-bottomed vessels, 5 x 10(5) cells) resulted in polyclonal responses to antigen. Despite these culture condition-related differences in the induction of antibody synthesis, the suppression of specific antibody production that occurred at high concentrations of antigen was specific only for the antigen in culture. The capability to easily and reproducibly look at truly antigen-induced, antigen specific antibody production should be a major tool in furthering the understanding of human B cell activation and immunoregulation. PMID:6169778

  9. A novel monoclonal antibody targeting carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product in atherosclerosis and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Ulrika; Persson, Nina; Risinger, Christian; Bengtsson, Eva; Nodin, Björn; Danielsson, Lena; Welinder, Charlotte; Nordin Fredrikson, Gunilla; Jansson, Bo; Blixt, Ola

    2018-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between proteins and carbohydrates, causing irreversible lysine and arginine alterations that severely affect protein structure and function. The resulting modifications induce inflammation by binding to scavenger receptors. An increase in advanced glycation end products is observed in a number of diseases e.g. atherosclerosis and cancer. Since advanced glycation end products also are present in healthy individuals, their detection and quantification are of great importance for usage as potential biomarkers. Current methods for advanced glycation end product detection are though limited and solely measure total glycation. This study describes a new epitope-mapped single chain variable fragment, D1-B2, against carboxymethyllysine, produced from a phage library that was constructed from mouse immunizations. The phage library was selected against advanced glycation end product targets using a phage display platform. Characterization of its binding pattern was performed using large synthetic glycated peptide and protein libraries displayed on microarray slides. D1-B2 showed a preference for an aspartic acid, three positions N-terminally from a carboxymethyllysine residue and also bound to a broad collection of glycated proteins. Positive immunohistochemical staining of mouse atherosclerotic plaques and of a tissue microarray of human pancreatic tumors confirmed the usability of the new scFv for advanced glycation end product detection in tissues. This study demonstrates a promising methodology for high-throughput generation of epitope-mapped monoclonal antibodies against AGE.

  10. Model based adaptive control of a continuous capture process for monoclonal antibodies production.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Angarita, Monica; Karst, Daniel J; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-04-29

    A two-column capture process for continuous processing of cell-culture supernatant is presented. Similar to other multicolumn processes, this process uses sequential countercurrent loading of the target compound in order maximize resin utilization and productivity for a given product yield. The process was designed using a novel mechanistic model for affinity capture, which takes both specific adsorption as well as transport through the resin beads into account. Simulations as well as experimental results for the capture of an IgG antibody are discussed. The model was able to predict the process performance in terms of yield, productivity and capacity utilization. Compared to continuous capture with two columns operated batch wise in parallel, a 2.5-fold higher capacity utilization was obtained for the same productivity and yield. This results in an equal improvement in product concentration and reduction of buffer consumption. The developed model was used not only for the process design and optimization but also for its online control. In particular, the unit operating conditions are changed in order to maintain high product yield while optimizing the process performance in terms of capacity utilization and buffer consumption also in the presence of changing upstream conditions and resin aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel monoclonal antibody targeting carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product in atherosclerosis and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wendel, Ulrika; Persson, Nina; Risinger, Christian; Bengtsson, Eva; Nodin, Björn; Danielsson, Lena; Welinder, Charlotte; Nordin Fredrikson, Gunilla

    2018-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products are formed by non-enzymatic reactions between proteins and carbohydrates, causing irreversible lysine and arginine alterations that severely affect protein structure and function. The resulting modifications induce inflammation by binding to scavenger receptors. An increase in advanced glycation end products is observed in a number of diseases e.g. atherosclerosis and cancer. Since advanced glycation end products also are present in healthy individuals, their detection and quantification are of great importance for usage as potential biomarkers. Current methods for advanced glycation end product detection are though limited and solely measure total glycation. This study describes a new epitope-mapped single chain variable fragment, D1-B2, against carboxymethyllysine, produced from a phage library that was constructed from mouse immunizations. The phage library was selected against advanced glycation end product targets using a phage display platform. Characterization of its binding pattern was performed using large synthetic glycated peptide and protein libraries displayed on microarray slides. D1-B2 showed a preference for an aspartic acid, three positions N-terminally from a carboxymethyllysine residue and also bound to a broad collection of glycated proteins. Positive immunohistochemical staining of mouse atherosclerotic plaques and of a tissue microarray of human pancreatic tumors confirmed the usability of the new scFv for advanced glycation end product detection in tissues. This study demonstrates a promising methodology for high-throughput generation of epitope-mapped monoclonal antibodies against AGE. PMID:29420566

  12. Robust production of virus-like particles and monoclonal antibodies with geminiviral replicon vectors in lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Huafang; He, Junyun; Engle, Michael; Diamond, Michael S.; Chen, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Summary Pharmaceutical protein production in plants has been greatly promoted by the development of viral-based vectors and transient expression systems. Tobacco and related Nicotiana species are currently the most common host plants for generation of plant-made pharmaceutical proteins (PMPs). Downstream processing of target PMPs from these plants, however, is hindered by potential technical and regulatory difficulties due to the presence of high levels of phenolics and toxic alkaloids. Here, we explored the use of lettuce, which grows quickly yet produces low levels of secondary metabolites, and viral vector-based transient expression systems to develop a robust PMP production platform. Our results showed that a geminiviral replicon system based on the bean yellow dwarf virus permits high-level expression in lettuce of virus-like particles (VLP) derived from the Norwalk virus capsid protein and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Ebola and West Nile viruses. These vaccine and therapeutic candidates can be readily purified from lettuce leaves with scalable processing methods while fully retaining functional activity. Furthermore, this study also demonstrated the feasibility of using commercially produced lettuce for high-level PMP production. This allows our production system to have access to unlimited quantities of inexpensive plant material for large-scale production. These results establish a new production platform for biological pharmaceutical agents that is effective, safe, low-cost, and amenable to large-scale manufacturing. PMID:21883868

  13. N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor antibody production from germinal center reactions: Therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Makuch, Mateusz; Wilson, Robert; Al‐Diwani, Adam; Varley, James; Kienzler, Anne‐Kathrin; Taylor, Jennifer; Berretta, Antonio; Fowler, Darren; Lennox, Belinda; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Introduction N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis is mediated by immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies directed against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR. Around 20% of patients have an underlying ovarian teratoma, and the condition responds to early immunotherapies and ovarian teratoma removal. However, despite clear therapeutic relevance, mechanisms of NR1‐IgG production and the contribution of germinal center B cells to NR1‐IgG levels are unknown. Methods Clinical data and longitudinal paired serum NR1‐reactive IgM and IgG levels from 10 patients with NMDAR‐antibody encephalitis were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these 10 patients, and two available ovarian teratomas, were stimulated with combinations of immune factors and tested for secretion of total IgG and NR1‐specific antibodies. Results In addition to disease‐defining NR1‐IgG, serum NR1‐IgM was found in 6 of 10 patients. NR1‐IgM levels were typically highest around disease onset and detected for several months into the disease course. Moreover, circulating patient B cells were differentiated into CD19+CD27++CD38++ antibody‐secreting cells in vitro and, from 90% of patients, secreted NR1‐IgM and NR1‐IgG. Secreted levels of NR1‐IgG correlated with serum NR1‐IgG (p < 0.0001), and this was observed across the varying disease durations, suggestive of an ongoing process. Furthermore, ovarian teratoma tissue contained infiltrating lymphocytes which produced NR1‐IgG in culture. Interpretation Serum NR1‐IgM and NR1‐IgG, alongside the consistent production of NR1‐IgG from circulating B cells and from ovarian teratomas suggest that ongoing germinal center reactions may account for the peripheral cell populations which secrete NR1‐IgG. Cells participating in germinal center reactions might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of NMDAR‐antibody encephalitis. Ann Neurol 2018;83:553–561 PMID:29406578

  14. Gravidity-dependent production of antibodies that inhibit binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    O'Neil-Dunne, I; Achur, R N; Agbor-Enoh, S T; Valiyaveettil, M; Naik, R S; Ockenhouse, C F; Zhou, A; Megnekou, R; Leke, R; Taylor, D W; Gowda, D C

    2001-12-01

    During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate, creating a risk factor for both the mother and the fetus. The primigravidae are at higher risk for placental malaria than the multigravidae. This difference in susceptibility has been attributed to the lack of antibodies that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin 4-sulfate in primigravid women. However, recent results show that many primigravidae at term have antibody levels similar to those of multigravidae, and thus the significance of antiadhesion antibodies in providing protection against malaria during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed plasma samples from women of various gravidities at different gestational stages for antiadhesion antibodies. The majority of women, regardless of gravidity, had similar levels of antibodies at term. Most primigravidae had low levels of or no antiadhesion antibodies prior to ~20 weeks of pregnancy and then produced antibodies. Multigravidae also lacked antibodies until ~12 weeks of pregnancy, but thereafter they efficiently produced antibodies. In pregnant women who had placental infection at term, higher levels of antiadhesion antibodies correlated with lower levels of placental parasitemia. The difference in kinetics of antibody production between primigravidae and multigravidae correlated with the prevalence of malaria in these groups, suggesting that antibodies are produced during pregnancy in response to placental infection. The early onset of efficient antibody response in multigravidae and the delayed production to antibodies in primigravidae appear to account for the gravidity-dependent differential susceptibilities of pregnant women to placental malaria.

  15. Leaky RAG Deficiency in Adult Patients with Impaired Antibody Production against Bacterial Polysaccharide Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Christoph B.; Piller, Alexander; Linder, Angela; Sauerwein, Kai M. T.; Eibl, Martha M.; Wolf, Hermann M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function mutations in the recombination activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 have been reported to cause a T-B-NK+ type of severe combined immunodeficiency. In addition identification of hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 has led to an expansion of the spectrum of disease to include Omenn syndrome, early onset autoimmunity, granuloma, chronic cytomegalovirus- or EBV-infection with expansion of gamma/delta T-cells, idiophatic CD4 lymphopenia and a phenotype resembling common variable immunodeficiency. Herein we describe a novel presentation of leaky RAG1 and RAG2 deficiency in two unrelated adult patients with impaired antibody production against bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Clinical manifestation included recurrent pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media and in one patient recurrent cutaneous vasculitis. Both patients harbored a combination of a null mutation on one allele with a novel hypomorphic RAG1/2 mutation on the other allele. One of these novel mutations affected the start codon of RAG1 and resulted in an aberrant gene and protein expression. The second novel RAG2 mutation leads to a truncated RAG2 protein, lacking the C-terminus with intact core RAG2 and reduced VDJ recombination capacity as previously described in a mouse model. Both patients presented with severely decreased numbers of naïve CD4+ T cells and defective T independent IgG responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens, while T cell-dependent IgG antibody formation e.g. after tetanus or TBEV vaccination was intact. In conclusion, hypomorphic mutations in genes responsible for SCID should be considered in adults with predominantly antibody deficiency. PMID:26186701

  16. Mass-Production and Characterization of Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody in Peritoneum of Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sineh sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Majidi, Jafar; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Aghebati, leili; Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies are important tools are used in basic research as well as, in diagnosis, imaging and treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, infections and cancers. The purpose of this study was to produce large scale of monoclonal antibody against CD20 in order to diagnostic application in leukemia and lymphomas disorders. Methods: Hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibody against human CD20 were administered into the peritoneum of the Balb/c mice which have previously been primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. After twelve days, approximately 7 ml ascetic fluid was harvested from the peritoneum of each mouse. Evaluation of mAb titration was assessed by ELISA method. In the present study, we describe a protocol for large scale production of MAbs. Results: We prepared monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with high specificity and sensitivity against human CD20 by hybridoma method and characterized them by ELISA. The subclass of antibody was IgG2a and its light chain was kappa. Ascetic fluid was purified by Protein-A Sepharose affinity chromatography and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with FITC and Immunofluorescence was done for confirming the specific binding. Conclusion: The conjugated monoclonal antibody could have application in diagnosis B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and melanoma cancer stem cells. PMID:24312821

  17. Antibody-independent Targeted Quantification of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Protein Products in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jintang; Sun, Xuefei; Shi, Tujin

    2014-10-01

    Fusions between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and ETS related gene (ERG) represent one of the most specific biomarkers that define a distinct molecular subtype of prostate cancer. The studies on TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions have seldom been performed at the protein level, primarily due to the lack of high-quality antibodies or an antibody-independent method that is sufficiently sensitive for detecting the truncated ERG protein products resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions and alternative splicing. Herein, we applied a recently developed PRISM (high-pressure high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing)-SRM (selected reaction monitoring) strategy for quantifying ERG protein in prostate cancermore » cell lines and tumors. The highly sensitive PRISM-SRM assays led to confident detection of 6 unique ERG peptides in either the TMPRSS2-ERG positive cell lines or tissues but not in the negative controls, indicating that ERG protein expression is highly correlated with TMPRSS2-ERG gene rearrangements. Significantly, our results demonstrated for the first time that at least two groups of ERG protein isoforms were simultaneously expressed at variable levels in TMPRSS2-ERG positive samples as evidenced by concomitant detection of two mutually exclusive peptides. Three peptides shared across almost all fusion protein products were determined to be the most abundant peptides, and hence can be used as “signature” peptides for detecting ERG overexpression resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion. These PRISM-SRM assays provide valuable tools for studying TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion protein products, thus improving our understanding of the role of TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in the biology of prostate cancer.« less

  18. A Different Perspective: How Much Innovation Is Really Needed for Monoclonal Antibody Production Using Mammalian Cell Technology?

    PubMed

    Kelley, Brian; Kiss, Robert; Laird, Michael

    2018-05-03

    As biopharmaceutical companies have optimized cell line and production culture process development, titers of recombinant antibodies have risen steadily to 3-8 g/L for fed-batch mammalian cultures at production scales of 10 kL or larger. Most new antibody products are produced from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, and there are relatively few alternative production hosts under active evaluation. Many companies have adopted a strategy of using the same production cell line for early clinical phases as well as commercial production, which reduces the risk of product comparability issues during the development lifecycle. Product quality and consistency expectations rest on the platform knowledge of the CHO host cell line and processes used for the production of many licensed antibodies. The lack of impact of low-level product variants common to this platform on product safety and efficacy also builds on the established commercial history of recombinant antibodies, which dates back to 1997.Efforts to increase titers further will likely yield diminishing returns. Very few products would benefit significantly from a titer greater than 8 g/L; in many cases, a downstream processing bottleneck would preclude full recovery from production-scale bioreactors for high titer processes. The benefits of a process platform based on standard fed-batch production culture include predictable scale-up, process transfer, and production within a company's manufacturing network or at a contract manufacturing organization. Furthermore, the confidence in an established platform provides key support towards regulatory flexibility (e.g., design space) for license applications following a quality-by-design strategy.These factors suggest that novel technologies for antibody production may not provide a substantial return on investment. What, then, should be the focus of future process development efforts for companies that choose to launch antibody products using their current

  19. Tobacco seeds as efficient production platform for a biologically active anti-HBsAg monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Velázquez, Abel; López-Quesada, Alina; Ceballo-Cámara, Yanaysi; Cabrera-Herrera, Gleysin; Tiel-González, Kenia; Mirabal-Ortega, Liliana; Pérez-Martínez, Marlene; Pérez-Castillo, Rosabel; Rosabal-Ayán, Yamilka; Ramos-González, Osmani; Enríquez-Obregón, Gil; Depicker, Ann; Pujol-Ferrer, Merardo

    2015-10-01

    The use of plants as heterologous hosts is one of the most promising technologies for manufacturing valuable recombinant proteins. Plant seeds, in particular, constitute ideal production platforms for long-term applications requiring a steady supply of starting material, as they combine the general advantages of plants as bioreactors with the possibility of biomass storage for long periods in a relatively small volume, thus allowing manufacturers to decouple upstream and downstream processing. In the present work we have used transgenic tobacco seeds to produce large amounts of a functionally active mouse monoclonal antibody against the Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen, fused to a KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motif, under control of regulatory sequences from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed storage proteins. The antibody accumulated to levels of 6.5 mg/g of seed in the T3 generation, and was purified by Protein A affinity chromatography combined with SEC-HPLC. N-glycan analysis indicated that, despite the KDEL signal, the seed-derived plantibody bore both high-mannose and complex-type sugars that indicate partial passage through the Golgi compartment, although its performance in the immunoaffinity purification of HBsAg was unaffected. An analysis discussing the industrial feasibility of replacing the currently used tobacco leaf-derived plantibody with this seed-derived variant is also presented.

  20. Viral Superantigen Drives Extrafollicular and Follicular B Cell Differentiation Leading to Virus-specific Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Sanjiv A.; Gulbranson-Judge, Adam; Acha-Orbea, Hans; MacLennan, Ian C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV[SW]) encodes a superantigen expressed by infected B cells. It evokes an antibody response specific for viral envelope protein, indicating selective activation of antigen-specific B cells. The response to MMTV(SW) in draining lymph nodes was compared with the response to haptenated chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG) using flow cytometry and immunohistology. T cell priming occurs in both responses, with T cells proliferating in association with interdigitating dendritic cells in the T zone. T cell proliferation continues in the presence of B cells in the outer T zone, and B blasts then undergo exponential growth and differentiation into plasma cells in the medullary cords. Germinal centers develop in both responses, but those induced by MMTV(SW) appear later and are smaller. Most T cells activated in the T zone and germinal centers in the MMTV(SW) response are superantigen specific and these persist for weeks in lymph nodes draining the site MMTV(SW) injection; this contrasts with the selective loss of superantigen-specific T cells from other secondary lymphoid tissues. The results indicate that this viral superantigen, when expressed by professional antigen-presenting cells, drives extrafollicular and follicular B cell differentiation leading to virus-specific antibody production. PMID:9053455

  1. Synthesis of azoxystrobin transformation products and selection of monoclonal antibodies for immunoassay development.

    PubMed

    Parra, Javier; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2012-04-25

    The use of agrochemicals for crop protection may result in the presence of toxic residues in soils and aquatic environments, besides in foodstuffs. Most often just the parent compound is included in the definition of pesticide residue, even though chemicals resulting from biotransformation and degradation routes might also be of toxicological relevance. Azoxystrobin is a broad-spectrum systemic fungicide widely used worldwide to combat pathogenic fungi affecting plants. We herein report the synthesis and detailed chemical characterization of several of the most relevant metabolites and degradates of azoxystrobin. These compounds were further employed as ligands for screening a collection of monoclonal antibodies to azoxystrobin, which had been previously generated from haptens functionalized at different positions of the target chemical. As a result, an antibody was identified capable of binding, with subnanomolar affinity, not only azoxystrobin but also its main transformation products, such as the so-called acid and enol derivatives, as well as the azoxystrobin (Z)-isomer. The selected binder was demonstrated as a useful immunoreagent for the development of immunochemical assays as novel analytical tools for the qualitative determination of azoxystrobin and its metabolites and degradates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of long-term treatment with tetracycline and niacinamide on antibody production in dogs with discoid lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ralf S; Fieseler, Kathryn V; Bettenay, Sonya V; Rosychuk, Rodney A W

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term treatment with tetracycline and niacinamide on antibody production in dogs by measuring postvaccinal serum concentrations of antibodies against canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus. 10 dogs receiving long-term treatment with tetracycline and niacinamide (treatment group) and 10 healthy dogs (control group). The treatment group included 9 dogs with discoid lupus erythematosus and 1 dog with pemphigus foliaceus on long-term treatment (> 12 months) with tetracycline and niacinamide. The control group included 10 healthy dogs with no clinical signs of disease and no administered medications for the past 3 months. Blood samples were obtained from all dogs by jugular venipuncture. Serum antibody titers against canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antigens were measured, using hemaglutination inhibition and serum neutralization, respectively, and compared between groups. A significant difference in antibody titers between treatment- and control-group dogs was not found. All dogs had protective antibody titers against canine distemper virus, and 8 of 10 dogs from each group had protective titers against canine parvovirus infection. These results provide evidence that long-term treatment with tetracycline and niacinamide does not interfere with routine vaccinations and thus does not seem to influence antibody production in dogs.

  3. Evaluation of changes in promoters, use of UCOES and chain order to improve the antibody production in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Pizaña, Maria Del Refugio; Ascencio-Favela, Guadalupe; Soto-García, Brenda Maribell; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita de la Luz; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2017-04-01

    Therapy with biopharmaceuticals, mainly recombinant antibodies, offers patients higher life expectancy and better life quality than pharmacologic therapy. Countries with the highest scientific development are investing in this kind of therapy, and this is why the optimization of the production of these recombinant proteins would lead to their higher production and lower costs of the final product. Modifications in the use of promoters, the use of recombination regions, and the change in the order of the chains, are some of the genetic engineering changes that can increase the production of recombinant antibodies. In this work, three different promoters were tested: Prom A, hCMV, and EF1-a, for two different antibodies, one anti-TNFa and one anti-CD20 + . Changes were made in the order of the chains H-L or L-H and one or two UCOE (ubiquitous chromatin opening element) sequences were also used to identify the combinations that provide the best transient and stable expression for the antibodies in the CHO-s cells. In our results, we observed that the use of the two UCOE regions, with L-H order is almost three times better for the expression of the two different antibodies, while the strength of the promoter is conditioned by the sequence of each expressed protein. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The induction of antibody production by IL-6 is indirectly mediated by IL-21 produced by CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dienz, Oliver; Eaton, Sheri M.; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Neveu, Wendy; Moquin, David; Noubade, Rajkumar; Briso, Eva M.; Charland, Colette; Leonard, Warren J.; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Teuscher, Cory; Haynes, Laura; Rincon, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 6 is a proinflammtory cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells and nonhematopoietic cells in response to external stimuli. It was initially identified as a B cell growth factor and inducer of plasma cell differentiation in vitro and plays an important role in antibody production and class switching in vivo. However, it is not clear whether IL-6 directly affects B cells or acts through other mechanisms. We show that IL-6 is sufficient and necessary to induce IL-21 production by naive and memory CD4+ T cells upon T cell receptor stimulation. IL-21 production by CD4+ T cells is required for IL-6 to promote B cell antibody production in vitro. Moreover, administration of IL-6 with inactive influenza virus enhances virus-specific antibody production, and importantly, this effect is dependent on IL-21. Thus, IL-6 promotes antibody production by promoting the B cell helper capabilities of CD4+ T cells through increased IL-21 production. IL-6 could therefore be a potential coadjuvant to enhance humoral immunity. PMID:19139170

  5. The Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Laboratory Animals. The Report and Recommendations of ECVAM Workshop 35.

    PubMed

    Leenaars, P P; Hendriksen, C F; de Leeuw, W A; Carat, F; Delahaut, P; Fischer, R; Halder, M; Hanly, W C; Hartinger, J; Hau, J; Lindblad, E B; Nicklas, W; Outschoorn, I M; Stewart-Tull, D E

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the thirty-fifth of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal test development and validation, and the potential for the possible incorporation of alternative tests into regulatory procedures. It was decided that this would be best achieved by the organisation of ECVAM workshops on specific topics, at which small groups of invited experts would review the current status of various types of in vitro tests and their potential uses, and make recommendations about the best ways forward (1). This joint ECVAM/FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations) workshop on The Immunisation of Laboratory Animals for the Production of Polyclonal Antibodies was held in Utrecht (The Netherlands), on 20-22 March 1998, under the co-chairmanship of Coenraad Hendriksen (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) and Wim de Leeuw (Inspectorate for Health Protection, The Netherlands). The participants, all experts in the fields of immunology, laboratory animal science, or regulation, came from universities, industry and regulatory bodies. The aims of the workshop were: a) to discuss and evaluate current immunisation procedures for the production of polyclonal antibodies (including route of injection, animal species and adjuvant ); and b) to draft recommendations and guidelines to improve the immunisation procedures, with regard both to animal welfare and to the optimisation of immunisation protocols. This report summarises the outcome of the discussions and includes

  6. Effect of Interleukins on Antibody Production by Epstein-Barr Virus Transformed B Cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aisheh I; Badran, Yousef R; Hassuneh, Mona R; Sanber, Khaled S; Ismail, Said I

    2015-06-01

    During the past few decades, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have become an increasingly used tool in diagnostics, therapeutics, and biomedical research. Several methods have been employed to produce MAbs, one of which is the immortalization of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Despite its simplicity, this procedure was never routinely adopted due to its poor efficiency and short-lived antibody (Ab) production. Various adjustments to the basic procedure were introduced, including the addition of certain cytokines and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, which were shown to improve EBV infectivity and cloning efficiency. The objective of this study was to manipulate culture conditions of the EBV-transformed human lymphocytes, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), by the timely addition of stimuli including CpG and various interleukins. Such manipulations are aimed at improving LCL proliferative activity and enhancing the cell lines' immortalization potential as well as their Ab production. To accomplish this, IgG(+) B cells were isolated from peripheral blood of a hepatitis B vaccinated, anti-HB Ab-positive volunteer. These cells were infected with EBV and incubated in the presence of CpG DNA 2006 motifs, recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), rhIL-4, rhIL-6, and rhIL-21, individually and in combinations. Cells were then restimulated for 2 weeks with the same ILs. The effect of these ILs on anti-HB Ab production and the proliferation of the EBV-transformed lymphocytes were investigated. The current study demonstrates that treatment of LCL cultures with rhIL-2, rh-IL4, rhIL-6, and rhIL-21, individually and in combination, increased to varying degrees the proliferative activity and Ab production of these cells. The addition of IL-4 alone was able to sustain increase in anti-HB Ab despite IL-4 withdrawal. This study suggests that with further optimization ILs can have an enhancing effect on LCL immortalization potential and Ab production capacity.

  7. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  8. Production of mono- and polyclonal antibodies to Citrus leprosis virus C2 and their application in triple antibody sandwich ELISA and immunocapture RT-PCR diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Leon, M G; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2017-05-01

    The newly discovered Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2) is one of the causal virus of citrus leprosis disease complex; which leads to substantial loss of citrus production in the states of Meta and Casanare of Colombia. Specific and sensitive detection methods are needed to monitor the dissemination of CiLV-C2 in Colombia, and to prevent introduction of CiLV-C2 to other citrus growing countries. Toward this end, putative coat protein gene (CPG) of CiLV-C2 was amplified from CiLV-C2 infected citrus tissues. The CPG was cloned, expressed and purified a recombinant coat protein of ∼31kDa which used to generate monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. Four monoclonal antibodies and two polyclonal antisera were selected as being specific following Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody MAb E5 and polyclonal antiserum PAb UF715 were selected testing with an extract of CiLV-C2 infected leaves using triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). In addition, an immunocapture RT-PCR was standardized using MAb E5 for specific and sensitive detection of CiLV-C2. The standardized TAS-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR were able to detect CiLV-C2 in the extracts of symptomatic citrus leprosis tissues up to the dilutions of 1:160 and 1:2580, respectively. Result demonstrated that CiLV-C2 is present in citrus orchards in Meta and Casanare citrus growing areas of Colombia. TAS-ELISA could be used for routine detection of CiLV-C2, epidemiological studies, and for border inspections for quarantine purposes. IC-RT-PCR could be valuable for CiLV-C2 validation and viral genome analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mammalian cell culture process for monoclonal antibody production: nonlinear modelling and parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Selişteanu, Dan; Șendrescu, Dorin; Georgeanu, Vlad; Roman, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are at present one of the fastest growing products of pharmaceutical industry, with widespread applications in biochemistry, biology, and medicine. The operation of mAbs production processes is predominantly based on empirical knowledge, the improvements being achieved by using trial-and-error experiments and precedent practices. The nonlinearity of these processes and the absence of suitable instrumentation require an enhanced modelling effort and modern kinetic parameter estimation strategies. The present work is dedicated to nonlinear dynamic modelling and parameter estimation for a mammalian cell culture process used for mAb production. By using a dynamical model of such kind of processes, an optimization-based technique for estimation of kinetic parameters in the model of mammalian cell culture process is developed. The estimation is achieved as a result of minimizing an error function by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The proposed estimation approach is analyzed in this work by using a particular model of mammalian cell culture, as a case study, but is generic for this class of bioprocesses. The presented case study shows that the proposed parameter estimation technique provides a more accurate simulation of the experimentally observed process behaviour than reported in previous studies.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T; Holtz, Barry R; Erwin, Robert L; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A

    Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new "greenfield" biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization.

  11. Techno-economic analysis of a transient plant-based platform for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Somen; Kwong, Aaron T.; Holtz, Barry R.; Erwin, Robert L.; Marcel, Sylvain; McDonald, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant-based biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins is a relatively new platform with a small number of commercial-scale facilities, but offers advantages of linear scalability, reduced upstream complexity, reduced time to market, and potentially lower capital and operating costs. In this study we present a detailed process simulation model for a large-scale new “greenfield” biomanufacturing facility that uses transient agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown hydroponically indoors under light-emitting diode lighting for the production of a monoclonal antibody. The model was used to evaluate the total capital investment, annual operating cost, and cost of goods sold as a function of mAb expression level in the plant (g mAb/kg fresh weight of the plant) and production capacity (kg mAb/year). For the Base Case design scenario (300 kg mAb/year, 1 g mAb/kg fresh weight, and 65% recovery in downstream processing), the model predicts a total capital investment of $122 million dollars and cost of goods sold of $121/g including depreciation. Compared with traditional biomanufacturing platforms that use mammalian cells grown in bioreactors, the model predicts significant reductions in capital investment and >50% reduction in cost of goods compared with published values at similar production scales. The simulation model can be modified or adapted by others to assess the profitability of alternative designs, implement different process assumptions, and help guide process development and optimization. PMID:27559626

  12. Mammalian Cell Culture Process for Monoclonal Antibody Production: Nonlinear Modelling and Parameter Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Selişteanu, Dan; Șendrescu, Dorin; Georgeanu, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are at present one of the fastest growing products of pharmaceutical industry, with widespread applications in biochemistry, biology, and medicine. The operation of mAbs production processes is predominantly based on empirical knowledge, the improvements being achieved by using trial-and-error experiments and precedent practices. The nonlinearity of these processes and the absence of suitable instrumentation require an enhanced modelling effort and modern kinetic parameter estimation strategies. The present work is dedicated to nonlinear dynamic modelling and parameter estimation for a mammalian cell culture process used for mAb production. By using a dynamical model of such kind of processes, an optimization-based technique for estimation of kinetic parameters in the model of mammalian cell culture process is developed. The estimation is achieved as a result of minimizing an error function by a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The proposed estimation approach is analyzed in this work by using a particular model of mammalian cell culture, as a case study, but is generic for this class of bioprocesses. The presented case study shows that the proposed parameter estimation technique provides a more accurate simulation of the experimentally observed process behaviour than reported in previous studies. PMID:25685797

  13. Production and characterization of anti-(mucin MUC1) single-domain antibody in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Xanthi).

    PubMed

    Ismaili, Ahmad; Jalali-Javaran, Mokhtar; Rasaee, Mohammad J; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Forouzandeh-Moghadam, Mehdi; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2007-05-01

    Members of the Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, alpacas, guanacos and vicunas) are known to produce Igs (immunoglobulins) devoid of light chains and CH1s (constant heavy-chain domains). The antigen-specific binding fragments of these heavy-chain antibodies therefore comprise one single domain (the so-called 'VHH') and are of great importance in biotechnological applications. To evaluate the expression and biological activity of sdAbs (single-domain antibodies) in plants, which, on account of their small size and antigen-recognition properties, would have a major impact on antibody-engineering strategies, we constructed a pBI121-VHH gene encoding the recombinant sdAb fragments with specificity for a cancer-associated mucin, MUC1. Analysis of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Xanthi) plants by PCR and Western blotting demonstrated the expression of sdAb, while ELISA results with various MUC1 antigens and immunocytochemistry with cancerous cell lines confirmed that the activity of these molecules compared favourably with that of the parent recombinant antibodies. Protein purification was achieved by using sequential (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, gel filtration and immunoaffinity chromatography. Analysis of the purified VHH by ELISA indicated that the purified antibody fragments were able to react successfully with a MUC1-related peptide. These results reaffirm that the tobacco plant is a suitable host for the production of correctly folded VHH antibody fragments with diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  14. Production and characterization of a new antibody specific for the mutant EGF receptor, EGFRvIII, in Camelus bactrianus.

    PubMed

    Omidfar, K; Rasaee, M J; Modjtahedi, H; Forouzandeh, M; Taghikhani, M; Bakhtiari, A; Paknejad, M; Kashanian, S

    2004-01-01

    EGFRvIII is the type III deletion mutant form of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with transforming activity. This tumor-specific antigen is ligand independent, contains a constitutively active tyrosine kinase domain and has been shown to be present in a number of human malignancies. In this study, we report the production and characterization of camel antibodies that are directed against the external domain of the EGFRvIII. Antibodies developed in camels are smaller (i.e. IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses lack light chains) than any other conventional mammalian antibodies. This property of camel antibodies makes them ideal tools for basic research and other applications such as tumor imaging and cancer therapy. In the present study, camel antibodies were generated by immunization of camelids (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius) with a synthetic 14-amino acid peptide corresponding to the mutated sequence of the EGFR, tissue homogenates of several patients with human glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and aggressive breast carcinoma, as well as EGFR-expressing cell lines. Three subclasses of camel IgG [conventional (IgG1, 160 kD) and heavy chain-only antibodies (IgG2 and IgG3, 90 kD)] were separated by their different binding properties to protein A and protein G affinity columns. The anti-EGFRvIII peptide antibodies from immunized camels were purified further using the EGFRvIII synthetic peptide affinity column. The purified anti-EGFRvIII peptide camel antibodies selectively bound to the EGFRvIII peptide and affinity-purified EGFRvIII from malignant tissues and detected a protein band of 140 kD from malignant tissues by Western blot. Affinity analysis showed that the antibodies from C. bactrianus and C. dromedarius reacted with peptide and antigen purified from a small cell lung cancer ascitic fluid with affinities of 2 x 10(8) and 5 x 10(7)M(-1) to the same extent, respectively. Since the functional antigen-binding domain of the anti-EGFRvIII antibodies in

  15. Low intrathecal antibody production despite high seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus in multiple sclerosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Klemens; Wildemann, Brigitte; Jarius, Sven

    2018-02-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently have an intrathecal production of antibodies to different common viruses, which can be detected by elevated antiviral antibody indices (AIs). There is a strong and consistent association of MS and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To systematically compare the frequencies of intrathecal antibody production to EBV, measles virus, rubella virus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in patients with MS. Review of the English and German literature on the frequencies of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody production, as defined by an elevated AI, to EBV, measles virus, rubella virus, VZV and HSV in adult and pediatric patients with MS. In nine original studies identified, the frequencies of an intrathecal production of antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (33/340, 9.7%), EBV viral capsid antigen (12/279, 4.3%) and antigens from EBV-infected cell lines (14/90, 15.6%) in adult patients with MS were clearly lower (p ≤ 0.03 for all pairwise comparisons) than the frequencies of an intrathecal production of antibodies to measles virus (612/922, 66.4%), rubella virus (521/922, 56.5%), VZV (470/922, 51%; data from 17 original studies) and HSV (78/291, 26.8%; data from 6 original studies). Though based on a lower number of original studies and patients, findings in children with MS were essentially similar. As in adults and children with MS the seroprevalence of EBV is higher than the seroprevalences of the other investigated viruses, the lower frequency of elevated EBV AIs became even more pronounced after correction of the frequencies of elevated antiviral AIs for the seroprevalences of the respective viruses. Given the very high seroprevalence of EBV in MS, the frequency of intrathecally produced antibodies to EBV in patients with MS is paradoxically low compared to that of other common viruses. These findings are compatible with the recently proposed hypothesis that in individuals

  16. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  17. Efficient production of antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Mori, Keita; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takafumi; Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Yuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) IE-1 transactivator and the BmNPV HR3 enhancer for high-level expression. Trichoplusia ni BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five) cells were co-transfected with the resultant plasmid vectors using linear polyethyleneimine. When the transfection efficiency was evaluated, a plasmid vector encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was also co-transfected. Transfection and culture conditions were optimized based on both the flow cytometry of the EGFP expression in transfected cells and the yield of the secreted Fab fragments determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under optimal conditions, a yield of approximately 120 mg/L of Fab fragments was achieved in 5 days in a shake-flask culture. Transient gene expression in insect cells may offer a promising approach to the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  19. Experimental and in silico modelling analyses of the gene expression pathway for recombinant antibody and by-product production in NS0 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Chiverton, Lesley M; Spurgeon, Sarah K; Martin, Elaine B; Montague, Gary A; Smales, C Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway.

  20. The potential mechanism of Bursal-derived BPP-II on the antibody production and avian pre-B cell.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuli; Cao, Ruibing; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Qingtao; Liu, Ke; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yuanpeng; Gu, Jinyan; Miao, Denian; Chen, Puyan

    2013-03-01

    The bursa of Fabricius is critical for the normal development of the B lymphocytes responsible for antibody production. However, the mechanism of the bursal-derived bioactive factor on B cell development is little reported. In this paper, chicks were immunized with BPP-II and AIV vaccine or AIV antigen, and antibody and IL-4 production were detected. The results showed that BPP-II played strongly inducing roles on the humoral immune responses. To investigate the gene expression at transcriptional level, avian pre-B lymphocyte DT40 cells were treated with BPP-II, and were analyzed with the gene microarray. The results proved that BPP-II treatment regulated 11 pathways, in which homologous recombination is a vital mechanism which is involved in antibody Ig gene conversion and diversification during B cell development. These results suggested Bursal-derived biological active factor BPP-II might be involved in the antibody production processes and B cell development, which is vital to the humoral central immune organ, the bursa of Fabricius. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell lines for the production of monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A

    DOEpatents

    Bigbee, William L.; Fong, Stella S. N.; Jensen, Ronald H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Langlois, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A. These antibodies have potential application as human blood group reagents, as markers for terminally differentiated erythroid cells and as immunofluorescent labels of somatically variant human erythrocytes.

  2. Method and cell lines for the production of monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A

    DOEpatents

    Bigbee, W.L.; Fong, S.S.N.; Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A. These antibodies have potential application as human blood group reagents, as markers for terminally differentiated erythroid cells and as immunofluorescent labels of somatically variant human erythrocytes.

  3. Method of rapid production of hybridomas expressing monoclonal antibodies on the cell surface

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Laterza, Vince

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells. The invention also relates to utilizing genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells in methods of making monoclonal antibodies. The present invention also provides populations of hybridomas and B cells that can be utilized to make a monoclonal antibody of interest.

  4. Antibody-Mediated Activation of FGFR1 Induces FGF23 Production and Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Wyatt, Shelby K.; Gandham, Vineela D.; Carano, Richard A. D.; Sonoda, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    The phosphaturic hormone Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 (FGF23) controls phosphate homeostasis by regulating renal expression of sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters and cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in vitamin D catabolism. Multiple FGF Receptors (FGFRs) can act as receptors for FGF23 when bound by the co-receptor Klotho expressed in the renal tubular epithelium. FGFRs also regulate skeletal FGF23 secretion; ectopic FGFR activation is implicated in genetic conditions associated with FGF23 overproduction and hypophosphatemia. The identity of FGFRs that mediate the activity of FGF23 or that regulate skeletal FGF23 secretion remains ill defined. Here we report that pharmacological activation of FGFR1 with monoclonal anti-FGFR1 antibodies (R1MAb) in adult mice is sufficient to cause an elevation in serum FGF23 and mild hypophosphatemia. In cultured rat calvariae osteoblasts, R1MAb induces FGF23 mRNA expression and FGF23 protein secretion into the culture medium. In a cultured kidney epithelial cell line, R1MAb acts as a functional FGF23 mimetic and activates the FGF23 program. siRNA-mediated Fgfr1 knockdown induced the opposite effects. Taken together, our work reveals the central role of FGFR1 in the regulation of FGF23 production and signal transduction, and has implications in the pathogenesis of FGF23-related hypophosphatemic disorders. PMID:23451204

  5. Predictive control of hollow-fiber bioreactors for the production of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Dowd, J E; Weber, I; Rodriguez, B; Piret, J M; Kwok, K E

    1999-05-20

    The selection of medium feed rates for perfusion bioreactors represents a challenge for process optimization, particularly in bioreactors that are sampled infrequently. When the present and immediate future of a bioprocess can be adequately described, predictive control can minimize deviations from set points in a manner that can maximize process consistency. Predictive control of perfusion hollow-fiber bioreactors was investigated in a series of hybridoma cell cultures that compared operator control to computer estimation of feed rates. Adaptive software routines were developed to estimate the current and predict the future glucose uptake and lactate production of the bioprocess at each sampling interval. The current and future glucose uptake rates were used to select the perfusion feed rate in a designed response to deviations from the set point values. The routines presented a graphical user interface through which the operator was able to view the up-to-date culture performance and assess the model description of the immediate future culture performance. In addition, fewer samples were taken in the computer-estimated cultures, reducing labor and analytical expense. The use of these predictive controller routines and the graphical user interface decreased the glucose and lactate concentration variances up to sevenfold, and antibody yields increased by 10% to 43%. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. The effect of single large dose hydrocortisone treatment on IgM and IgG antibody production, morphological distribution of antibody producing cells and immunological memory

    PubMed Central

    Petrányi, Gy.; Benczúr, M.; Alföldy, P.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of a single subcutaneous dose of hydrocortisone (730 mg/kg ∼ 21-day LD50) on the haemolysin response of mice to sheep erythrocyte antigen was examined. Hydrocortisone was administered once at times varying from 5 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes to 9 days after antigen. Total suppression of the 7S haemolysin titre was brought about by treatment with single dose of 750 mg/kg in the period 5 days prior to antigen until 2 days after antigen; at the same time, the titre of 19S haemolysin exceeded the control 19S titre. Microplaque assay on the 5th day failed to confirm total suppression of 7S antibody synthesis, as 4 per cent of the splenic plaque-forming cells produced 7S. The same assay failed to verify the augmentation of 19S production on a cellular level, as the number of 19S plaque-forming was significantly decreased. Hydrocortisone could be shown to influence the morphology of the 19S antibody producing cells by increasing the percentage of mature cell types. A selective depressing activity by hydrocortisone on 7S memory was found. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:4934137

  7. Contribution of antibody production against neuraminidase to the protection afforded by influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Glendie; Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Webby, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vaccines are instrumental in controlling the burden of influenza virus infection in humans and animals. Antibodies raised against both major viral surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), can contribute to protective immunity. Vaccine-induced HA antibodies have been characterized extensively, and they generally confer protection by blocking the attachment and fusion of a homologous virus onto host cells. Though not as well characterized, some functions of NA antibodies in influenza vaccine-mediated immunity have been recognized for many years. In this review we summarize the case for NA antibodies in influenza vaccine-mediated immunity. In the absence of well-matched HA antibodies, NA antibodies can provide varying degrees of protection against disease. NA proteins of seasonal influenza vaccines have been shown in some instances to elicit serum antibodies with cross-reactivity to avian- and swine-origin influenza strains, in addition to HA drift variants. NA-mediated immunity has been linked to [i] conserved NA epitopes amongst otherwise antigenically distinct strains, partly attributable to the segmented influenza viral genome; [ii] inhibition of NA enzymatic activity; and [iii] the NA content in vaccine formulations. There is potential to enhance the effectiveness of existing and future influenza vaccines by focusing greater attention on the antigenic characteristics and potency of the NA protein. PMID:22438243

  8. Constitutive production of catalytic antibodies to a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor and effect of infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric L; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Dunkle, Jesse W; Aggarwal, Shreya; Planque, Stephanie; Watanabe, Kenji; Csencsits-Smith, Keri; Bowden, M Gabriela; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Paul, Sudhir

    2012-03-23

    Antibodies that recognize microbial B lymphocyte superantigenic epitopes are produced constitutively with no requirement for adaptive immune maturation. We report cleavage of the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) by catalytic antibodies produced with no exposure to the bacterium and reduction of the catalytic antibody activity following infection. IgG catalytic antibodies that specifically hydrolyzed Efb via a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism were found in the blood of healthy humans and aseptic mice free of S. aureus infection. IgG hydrolyzed peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of basic amino acids, including a bond located within the C3b-binding domain of Efb. Efb digested with the IgG lost its ability to bind C3b and inhibit complement-dependent antibody-mediated red blood cell lysis. In addition to catalysis, the IgG expressed saturable Efb binding activity. IgG from S. aureus-infected mice displayed reduced Efb cleaving activity and increased Efb binding activity compared with uninfected controls, suggesting differing effects of the infection on the antibody subsets responsible for the two activities. IgG from children hospitalized for S. aureus infection also displayed reduced Efb cleavage compared with healthy children. These data suggest a potential defense function for constitutively produced catalytic antibodies to a putative superantigenic site of Efb, but an adaptive catalytic response appears to be proscribed.

  9. Ontogeny of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody production in HIV-1-infected infants.

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, H; Zhan, M X; Ilmet-Moore, T; Ajuang-Simbiri, K; Krasinski, K; Borkowsky, W

    1993-01-01

    The early serologic response of infants to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is normally obscured by the presence of transplacentally acquired maternal HIV antibody. By measuring HIV antibody produced in vitro by lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of infants and children of HIV-1-infected mothers, we have been able to study the natural acquisition of humoral immunity to perinatal HIV-1 infection. One hundred ninety-seven infants of HIV-1-infected women were studied prospectively and longitudinally from birth. In the neonatal period, infected infants produced only small amounts of HIV-specific IgG antibodies to a restricted number of antigens. The amount of immunoglobulin to HIV-1 and the number of HIV-1 antigens recognized increased with age. After 6 months of life 85% of infected infants made detectable antibody to two or more viral proteins. Antibody to gp160 appeared first and was the most frequently found at all ages, followed by antibody to the envelope proteins gp120 and gp41. The amount of HIV antibody produced correlated positively with the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood. This assay provides a method of studying the immunogenicity of vaccines against HIV-1 in HIV-1-infected infants and of assessing the effect of early therapeutic interventions on the humoral response to HIV-1. PMID:8460144

  10. Gravidity-Dependent Production of Antibodies That Inhibit Binding of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes to Placental Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil-Dunne, Iona; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Agbor-Enoh, Sean T.; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Zhou, Ainong; Megnekou, Rosette; Leke, Rose; Taylor, Diane W.; Gowda, D. Channe

    2001-01-01

    During pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate, creating a risk factor for both the mother and the fetus. The primigravidae are at higher risk for placental malaria than the multigravidae. This difference in susceptibility has been attributed to the lack of antibodies that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin 4-sulfate in primigravid women. However, recent results show that many primigravidae at term have antibody levels similar to those of multigravidae, and thus the significance of antiadhesion antibodies in providing protection against malaria during pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed plasma samples from women of various gravidities at different gestational stages for antiadhesion antibodies. The majority of women, regardless of gravidity, had similar levels of antibodies at term. Most primigravidae had low levels of or no antiadhesion antibodies prior to ∼20 weeks of pregnancy and then produced antibodies. Multigravidae also lacked antibodies until ∼12 weeks of pregnancy, but thereafter they efficiently produced antibodies. In pregnant women who had placental infection at term, higher levels of antiadhesion antibodies correlated with lower levels of placental parasitemia. The difference in kinetics of antibody production between primigravidae and multigravidae correlated with the prevalence of malaria in these groups, suggesting that antibodies are produced during pregnancy in response to placental infection. The early onset of efficient antibody response in multigravidae and the delayed production to antibodies in primigravidae appear to account for the gravidity-dependent differential susceptibilities of pregnant women to placental malaria. PMID:11705924

  11. Recombinant antibody production by perfusion cultures of rCHO cells in a depth filter perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Chul; Chang, Ho Nam; Oh, Duk Jae

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells, producing recombinant antibody against the human platelet, were cultivated in a depth filter perfusion system (DFPS). When perfusion cultures with working volume of 1 L were operated at perfusion rates of 5/d and 6/d, volumetric antibody productivities reached values 28 and 34 times higher than that of batch suspension culture in Erlenmeyer flasks and 43 and 53 times higher than that of batch culture in a controlled stirred tank reactor, respectively. Perfusion cultures in the DFPS showed stable antibody production over the whole culture period of up to 20 days. In the DFPS, inoculated cells in suspension were entrapped in a few hours within the depth filter matrix by medium circulation and retained there until the void space of the filter matrix was saturated by the cultured cells. After cells in the depth filter matrix reached saturation, overgrown viable cells at a perfusion rate of 5/d or 6/d were continuously collected into waste medium at a density of 2-4 x 10(5) cells/mL, which resulted in stable operation at high perfusion rates, maintaining values of process parameters such as glucose/lactate concentration, pH, and dissolved oxygen concentration. Because the DFPS overcomes most drawbacks observed with conventional perfusion systems, it is preferable to be used as a key culture system to produce monoclonal antibody stably for a long culture period.

  12. Adjuvant activity of diesel-exhaust particulates for the production of IgE antibody in mice.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, M; Suzuki, S; Koizumi, K; Takafuji, S; Miyamoto, T; Ikemori, R; Tokiwa, H

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence rate of allergic rhinitis caused by pollen has strikingly increased in Japan in the last three decades. The number of diesel cars in use has also rapidly increased in the country. This fact urged us to study the effects of particulates emitted from diesel cars on the production of IgE antibody. The primary IgE antibody responses in mice immunized with intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OA) mixed with diesel-exhaust particulates (DEP) were higher than those in the animals immunized with OA alone. This effect of DEP on the production of IgE antibody in mice was also demonstrated when mice were immunized with repeated injections of dinitrophenylated-OA. In addition, persistent IgE-antibody response to major allergen of Japanese cedar pollen (JCPA), a most common pollen causing allergic rhinitis in Japan, was observed in mice immunized with JCPA mixed with DEP but not in the animals immunized with JCPA alone. The results do indicate that the adjuvant activity of DEP can not be excluded as a possible cause of the associated change in the number of diesel cars and allergic rhinitis caused by pollen in Japan.

  13. Productivity and some properties of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against human rotavirus compared with rabbit IgG.

    PubMed

    Hatta, H; Tsuda, K; Akachi, S; Kim, M; Yamamoto, T

    1993-03-01

    Productivity and some properties of anti-Human Rotavirus (HRV) hen egg yolk antibody (IgY) were compared with those of anti-HRV rabbit serum antibody (IgG). The hens immunized with HRV (Wa strain, serotype 1 and Mo strain, serotype 3) were found to continuously to lay eggs without any change in the egg laying rate and the yolk of the eggs laid over a year showed a high level of neutralization titer against HRV. The production of anti-HRV IgY by a hen (one year) was at least 15 times (anti-Wa) and 120 times (anti-Mo) more effective than those by an immunized rabbit in the neutralization titer of the antibodies. The stability of anti-HRV IgY at temperature above 70 degrees C and low pH 2-3 was less than that of anti-HRV rabbit IgG. The temperature corresponding to the maximum of denaturation endotherm (Tmax) of IgY was 73.9 degrees C while that of rabbit IgG was 77.0 degrees C in the analysis by differential scanning calorimetry. This discrepancy in heat and acidic pH stability found between the two antibodies as discussed with regard to their protein structures.

  14. Interleukin 6 Influences Germinal Center Development and Antibody Production via a Contribution of C3 Complement Component

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Manfred; Herren, Suzanne; Wiles, Michael V.; Pepys, Mark B.; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie H.

    1998-01-01

    Mice rendered deficient for interleukin (IL) 6 by gene targeting were evaluated for their response to T cell–dependent antigens. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M levels were unaffected whereas all IgG isotypes showed varying degrees of alteration. Germinal center reactions occurred but remained physically smaller in comparison to those in the wild-type mice. This concurred with the observations that molecules involved in initial signaling events leading to germinal center formation were not altered (e.g., B7.2, CD40 and tumor necrosis factor R1). T cell priming was not impaired nor was a gross imbalance of T helper cell (Th) 1 versus Th2 cytokines observed. However, B7.1 molecules, absent from wild-type counterparts, were detected on germinal center B cells isolated from the deficient mice suggesting a modification of costimulatory signaling. A second alteration involved impaired de novo synthesis of C3 both in serum and germinal center cells from IL-6–deficient mice. Indeed, C3 provided an essential stimulatory signal for wild-type germinal center cells as both monoclonal antibodies that interrupted C3-CD21 interactions and sheep anti–mouse C3 antibodies caused a significant decrease in antigen-specific antibody production. In addition, germinal center cells isolated from C3–deficient mice produced a similar defect in isotype production. Low density cells with dendritic morphology were the local source of IL-6 and not the germinal center lymphocytes. Adding IL-6 in vitro to IL-6–deficient germinal center cells stimulated cell cycle progression and increased levels of antibody production. These findings reveal that the germinal center produces and uses molecules of the innate immune system, evolutionarily pirating them in order to optimally generate high affinity antibody responses. PMID:9815267

  15. Effects of passage number on growth and productivity of hybridoma secreting MRSA anti-PBP2a monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Arthur Luiz; Senna, José Procópio Moreno; de Sousa, Álvaro Paiva Braga

    2016-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are high added value glycoproteins recommended for immunotherapy, diagnosis, and also for the treatment of bacterial infections resistant to multiple drugs such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In addition to environmental conditions related to cell cultures, the intrinsic characteristics of hybridoma cells, like the secretion stability of monoclonal antibodies by the cells through successive subcultures, are relevant for the characterization of cell lines related to the productivity of mAb. The rate of mAb production differs significantly between different cell lines and different passage numbers, and it is an important variable in characterization of cell lines. In order to find a more robust, faster-growing, and higher-productivity cell line of hybridoma, cultivations in 24-well plates were performed in different subculture periods, or cell passages (P), of hybridoma cells producing MRSA anti-PBP2a monoclonal antibodies [MRSA-antiPBP2a (mAb)]. The objective of this study was to study the effects of cell growth and production of MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb secreted by murine hybridoma cells grown in different passages as well as determine the which passages the hybridomas can be cultivated without harming their growth and productivity. So, cell growth profiles of hybridomas secreting MRSA-antiPBP2a (mAb) and the production of MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb in different subculture periods or cell passages (P) were studied. Cell growth tests, monoclonal antibody productivity, and metabolite characteristics revealed substantial differences in those cells kept between P10 and P50. Similarities in the secretion of monoclonal antibody, growth, and metabolic profiles, were noted in the MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb producing hybridoma cells kept between P10 and P20. Also, glucose consumption (g/L) and lactate production (g/L) in the latter cell cultures were monitored daily through biochemical analyzer. As of P30, it was observed a 4.4 times reduction

  16. Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in milk samples: relationships with herd management and milk production parameters in two Mediterranean production systems of Spain.

    PubMed

    Almería, S; Adelantado, C; Charlier, J; Claerebout, E; Bach, A

    2009-12-01

    The present study analyzed Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies by indirect ELISA in milk samples in two cattle systems in Mediterranean Spain to indirectly monitor gastrointestinal nematode (GI) parasitism effects on production. Individual samples from 10 animals and the corresponding milk herd samples were collected from 133 herds in Girona (intensive management) and 123 herds in Minorca (extensive management). Both locations showed high and significant positive relationships between average optical density ratios (ODR) of individual animals and ODR in their milk tank. Although antibodies levels were low, there were significantly higher in Minorca. Negative correlations between ODR values and milk production were found in both systems. Importantly, in Minorca, average herd milk production was higher in the herds that treated their animals against GI nematodes compared to those that did not treat. The ELISA technique was valuable to indirectly assess differences in the level of GI nematode infection even in cattle production systems with low levels of infection.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies to human glycophorin A and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Bigbee, William L.; Jensen, Ronald H.; Fong, Stella S. N.; Langlois, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Cloned mouse hybridoma cell lines have been established which continuously produce antibodies that are highly specific to and exhibit high affinity for glycophorin A.sup.N and differentiate between the M and N forms of human glycophorin A.

  18. Dabigatran abrogates brain endothelial cell permeability in response to thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Brian Thomas; Gu, Yu-Huan; Izawa, Yoshikane; del Zoppo, Gregory John

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk and severity of thromboembolic stroke. Generally, antithrombotic agents increase the hemorrhagic risk of thromboembolic stroke. However, significant reductions in thromboembolism and intracerebral hemorrhage have been shown with the antithrombin dabigatran compared with warfarin. As thrombin has been implicated in microvessel injury during cerebral ischemia, we hypothesized that dabigatran decreases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage by direct inhibition of the thrombin-mediated increase in cerebral endothelial cell permeability. Primary murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs) were exposed to murine thrombin before measuring permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Thrombin increased mBEC permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, without significant endothelial cell death. Pretreatment of mBECs with dabigatran completely abrogated the effect of thrombin on permeability. Neither the expressions of the endothelial cell β1-integrins nor the tight junction protein claudin-5 were affected by thrombin exposure. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) also increased permeability; this effect was abrogated by treatment with dabigatran, as was the additive effect of thrombin and OGD on permeability. Taken together, these results indicate that dabigatran could contribute to a lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage during embolism-associated ischemia from AF by protection of the microvessel permeability barrier from local thrombin challenge. PMID:25669912

  19. Can microbiota transplantation abrogate murine colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni?

    PubMed

    Heimesaat, M M; Plickert, R; Fischer, A; Göbel, U B; Bereswill, S

    2013-03-01

    Enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni represents an important socioeconomic burden worldwide. The host-specific intestinal microbiota is essential for maintaining colonization resistance (CR) against C. jejuni in conventional mice. Notably, CR is abrogated by shifts of the intestinal microbiota towards overgrowth with commensal E. coli during acute ileitis. Thus, we investigated whether oral transplantation (TX) of ileal microbiota derived from C. jejuni susceptible mice with acute ileitis overcomes CR of healthy conventional animals. Four days following ileitis microbiota TX or ileitis induction and right before C. jejuni infection, mice displayed comparable loads of main intestinal bacterial groups as shown by culture. Eight days following ileitis induction, but not ileal microbiota TX, however, C. jejuni could readily colonize the gastrointestinal tract of conventional mice and also translocate to extra-intestinal tissue sites such as mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and blood within 4 days following oral infection. Of note, C. jejuni did not further deteriorate histopathology following ileitis induction. Lack of C. jejuni colonization in TX mice was accompanied by a decrease of commensal E. coli loads in the feces 4 days following C. jejuni infection. In summary, oral ileal microbiota TX from susceptible donors is not sufficient to abrogate murine CR against C. jejuni.

  20. Production of antibody labeled gold nanoparticles for influenza virus H5N1 diagnosis kit development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Van Dong; Hoang, Ha; Hoang Phan, Trong; Conrad, Udo; Chu, Hoang Ha

    2012-12-01

    Preparation of colloidal gold conjugated antibodies specific for influenza A/H5N1 and its use in developing a virus A/H5N1 rapid diagnostic kit is presented. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared through citrate reduction. Single chain antibodies specific to H5N1 (scFv7 and scFv24) were produced using pTI2 + vector and E. coli strain HB2151. These antibodies were purified by affinity chromatography technique employing HiTrap Chelating HP columns pre-charged with Ni2 + . The method for preparation of antibody-colloidal gold conjugate was based on electrostatic force binding antibody with colloidal gold. The effect of factors such as pH and concentration of antibody has been quantitatively analyzed using spectroscopic methods after adding 1 wt% NaCl which induced AuNP aggregation. The morphological study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the average size of the spherical AuNPs was 23 nm with uniform sizes. The spectroscopic properties of colloidal AuNPs showed the typical surface plasmon resonance band at 523 nm in UV-visible spectrum. The optimal pH of conjugated colloidal gold was found between 8.0 and 10.0. The activity of synthesized antibody labeled AuNPs for detection of H5N1 flu virus was checked by dot blot immunological method. The results confirmed the ability in detection of the A/H5N1 virus of the prepared antibody labeled gold particles and opened up the possibility of using them in manufacturing rapid detection kit for this virus.

  1. Production of a novel camel single-domain antibody specific for the type III mutant EGFR.

    PubMed

    Omidfar, K; Rasaee, M J; Modjtahedi, H; Forouzandeh, M; Taghikhani, M; Golmakani, N

    2004-01-01

    Camelids have a unique immune system capable of producing single-domain heavy-chain antibodies. The antigen-specific domain of these heavy-chain IgGs (VHH) are the smallest binding units produced by the immune system. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of several binders against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) vIII retrieved from immune library of camels (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius). The EGFRvIII is a ligand-independent, constitutively active, mutated form of the wild-type EGFR. The expression of EGFRvIII has been demonstrated in a wide range of human malignancies, including gliomas, and breast, prostate, ovarian and lung cancer. Camels were immunized with a synthetic peptide corresponding to a mutated sequence and tissue homogenates. Single-domain antibodies (VHH) were directly selected by panning a phage display library on successively decreasing amounts of synthetic peptide immobilized on magnetic beads. The anti-EGFRvIII camel single-domain antibodies selectively bound to the EGFRvIII peptide and reacted specifically with the immunoaffinity-purified antigen from a non-small cell lung cancer patient. These antibodies with affinities in the nanomolar range recognized the EGFRvIII peptide and affinity-purified mutated receptor. We concluded that using the phage display technique, antigen-specific VHH antibody fragments are readily accessible from the camelids. These antibodies may be good candidates for tumor-diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Antibody engineering reveals the important role of J segments in the production efficiency of llama single-domain antibodies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gorlani, A; Hulsik, D Lutje; Adams, H; Vriend, G; Hermans, P; Verrips, T

    2012-01-01

    Variable domains of llama heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) are becoming a potent tool for a wide range of biotechnological and medical applications. Because of structural features typical of their single-domain nature, they are relatively easy to produce in lower eukaryotes, but it is not uncommon that some molecules have poor secretion efficiency. We therefore set out to study the production yield of VHH. We computationally identified five key residues that are crucial for folding and secretion, and we validated their importance with systematic site-directed mutations. The observation that all key residues were localised in the V segment, in proximity of the J segment of VHH, led us to study the importance of J segment in secretion efficiency. Intriguingly, we found that the use of specific J segments in VHH could strongly influence the production yield. Sequence analysis and expression experiments strongly suggested that interactions with chaperones, especially with the J segment, are a crucial aspect of the production yield of VHH.

  3. Opsonophagocytic Antibodies to Serotype Ia, Ib, and III Group B Streptococcus among Korean Infants and in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Ji Hyen; Cho, Hye Kyung; Lee, Hyunju; Seo, Ho Seong; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2017-05-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis among infants, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Protection against GBS typically involves antibody-mediated opsonization by phagocytes and complement components. The present study evaluated serotype-specific functional antibodies to GBS among Korean infants and in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products. An opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) was used to calculate the opsonization indices (OIs) of functional antibodies to serotypes Ia, Ib, and III in 19 IVIG products from 5 international manufacturers and among 98 Korean infants (age: 0-11 months). The GBS Ia, Ib, and III serotypes were selected because they are included in a trivalent GBS vaccine formulation that is being developed. The OI values for the IVIG products were 635-5,706 (serotype Ia), 488-1,421 (serotype Ib), and 962-3,315 (serotype III), and none of the IVIG lots exhibited undetectable OI values (< 4). The geometric mean OI values were similar for all 3 serotypes when we compared the Korean manufacturers. The seropositive rate among infants was significantly lower for serotype Ia (18.4%), compared to serotype Ib and serotype III (both, 38.8%). Infant age of ≥ 3 months was positively correlated with the seropositive rates for each serotype. Therefore, only a limited proportion of infants exhibited protective immunity against serotype Ia, Ib, and III GBS infections. IVIG products that exhibit high antibody titers may be a useful therapeutic or preventive measure for infants. Further studies are needed to evaluate additional serotypes and age groups. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. Opsonophagocytic Antibodies to Serotype Ia, Ib, and III Group B Streptococcus among Korean Infants and in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis among infants, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Protection against GBS typically involves antibody-mediated opsonization by phagocytes and complement components. The present study evaluated serotype-specific functional antibodies to GBS among Korean infants and in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products. An opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) was used to calculate the opsonization indices (OIs) of functional antibodies to serotypes Ia, Ib, and III in 19 IVIG products from 5 international manufacturers and among 98 Korean infants (age: 0–11 months). The GBS Ia, Ib, and III serotypes were selected because they are included in a trivalent GBS vaccine formulation that is being developed. The OI values for the IVIG products were 635–5,706 (serotype Ia), 488–1,421 (serotype Ib), and 962–3,315 (serotype III), and none of the IVIG lots exhibited undetectable OI values (< 4). The geometric mean OI values were similar for all 3 serotypes when we compared the Korean manufacturers. The seropositive rate among infants was significantly lower for serotype Ia (18.4%), compared to serotype Ib and serotype III (both, 38.8%). Infant age of ≥ 3 months was positively correlated with the seropositive rates for each serotype. Therefore, only a limited proportion of infants exhibited protective immunity against serotype Ia, Ib, and III GBS infections. IVIG products that exhibit high antibody titers may be a useful therapeutic or preventive measure for infants. Further studies are needed to evaluate additional serotypes and age groups. PMID:28378545

  5. [Detection and the production mechanism of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal tpe 1 antibodies (anti-LKM1) in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li; Lu, Hai-Ying; Feng, Zhen-Ru; Yu, Min; Li, Wen-Gang; Gong, Wei-Bo; Zhao, Nu-en-ji-ya; Xu, Xiao-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-liver/ kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (anti-LKM1) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC)and to explore the mechanism of production of these autoantibodies. Serum samples were collected from 360 patients with CHC (case group), 69 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 69 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) (control group). Serum ANA and anti-LKM1 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (HF) technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Multi-factor analysis was performed to explore the correlations of the production of autoantibodies with some factors such as age, sex, viral loads, HCV genotype, biochemical parameters and clinical characteristics. Fifty-four (15%) of 360 patients infected with HCV were positive in autoantibodies. The prevalence of ANA and anti-LKM1 were 12.5% (45/360) and 2.5% (9/ 360), respectively. The positive rate of autoantibodies in patients with CHC was significantly higher than that in patients with CHB (15% vs 2.9%, P = 0.006), but significantly lower than that in patients with AIH (15% vs 47.9%, P < 0.001). Twenty-one (11.35%) of 185 male patients and 33 (18.86%) of 175 female patients were positive in autoantibodies, the difference in positive rate was significant (P < 0.05). HCV virus loads in the autoantibodies negative group were higher than that in the autoantibodies positive group (7.2 x 10(7) copies/L vs 1.23 x 10(7) copies/L, P < 0.05). There were not significant differences in age and genotype between the autoantibody positive group and the autoantibody negative group. The serum biochemical parameters of the autoantibody positive group were similar to those of the autoantibody negative group. The differences were not significant for the course of disease, clinical symptom, the incidence of cirrhosis between the autoantibody positive group and the autoantibody negative group. The prevalence of autoantibodies was

  6. Benchmarking B-Cell Epitope Prediction with Quantitative Dose-Response Data on Antipeptide Antibodies: Towards Novel Pharmaceutical Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C.

    2014-01-01

    B-cell epitope prediction can enable novel pharmaceutical product development. However, a mechanistically framed consensus has yet to emerge on benchmarking such prediction, thus presenting an opportunity to establish standards of practice that circumvent epistemic inconsistencies of casting the epitope prediction task as a binary-classification problem. As an alternative to conventional dichotomous qualitative benchmark data, quantitative dose-response data on antibody-mediated biological effects are more meaningful from an information-theoretic perspective in the sense that such effects may be expressed as probabilities (e.g., of functional inhibition by antibody) for which the Shannon information entropy (SIE) can be evaluated as a measure of informativeness. Accordingly, half-maximal biological effects (e.g., at median inhibitory concentrations of antibody) correspond to maximally informative data while undetectable and maximal biological effects correspond to minimally informative data. This applies to benchmarking B-cell epitope prediction for the design of peptide-based immunogens that elicit antipeptide antibodies with functionally relevant cross-reactivity. Presently, the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) contains relatively few quantitative dose-response data on such cross-reactivity. Only a small fraction of these IEDB data is maximally informative, and many more of them are minimally informative (i.e., with zero SIE). Nevertheless, the numerous qualitative data in IEDB suggest how to overcome the paucity of informative benchmark data. PMID:24949474

  7. Production of anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody using synthetic peptide of human CD14 as immunizing antigen.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Leili Aghebati; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Majidi, Jafar; Yusefi, Mehdi; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Orangi, Mona; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    CD14 is a myeloid differentiation antigen expressed primarily on peripheral blood monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages. It is a key regulator of inflammatory responses to gram-negative bacteria, oxidative burst and septic shock. The aim of this study was to produce and characterize monoclonal antibody against CD14 for use in detection and diagnosis of monocytes. To produce MAb against CD14 protein, mice were immunized with two KLH-conjugated CD14 peptides. The spleen cells of the immunized mice were then fused with SP2/0 by hybridoma technique. Fused cells were grown in selective medium and cloned by limiting dilution method. The desired clones were selected and supernatants of hybridoma cells were screened by ELISA for antibody. Monoclonal antibody was purified by chromatography and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Finally, immunoblotting and flowcytometry were recruited to explore the specificity of the MAb. Our results showed successful production and characterization of anti CD14 monoclonal antibody. The MAb was IgG2a with Kappa light chain and immunobloting and flowcytometry results demonstrated specific reactivity of this MAb with CD14. The results show that, the produced anti- CD14 MAb is highly specific and functional in biomedical applications such as flow cytometry and western blotting and could be utilized for identification of monocytes.

  8. Production of a Recombinant Antibody Specific for i Blood Group Antigen, a Mesenchymal Stem Cell Marker

    PubMed Central

    Suila, Heli; Tiitinen, Sari; Natunen, Suvi; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Kotovuori, Annika; Reinman, Mirka; Satomaa, Tero; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara; Takkinen, Kristiina; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valmu, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) offer great promise for future regenerative and anti-inflammatory therapies. Panels of functional and phenotypical markers are currently used in characterization of different therapeutic stem cell populations from various sources. The i antigen (linear poly-N-acetyllactosamine) from the Ii blood group system has been suggested as a marker for MSCs derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB). However, there are currently no commercially available antibodies recognizing the i antigen. In the present study, we describe the use of antibody phage display technology to produce recombinant antibodies recognizing a structure from the surface of mesenchymal stem cells. We constructed IgM phage display libraries from the lymphocytes of a donor with an elevated serum anti-i titer. Antibody phage display technology is not dependent on immunization and thus allows the generation of antibodies against poorly immunogenic molecules, such as carbohydrates. Agglutination assays utilizing i antigen–positive red blood cells (RBCs) from UCB revealed six promising single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies, three of which recognized epitopes from the surface of UCB-MSCs in flow cytometric assays. The amino acid sequence of the VH gene segment of B12.2 scFv was highly similar to the VH4.21 gene segment required to encode anti-i specificities. Further characterization of binding properties revealed that the binding of B12.2 hyperphage was inhibited by soluble linear lactosamine oligosaccharide. Based on these findings, we suggest that the B12.2 scFv we have generated is a prominent anti-i antibody that recognizes i antigen on the surface of both UCB-MSCs and RBCs. This binder can thus be utilized in UCB-MSC detection and isolation as well as in blood group serology. PMID:24083089

  9. Continuous production of monoclonal antibody in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Golmakany, Naghmeh; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Furouzandeh, Mehdi; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Kashanian, Soheila; Omidfar, Kobra

    2005-06-01

    In the present study the growth and MAb (monoclonal antibody) production of a mouse x mouse hybridoma cell producing anti-digoxin MAb was evaluated. The hybridoma cells entrapped within the support matrix Fibra-Cel were cultured in batch and continuous mode following special protocols. Cell-culture studies were performed in a 1-litre spinner basket containing 3 g.litre-1 support matrix. Batch culture was operated with the cell density of 42x10(6) cells. During the 7 days of culture, the medium was sampled daily in order to assess glucose and MAb concentrations and the lactate dehydrogenase released into the culture medium. After a culture period of 72 h, the cell density and MAb concentration were found to be 10.4x10(7) cells/3 g of NWPF (non-woven polyester fibre) discs and 250 microg/ml respectively. This yield gradually decreased to 0.55x10(6) cells/3 g of packaging material and 60 microg/ml respectively at the end of the batch culture. In the continuous-culture studies, the batch culture was initially operated for 64.5 h and then continuous flow was started at the dilution rates of 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 day-1 and finally stabilized at 0.25 day-1 within 288 h (12 days). The MAb concentration at steady state was found to be 116-120 microg/day per ml, and the yield of operation was 62.5 mg/day per ml, which was 3.5 times higher than that of batch culture. In conclusion, a packed-bed bioreactor with the support matrix Fibra-Cel, operated in continuous-feeding mode, is more efficient for large-scale MAb production than a batch culture. On the other hand, by using a continuous-culture system, a better supply of nutrients and removal of inhibitory metabolites and proteolytic enzymes was obtained.

  10. Screening for epitope specificity directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production by an ELISA with biotin-labeled antigen.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ditte C; Jensen, Charlotte H; Gregersen, Annemette; Brandt, Jette; Kliem, Anette; Skjødt, Karsten; Koch, Claus; Teisner, Børge

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an assay for comparison of epitope specificity in groups of monoclonal antibodies against a given antigen. The only prerequisite is the biotin-labeled antigen. One of the monoclonal antibodies is captured onto a plastic surface via a rabbit anti-mouse Ig, and the other preincubated with biotinylated antigen. When the two antibodies react with the same epitope subsequent binding of the biotin-labeled antigen is abolished (inhibition). In the cases where no inhibition was observed, the two antibodies were considered to react with distinct, independent epitopes. The obvious advantages using this assay, are that it can be performed directly on culture supernatants in the early phase of monoclonal antibody production, and also works for antigens with repetitive epitopes. Moreover, the bonus effect, i.e., a signal in excess of the reference signal when sets of monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificity are compared, gives a relative measure of affinity.

  11. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Sorafenib through Abrogation of CREB and c-Jun Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulwon; Lee, Jong Hyun; Baek, Seung Ho; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Nam, Dongwoo; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2017-07-01

    Although application of sorafenib in the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains one of the best examples of successful targeted therapy, majority of RCC patients suffer from its side effects as well as develop resistance to this targeted therapy. Thus, there is a need to promote novel alternative therapies for the treatment of RCC. In this study, we investigated whether Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) could inhibit the proliferation and induce chemosensitization in human renal cancer cells. Also, we used a human phospho-antibody array containing 46 antibodies against signaling molecules to examine a subset of phosphorylation events after KRGE and sorafenib combination treatment. Korean red ginseng extract suppressed the proliferation of two RCC cell lines; activated caspase-3; caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage; abrogated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma extra large, survivin, inhibitors of apoptosis proteins-1/2, cyclooxygenase-2, cyclin D1, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor; and upregulated pro-apoptotic gene products. Interestingly, KRGE enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of sorafenib in RCC cells. The combination treatment of KRGE and sorafenib more clearly suppressed cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and c-Jun phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of p53 than did the individual treatment regimen. Our results clearly demonstrate that KRGE can enhance the anticancer activity of sorafenib and may have a substantial potential in the treatment of RCC. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. CEACAM1 induces B-cell survival and is essential for protective antiviral antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Seifert, Marc; Pozdeev, Vitaly; Xu, Haifeng C.; Sharma, Piyush; Baldin, Fabian; Marquardsen, Florian; Merches, Katja; Lang, Elisabeth; Kirschning, Carsten; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Florian; Dittmer, Ulf; Küppers, Ralf; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Scheffrahn, Inka; Beauchemin, Nicole; Göthert, Joachim R.; Singer, Bernhard B.; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    B cells are essential for antiviral immune defence because they produce neutralizing antibodies, present antigen and maintain the lymphoid architecture. Here we show that intrinsic signalling of CEACAM1 is essential for generating efficient B-cell responses. Although CEACAM1 exerts limited influence on the proliferation of B cells, expression of CEACAM1 induces survival of proliferating B cells via the BTK/Syk/NF-κB-axis. The absence of this signalling cascade in naive Ceacam1−/− mice limits the survival of B cells. During systemic infection with cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, Ceacam1−/− mice can barely induce neutralizing antibody responses and die early after infection. We find, therefore, that CEACAM1 is a crucial regulator of B-cell survival, influencing B-cell numbers and protective antiviral antibody responses. PMID:25692415

  13. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the protective antigen component of Bacillus anthracis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Little, S F; Leppla, S H; Cora, E

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the protective antigen protein of Bacillus anthracis exotoxin have been characterized for affinity, antibody subtype, competitive binding to antigenic regions, and ability to neutralize lethal and edema toxin activities. At least 23 antigenic regions were detected on protective antigen by a blocking, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two clones, 3B6 and 14B7, competed for a single antigenic region and neutralized the activity of both the lethal toxin in vivo (Fisher 344 rat) and the edema toxin in vitro (CHO cells). These two antibodies blocked the binding of 125I-labeled protective antigen to FRL-103 cells. Our results support the proposal that binding of protective antigen to cell receptors is required for expression of toxicity. Images PMID:3384478

  14. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to wall-localized peroxidases from corn seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Terry, M. E.; Hoops, P.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A library of 22 hybridomas, which make antibodies to soluble wall antigens from the coleoptiles and primary leaves of etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings, was raised and cloned three times by limit dilution to assure monoclonal growth and stability. Two of these hybridomas made immunoglobulin G antibodies, designated mWP3 and mWP19, which both effectively immunoprecipitated peroxidase activity from crude and partially purified preparations of wall peroxidases. Direct peroxidase-binding assays revealed that both antibodies bound enzymes with peroxidase activity. As judged by immunoblot analyses, mWP3 recognized a Mr 98,000 wall peroxidase with an isoelectric point near 4.2, and mWP19 recognized a Mr 58,000 wall peroxidase. Immunogold localization studies showed both peroxidases are predominately in cell walls.

  15. Regulation of Production of Mucosal Antibody to Pneumococcal Protein Antigens by T-Cell-Derived Gamma Interferon and Interleukin-10 in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qibo; Bernatoniene, Jolanta; Bagrade, Linda; Paton, James C.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Nunez, Desmond A.; Finn, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) are part of human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue, which may play an important role in local defense against pneumococci. Recent studies with animals have suggested that several pneumococcal proteins, including CbpA and pneumolysin (Ply), may be vaccine candidates. Our recent data obtained with children suggest that antibodies to these proteins may protect against carriage. This study was performed to investigate the regulation of the T-cell-dependent antibody responses to CbpA and pneumolysin by cytokines in adenoidal immune cells from children. Adenoidal mononuclear cells (MNC) were cultured with pneumococcal concentrated culture supernatants (CCS) or recombinant proteins. Cytokine expression profiles in adenoidal MNC after antigen stimulation were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR, protein array analysis, and an immunoassay, along with an antibody production analysis. The roles, interactions, and cellular sources of the main cytokines identified were evaluated further. Pneumococcal CCS induced production of CbpA- and Ply-specific antibodies in association with several chemokines and cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in MNC. The antibody production correlated well with the concentrations of these two cytokines. Addition of recombinant IFN-γ or IL-10 enhanced antibody production, and monoclonal antibodies to these two cytokines and T-cell depletion significantly reduced antibody production. Intracellular cytokine staining showed that T cells are a major source of IFN-γ and IL-10. Recombinant Ply and, to a lesser extent, recombinant CbpA induced significant production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in MNC. T-cell-derived IFN-γ and IL-10 may be key regulators of production of mucosal antibody to pneumococcal protein antigens in the nasopharynx and may play an important role in local protection against pneumococcal infection in children. PMID:16861661

  16. From hybridomas to a robust microalgal-based production platform: molecular design of a diatom secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the Marburg virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Franziska; Maurer, Michael; Brockmann, Björn; Mayer, Christian; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Kelterbaum, Anne; Becker, Stephan; Maier, Uwe G

    2017-07-27

    The ideal protein expression system should provide recombinant proteins in high quality and quantity involving low production costs only. However, especially for complex therapeutic proteins like monoclonal antibodies many challenges remain to meet this goal and up to now production of monoclonal antibodies is very costly and delicate. Particularly, emerging disease outbreaks like Ebola virus in Western Africa in 2014-2016 make it necessary to reevaluate existing production platforms and develop robust and cheap alternatives that are easy to handle. In this study, we engineered the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum to produce monoclonal IgG antibodies against the nucleoprotein of Marburg virus, a close relative of Ebola virus causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates in humans. Sequences for both chains of a mouse IgG antibody were retrieved from a murine hybridoma cell line and implemented in the microalgal system. Fully assembled antibodies were shown to be secreted by the alga and antibodies were proven to be functional in western blot, ELISA as well as IFA studies just like the original hybridoma produced IgG. Furthermore, synthetic variants with constant regions of a rabbit IgG and human IgG with optimized codon usage were produced and characterized. This study highlights the potential of microalgae as robust and low cost expression platform for monoclonal antibodies secreting IgG antibodies directly into the culture medium. Microalgae possess rapid growth rates, need basically only water, air and sunlight for cultivation and are very easy to handle.

  17. Immune Antibodies and Helminth Products Drive CXCR2-Dependent Macrophage-Myofibroblast Crosstalk to Promote Intestinal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B.; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J. Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Urban, Joseph F.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (MΦ) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing. PMID:25806513

  18. Evaluation of Heavy-Chain C-Terminal Deletion on Product Quality and Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoying; Yu, Christopher; Yadav, Daniela B; Hu, Zhilan; Amurao, Annamarie; Duenas, Eileen; Wong, Marc; Iverson, Mark; Zheng, Kai; Lam, Xanthe; Chen, Jia; Vega, Roxanne; Ulufatu, Sheila; Leddy, Cecilia; Davis, Helen; Shen, Amy; Wong, Pin Y; Harris, Reed; Wang, Y John; Li, Dongwei

    2016-07-01

    Due to their potential influence on stability, pharmacokinetics, and product consistency, antibody charge variants have attracted considerable attention in the biotechnology industry. Subtle to significant differences in the level of charge variants and new charge variants under various cell culture conditions are often observed during routine manufacturing or process changes and pose a challenge when demonstrating product comparability. To explore potential solutions to control charge heterogeneity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with native, wild-type C-termini, and mutants with C-terminal deletions of either lysine or lysine and glycine were constructed, expressed, purified, and characterized in vitro and in vivo. Analytical and physiological characterization demonstrated that the mAb mutants had greatly reduced levels of basic variants without decreasing antibody biologic activity, structural stability, pharmacokinetics, or subcutaneous bioavailability in rats. This study provides a possible solution to mitigate mAb heterogeneity in C-terminal processing, improve batch-to-batch consistency, and facilitate the comparability study during process changes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Rapid Transient Production of a Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Rattanapisit, Kaewta; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sukrong, Suchada; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Mason, Hugh S; Nilubol, Dachrit; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo

    2017-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro . These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Expression of deleted, atoxic atypical recombinant beta2 toxin in a baculovirus system and production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Serroni, Anna; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Bano, Luca; Pellegrini, Martina; Severi, Giulio; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Luciani, Mirella; Tittarelli, Manuela; Tofani, Silvia; De Giuseppe, Antonio

    2017-05-25

    Clostridium perfringens is an important animal and human pathogen that can produce more than 16 different major and minor toxins. The beta-2 minor toxin (CPB2), comprising atypical and consensus variants, appears to be involved in both human and animal enterotoxaemia syndrome. The exact role of CPB2 in pathogenesis is poorly investigated, and its mechanism of action at the molecular level is still unknown because of the lack of specific reagents such as monoclonal antibodies against the CPB2 protein and/or the availability of a highly purified antigen. Previous studies have reported that purified wild-type or recombinant CPB2 toxin, expressed in a heterologous system, presented cytotoxic effects on human intestinal cell lines. Undoubtedly, for this reason, to date, these purified proteins have not yet been used for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Recently, monoclonal antibodies against CPB2 were generated using peptides designed on predicted antigenic epitopes of this toxin. In this paper we report, for the first time, the expression in a baculovirus system of a deleted recombinant C-terminal 6xHis-tagged atypical CPB2 toxin (rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 ) lacking the 25 amino acids (aa) of the N-terminal putative signal sequence. A high level of purified recombinant rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 was obtained after purification by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography. The purified product showed no in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Polyclonal antibodies and twenty hybridoma-secreting Mabs were generated using purified rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 . Finally, the reactivity and specificity of the new antibodies were tested against both recombinant and wild-type CPB2 toxins. The high-throughput of purified atoxic recombinant CPB2 produced in insect cells, allowed to obtain monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The availability of these molecules could contribute to develop immunoenzymatic methods and/or to perform studies about the biological activity of CPB2 toxin.

  1. Mixing monoclonal antibody formulations using bottom-mounted mixers: impact of mechanism and design on drug product quality.

    PubMed

    Gikanga, Benson; Chen, Yufei; Stauch, Oliver B; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2015-01-01

    Using bottom-mounted mixers, particularly those that are magnetically driven, is becoming increasingly common during the mixing process in pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturing because of their associated low risk of contamination, ease of use, and ability to accommodate low minimum mixing volumes. Despite these benefits, the impact of bottom-mounted mixers on biologic drug product is not yet fully understood and is scarcely reported. This study evaluated four bottom-mounted mixers to assess their impact on monoclonal antibody formulations. Changes in product quality (size variants, particles, and turbidity) and impact on process performance (sterile filtration) were evaluated after mixing. The results suggested that mixers that are designed to function with no contact between the impeller and the drive unit are the most favorable and gentle to monoclonal antibody molecules. Designs with contact or a narrow clearance tended to shear and grind the protein and resulted in high particle count in the liquid, which would subsequently foul a filter membrane during sterile filtration using a 0.22 μm pore size filter. Despite particle formation, increases in turbidity of the protein solution and protein aggregation/fragmentation were not detected. Further particle analysis indicated particles in the range of 0.2-2 μm are responsible for filter fouling. A small-scale screening model was developed using two types of magnetic stir bars mimicking the presence or absence of contact between the impeller and drive unit in the bottom-mounted mixers. The model is capable of differentiating the sensitivity of monoclonal antibody formulations to bottom-mounted mixers with a small sample size. This study fills an important gap in understanding a critical bioprocess unit operation. Mixing is an important unit operation in drug product manufacturing for compounding (dilution, pooling, homogenization, etc.). The current trend in adopting disposable bottom-mounted mixers has

  2. Fv-clasp: An Artificially Designed Small Antibody Fragment with Improved Production Compatibility, Stability, and Crystallizability.

    PubMed

    Arimori, Takao; Kitago, Yu; Umitsu, Masataka; Fujii, Yuki; Asaki, Ryoko; Tamura-Kawakami, Keiko; Takagi, Junichi

    2017-10-03

    Antibody fragments are frequently used as a "crystallization chaperone" to aid structural analysis of complex macromolecules that are otherwise crystallization resistant, but conventional fragment formats have not been designed for this particular application. By fusing an anti-parallel coiled-coil structure derived from the SARAH domain of human Mst1 kinase to the variable region of an antibody, we succeeded in creating a novel chimeric antibody fragment of ∼37 kDa, termed "Fv-clasp," which exhibits excellent crystallization compatibility while maintaining the binding ability of the original IgG molecule. The "clasp" and the engineered disulfide bond at the bottom of the Fv suppressed the internal mobility of the fragment and shielded hydrophobic residues, likely contributing to the high heat stability and the crystallizability of the Fv-clasp. Finally, Fv-clasp antibodies showed superior "chaperoning" activity over conventional Fab fragments, and facilitated the structure determination of an ectodomain fragment of integrin α6β1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibody, PR81, recognizing the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin.

    PubMed

    Paknejad, M; Rasaee, M J; Tehrani, F Karami; Kashanian, S; Mohagheghi, M A; Omidfar, K; Bazl, M Rajabi

    2003-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with homogenized breast cancerous tissues. This antibody (PR81) was found to be of IgG(1) class and subclass, containing kappa light chain. PR81 reacted with either the membrane extracts of several breast cancerous tissues or the cell surface of some MUC1 positive cell lines (MCF-7, BT-20 and T-47D) tested by enzyme immunoassay and for MCF-7 by immunofluorescence method. PR81 also reacted with two synthetic 27 and 16-amino acid peptides, TSA-P1-24 and A-P1-15, respectively, which included the core tandem repeat sequence of MUC1. However, this antibody did not react with a synthetic 14 amino acid peptide that has no similarity with tandem repeat found in MUC1. The generated antibody had good and similar affinities (2.19 x 10(8) M(-1)) toward TSA-P1-24 and A-P1-15, which are mainly shared in the hydrophilic sequence of PDTRPAP. Through Western blot analysis of homogenized breast tissues, PR81 recognized only a major band of 250 kDa. This band is stronger in malignant tissue than benign and normal tissues.

  4. Immune antibodies and helminth products promote CXCR2-dependent repair of parasite-induced injury

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Helminth parasites cause massive damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination. We observed that mice lacking antibodies (AID-/-) or activating Fc receptors (FcR'-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair followi...

  5. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibody to spherulocytes: A subpopulation of coelomocytes of Apostichopus japonicus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One monoclonal antibody (mAb 3F6) against coelomocytes of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was developed by immunization of Balb/C mice. Analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), immunocytochemical assay (ICA),Western blotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS), mAb 3...

  6. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Prevents Murine Antibody-Mediated Acute Lung Injury at the Level of Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production

    PubMed Central

    Semple, John W.; Kim, Michael; Hou, Jing; McVey, Mark; Lee, Young Jin; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Chai, Zhong-Wei; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature) and respiratory distress (dyspnea) were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIg's usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios) and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage. PMID:22363629

  7. Upregulation of neurovascular communication through filamin abrogation promotes ectopic periventricular neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Lanctot, Alison A; Guo, Yan; Feng, Yuanyi

    2016-09-24

    Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs' neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs. We show that by collaborating with β-arrestin, Flna maintains the homeostatic signaling between the vasculature and NPCs, and loss of this function results in escalated Vegfa and Igf2 signaling, which exacerbates both EMT and angiogenesis to further potentiate IPs' neurogenesis. These results suggest that the neurogenic potential of IPs may be boosted in vivo by manipulating Flna-mediated neurovascular communication.

  8. RIG-I-like receptor activation by dengue virus drives follicular T helper cell formation and antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Sprokholt, Joris K.; Kaptein, Tanja M.; van Hamme, John L.; Overmars, Ronald J.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular T helper cells (TFH) are fundamental in orchestrating effective antibody-mediated responses critical for immunity against viral infections and effective vaccines. However, it is unclear how virus infection leads to TFH induction. We here show that dengue virus (DENV) infection of human dendritic cells (DCs) drives TFH formation via crosstalk of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) RIG-I and MDA5 with type I Interferon (IFN) signaling. DENV infection leads to RLR-dependent IKKε activation, which phosphorylates IFNα/β receptor-induced STAT1 to drive IL-27 production via the transcriptional complex ISGF3. Inhibiting RLR activation as well as neutralizing antibodies against IL-27 prevented TFH formation. DENV-induced CXCR5+PD-1+Bcl-6+ TFH cells secreted IL-21 and activated B cells to produce IgM and IgG. Notably, RLR activation by synthetic ligands also induced IL-27 secretion and TFH polarization. These results identify an innate mechanism by which antibodies develop during viral disease and identify RLR ligands as potent adjuvants for TFH-promoting vaccination strategies. PMID:29186193

  9. Anti-enrofloxacin antibody production by using enrofloxacin-screened HSA as an immunogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chune; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin; Jiang, Jie

    2005-07-01

    A two-step zero-length cross-linking procedure using active esters was successfully adopted for conjugating enrofloxacin (EF) to human serum albumin (HSA). The derived conjugate was characterized by UV spectrum and then used for immunization of BALB/C mice. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and competitive inhibition ELISA experiments, the derived antiserum exhibited high antibody titer (greater than 1:250 000) as well as varied cross-reactivity (from 97.8% to 161.7%) to three analogs of EF belonging to fluoroquinolones family. But over the concentration range studied, no significant cross-reactivity was observed to other group of antibiotics (chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline, sulphamethoxazole and nysfungin). It was confirmed that the synthesized immunogen was highly antigenic and elicited specific antibody responses in BALB/C mice against EF.

  10. Production and Characterization of Novel Camel Single Domain Antibody Targeting Mouse Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Kazemi-Lomedasht, Fatemeh; Behdani, Mahdi; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2016-06-01

    Camel single domain antibody known as Nanobody™ refers to a novel class of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate pharmacological properties. Nanobody is an antigen-binding site of camel heavy chain antibody also known as VHH. Expression in a microbial system, stability in difficult conditions and extremes of PH, and nanomolar affinity to target an appropriate drug format makes Nanobody a potential for drug discovery. Needs for Nanobody function evaluation in animal models turned our interest to develop anti-mouse vascular endothelial growth factor (mVEGF) Nanobodies using phage display as a potent technique in the isolation of antibodies. Isolation of anti-mVEGF Nanobodies was performed on Camelus dromedarius immune library through four consecutive rounds of biopanning on immobilized mVEGF. Enrichment of the Nanobody library was monitored by polyclonal phage-ELISA, and specific Nanobodies were selected using periplasmic extract-ELISA. Selected Nanobodies were expressed in WK6 Escherichia coli cells and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Specificity and affinity of selected Nanobodies were evaluated on immobilized mVEGF. Results demonstrated the successful enrichment of the Nanobody library. Two clones named Nb5 and Nb10 were selected through screening procedures according to their signal value in periplasmic extract-ELISA. Selected Nanobodies specifically reacted to mVEGF, but cross-reactivity with other antigens was not observed. Evaluated affinity for the Nanobodies was in nanomolar range. Taken together, according to the results, the selected Nanobodies promise to be a novel tool in research and for further development of diagnostic or therapeutic purposes in pharmaceutical science.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of advanced glycosylation end products in diabetic tissues using monoclonal antibody to pyrraline.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, S; Monnier, V

    1992-01-01

    Pyrraline is one of the major Maillard compounds resulting from the reaction of glucose with amino compounds at slightly acidic pH. For in vivo studies, monoclonal pyrraline antibodies were raised after immunization of Balb/c mice with keyhole limpet hemocyamin-caproyl pyrraline conjugate. Of 660 hybridoma clones from one donor, 260 produced an antibody to the free hapten, two of which named Pyr-A and Pyr-B also cross-reacted with L-lysyl pyrraline. Using Pyr-B antibody and an ELISA, a gradual increase in pyrraline immunoreactivity was observed in serum albumin incubated with glucose or 3-deoxyglucosone. Plasma pyrraline levels increased fourfold (P less than 0.001) in Sprague-Dawley rats upon induction of diabetes with streptozotocin and were twofold increased in randomly selected plasmas from diabetic humans. Highly specific pyrraline immunoreactivity was detected in sclerosed glomeruli from diabetic and old normal kidneys as well as in renal arteries with arteriolosclerosis and in perivascular and peritubular sclerosed extracellular matrix and basement membranes. The preferential localization of pyrraline immunoreactivity in the extracellular matrix strengthens the notion that the advanced glycosylation reaction may contribute to decreased turnover and thickening of the extracellular matrix in diabetes and aging. Images PMID:1556177

  12. Growth factor withdrawal in combination with sodium butyrate addition extends culture longevity and enhances antibody production in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong Kwang; Lee, Gyun Min; Yoon, Sung Kwan

    2011-09-10

    The effect of growth factor (GF) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, cell viability and antibody production was investigated using shaking flasks in GF-containing and GF-deficient medium containing 0, 1 and 3mM NaBu. The withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu suppressed cell growth, but they significantly increased specific antibody productivity, q(Ab). Interestingly, the withdrawal of GF in combination with the addition of NaBu markedly retarded cell death, leading to extended culture longevity. For instance, at 3mM NaBu, cell viability fell below 80% after day 4 in GF-containing medium, but it remained over 80% until day 18 in GF-deficient medium. Due to the enhanced q(Ab) and the extended culture longevity, approximately 2-fold increase in total antibody production was achieved in pseudo-perfusion culture with 1mM NaBu in GF-deficient medium, compared to the culture in GF-containing medium. The effect of GF and NaBu on the change in the expression and activity of cellular proteins, c-Myc, Bcl-2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), was also investigated. Both the withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu decreased the expression of c-Myc. The expression of Bcl-2 was enhanced by the addition of NaBu in a dose-dependent manner while it was not affected by the withdrawal of GF. In addition, both the withdrawal of GF and the addition of NaBu reduced metabolic rates, q(Glc), q(Lac) and Y(Lac/Glc), and increased PDH activity while not affecting PDH expression, suggesting that they may reduce the glycolytic rates, but enhance the conversion rates of pyruvate to TCA intermediates. Taken together, the withdrawal of GF in combination with the addition of NaBu can be considered as a relevant strategy for alleviating NaBu-induced cell apoptosis and enhancing antibody production since it can be easily implemented as well as enhance q(Ab) and extend culture longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration.

  14. Impact of media and antifoam selection on monoclonal antibody production and quality using a high throughput micro‐bioreactor system

    PubMed Central

    Velugula‐Yellela, Sai Rashmika; Williams, Abasha; Trunfio, Nicholas; Hsu, Chih‐Jung; Chavez, Brittany; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody production in commercial scale cell culture bioprocessing requires a thorough understanding of the engineering process and components used throughout manufacturing. It is important to identify high impact components early on during the lifecycle of a biotechnology‐derived product. While cell culture media selection is of obvious importance to the health and productivity of mammalian bioreactor operations, other components such as antifoam selection can also play an important role in bioreactor cell culture. Silicone polymer‐based antifoams were known to have negative impacts on cell health, production, and downstream filtration and purification operations. High throughput screening in micro‐scale bioreactors provides an efficient strategy to identify initial operating parameters. Here, we utilized a micro‐scale parallel bioreactor system to study an IgG1 producing CHO cell line, to screen Dynamis, ProCHO5, PowerCHO2, EX‐Cell Advanced, and OptiCHO media, and 204, C, EX‐Cell, SE‐15, and Y‐30 antifoams and their impacts on IgG1 production, cell growth, aggregation, and process control. This study found ProCHO5, EX‐Cell Advanced, and PowerCHO2 media supported strong cellular growth profiles, with an IVCD of 25‐35 × 106 cells‐d/mL, while maintaining specific antibody production (Qp > 2 pg/cell‐d) for our model cell line and a monomer percentage above 94%. Antifoams C, EX‐Cell, and SE‐15 were capable of providing adequate control of foaming while antifoam 204 and Y‐30 noticeably stunted cellular growth. This work highlights the utility of high throughput micro bioreactors and the importance of identifying both positive and negative impacts of media and antifoam selection on a model IgG1 producing CHO cell line. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:262–270, 2018 PMID:29086492

  15. Fingolimod treatment abrogates chikungunya virus-induced arthralgia.

    PubMed

    Teo, Teck-Hui; Chan, Yi-Hao; Lee, Wendy W L; Lum, Fok-Moon; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Her, Zhisheng; Rajarethinam, Ravisankar; Merits, Andres; Rötzschke, Olaf; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2017-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the many rheumatic arthropod-borne alphaviruses responsible for debilitating joint inflammation in humans. Despite the severity in many endemic regions, clinically approved intervention targeting the virus remains unavailable. CD4 + T cells have been shown to mediate CHIKV-induced joint inflammation in mice. We demonstrate here that transfer of splenic CD4 + T cells from virus-infected C57BL/6 mice into virus-infected T cell receptor-deficient (TCR -/- ) mice recapitulated severe joint pathology including inflammation, vascular leakages, subcutaneous edema, and skeletal muscle necrosis. Proteome-wide screening identified dominant CD4 + T cell epitopes in nsP1 and E2 viral antigens. Transfer of nsP1- or E2-specific primary CD4 + T cell lines into CHIKV-infected TCR -/- recipients led to severe joint inflammation and vascular leakage. This pathogenic role of virus-specific CD4 + T cells in CHIKV infections led to the assessment of clinically approved T cell-suppressive drugs for disease intervention. Although drugs targeting interleukin-2 pathway were ineffective, treatment with fingolimod, an agonist of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor, successfully abrogated joint pathology in CHIKV-infected animals by blocking the migration of CD4 + T cells into the joints without any effect on viral replication. These results set the stage for further clinical evaluation of fingolimod in the treatment of CHIKV-induced joint pathologies. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels.

  17. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on airway epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Bilodeau, Claudia; Maillé, Émilie; LaFayette, Shantelle L; McKay, Geoffrey A; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Beaudoin, Trevor; Desrosiers, Martin-Yvon; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are associated with progressive epithelial damage and lung function decline. In addition to its role in tissue injury, the persistent presence of P. aeruginosa-secreted products may also affect epithelial repair ability, raising the need for new antivirulence therapies. The purpose of our study was to better understand the outcomes of P. aeruginosa exoproducts exposure on airway epithelial repair processes to identify a strategy to counteract their deleterious effect. We found that P. aeruginosa exoproducts significantly decreased wound healing, migration, and proliferation rates, and impaired the ability of directional migration of primary non-cystic fibrosis (CF) human airway epithelial cells. Impact of exoproducts was inhibited after mutations in P. aeruginosa genes that encoded for the quorum-sensing (QS) transcriptional regulator, LasR, and the elastase, LasB, whereas impact was restored by LasB induction in ΔlasR mutants. P. aeruginosa purified elastase also induced a significant decrease in non-CF epithelial repair, whereas protease inhibition with phosphoramidon prevented the effect of P. aeruginosa exoproducts. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa cultures with 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a QS inhibitor, abrogated the negative impact of P. aeruginosa exoproducts on airway epithelial repair. Finally, we confirmed our findings in human airway epithelial cells from patients with CF, a disease featuring P. aeruginosa chronic respiratory infection. These data demonstrate that secreted proteases under the control of the LasR QS system impair airway epithelial repair and that QS inhibitors could be of benefit to counteract the deleterious effect of P. aeruginosa in infected patients.-Ruffin, M., Bilodeau, C., Maillé, É., LaFayette, S. L., McKay, G. A., Trinh, N. T. N., Beaudoin, T., Desrosiers, M.-Y., Rousseau, S., Nguyen, D., Brochiero, E. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact

  18. The Art of Making Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headon, Denis R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the nature and production of antibodies. Points out that the production of monoclonal antibodies blends the malignant with the beneficial to create a medical tool of exciting potential. (JN)

  19. Evolution of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibody production in patients with chronic Chagas disease: Correlation between antibody titers and development of cardiac disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Georg, Ingebourg; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Xavier, Sergio Salles; de Holanda, Marcelo Teixeira; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important endemic infections in Latin America affecting around 6–7 million people. About 30–50% of patients develop the cardiac form of the disease, which can lead to severe cardiac dysfunction and death. In this scenario, the identification of immunological markers of disease progression would be a valuable tool for early treatment and reduction of death rates. In this observational study, the production of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies through a retrospective longitudinal follow-up in chronic Chagas disease patients´ cohort and its correlation with disease progression and heart commitment was evaluated. Strong inverse correlation (ρ = -0.6375, p = 0.0005) between anti-T. cruzi IgG1 titers and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) patients were observed after disease progression. Elevated levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG3 titers were detected in all T. cruzi-infected patients, indicating a lack of correlation of this IgG isotype with disease progression. Furthermore, low levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG2, IgG4, and IgA were detected in all patients through the follow-up. Although without statistical significance anti-T. cruzi IgE tends to be more reactive in patients with the indeterminate form (IND) of the disease (p = 0.0637). As this study was conducted in patients with many years of chronic disease no anti-T. cruzi IgM was detected. Taken together, these results indicate that the levels of anti-T. cruzi IgG1 could be considered to seek for promising biomarkers to predict the severity of chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. PMID:28723905

  20. Variables influencing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (NhMAb) production among infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Akapirat, Siriwat; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Schuetz, Alexandra; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Ono, Ken-Ichiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Utachee, Piraporn; Kameoka, Masanori; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan

    2013-09-01

    We conducted this study to determine the clinical variables associated with the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (NhMAbs) using a hybridoma technique. This cross sectional study was performed in 20 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected Thais. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from each study participant and fused with SPYMEG cells. Culture supernatant collected from growing hybridomas was tested for neutralizing activity against HIV-1 CRF01_AE Env-recombinant viruses. Fifty hybridomas expressing anti-HIV-1 NhMAbs with strong neutralizing activity against at least 1 CRF01_AE Env-recombinant virus were found. A positive association between the numbers of hybridomas produced and the CD4 counts of study participants (p = 0.019) was observed. NhMAb-producing hybridomas with strong neutralizing activity were mostly found in participans diagnosed with HIV-1 infection within the previous 1 year. The HIV-1 viral load was not significantly correlated with the numbers of either established hybridomas or clones expressing anti-HIV-1 NhMAbs with strong neutralizing activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study of NhMAb-producing hybridomas obtained from HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected populations identified by antibody binding to HIV-1 V3 loop peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay (HIV-1 pol sequence). It provides important criterion to slect study participants with high CD4 counts who produce large numbers of hybridoma clones. The results are valuable for further studies related to nurtalizing antibodies production and HIV-1 vaccine development.

  1. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to IgM of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Bromage, Erin S.; Silva, Jessica; Hansen, John D.; Badil, Samantha M.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) have a central role in the North Pacific ecosystem as a forage fish species and are natural reservoirs of several important finfish pathogens, including Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Here, we report the identification of the gene encoding the immunoglobulin mu (IgM) heavy chain, as well as the development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically react with Pacific herring IgM. Pacific herring immunoglobulin was purified and consisted of heavy and light chains of approximately 80 and 25 kDa. Three hybridoma clones were initially identified by ELISA as reactive with purified immunoglobulin but only one clone was able to detect an 80 kDa protein in Pacific and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) whole plasma by denaturing western blot. However, all three MAbs were able to precipitate an 80 kDa protein from Pacific herring and LCMS sequencing of peptide fragments derived from this protein matched the predicted amino acid sequence of the cloned, heavy chain gene. In addition, two of the MAbs stained cells within the putative lymphocyte gates for the spleen, anterior kidney and posterior kidney but were not reactive for myeloid/granulocyte gates, which is consistent with these MAbs reacting with surface IgM+ B-cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IgM-related gene sequences and anti-IgM monoclonal antibodies from any member of the family Clupeidae. The antibodies produced in this study are critical for achieving our long-term goal of conducting serological surveillance to assess pathogen exposure in natural populations of Pacific herring.

  2. Production of monoclonal antibodies recognising the peptide core of MUC2 intestinal mucin.

    PubMed

    Durrant, L G; Jacobs, E; Price, M R

    1994-01-01

    A peptide based on the tandem repeat sequence of MUC2 mucin was used to produce a series of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The fine specificity of these antibodies and their implications for MUC2 expression are presented. Three of the MAbs, 996/1, 996/7 and 995/25, were specific to the MUC2p and failed to bind to peptides based on the MUC1,3,4 tandem repeat sequences whereas three others, 994/152, 994/91 and 996/36, cross reacted with the MUC2p and the MUC3 tandem repeat peptide but not the MUC1 and MUC4 peptides. An antigen, affinity purified from a colorectal tumour on one of the MUC2p-specific MAbs, 996/1, was shown to be a high molecular weight polydisperse, mucin-like antigen. Two of the MAbs, 996/1 and 994/152, recognised MUC2 in tissue sections, although the fine specificity varied between the two MAbs, with 994/152 strongly staining gastric, ileum and kidney epithelia, and MAb 996/1 intensely staining colon, liver and prostate tissues. These antibodies also stained a colorectal cell line, and MAb 994/152 also stained a gastric and an ovarian cell line. Six of the MAbs were used to stain colorectal tumour and adjacent 'normal' colonic mucosa sections. All six stained normal mucosa, but only two of the MAbs, 996/1 and 994/91, stained tumour tissue. The staining probably reflects exposure of cryptic epitopes due to varying levels of glycosylation in different tissues. These anti-MUC2p MAbs may help in determining the normal role of MUC2 mucin and how it is subverted in malignancy.

  3. Determination of the Acceptable Ambient Light Exposure during Drug Product Manufacturing for Long Term Stability of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Luis, Lin M; Hu, Yuzhe; Zamiri, Camellia; Sreedhara, Alavattam

    2018-05-31

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are exposed to light during drug product (DP) manufacturing and the acceptable levels of light exposure needs to be determined based on the impact on product quality. In this study, a mild and more representative light model consisting of ambient light instead of stress light as prescribed by ICH Q1B was used to evaluate the impact of light exposure on mAb DP quality. The immediate effect of ambient light exposure on protein drug product quality was determined to be dependent on the amount of light exposure rather than light intensity (up to 5000 lux). The impact on quality of mAbs is product specific due to their differences in light sensitivity, in which mAb II shows larger increases in IEC basic variants and larger decreases in SEC monomer when compared to mAb I after 0.24 million lux hours of light exposure. The acceptable ambient light exposure for mAb II drug product manufacturing was determined to be 0.13 million lux hours, in which no impact on product quality was observed after the short-term light exposure. Additionally, real-time storage (5°C) of the DP after the prescribed ambient light exposure showed no impact to various product quality attributes. The light model used in this study is capable of determining the acceptable amount of ambient light exposure for mAbs, especially during DP manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2018, Parenteral Drug Association.

  4. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOEpatents

    Erlanger, B.F.; Chen, B.X.

    1997-07-22

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest. 8 figs.

  5. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOEpatents

    Erlanger, Bernard F.; Chen, Bi-Xing

    1997-01-01

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest.

  6. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOEpatents

    Erlanger, Bernard F.; Chen, Bi-Xing

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example, detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest, detecting a polypeptide such as those expressed by infectious agents, fungi or parasites.

  7. Enhancing the sensitivity of immunoassay procedures by use of antibodies directed to the product of a reaction between probe labels and assay substrates

    DOEpatents

    Erlanger, B.F.; Chen, B.

    1999-07-20

    The subject invention provides an antibody which specifically binds to the product of a reaction between a labeling substance and a substrate. The subject invention also provides a method of making an immunogen used to produce the antibody of the subject invention. The invention further provides methods of using the subject antibody for detecting an antigen of interest in a sample, for example, detecting a protein comprising an amino acid sequence of interest and detecting a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence of interest, detecting a polypeptide such as those expressed by infectious agents, fungi or parasites. 25 figs.

  8. Production of chimeric recombinant single domain antibody-green fluorescent fusion protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Bazl, M Rajabi; Rasaee, M J; Foruzandeh, M; Rahimpour, A; Kiani, J; Rahbarizadeh, F; Alirezapour, B; Mohammadi, M

    2007-02-01

    There is an increasing interest in the application of nanobodies such as VHH in the field of therapy and imaging. In the present study a stable genetically engineered cell line of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) origin transfected using two sets of expression vectors was constructed in order to permit the cytoplasmic and extracellular expression of single domain antibody along with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter gene. The quality of the constructs were examined both by the restriction map as well as sequence analysis. The gene transfection and protein expression was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The transfected cells were grown in 200 microg/mL hygromycin containing media and the stable cell line obtained showed fluorescent activity for more than a period of 180 days. The production of fusion protein was also detected by fluorescent microscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy as well as by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. This strategy allows a rapid production of recombinant fluobodies involving VHH, which can be used in various experiments such as imaging and detection in which a primary labeled antibody is required.

  9. The intervening removable affinity tag (iRAT) production system facilitates Fv antibody fragment‐mediated crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Yayoi; Sato, Yumi; Suno, Ryoji; Horita, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fv antibody fragments have been used as co‐crystallization partners in structural biology, particularly in membrane protein crystallography. However, there are inherent technical issues associated with the large‐scale production of soluble, functional Fv fragments through conventional methods in various expression systems. To circumvent these problems, we developed a new method, in which a single synthetic polyprotein consisting of a variable light (VL) domain, an intervening removable affinity tag (iRAT), and a variable heavy (VH) domain is expressed by a Gram‐positive bacterial secretion system. This method ensures stoichiometric expression of VL and VH from the monocistronic construct followed by proper folding and assembly of the two variable domains. The iRAT segment can be removed by a site‐specific protease during the purification process to yield tag‐free Fv fragments suitable for crystallization trials. In vitro refolding step is not required to obtain correctly folded Fv fragments. As a proof of concept, we tested the iRAT‐based production of multiple Fv fragments, including a crystallization chaperone for a mammalian membrane protein as well as FDA‐approved therapeutic antibodies. The resulting Fv fragments were functionally active and crystallized in complex with the target proteins. The iRAT system is a reliable, rapid and broadly applicable means of producing milligram quantities of Fv fragments for structural and biochemical studies. PMID:27595817

  10. Cloning, monoclonal antibody production, and bodily distribution pattern of a bovine lipocalin.

    PubMed

    Japaridze, Tamar; Senda, Akitsugu; Nozaki, Hirofumi; Yanagida, Mayumi; Suzuki, Takumi; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Kushi, Yasunori; Kida, Katsuya; Urashima, Tadasu; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Fukuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    A bovine lipocalin, previously identified as a putative odorant-binding protein in bovine colostrum (bcOBP), was cloned and expressed, and its monoclonal antibody was established. bcOBP was constantly secreted into milk on day of parturition until at least 10 d postpartum at a concentration of 181±39 µg/L. Besides milk, bcOBP occurred in the nasal mucus, saliva, amniotic fluid, vaginal discharge, and blood plasma. Despite its low concentration, the distribution pattern and the finding that bcOBP harbored a characteristic sequence motif, CxxxC, which is conserved among insect and mammal pheromone binding proteins, suggest that bcOBP functions as a pheromone carrier. The presence of bcOBP in the plasma at varied concentrations depending on the lactation period does not exclude the possibility that bcOBP is secreted into milk from the blood. Cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody indicated presence of proteins homologous to bcOBP in the colostrum of farm animals of Cetartiodactyla.

  11. Real-time product attribute control to manufacture antibodies with defined N-linked glycan levels.

    PubMed

    Zupke, Craig; Brady, Lowell J; Slade, Peter G; Clark, Philip; Caspary, R Guy; Livingston, Brittney; Taylor, Lisa; Bigham, Kyle; Morris, Arvia E; Bailey, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Pressures for cost-effective new therapies and an increased emphasis on emerging markets require technological advancements and a flexible future manufacturing network for the production of biologic medicines. The safety and efficacy of a product is crucial, and consistent product quality is an essential feature of any therapeutic manufacturing process. The active control of product quality in a typical biologic process is challenging because of measurement lags and nonlinearities present in the system. The current study uses nonlinear model predictive control to maintain a critical product quality attribute at a predetermined value during pilot scale manufacturing operations. This approach to product quality control ensures a more consistent product for patients, enables greater manufacturing efficiency, and eliminates the need for extensive process characterization by providing direct measures of critical product quality attributes for real time release of drug product. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Towards the implementation of quality by design to the production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies with desired glycosylation patterns.

    PubMed

    del Val, Ioscani Jimenez; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Nagy, Judit M

    2010-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a scheme for the development, manufacture, and approval of pharmaceutical products. The end goal of QbD is to ensure product quality by building it into the manufacturing process. The main regulatory bodies are encouraging its implementation to the manufacture of all new pharmaceuticals including biological products. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently the leading products of the biopharmaceutical industry. It has been widely reported that glycosylation directly influences the therapeutic mechanisms by which mAbs function in vivo. In addition, glycosylation has been identified as one of the main sources of monoclonal antibody heterogeneity, and thus, a critical parameter to follow during mAb manufacture. This article reviews the research on glycosylation of mAbs over the past 2 decades under the QbD scope. The categories presented under this scope are: (a) definition of the desired clinical effects of mAbs, (b) definition of the glycosylation-associated critical quality attributes (glycCQAs) of mAbs, (c) assessment of process parameters that pose a risk for mAb glycCQAs, and (d) methods for accurately quantifying glycCQAs of mAbs. The information available in all four areas leads us to conclude that implementation of QbD to the manufacture of mAbs with specific glycosylation patterns will be a reality in the near future. We also foresee that the implementation of QbD will lead to the development of more robust and efficient manufacturing processes and to a new generation of mAbs with increased clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  13. Antibody degradation in tobacco plants: a predominantly apoplastic process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interest in using plants for production of recombinant proteins such as monoclonal antibodies is growing, but proteolytic degradation, leading to a loss of functionality and complications in downstream purification, is still a serious problem. Results In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the assembly and breakdown of a human IgG1κ antibody expressed in plants. Initial studies in a human IgG transgenic plant line suggested that IgG fragments were present prior to extraction. Indeed, when the proteolytic activity of non-transgenic Nicotiana tabacum leaf extracts was tested against a human IgG1 substrate, little activity was detectable in extraction buffers with pH > 5. Significant degradation was only observed when the plant extract was buffered below pH 5, but this proteolysis could be abrogated by addition of protease inhibitors. Pulse-chase analysis of IgG MAb transgenic plants also demonstrated that IgG assembly intermediates are present intracellularly and are not secreted, and indicates that the majority of proteolytic degradation occurs following secretion into the apoplastic space. Conclusions The results provide evidence that proteolytic fragments derived from antibodies of the IgG subtype expressed in tobacco plants do not accumulate within the cell, and are instead likely to occur in the apoplastic space. Furthermore, any proteolytic activity due to the release of proteases from subcellular compartments during tissue disruption and extraction is not a major consideration under most commonly used extraction conditions. PMID:22208820

  14. [Noopept improves the spatial memory and stimulates prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35) antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Gruden', M A; Samokhin, A N; Medvinskaia, N I; Morozova-Roch, L; Uudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredinin, S B

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were studied on NMRI mice upon olfactory bulbectomy, which had been previously shown to imitate the main morphological and biochemical signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The spatial memory was assessed using the Morris (water maze) test; the immunological status was characterized by ELISA with antibodies to prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35), S100b protein, and protofilaments of equine lysozyme, which are the molecular factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The control (sham-operated) animals during the Morris test preferred a sector where the safety platform was placed during the learning session. Bulbectomized animals treated with saline failed to recognize this sector, while bulbectomized animals treated with noopept (0.01 mg/kg for 21 days) restored this predominance, thus demonstrating the improvement of the spatial memory. These animals also demonstrated an increase in the level of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35)--the effect, which was more pronounced in the sham-operated than in bulbectomized mice. The latter demonstrated a profound decrease of immunological reactivity in a large number of tests. Noopept, stimulating the production of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35), can attenuate the well-known neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid. The obtained data on the mnemotropic and immunostimulant effects noopept are indicative of good prospects for the clinical usage of this drug in the therapy of patients with neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. An Ultra-Sensitive Monoclonal Antibody-Based Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay for Sterigmatocystin in Cereal and Oil Products

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Li, Peiwu; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Wang, Hengling

    2014-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (STG), a biosynthesis precursor of aflatoxin B1, is well known for its toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. STG derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel STG derivatives, based on which novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared. With the novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates, three sensitive and specific mAbs against STG, named VerA 3, VerA 4, and VerA 6, were prepared by semi-solid hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) medium using a modified two-step screening procedure. They exhibited high affinity for STG and no cross-reactivity (CR) with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. Based on the most sensitive antibody VerA 3, an ultra-sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for STG in wheat, maize, and peanuts. Assays were performed in the STG-GA-BSA-coated (0.5 µg·mL−1) ELISA format, in which the antibody was diluted to 1∶80,000. Several physicochemical factors influencing assay performance, such as pH, ionic strength, blocking solution, and diluting solution, were optimized. The final results showed that the assays had the detection limits of 0.08 ng·g−1 for wheat, 0.06 ng·g−1 for maize, and 0.1 ng·g−1 for peanuts, inter-assay and intra-assay variations of less than 10%, and recoveries ranging from 83% to 110%. These recoveries were in good agreement with those obtained by using HPLC-MS/MS method (90–104%), indicating the importance of the mAb VerA 3 in the study of STG in crude agricultural products. PMID:25184275

  16. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against horse immunoglobulins useful for the diagnosis of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Di Febo, Tiziana; Luciani, Mirella; Ciarelli, Antonella; Bortone, Grazia; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Rodomonti, Diamante; Teodori, Liana; Tittarelli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against horse IgG were produced by immunizing Balb/c mice with purified horse IgG and were characterized in indirect ELISA versus purified immunoglobulins from donkey, cow, buffalo, sheep, pig, and chicken. Three MAbs (1B10B6C9, 1B10B6C10, 1B10B6E9) reacted only with horse and donkey IgG and IgM and, in western blotting, were specific for the Fc fragment of equine IgG. MAb 1B10B6E9 was used in chemiluminescent immunoblotting assay for the diagnosis of dourine and in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the diagnosis of African horse sickness and dourine.

  17. Antibody production in rats after long-term exposure to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstroem, M.R.; Rynnel-Dagoeoe, B.Wi.; Wilhelmsson, B.

    1989-09-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and tetanus toxoid to evaluate the immunologic effects of long-term formaldehyde exposure. The antibody response to vaccination was measured 3 to 4 weeks later by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An IgG response to pneumococcal polysaccharides and to tetanus toxoid was found in both the formaldehyde-exposed group and a control group of rats not exposed to formaldehyde. The IgM response to tetanus toxoid was significant in both groups but neither group showed a significant IgM response to pneumococcal polysaccharides. There were thus no signs of impaired B-cell function in rats exposed to a highmore » concentration (12.6 ppm) of formaldehyde for nearly 2 years.« less

  18. Production of monoclonal antibodies against serum immunoglobulins of black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Geewook; Lee, Hyungjun; Palaksha, K. J.; Kim, Youngrim; Lee, Eunyoung; Shin, Yongseung; Lee, Eunggoo; Park, Kyungdae

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against immunoglobulin (Ig) purified from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf) serum using protein A, mannan binding protein, and goat IgG affinity columns. These three different ligands were found to possess high affinity for black rockfish serum Ig. All of the Igs purified eluted at only 0.46 M NaCl concentration in anion exchange column chromatography and consisted of two bands at 70 kDa and 25 kDa in SDS-PAGE; they also had similar antigenicity for MAbs to Ig heavy chain in immunoblot assays. Therefore, black rockfish Ig is believed to exist as a single isotype within serum. The MAbs produced against Ig heavy chain reacted specifically with spots distributed over the pI range from 4.8 to 5.6 with a molecular weight of 70 kDa on two dimensional gel electrophoresis immunoblot profiles. PMID:16871026

  19. Production of monoclonal antibody inhibiting dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Teshirogi, K; Hayakawa, M; Ikemi, T; Abiko, Y

    2003-06-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species implicated as an important pathogen in the development of adult periodontitis. We previously cloned a gene encoding dipeptydilaminopeptidase IV (DAPIV) from P. gingivalis. In the present study, for immunological diagnosis and development of passive immunization, we produced a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) capable of inhibiting the DAPIV activity of P. gingivalis using highly purified recombinant DAPIV as an immunogen. The constructed MAb, designated as MAb-Pg-DAP-1, significantly inhibited DAPIV activity in P. gingivalis, as well as slightly inhibited that in other gram-negative bacteria such as Porphyromonas endodontalis and Prevotella loesheii, whereas no inhibition was seen in the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. Furthermore, the MAb did not inhibit DAPIV enzyme activity in human serum. This novel MAb may be useful for the development of immunological diagnosis capability and in passive immunization.

  20. Design of high productivity antibody capture by protein A chromatography using an integrated experimental and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ng, Candy K S; Osuna-Sanchez, Hector; Valéry, Eric; Sørensen, Eva; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2012-06-15

    An integrated experimental and modeling approach for the design of high productivity protein A chromatography is presented to maximize productivity in bioproduct manufacture. The approach consists of four steps: (1) small-scale experimentation, (2) model parameter estimation, (3) productivity optimization and (4) model validation with process verification. The integrated use of process experimentation and modeling enables fewer experiments to be performed, and thus minimizes the time and materials required in order to gain process understanding, which is of key importance during process development. The application of the approach is demonstrated for the capture of antibody by a novel silica-based high performance protein A adsorbent named AbSolute. In the example, a series of pulse injections and breakthrough experiments were performed to develop a lumped parameter model, which was then used to find the best design that optimizes the productivity of a batch protein A chromatographic process for human IgG capture. An optimum productivity of 2.9 kg L⁻¹ day⁻¹ for a column of 5mm diameter and 8.5 cm length was predicted, and subsequently verified experimentally, completing the whole process design approach in only 75 person-hours (or approximately 2 weeks). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Abrogation of Cbl-PI3K interaction increases bone formation and osteoblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Tracy; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Barbe, Mary F; Yingling, Vanessa; Sanjay, Archana

    2011-11-01

    Cbl is an adaptor protein and E3 ligase that plays both positive and negative roles in several signaling pathways that affect various cellular functions. Tyrosine 737 is unique to Cbl and phosphorylated by Src family kinases. Phosphorylated CblY737 creates a binding site for the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) that also plays an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. To investigate the role of Cbl-PI3K interaction in bone homeostasis, we examined knock-in mice in which the PI3K binding site on Cbl was ablated due to the substitution of tyrosine 737 to phenylalanine (Cbl(YF/YF), YF mice). We previously reported that bone volume in these mice is increased due to decreased osteoclast function (Adapala et al., J Biol Chem 285:36745-36758, 19). Here, we report that YF mice also have increased bone formation and osteoblast numbers. In ex vivo cultures bone marrow-derived YF osteoblasts showed increased Col1A expression and their proliferation was also significantly augmented. Moreover, proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was increased after treatment with conditioned medium generated by culturing YF bone marrow stromal cells. Expression of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was increased in YF bone marrow stromal cells compared to wild type. Increased immunostaining of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was observed in YF bone marrow stromal cells compared to wild type. Treatment of YF condition medium with neutralizing anti-SDF-1 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies attenuated MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Cumulatively, these results show that abrogation of Cbl-PI3K interaction perturbs bone homeostasis, affecting both osteoclast function and osteoblast proliferation.

  2. A new assay system detecting antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to trinitrophenyl hapten in an individual mouse.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, H; Fukata, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yago, H; Suehiro, S; Yanagihara, Y; Okudaira, H

    1996-01-01

    A new assay system detecting antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to trinitrophenyl hapten in an individual mouse (AS-DAD) was established. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with varying amounts of 2,4,6-trinitrophenylated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC) on day 0. Venous blood was collected on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Levels of anti-TNP IgM and IgG serum were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After series of bleeding the mice were challenged with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) solution in the footpad on day 14. Footpad swelling was measured 24 or 48 h after the challenge. Peak responses of the anti-TNP IgM and IgG production were detected 4 or 6 days after the immunization with 10(9) TNP-SRBC. Maximum DTH response was also observed with 10(9) TNP-SRBC 24 h after the challenge on day 14. The antibody and DTH responses were also induced in other normal inbred strains such as C3H/He and DBA/1 but not BALB/c nu/nu mice. To evaluate AS-DAD in immunopharmacological studies, various immunomodulating agents were examined in BALB/c mice by subcutaneous administration on days 0, 1, 2 and 3. Cyclosporin or cyclophosphamide at 100 mg/kg/day completely inhibited not only the anti-TNP IgM and IgG production but also the TNP-specific DTH response. Prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg/day had no significant effect on the IgM and IgG production, whereas it inhibited the TNP-specific DTH response. Interestingly, histamine-added mouse gamma-globulin at 150 MG/kg/day clearly enhanced the anti-TNP IgM and IgG production, while it showed a suppressive effect on the TNP-specific DTH response. Levamisole at 5.0 mg/KG/day showed suppressive effects on the anti-TNP IgG production without affecting the IgM production and the DTH response. These results suggest that AS-DAD is useful for evaluating the immunopharmacological action of various agents.

  3. Production and characterization of a broad-specificity polyclonal antibody for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides and a quantitative structure-activity relationship study of antibody recognition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyclonal antibody (PAb) with broad-specificity for O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) against a generic hapten, 4-(diethoxyphosphoro thioyloxy) benzoic acid, was produced. The obtained PAb showed high sensitivity to seven commonly used O,O-diethyl OPs in a competitive indirect enzyme-l...

  4. Expression, production, and renaturation of a functional single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) against human ICAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, H.; Wu, G.M.; Chen, Y.Y.; Tian, Y.; Yue, Y.H.; Zhang, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important factor in the progression of inflammatory responses in vivo. To develop a new anti-inflammatory drug to block the biological activity of ICAM-1, we produced a monoclonal antibody (Ka=4.19×10−8 M) against human ICAM-1. The anti-ICAM-1 single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) was expressed at a high level as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. We refolded the scFv (Ka=2.35×10−7 M) by ion-exchange chromatography, dialysis, and dilution. The results showed that column chromatography refolding by high-performance Q Sepharose had remarkable advantages over conventional dilution and dialysis methods. Furthermore, the anti-ICAM-1 scFv yield of about 60 mg/L was higher with this method. The purity of the final product was greater than 90%, as shown by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cell culture, and animal experiments were used to assess the immunological properties and biological activities of the renatured scFv. PMID:24919171

  5. Peptide-based Antibodies against Glutathione-binding Domains Suppress Superoxide Production Mediated by Mitochondrial Complex I*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingfeng; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Rawale, Sharad; Chen, Chun-An; Zweier, Jay L.; Kaumaya, Pravin T. P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2010-01-01

    Complex I (NQR) is a critical site of superoxide () production and the major host of redox protein thiols in mitochondria. In response to oxidative stress, NQR-derived protein thiols at the 51- and 75-kDa subunits are known to be reversibly S-glutathionylated. Although several glutathionylated domains from NQR 51 and 75 kDa have been identified, their roles in the regulatory functions remain to be explored. To gain further insights into protein S-glutathionylation of complex I, we used two peptides of S-glutathionylated domain (200GAGAYICGEETALIESIEGK219 of 51-kDa protein and 361VDSDTLCTEEVFPTAGAGTDLR382 of 75-kDa protein) as chimeric epitopes incorporating a “promiscuous” T-cell epitope to generate two polyclonal antibodies, AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367. Binding of AbGSCA206 and AbGSCB367 inhibited NQR-mediated generation by 37 and 57%, as measured by EPR spin-trapping. To further provide an appropriate control, two peptides of non-glutathionylated domain (21SGDTTAPKKTSFGSLKDFDR40 of 51-kDa peptide and 100WNILTNSEKTKKAREGVMEFL120 of 75-kDa peptide) were synthesized as chimeric epitopes to generate two polyclonal antibodies, Ab51 and Ab75. Binding of A51 did not affect NQR-mediated generation to a significant level. However, binding of Ab75 inhibited NQR-mediated generation by 35%. None of AbGSCA206, AbGSCB367, Ab51, or Ab75 showed an inhibitory effect on the electron transfer activity of NQR, suggesting that antibody binding to the glutathione-binding domain decreased electron leakage from the hydrophilic domain of NQR. When heart tissue homogenates were immunoprecipitated with Ab51 or Ab75 and probed with an antibody against glutathione, protein S-glutathionylation was enhanced in post-ischemic myocardium at the NQR 51-kDa subunit, but not at the 75-kDa subunit, indicating that the 51-kDa subunit of flavin subcomplex is more sensitive to oxidative stress resulting from myocardial infarction. PMID:19940158

  6. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Leadon, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. Thymine glycols were detected using a monoclonal antibody against this product in a sensitive immunoassay. We found that thymine glycols were produced in DNA in a dose dependent manner after exposure to the carcinogens and that their production was reduced if either catalase or superoxide dismutase or both were present at the time of treatment. The efficiency of thymine glycol production following exposure to the chemical carcinogens was greater than that following equi-toxic doses of radiation. Thymine glycols were efficiently removed from the DNA of human cells following treatment with either the chemical carcinogens, ionizing radiation or ultraviolet light. PMID:3477281

  7. Engineering chimeric human and mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I tetramers for the production of T-cell receptor (TCR) mimic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Carol; Yates, Jenna; Salimi, Maryam; Greig, Jenny; Wiblin, Sarah; Hassanali, Tasneem; Banham, Alison H.

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting cell surface or secreted antigens are among the most effective classes of novel immunotherapies. However, the majority of human proteins and established cancer biomarkers are intracellular. Peptides derived from these intracellular proteins are presented on the cell surface by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and can be targeted by a novel class of T-cell receptor mimic (TCRm) antibodies that recognise similar epitopes to T-cell receptors. Humoural immune responses to MHC-I tetramers rarely generate TCRm antibodies and many antibodies recognise the α3 domain of MHC-I and β2 microglobulin (β2m) that are not directly involved in presenting the target peptide. Here we describe the production of functional chimeric human-murine HLA-A2-H2Dd tetramers and modifications that increase their bacterial expression and refolding efficiency. These chimeric tetramers were successfully used to generate TCRm antibodies against two epitopes derived from wild type tumour suppressor p53 (RMPEAAPPV and GLAPPQHLIRV) that have been used in vaccination studies. Immunisation with chimeric tetramers yielded no antibodies recognising the human α3 domain and β2m and generated TCRm antibodies capable of specifically recognising the target peptide/MHC-I complex in fully human tetramers and on the cell surface of peptide pulsed T2 cells. Chimeric tetramers represent novel immunogens for TCRm antibody production and may also improve the yield of tetramers for groups using these reagents to monitor CD8 T-cell immune responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mouse models of immunotherapy. PMID:28448627

  8. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 Knockout Abrogates Radiation Induced Pulmonary Inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, Dennis E.; Virudachalam, Subbulakshmi

    1997-06-01

    Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1; CD54) is induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. The lung was used as a model to study the role of ICAM-1 in the pathogenesis of the radiation-induced inflammation-like response. ICAM-1 expression increased in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium and not in the endothelium of larger pulmonary vessels following treatment of mice with thoracic irradiation. To quantify radiation-induced ICAM-1 expression, we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of anti-ICAM-1 antibody labeling of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from human cadaver donors (HMVEC-L cells). Fluorochrome conjugates and UV microscopy were used to quantify the fluorescence intensity of ICAM in the irradiated lung. These studies showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. Peak expression occurred at 24 h, while threshold dose was as low as 2 Gy. To determine whether ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into the irradiated lung, the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody was administered by tail vein injection to mice following thoracic irradiation. Inflammatory cells were quantified by immunofluorescence for leukocyte common antigen (CD45). Mice treated with the anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody showed attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to ionizing radiation exposure. To verify the requirement of ICAM-1 in the inflammation-like radiation response, we utilized the ICAM-1 knockout mouse. ICAM-1 was not expressed in the lungs of ICAM-1-deficient mice following treatment with thoracic irradiation. ICAM-1 knockout mice had no increase in the inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung in response to thoracic irradiation. These studies demonstrate a radiation dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression in the pulmonary microvascular endothelium, and show that ICAM-1 is required for inflammatory cell infiltration

  9. Antimitochondrial antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  10. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology.

  11. Production of a monoclonal antibody against oxytetracycline and its application for oxytetracycline residue detection in shrimp*

    PubMed Central

    Wongtangprasert, Tossapon; Natakuathung, Wirongrong; Pimpitak, Umaporn; Buakeaw, Anumart; Palaga, Tanapat; Komolpis, Kittinan; Khongchareonporn, Nanthika

    2014-01-01

    A novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) against oxytetracycline (OTC) was generated and characterized. The MAb was used in the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA)-based detection system. An OTC-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate was prepared and used in the immunization of mice. A conventional somatic cell fusion technique was used to generate MAb-secreting hybridomas denoted 2-4F, 7-3G, and 11-11A. An indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) was applied to measure the sensitivity and specificity of each MAb in terms of its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and percentage of cross-reactivity, respectively. MAb 2-4F exhibited the highest sensitivity, with an IC50 of 7.01 ng/ml. This MAb showed strong cross-reactivity to rolitetracycline, but no cross-reactivity to other unrelated antibiotics. When MAb 2-4F was used to detect OTC from shrimp samples, the recoveries were in the range of 82%–118% for an intra-assay and 96%–113% for an inter-assay. The coefficients of variation of the assays were 3.9%–13.9% and 5.5%–14.9%, respectively. PMID:24510709

  12. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies to the coelomocytes of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Meng, Shaodong; Zhang, Jialin; Ding, Jun; Li, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Sea urchin is one of marine animals with high economic and great scientific research values. Axial organ is a glandular organ that has been presumed as coelomocytes origin site. In this paper, two monoclonal antibodies (3G10 and 6B3) against coelomocytes of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius were developed by hybridoma technique. The mAbs were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), flow cytometry (FCM) and western blot assay. Results showed that mAb 3G10 recognized a protein of a molecular weight of 17 kDa in the spherule cells, while mAb 6B3 reacted with a protein of a molecular weight of 35 kDa in the phagocytes. Furthermore, specificity analysis revealed that the two mAbs could react with the coelomocytes of sea urchin S. nudus and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, but not with those of other common echinoderms including sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and starfish Asterias rollestoni. To determine whether the coelomocytes exist in the axial organ of sea urchin, the IIFAT assays were carried out based on the two mAbs. Result showed that positive fluorescence signals were distributed in the organ. It was revealed that the axial organ was rich in coelomocytes, which suggests that the organ may play as a producing source or reservoir in the ontogenesis of coelomocytes of sea urchin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of monoclonal antibody against ORF72 of koi herpesvirus isolated in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chien; Lu, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Chia-Yu; Huang, Su-Ming; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chen, Meei-Mei

    2014-03-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was generated against the capsid protein (ORF 72) of koi herpesvirus (KHV) isolated from diseased koi Cyprinus carpio in Taiwan. The clone of MAb-B2 was obtained by immunizing mice with whole virus particles and further identified using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot assay. In addition, it detected KHV in KHV-infected cells but not in those of mock-infected cells as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The neutralization test showed that MAb-B2 neutralized KHV. Furthermore, we uncovered that MAb-B2 recognizes the ORF72 of KHV as revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and Western blot assays. Additionally, MAb-B2 has been used as a diagnostic tool for detection of KHV in clinical samples by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, our results indicated that MAb-B2 could be used in the development of a diagnostic kit for diagnosis of KHV infections and ORF72 protein of KHV might be a candidate for future vaccine development.

  14. Enhanced Mucosal Antibody Production and Protection against Respiratory Infections Following an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Christian; Salami, Olawale; Taneja, Manisha; Gollwitzer, Eva S.; Trompette, Aurelien; Pattaroni, Céline; Yadava, Koshika; Bauer, Jacques; Marsland, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary bacterial infections following influenza infection are a pressing problem facing respiratory medicine. Although antibiotic treatment has been highly successful over recent decades, fatalities due to secondary bacterial infections remain one of the leading causes of death associated with influenza. We have assessed whether administration of a bacterial extract alone is sufficient to potentiate immune responses and protect against primary infection with influenza, and secondary infections with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice. We show that oral administration with the bacterial extract, OM-85, leads to a maturation of dendritic cells and B-cells characterized by increases in MHC II, CD86, and CD40, and a reduction in ICOSL. Improved immune responsiveness against influenza virus reduced the threshold of susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, and thus protected the mice. The protection was associated with enhanced polyclonal B-cell activation and release of antibodies that were effective at neutralizing the virus. Taken together, these data show that oral administration of bacterial extracts provides sufficient mucosal immune stimulation to protect mice against a respiratory tract viral infection and associated sequelae. PMID:25593914

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies against Small Molecule Natural Products and Their Applications, Eastern Blotting and Knockout Extract

    PubMed Central

    Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    To determine the hapten number in hapten-carrier protein conjugate matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tof mass spectrometry was applied. Highly specific anti-ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were prepared. Ginsenosides were developed on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates which were covered by a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane resulting in blotting. The membrane was treated with NaIO4 solution to release the aldehyde group on the sugar moiety of the ginsenosides. By treatment of the membrane with a protein solution the ginsenoside-protein conjugation as a Schiff-base occurred, which can function to fix it to the PVDF membrane. A part of the ginsenoside aglycone was reacted with anti-ginsenoside Rb1 MAb, secondary MAb conjugated with enzyme and finally a substrate was added, resulting in a specific and highly sensitive staining that we named Eastern blotting. Furthermore, it makes one-step isolation of ginsenoside Rb1 possible using an immuno-affinity column conjugated with anti-ginsenoside Rb1 MAb. Furthermore, immunoaffinity concentration was carried out allowing high sensitivity analysis of lower concentrations of ginsenoside Rb1 so that several unknown bands could be structurally determined.

  16. Production of a monoclonal antibody and development of an immunoassay for detection of Cr(III) in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Yang, L; Li, Z H; Zhang, J H; Wang, X R; Liu, J Q; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Hu, P; Liu, Z S

    2013-11-01

    In this study we report the production of a monoclonal antibody (Mab) specific for Cr(III)-chelate and the development of a competitive immunoassay for detection of Cr(III) in water samples. In the assay, the complete antigen (Cr(III)-ITCBE-BSA) was used as coating antigen, and Cr(III)-ITCBE as competitor competes with coating antigen to bind with Mab. Using this approach, the spiked water samples with Cr(III) were detected. The linear range of the detection was 0.7-12.4 ng mL(-1). The limit of the detection (LOD) was 0.51 ng mL(-1). The spiked results were also confirmed by ICP-MS, which showed a good correlation (R(2)=0.997) between the two methods. The results indicated that the developed assay was reliable and suitable for the detection of Cr(III) in water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunologic analysis of human breast cancer progesterone receptors. 1. Immunonaffinity purification of transformed receptors and production of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, P.A.; Suba, E.J.; Lawler-Heavner, J.

    1987-09-22

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb), designated PR-6, produced against chick oviduct progesterone receptors cross-reacts with the M/sub r/ 120,000 human B receptors. An immunomatrix prepared with PR-6 was used to purify progesterone receptors (PR) from T47D human breast cancer cells. Single-step immunoaffinity chromatography results in enrichment of B receptors (identified by immunoblot with PR-6 and by photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)promegestone) to a specific activity of 1915 pmol/mg of protein (or 23% purity) and with 27% yield. Purity and yields as judged by gel electrophoresis and densitometric scanning of the B protein were approximately 1.7-fold higher due to partial loss inmore » hormone binding activity at the elution step. B receptors purified under these conditions are transformed and biologically active. They were maintained as undergraded 120-kDa doublets and retained both hormone and DNA binding activities. These purified B receptors were used as immunogen for production of four monoclonal antibodies against human PR. Three of the MAbs, designated as B-30 (IgG/sub 1/), B-64 (IgG/sub 1/), and B-11 (IgM), are specific for B receptors. The fourth MAb, A/B-52 (IgG/sub 1/), reacts with both A and B receptors. The IgG MAbs are monospecific for human PR since they recognize and absorb native receptor-hormone complexes, displace the sedimentation of 4S receptors on salt containing sucrose gradients, and, by immunoblot assay of crude T47D cytosol, react only with receptor polypeptides. Although mice were injected with B receptors only, production of A/B-52 which recognized both A and B receptors provides evidence that these two proteins share regions of structural homology.« less

  18. HIV-antibody complexes enhance production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Veenhuis, Rebecca T.; Freeman, Zachary T.; Korleski, Jack; Cohen, Laura K.; Tomasi, Alessandra; Boesch, Austin W.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Blankson, Joel N.; Chattergoon, Michael A.; Cox, Andrea L.

    2017-01-01

    Type I IFN production is essential for innate control of acute viral infection; however, prolonged high-level IFN production is associated with chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals. Although plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are a primary source of IFN, the mechanisms that regulate IFN levels following the acute phase are unknown. We hypothesized that HIV-specific Ab responses regulate late IFN production. We evaluated the mechanism through which HIV-activated pDCs produce IFN as well as how both monoclonal HIV-specific Abs and Abs produced in natural HIV infection modulated normal pDC sensing of HIV. We found that HIV-induced IFN production required TLR7 signaling, receptor-mediated entry, fusion, and viral uncoating, but not endocytosis or HIV life cycle stages after uncoating. Abs directed against the HIV envelope that do not interfere with CD4 binding markedly enhanced the IFN response, irrespective of their ability to neutralize CD4+ T cell infection. Ab-mediated enhancement of IFN production required Fc γ receptor engagement, bypassed fusion, and initiated signaling through both TLR7 and TLR9, which was not utilized in the absence of Ab. Polyclonal Abs isolated from HIV-infected subjects also enhanced pDC production of IFN in response to HIV. Our data provide an explanation for high levels of IFN production and immune activation in chronic HIV infection. PMID:29083319

  19. Alkylation of histidine residues of Bothrops jararacussu venom proteins and isolated phospholipases A2: a biotechnological tool to improve the production of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, C L S; Andrião-Escarso, S H; Moreira-Dill, L S; Carvalho, B M A; Marchi-Salvador, D P; Santos-Filho, N A; Fernandes, C A H; Fontes, M R M; Giglio, J R; Barraviera, B; Zuliani, J P; Fernandes, C F C; Calderón, L A; Stábeli, R G; Albericio, F; da Silva, S L; Soares, A M

    2014-01-01

    Crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and isolated phospholipases A2 (PLA2) of this toxin (BthTX-I and BthTX-II) were chemically modified (alkylation) by p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) in order to study antibody production capacity in function of the structure-function relationship of these substances (crude venom and PLA2 native and alkylated). BthTX-II showed enzymatic activity, while BthTX-I did not. Alkylation reduced BthTX-II activity by 50% while this process abolished the catalytic and myotoxic activities of BthTX-I, while reducing its edema-inducing activity by about 50%. Antibody production against the native and alkylated forms of BthTX-I and -II and the cross-reactivity of antibodies to native and alkylated toxins did not show any apparent differences and these observations were reinforced by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data. Histopathological analysis of mouse gastrocnemius muscle sections after injection of PBS, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, or both myotoxins previously incubated with neutralizing antibody showed inhibition of the toxin-induced myotoxicity. These results reveal that the chemical modification of the phospholipases A2 (PLA2) diminished their toxicity but did not alter their antigenicity. This observation indicates that the modified PLA2 may provide a biotechnological tool to attenuate the toxicity of the crude venom, by improving the production of antibodies and decreasing the local toxic effects of this poisonous substance in animals used to produce antivenom.

  20. Increased concentration of two different advanced glycation end-products detected by enzyme immunoassays with new monoclonal antibodies in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Vytásek, Richard; Sedová, Liliana; Vilím, Vladimír

    2010-05-03

    Levels of pentosidine (representative of advanced glycation end-products) in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are increased when compared with sera of other diagnoses or healthy controls. These levels have been reported to correlate with clinical indices of rheumatoid arthritis activity and with laboratory markers of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to find out if these findings pertain to other advanced glycation end-products. We have developed two immunoassays based on new monoclonal antibodies to advanced glycation end-products. Antibody 103-E3 reacts with an unidentified antigen, formed in the reaction of proteins with ribose, while antibody 8-C1 responds to Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine. We have used these monoclonal antibodies to measure levels of advanced glycation end-products in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and healthy controls. We calculated the correlations between advanced glycation end-product levels in rheumatoid arthritis sera and the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), age, disease duration, CRP, anti-CCP, rheumatoid factor and treatment with corticosteroids, respectively. Levels of both glycation products were significantly higher in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis when compared with sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, or the healthy controls. Neither the level of Nepsilon-(carboxyethyl)lysine nor the level of the 103-E3 antigen in rheumatoid arthritis sera correlated with the DAS28-scored rheumatoid arthritis activity. The levels of both antigens in rheumatoid arthritis sera did not correlate with age, gender, corticosteroid treatment, or levels of CRP, anti-CCP antibodies, and rheumatoid factor in sera. We report highly specific increases in the levels of two advanced glycation end-products in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This increase could be explained neither by rheumatoid arthritis activity nor by

  1. Improving adjuvant systems for polyclonal egg yolk antibody (IgY) production in laying hens in terms of productivity and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Marcq, Christopher; Marlier, Didier; Beckers, Yves

    2015-05-15

    The antibody production in the egg yolks of immunized laying hens is seen as a way of improving animal welfare compared with conventional production by mammals. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology, however, has still to address welfare issues linked to the widespread use of an adjuvant in vaccines. Currently, Freund's adjuvants, complete (FCA) or incomplete (FIA), remain the standard. This study sought to evaluate various approaches used to enhance egg yolk antibody production in terms of both productivity and avian welfare. The outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella Typhimurium was used as the prototype antigen. At 20 weeks of age, 56 ISA Brown hens, with specific-Salmonella-free status, were divided into seven groups (n=8) and received an initial intramuscular immunization. Hens in the two negative control groups received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or FIA alone. Hens in the other groups received 80μg of Salmonella OMP emulsified with one of the following adjuvants: 200μl of FIA alone (T1); 200μl of FIA supplemented with 8μg of C-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) (T2); and 280μl of Montanide ISA 70 VG (T4). Birds in the T3 group received the antigen in emulsion with FIA and were given the tested immunostimulatory component (l-carnitine) via their feed (100mg/kg). A positive control group (PC) received FCA for the first and final immunizations and FIA for the other boosters. Immunization was repeated after 20, 46, 82 and 221 days. Eggs were collected regularly until 242 days after the first immunization and the anti-Salmonella Typhimurium activities in the yolk were determined by ELISA. After 242 days, the birds were euthanized and the injection sites were evaluated for gross and microscopic lesions. Among the tested immunostimulatory approaches, supplementation of FIA with CpG-ODN led to a significant and long-lasting enhancement of the specific antibody response. This treatment was even higher than the positive benchmark using FCA in

  2. Production of monospecific antibodies to rat liver ornithine decarboxylase and their use in turnover studies.

    PubMed

    Obenrader, M F; Prouty, W F

    1977-05-10

    Two forms of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) were purified from the livers of rats which had been treated with thioacetamide for 16 h (for details, see miniprint to Obenrader, M.F., and Prouty, W. F. (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 2860-2865). The enzyme was purified over 7,000-fold from liver cytosol with an overall yield of 8%. Enzyme activity was eluted finally in two distinct fractions by chromatography on activated thiol-Sepharose 4B. Both forms appear to be dimeric proteins having molecular weights of approximately 100,000 by equilibrium sedimentation and analysis on a calibrated Sephadex G-200 column. The apparent subunits are approximately 50,000 daltons as determined by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Since electrophoresis in the presence of detergent is the only method used here to indicate subunits, the possibility that conditions of sample preparation resulted in splitting of a labile protein cannot be excluded from consideration. Ornithine decarboxylase has a very broad pH-activity curve with an optimum that shifts from pH 7.0 to pH 7.8 as the enzyme is purified. The apparent Km values for a highly purified mixture of the two forms of enzyme for L-ornithine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were determined to be 0.13 mM and 0.25 micronM, respectively. Both sodium and potassium chloride were shown to inhibit enzymatic activity; 50% inhibition occurred at 270 mM for each when Km amounts or ornithine were used. Rat liver ornithine decarboxylase antiserum was prepared in rabbits using Form I of the enzyme as the antigen. The antibody was shown to precipitate quantitatively the ornithine decarboxylase activity isolated from induced rat liver and rat ventral prostate. The specificity of the antiserum was demonstrated by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate using immunoprecipitates obtained from enzyme preparations labeled either

  3. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibody against immunoglobulin D heavy chain of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Liu, Fuguo; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-05-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is considered to be an enigmatic Ig molecule because of the lack understanding of its immunological functions. In the present study, a partial δ region of the flounder IgD was recombinantly expressed, purified and used as an immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the H chain of flounder IgD. After fusion, a total of 97 hybridomas were generated and observed under an inverted microscope One of the hybridomas, designated 5G7, gave strong positive results in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and was cloned and subcloned by limiting dilution. Western blot analysis showed that MAb 5G7 could specifically recognize a 118 kDa protein from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), which was identified to be the H chain of flounder IgD by mass spectrometric analysis. Indirect immunofluorescence assay tests (IIFAT) showed that specific fluorescence signals were observed on the membranes of the PBLs, which suggests that MAb 5G7 could recognize the membrane-bound IgD molecule. Moreover, only the subset of IgD+/IgM + B cells were observed in the PBLs of healthy flounder when tested by flow cytometry analysis. Consistent with the results of flow cytometry, a double immunofluorescence assay test (DIFAT) showed that the positive lymphocytes were stained with both green and red fluorescence signals, which represent the IgM+/IgD + lymphocytes subset. These results demonstrate that the produced MAb 5G7 could specifically recognize the flounder IgD, which provides a useful tool to study the functions of flounder IgD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to pangasius catfish, basa, and tra.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, K G; Chen, Y-T; Hsieh, Y-H P

    2009-04-01

    Four IgG (subclass IgG1) class monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) strongly reactive to Asian farm-raised Pangasius catfish, tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and basa (Pangasius bocourti), have been developed. These MAbs were raised by immunizing an animal with thermal-stable crude sarcoplasmic protein extract of cooked tra. The MAbs were selected by screening hybridoma clones against more than 70 common fish and meat protein extracts. Two MAbs, T7E10 and T1G11, were found to be specific to the Asian Pangasius catfish, tra, and basa, with no cross-reactions with any of the common fish and meat species or with the food additive proteins (bovine serum albumin, soy proteins, milk proteins, egg proteins, and gelatin) tested. MAb T7E10 recognized 2 antigenic proteins (molecular weight approximately 36 and 75 kDa) in raw and cooked tra and basa extracts, while T1G11 bound to several proteins (molecular weight between 13 and 18 kDa) in tra and basa extracts. Two other MAbs, F7B8 and F1G11, recognized a common protein (36 KDa) and cross-reacted with all the fish extracts tested and with several mammalian species. These MAbs can be employed individually or in combination in various formats of immunoassays for rapid identification of Pangasius catfish, either raw or cooked. They can also be used to study the biological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of thermal-stable antigenic proteins. This is the first study identifying these thermal-stable antigenic proteins present in Pangasius catfish as species-specific biomarkers.

  5. Production of an anti-dermatophyte monoclonal antibody and its application: immunochromatographic detection of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Noriki, Sakon; Ishida, Hisaya

    2016-01-01

    Tinea refers to superficial infection with one of three fungal genera—Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton—that are collectively known as dermatophytes. These infections are among the most common diseases worldwide and cause chronic morbidity. They are usually diagnosed by direct microscopy and fungal culture, which are burdensome to perform in the clinical setting. To supplement conventional methods, we developed a new method that employs an immunochromatography test for detection of dermatophyte infections. First, anti-Trichophyton monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced in mice using a Trichophyton allergen solution as an immunogen. The mAb specificity was assessed by immunostaining alcohol fixed slide cultures and formalin fixed paraffin-embedded microbial samples. Both alcohol- and formalin-fixed samples of all seven species of Trichophyton tested displayed positive immunostaining. Immunochromatography test strips were created using the anti-Trichophyton mAb. The efficiency of the test strip was assessed in patients diagnosed with tinea unguium and in healthy volunteers. Of the 20 patient nails tested, 19 tested positive and one tested negative, whereas of the 17 volunteer nails, only one tested positive. However, KOH microscopic examination of the volunteer nail that tested positive revealed the existence of Trichophyton hyphae. Although the number of nails assayed was small, since the assay had a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) and a specificity of 94.1% (16/17), the obtained results were considered to be promising. Thus, while further investigation with a greater number of samples is necessary, this method could potentially be employed as a new diagnostic tool for Trichophyton in the future. PMID:27250927

  6. An Approach to Mitigate Particle Formation on the Dilution of a Monoclonal Antibody Drug Product in an IV Administration Fluid.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Songyan; Adams, Monica; Mantri, Rao V

    2016-03-01

    To support dose reduction, low dose of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was required to be administered via IV infusion at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. To achieve the target protein concentration, the infusion solution was prepared by diluting the drug product containing 10-mg/mL mAb with normal saline, a 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution. However, particles were observed in the diluted solution. Particle formation must be avoided to administer the low dose using the existing drug product. To mitigate the particle formation, an unconventional compounding approach was used. With this approach, a stabilizing vehicle containing polysorbate-80 was added to saline before drug-product dilution to maintain suitable surfactant level to prevent precipitation of the mAb. In this way, use of the stabilizing vehicle to support low doses ensured suitable quality across a wider range of mAb concentrations, thereby allowing additional flexibility to the clinical trial. Such an approach may be useful for broader application in early-stage clinical trials where there is an uncertainty regarding doses or the need to revise to lower doses based on clinical observations or other drivers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Recombinant Escherichia coli in High-Cell- Density Fermentations for Improved Production of an Antibody Fragment Biopharmaceutical

    PubMed Central

    Aldor, Ilana S.; Krawitz, Denise C.; Forrest, William; Chen, Christina; Nishihara, Julie C.; Joly, John C.; Champion, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a proteomic analysis over time was conducted with high-cell-density, industrial, phosphate-limited Escherichia coli fermentations at the 10-liter scale. During production, a recombinant, humanized antibody fragment was secreted and assembled in a soluble form in the periplasm. E. coli protein changes associated with culture conditions were distinguished from protein changes associated with heterologous protein expression. Protein spots were monitored quantitatively and qualitatively. Differentially expressed proteins were quantitatively assessed by using a t-test method with a 1% false discovery rate as a significance criterion. As determined by this criterion, 81 protein spots changed significantly between 14 and 72 h (final time) of the control fermentations (vector only). Qualitative (on-off) comparisons indicated that 20 more protein spots were present only at 14 or 72 h in the control fermentations. These changes reflected physiological responses to the culture conditions. In control and production fermentations at 72 h, 25 protein spots were significantly differentially expressed. In addition, 19 protein spots were present only in control or production fermentations at this time. The quantitative and qualitative changes were attributable to overexpression of recombinant protein. The physiological changes observed during the fermentations included the up-regulation of phosphate starvation proteins and the down-regulation of ribosomal proteins and nucleotide biosynthesis proteins. Synthesis of the stress protein phage shock protein A (PspA) was strongly correlated with synthesis of a recombinant product. This suggested that manipulation of PspA levels might improve the soluble recombinant protein yield in the periplasm for this bioprocess. Indeed, controlled coexpression of PspA during production led to a moderate, but statistically significant, improvement in the yield. PMID:15811994

  9. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b+CD5+ B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d−/− mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γcnull) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:23943651

  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against conserved epitopes of P-selectin (CD62P).

    PubMed

    Massaguer, A; Engel, P; Pérez-del-Pulgar, S; Bosch, J; Pizcueta, P

    2000-08-01

    P-selectin (CD62P) is an adhesion molecule expressed on the activated endothelium and activated platelets that is involved in the initial attachment of leukocytes to inflamed vascular endothelium. Blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and P-selectin-deficient mice have shown that P-selectin is a potential target in anti-inflammatory therapy. Most mAbs against P-selectin do not bind to conserved epitopes, including the ligand-binding region, since P-selectin from mammalian species shares high amino acid sequence homology. The aim of this study was to generate a novel panel of anti-P-selectin mAbs against the conserved epitopes present in several animal species. To produce these mAbs, P-selectin-deficient mice were immunized with a pre-B-cell line transfected with human P-selectin cDNA. Twelve mouse mAbs that recognize human P-selectin were obtained. Individual mAbs that bound to human, rat, mouse, rabbit and pig activated platelets were characterized by flow-cytometry, immunohistochemistry, adhesion assays and immunoprecipitation. Four of these mAbs (P-sel.KO.2.3, P-sel.KO.2.4, P-sel.KO.2.7 and P-sel.KO.2.12) cross-reacted with human, rat and mouse P-selectin. Another three mAbs (P-sel.KO.2.2, P-sel.KO.2.11 and P-sel.KO.2.12) blocked the attachment of HL60 cells to P-selectin-transfected COS cells, demonstrating that these mAbs inhibit P-selectin-mediated adhesion. MAb cross-blocking experiments showed that these three mAbs bind to very close and overlapping epitopes. An ELISA assay using mAbs P-sel.KO.2.3 and P-sel.KO.2.12 was designed to measure soluble rat, mouse and human P-selectin. These anti-P-selectin mAbs are unique since they recognize common epitopes conserved during mammalian evolution and they may be useful for studying P-selectin function in inflammatory models in various species.

  11. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant cathepsin L1 of Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Srirakam, Thippawan; Pandonlan, Sudarat; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against a recombinant cathepsin L1 of Fasciola gigantica (rFgCatL1) were produced in vitro by fusion of BALB/c mice spleen cells immunized with rFgCatL1 and mouse myeloma cells. Reactivity and specificity of these MoAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Seven MoAb clones were selected from the stable hybridoma clones, namely 1E10, 1F5, 3D11, 4B10, 4D3, 4E3 and 5E7. Clones 1E10, 1F5 and 3D11 were IgM, whereas clones 4B10, 4D3, 4E3 and 5E7 were IgG1. All MoAbs had kappa light chain isotypes. All MoAbs reacted with rCatL1 at molecular weight (MW) 30kDa and with the native CatL1 at MW 27kDa in whole body (WB) extracts of metacercariae (Met), newly excysted juveniles (NEJ), 1, 3, 5-week-old juveniles (Ju), adult WB and adult excretory-secretory (ES) fractions, but not with adult tegumental antigens (TA). All of these MoAbs showed no cross-reactions with antigens of other parasites commonly found in ruminants and human, including Paramphistomum cervi, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Schistosoma spindale, Schistosoma mansoni, Moniezia benedeni, Avitellina centripunctata, Trichuris sp., Haemonchus placei and Setaria labiato-papillosa. Localization of CatL1 in each developmental stages of F. gigantica by immunoperoxidase technique, using these MoAbs as probes, indicated that CatL1 was present at high concentration in the caecal epithelium and caecal lumen of metacercariae, NEJ, 1, 3, 5-week-old juveniles and adult fluke. This finding indicated that CatL1 is a copiously expressed parasite protein that is released into the ES, thus CatL1 and its MoAb could be a good candidate for immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis in ruminant and human. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 from Clonorchis sinensis induce Th1 response and stimulate antibody production.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Ju, Jung-Won

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are found in all prokaryotes and most compartments of eukaryotic cells. Members of the HSP family mediate immune responses to tissue damage or cellular stress. However, little is known about the immune response induced by the oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, even though this organism is carcinogenic to humans. We address this issue in the present study in mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (mBMDCs), using recombinant HSP70 and 90 from C. sinensis (rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90). rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90 were produced in an E. coli system. Purified recombinant proteins were treated in BMDCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice. T cells were isolated from Balb/c mice and co-cultured with activated mBMDCs. Expression of surface molecules was measured by flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was quantified using ELISA. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups, including peptide alone, peptide/Freund's adjuvant, peptide/CsHSP70, peptide/CsHSP90, and were immunized intraperitoneally three times. Two weeks after final immunization, antibodies against peptide were measured using ELISA. Both proteins induced a dose-dependent upregulation in major histocompatibility complex and co-stimulatory molecule expression and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, and -12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-α in mBMDCs. Furthermore, when allogenic T cells were incubated with mBMDCs activated by rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90, the helper T cell (Th)1 cytokine interferon-γ was up-regulated whereas the level of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was unchanged. These results indicate that rCsHSPs predominantly induce a Th1 response. Over and above these results, we also demonstrated that the production of peptide-specific antibodies can be activated after immunization via in vitro peptide binding with rCsHSP70 or rCsHSP90. This study showed for the first time that the HSP or HSP/peptide complexes of C. sinensis could be considered as a more effective

  13. An efficient method to control high mannose and core fucose levels in glycosylated antibody production using deoxymannojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Shalel Levanon, Sagit; Aharonovitz, Orit; Maor-Shoshani, Ayelet; Abraham, Gita; Kenett, Dan; Aloni, Yehoshua

    2018-06-20

    Glycosylation on the Fc region of recombinant Immunoglobulin G (IgG) therapeutic antibodies is a critical protein quality attribute which may affect the efficacy and safety of the molecule. During the development of biosimilar therapeutics, adjustment of the glycosylation profile is required in order to match the reference innovator profile. Deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ), a known inhibitor of mannosidase, was used in this study to modulate the glycosylation pattern of antibodies. The effect of DMJ, at concentrations of 5 μM - 500 μM, on non-fucosylated glycoform levels was tested in the biosynthesis processes of two different IgG1 (IgG1 #A and IgG1 #B) using two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines (CHO-DXB-11 and CHOK1SV, respectively) in Erlenmeyer flasks and in lab scale bioreactors. DMJ affected glycan forms in a dose response manner. At the highest concentration tested, DMJ reduced N-linked complex glycoform and core fucose levels by 15 and 14 fold, respectively, and increased high mannose level by 21 fold. 10 μM DMJ decreased IgG1 #A core fucose level in CHO-DXB-11 from 92% to 73% and increased high mannose level from 4% to 22% in Erlenmeyer flasks. Furthermore, in lab scale bioreactors, 15 μM DMJ decreased IgG1 #A core fucose level from 95% to 84% and increased high mannose level from 3% to 13%. Core fucose level of IgG1 #B in CHOK1SV was decreased from 81% to 73% using 10 μM DMJ in lab scale bioreactors while high mannose was increased from 6% to 15%. While affecting core fucose and high mannose levels, DMJ decreased maximum viable cell concentration by 16% and did not significantly affect cell productivity (less than 10%). This study demonstrated that DMJ can enable the control of core fucosylated and high mannose levels of IgG1 antibodies in a defined range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Protective Antigen Component of Bacillus anthracis Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-21

    concentration. Radial immmurnodiffusion plates were prepared with rabbit anti-mouse IgG ( Miles Scientific, Naperville, I) or rabbit anti-mouse IgM (Kirkegaard...6. Ezzell , J. W., B. E. Ivins, and S. H. Leppla. 1964. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis, toxicity, and kinetics o4 in 16 vitro production of the

  15. Protection from Staphylococcus aureus mastitis associated with poly-N-acetyl β-1,6 glucosamine specific antibody production using biofilm-embedded bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, M. M.; Prenafeta, A.; Valle, J.; Penadés, J.; Rota, C.; Solano, C.; Marco, J.; Grilló, M.J.; Lasa, I.; Irache, J.M.; Maira-Litran, T.; Jiménez-Barbero, J.; Costa, L.; Pier, G.B.; de Andrés, D.; Amorena, B.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus vaccines based on bacterins surrounded by slime, surface polysaccharides coupled to protein carriers and polysaccharides embedded in liposomes administered together with non-biofilm bacterins confer protection against mastitis. However, it remains unknown whether protective antibodies are directed to slime-associated known exopolysaccharides and could be produced in the absence of bacterin immunizations. Here, a sheep mastitis vaccination study was carried out using bacterins, crude bacterial extracts or a purified exopolysaccharide from biofilm bacteria delivered in different vehicles. This polysaccharide reacted specifically with antibodies to poly-N-acetyl-β-1,6-glucosamine (PNAG) and not with antibodies to other capsular antigens or bacterial components. Following intra-mammary challenge with biofilm-producing bacteria, antibody production against the polysaccharide, milk bacterial counts and mastitis lesions were determined. Bacterins from strong biofilm-producing bacteria triggered the highest production of antibodies to PNAG and conferred the highest protection against infection and mastitis, compared with weak biofilm-producing bacteria and non-cellular inocula. Thus, bacterins from strong biofilm bacteria, rather than purified polysaccharide, are proposed as a cost-efficient vaccination against S. aureus ruminant mastitis. PMID:19428854

  16. Preparation of studies on antibody production against food allergens in mice and effect of flavonoids in simultaneous injection into mouse skin.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We had tried to evaluate antibody production against food allergens in mouse models. Some food allergens, which were beta-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, and peanut allergen Ara h 1, were used as immunoges in this experiment. Under the same conditions these allergens were immunized as emulsion with freund...

  17. EB66 cell line, a duck embryonic stem cell-derived substrate for the industrial production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies with enhanced ADCC activity.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Stéphane; Jacoby, Marine; Brillon, Cédric; Bouletreau, Sylvana; Mollet, Thomas; Nerriere, Olivier; Angel, Audrey; Danet, Sévérine; Souttou, Boussad; Guehenneux, Fabienne; Gauthier, Laurent; Berthomé, Mathilde; Vié, Henri; Beltraminelli, Nicola; Mehtali, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. The increasing demand for mAb manufacturing and the associated high production costs call for the pharmaceutical industry to improve its current production processes or develop more efficient alternative production platforms. The experimental control of IgG fucosylation to enhance antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity constitutes one of the promising strategies to improve the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and to potentially reduce the therapeutic cost. We report here that the EB66 cell line derived from duck embryonic stem cells can be efficiently genetically engineered to produce mAbs at yields beyond a 1 g/L, as suspension cells grown in serum-free culture media. EB66 cells display additional attractive grown characteristics such as a very short population doubling time of 12 to 14 hours, a capacity to reach very high cell density (> 30 million cells/mL) and a unique metabolic profile resulting in low ammonium and lactate accumulation and low glutamine consumption, even at high cell densities. Furthermore, mAbs produced on EB66 cells display a naturally reduced fucose content resulting in strongly enhanced ADCC activity. The EB66 cells have therefore the potential to evolve as a novel cellular platform for the production of high potency therapeutic antibodies.

  18. The integrated simulation and assessment of the impacts of process change in biotherapeutic antibody production.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Sunil; Jones, Carl; Francis, Richard; O'Donovan, Kieran; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel; Newcombe, Anthony; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Growing commercial pressures in the pharmaceutical industry are establishing a need for robust computer simulations of whole bioprocesses to allow rapid prediction of the effects of changes made to manufacturing operations. This paper presents an integrated process simulation that models the cGMP manufacture of the FDA-approved biotherapeutic CroFab, an IgG fragment used to treat rattlesnake envenomation (Protherics U.K. Limited, Blaenwaun, Ffostrasol, Llandysul, Wales, U.K.). Initially, the product is isolated from ovine serum by precipitation and centrifugation, before enzymatic digestion of the IgG to produce FAB and FC fragments. These are purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography to remove the FC and non-specific FAB fragments from the final venom-specific FAB product. The model was constructed in a discrete event simulation environment and used to determine the potential impact of a series of changes to the process, such as increasing the step efficiencies or volumes of chromatographic matrices, upon product yields and process times. The study indicated that the overall FAB yield was particularly sensitive to changes in the digestive and affinity chromatographic step efficiencies, which have a predicted 30% greater impact on process FAB yield than do the precipitation or centrifugation stages. The study showed that increasing the volume of affinity matrix has a negligible impact upon total process time. Although results such as these would require experimental verification within the physical constraints of the process and the facility, the model predictions are still useful in allowing rapid "what-if" scenario analysis of the likely impacts of process changes within such an integrated production process.

  19. Model-directed engineering of "difficult-to-express" monoclonal antibody production by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Leon P; Dean, Greg; West, Nathan R; Smith, Andrew; Daramola, Olalekan; Field, Ray; Wilkinson, Stephen J; James, David C

    2014-02-01

    Despite improvements in volumetric titer for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production processes using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, some "difficult-to-express" (DTE) MAbs inexplicably reach much lower process titers. These DTE MAbs require intensive cell line and process development activity, rendering them more costly or even unsuitable to manufacture. To rapidly and rationally identify an optimal strategy to improve production of DTE MAbs, we have developed an engineering design platform combining high-yielding transient production, empirical modeling of MAb synthesis incorporating an unfolded protein response (UPR) regulatory loop with directed expression and cell engineering approaches. Utilizing a panel of eight IgG1 λ MAbs varying >4-fold in volumetric titer, we showed that MAb-specific limitations on folding and assembly rate functioned to induce a proportionate UPR in host CHO cells with a corresponding reduction in cell growth rate. Derived from comparative empirical modeling of cellular constraints on the production of each MAb we employed two strategies to increase production of DTE MAbs designed to avoid UPR induction through an improvement in the rate/cellular capacity for MAb folding and assembly reactions. Firstly, we altered the transfected LC:HC gene ratio and secondly, we co-expressed a variety of molecular chaperones, foldases or UPR transactivators (BiP, CypB, PDI, and active forms of ATF6 and XBP1) with recombinant MAbs. DTE MAb production was significantly improved by both strategies, although the mode of action was dependent upon the approach employed. Increased LC:HC ratio or CypB co-expression improved cell growth with no effect on qP. In contrast, BiP, ATF6c and XBP1s co-expression increased qP and reduced cell growth. This study demonstrates that expression-engineering strategies to improve production of DTE proteins in mammalian cells should be product specific, and based on rapid predictive tools to assess the relative impact of

  20. T cell-dependent antibody production by Ly-1 B cells.

    PubMed

    Taki, S; Schmitt, M; Tarlinton, D; Förster, I; Rajewsky, K

    1992-05-04

    Through the use of a SCID transfer system, we have demonstrated that under certain conditions, the production of Ig by Ly-1 B cells can be modulated by T cells. This modulation can take the form of enhanced isotype production or isotype-switch induction and to some extent appears to be dependent on the activation state of the T cells. Furthermore we have shown that Ly-1 B cells can mount an idiotypically restricted T cell-dependent immune response to the antigen PC-KLH. This result suggests that the previous failure to observe T cell-dependent responses by Ly-1 B cells has been due to these B cells being "blind" to the antigens used and is not due to some inherent property of these B cells. When one considers the previous reports of the substantial contribution of Ly-1 B cells to the natural serum immunoglobulin levels and the ability of T cells to affect Ig production by Ly-1 B cells documented in this report, it is clear that the interaction of T cells with the Ly-1 B-cell population is important in determining the "natural" serum Ig repertoire of the mouse.

  1. Medical molecular farming: production of antibodies, biopharmaceuticals and edible vaccines in plants

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry; Streatfield, Stephen J.; Wycoff, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The use of plants for medicinal purposes dates back thousands of years but genetic engineering of plants to produce desired biopharmaceuticals is much more recent. As the demand for biopharmaceuticals is expected to increase, it would be wise to ensure that they will be available in significantly larger amounts, on a cost-effective basis. Currently, the cost of biopharmaceuticals limits their availability. Plant-derived biopharmaceuticals are cheap to produce and store, easy to scale up for mass production, and safer than those derived from animals. Here, we discuss recent developments in this field and possible environmental concerns. PMID:11335175

  2. In vitro production of monoclonal antibodies under serum-free conditions using a compact and inexpensive hollow fibre cell culture unit.

    PubMed

    Klerx, J P; Jansen Verplanke, C; Blonk, C G; Twaalfhoven, L C

    1988-07-22

    A compact and easily portable hollow fibre cell culture system using commercially available components is described. The construction is relatively cheap and simple. As the hollow fibre cell culture cartridge we chose an inexpensive haemodialyser. Though not specially developed for this purpose this performed excellently in our system. Using a serum-free medium supplemented with ethanolamine, selenium and transferrin, an average antibody production of 30-200 mg per cartridge per day could be achieved, depending on the cell line. Because a serum-free medium was used, monoclonal antibodies could readily be purified on a large scale.

  3. Lack of gender-specific antibody recognition of products from domains of a var gene implicated in pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anja T R; Zornig, Hanne D; Buhmann, Caecilie; Salanti, Ali; Koram, Kwadwo A; Riley, Eleanor M; Theander, Thor G; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2003-07-01

    Gender-specific and parity-dependent acquired antibody recognition is characteristic of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed by chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-adherent Plasmodium falciparum involved in pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). However, antibody recognition of recombinant products of a specific VSA gene (2O2var1) implicated in PAM and transcribed by a CSA-adhering parasite line did not have these characteristics. Furthermore, we could not demonstrate preferential transcription of 2O2var1 in the CSA-adhering line versus the unselected, parental isolate. Our data call for circumspection regarding the molecular identity of the parasite ligand mediating adhesion to CSA in PAM.

  4. A global RNA-seq-driven analysis of CHO host and production cell lines reveals distinct differential expression patterns of genes contributing to recombinant antibody glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Könitzer, Jennifer D; Müller, Markus M; Leparc, Germán; Pauers, Martin; Bechmann, Jan; Schulz, Patrick; Schaub, Jochen; Enenkel, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Hampel, Martin; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2015-09-01

    Boehringer Ingelheim uses two CHO-DG44 lines for manufacturing biotherapeutics, BI-HEX-1 and BI-HEX-2, which produce distinct cell type-specific antibody glycosylation patterns. A recently established CHO-K1 descended host, BI-HEX-K1, generates antibodies with glycosylation profiles differing from CHO-DG44. Manufacturing process development is significantly influenced by these unique profiles. To investigate the underlying glycosylation related gene expression, we leveraged our CHO host and production cell RNA-seqtranscriptomics and product quality database together with the CHO-K1 genome. We observed that each BI-HEX host and antibody producing cell line has a unique gene expression fingerprint. CHO-DG44 cells only transcribe Fut10, Gfpt2 and ST8Sia6 when expressing antibodies. BI-HEX-K1 cells express ST8Sia6 at host cell level. We detected a link between BI-HEX-1/BI-HEX-2 antibody galactosylation and mannosylation and the gene expression of the B4galt gene family and genes controlling mannose processing. Furthermore, we found major differences between the CHO-DG44 and CHO-K1 lineages in the expression of sialyl transferases and enzymes synthesizing sialic acid precursors, providing a rationale for the lack of immunogenic NeuGc/NGNA synthesis in CHO. Our study highlights the value of systems biotechnology to understand glycoprotein synthesis and product glycoprofiles. Such data improve future production clone selection and process development strategies for better steering of biotherapeutic product quality. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Human epidermal growth factor receptor bispecific ligand trap RB200: abrogation of collagen-induced arthritis in combination with tumour necrosis factor blockade

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease associated with inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage. Although inhibition of TNFα is widely used to treat RA, a significant number of patients do not respond to TNFα blockade, and therefore there is a compelling need to continue to identify alternative therapeutic strategies for treating chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA. The anti-epidermal growth factor (anti-EGF) receptor antibody trastuzumab has revolutionised the treatment of patients with EGF receptor-positive breast cancer. Expression of EGF ligands and receptors (known as HER) has also been documented in RA. The highly unique compound RB200 is a bispecific ligand trap that is composed of full-length extracellular domains of HER1 and HER3 EGF receptors. Because of its pan-HER specificity, RB200 inhibits responses mediated by HER1, HER2 and HER3 in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of RB200 combined with TNF blockade in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. Methods Arthritic mice were treated with RB200 alone or in combination with the TNF receptor fusion protein etanercept. We performed immunohistochemistry to assess CD31 and in vivo fluorescent imaging using anti-E-selectin antibody labelled with fluorescent dye to elucidate the effect of RB200 on the vasculature in CIA. Results RB200 significantly abrogated CIA by reducing paw swelling and clinical scores. Importantly, low-dose RB200 combined with a suboptimal dose of etanercept led to complete abrogation of arthritis. Moreover, the combination of RB200 with etanercept abrogated the intensity of the E-selectin-targeted signal to the level seen in control animals not immunised to CIA. Conclusions The human pan-EGF receptor bispecific ligand trap RB200, when combined with low-dose etanercept, abrogates CIA, suggesting that inhibition of events downstream of EGF receptor activation, in combination with TNFα inhibitors, may

  6. Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani; Müller, Christian; Wagtberg Sen, Jette; Rasmussen, Søren Kofoed; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Weilguny, Dietmar; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-03-01

    Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer, and N-glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylation-related product quality. In this work, different fed-batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media and feeds were studied using two IgG-producing cell lines. Our results indicate that the balance of glucose and amino acid concentration in the culture is important for cell growth, IgG titer and N-glycosylation. Accordingly, the ideal fate of glucose and amino acids in the culture could be mainly towards energy and recombinant product, respectively. Accumulation of by-products such as NH4(+) and lactate as a consequence of unbalanced nutrient supply to cell activities inhibits cell growth. The levels of Leu and Arg in the culture, which relate to cell growth and IgG productivity, need to be well controlled. Amino acids with the highest consumption rates correlate with the most abundant amino acids present in the produced IgG, and thus require sufficient availability during culture. Case-by-case analysis is necessary for understanding the effect of media and process optimization on glycosylation. We found that in certain cases the presence of Man5 glycan can be linked to limitation of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis as a result of insufficient extracellular Gln. However, under different culture conditions, high Man5 levels can also result from low α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTI) and UDP-GlcNAc transporter activities, which may be attributed to high level of NH4+ in the cell culture. Furthermore, galactosylation of the mAb Fc glycans

  7. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  8. An Alternative Chemical Redox Method for the Production of Bispecific Antibodies: Implication in Rapid Detection of Food Borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Mohammad; Kazmi, Shadab; Tufail, Saba; Zubair, Swaleha

    2014-01-01

    Bi-functional antibodies with the ability to bind two unrelated epitopes have remarkable potential in diagnostic and bio-sensing applications. In the present study, bispecific antibodies that recognize human red blood cell (RBC) and the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) were engineered. The procedure involves initial reduction of a mixture of anti-RBC and anti-Listeria antibodies followed by gradual re-oxidation of the reduced disulphides. This facilitates association of the separated antibody chains and formation of hybrid immunoglobulins with affinity for the L. monocytogenes and human RBC. The bispecific antibodies caused the agglutination of the RBCs only in the presence of L. monocytogenes cells. The agglutination process necessitated the specific presence of L. monocytogenes and the red colored clumps formed were readily visible with naked eyes. The RBC agglutination assay described here provides a remarkably simple approach for the rapid and highly specific screening of various pathogens in their biological niches. PMID:24637674

  9. High production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to various reader proteins by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Ishida, Hiroki; Hata, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) fused to four different reader proteins was produced and secreted in culture medium by Aspergillus oryzae. These fusion proteins consisted of N-terminal reader proteins, VHH, and a C-terminal his-tag sequence which facilitated purification using one-step his-tag affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis of the deglycosylated purified fusion proteins confirmed that the molecular weight of each corresponded to the expected sum of VHH and the respective reader proteins. The apparent high molecular weight reader protein glucoamylase (GlaB) was found to be suitable for efficient VHH production. The GlaB-VHH-His protein bound its antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and was detectable by a new ELISA-based method using a coupled assay with glucoamylase, glucose oxidase, peroxidase, maltose, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. Addition of potassium phosphate to the culture medium induced secretion of 0.61 mg GlaB-VHH-His protein/ml culture medium in 5 days.

  10. Novel ISCOMs from Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce mucosal and systemic antibody production, T-cell responses and improved antigen uptake.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Quirici, Lenora; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ferreira, Fernando; Silveira, Fernando

    2016-02-24

    In the last decades, significant efforts have been dedicated to the search for novel vaccine adjuvants. In this regard, saponins and its formulations as "immunostimulating complexes" (ISCOMs) have shown to be capable of stimulating potent humoral and cellular immune responses, enhanced cytokine production and activation of cytotoxic T cells. The immunological activity of ISCOMs formulated with a saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis (QB-90 fraction) as an alternative to classical ISCOMs based on Quil A(®) (IQA) is presented here. The ISCOMs prepared with QB-90, named IQB-90, typically consist of 40-50 nm, spherical, cage-like particles, built up by QB-90, cholesterol, phospholipids and antigen (ovalbumin, OVA). These nanoparticles were efficiently uptaken in vitro by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Subcutaneously inoculated IQB-90 induced strong serum antibody responses encompassing specific IgG1 and IgG2a, robust DTH reactions, significant T cell proliferation and increases in Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) cytokine responses. Intranasally delivered IQB-90 elicited serum IgG and IgG1, and mucosal IgA responses at distal systemic sites (nasal passages, large intestine and vaginal lumen). These results indicate that IQB-90 is a promising alternative to classic ISCOMs as vaccine adjuvants, capable of enhancing humoral and cellular immunity to levels comparable to those induced by ISCOMs manufactured with Quillaja saponaria saponins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody and application as a receptor to detection amatoxins in mushroom.

    PubMed

    He, Kuo; Mao, Qingwen; Zang, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Yanyu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Donghao

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report the production of a monoclonal broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for amatoxins and development of an indirect competitive immunoassay for detection of amatoxins in mushroom samples. In the assay, the complete antigen (α-amanitin-OVA) was used as coating antigen, and amatoxins as competitor competes with coating antigen to bind with mAb. Using this approach, The half-maximum inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) of α-amanitin, β-amanitin and γ-amanitin, and limits of detection (LODs, IC 15 ) were 66.3, 97.4, 163.1 ng/mL and 0.91, 0.98, 0.89 ng/mL, respectively. The LODs for α-amanitin, β-amanitin and γ-amanitin in mushroom samples were 4.55, 4.9, and 4.45 ng/mL. The spiked results were also confirmed by HPLC, which showed a good correlation (R 2  = 0.996) between the two methods. The results indicated that the developed assay was reliable and suitable for the detection of amatoxins in mushroom samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sleep Deprivation and Late Bedtime Impair Sperm Health Through Increasing Antisperm Antibody Production: A Prospective Study of 981 Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Mei; Liu, Li; Chen, Liang; Yin, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yan-Hua; Li, Pei-Ling; Wang, Shan; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Yu, Cai-Hong

    2017-04-16

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep duration and bedtime on sperm health, and the possible mechanism involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS We randomly divided 981 healthy Chinese men into groups according to research-set bedtimes (A=8-10 PM, B=after 10 PM, and C=after midnight) and sleep durations: group 1=<6.0 h (short), group 2=7.0-8.0 h (average), and group 3=>9.0 h (long). Sperm morphology, count, survival, and motility were examined according to sleep patterns. Antisperm antibody (ASA) production in semen was determined. RESULTS Sperm counts and their survival rates were lower in the short sleepers as compared to others within each group (all P<0.01). The lower counts and survival rates were observed in different bedtimes, with significant differences found between measurements of C1 vs. A1 and C2 vs. A2 or B2 (all P<0.05 or 0.01). Semen motility was lower in the short sleepers as compared to the average and long sleepers (all P<0.01). There were differences in the bedtime-related results between measurements of C1 vs. A1 or B1 (P<0.05 or 0.01). Additionally, the population proportion for the ASA-positive participates and incidence of the ASA-expressed population obviously increased in the short sleepers as compared to others within each group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Short and long sleep durations and late bedtime were associated with impaired sperm health in the study cohort, partly through increasing ASA production in the semen.

  13. Aging-dependent decline of IL-10 producing B cells coincides with production of antinuclear antibodies but not rheumatoid factors.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Kornelis S M; Lorencetti, Pedro G; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Horst, Gerda; Huitema, Minke; Roozendaal, Caroline; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M H

    2016-03-01

    Aging is associated with development of autoimmunity. Loss of B cell tolerance in the elderly is suggested by an increased prevalence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) and rheumatoid factors (RFs). Accumulating evidence indicates that B cells also impact autoimmunity via secretion of cytokines. So far, few studies have directly assessed the effect of aging on the latter B cell function. Here, we determined if and how human aging influences the production of cytokines by B cells. In a cross-sectional study, we found that absolute numbers of circulating B cells were similar in 31 young (ages 19-39) and 73 old (age ≥ 60) individuals. Numbers of transitional B cells (CD19(+)CD27(-)CD38(High)CD24(High)) were decreased in old individuals, whereas numbers of naive and memory B cell subsets were comparable in young and old individuals. Short-term in vitro stimulation of whole blood samples revealed that numbers of B cells capable of producing TNF-α were similar in young and old individuals. In contrast, B cells capable of IL-10 production were decreased in old subjects. This decline of IL-10(+) B cells was observed in old individuals that were ANA positive, and in those that were negative for both ANAs and RFs. However, IL-10(+) B cells were remarkably well retained in the circulation of old subjects that were RF positive. Thus, pro-inflammatory TNF-α(+) B cells are retained in the elderly, whereas IL-10(+) B cells generally decline. In addition, our findings indicate that IL-10(+) B cells may differentially impact the development of ANAs and RFs in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... been associated with reproductive difficulties, such as miscarriage, pre-eclampsia , premature delivery, and in-vitro fertilization failure Thyroglobulin antibody TgAb Thyroid cancer ; Hashimoto thyroiditis Whenever a thyroglobulin test is performed to see if the antibody is ...

  15. Application of a cell-once-through perfusion strategy for production of recombinant antibody from rCHO cells in a Centritech Lab II centrifuge system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Jin; Chang, Ho Nam; Oh, Duk Jae

    2007-01-01

    Based upon the results of scale-down intermittent perfusion processes, a cell-once-through (COT) perfusion concept was applied to a dual bioreactor system coupled to a Centritech Lab II centrifuge for culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells for monoclonal antibody production. In this new culture mode, i.e., the COT perfusion process, total spent medium was transferred to the centrifuge and a fixed percentage was removed. Approximately 99% of the viable cells are transferred to another bioreactor filled with fresh medium by single operation of the Centritech Lab II centrifuge system for about 30 min. Accordingly, a significant reduction of the cell-passage frequency to the centrifuge led to minimization of cell damage caused by mechanical shear stress, oxygen limitation, nutrient limitation, and low temperature outside the bioreactor. The effects of culture temperature shift and fortified medium on cell growth and recombinant antibody production in the COT perfusion process were investigated. Although the suppressive effects of low culture temperature on cell growth led to a loss of stability in a long-term COT perfusion culture system, the average antibody concentration at 33 degrees C was 157.8 mg/L, approximately 2.4-fold higher than that at 37 degrees C. By the use of a fortified medium at 37 degrees C, rCHO cells were maintained at high density above 1.2 x 10(7) cells/mL, and antibody was produced continuously in a range of 260-280 mg/L in a stable long-term COT perfusion culture. The proposed new culture mode, the COT perfusion approach, guarantees the recovery of rCHO cells damaged by lowered temperature or high lactate and ammonium concentration. It will be an attractive choice for minimization of cell damage and stable long-term antibody production with high cell density.

  16. Production of antibodies against glycolipids from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall in aerosol murine models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cardona, P J; Julián, E; Vallès, X; Gordillo, S; Muñoz, M; Luquin, M; Ausina, V

    2002-06-01

    Evolution of antibodies against glycolipids from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall has been studied for the first time in experimental murine models of tuberculosis induced by aerosol, in which infection, reinfection, reactivation, prophylaxis and treatment with antibiotics have been assayed. Results show a significant humoral response against these antigens, where diacyltrehaloses (DAT) and sulpholipid I (SL-I) elicited higher antibody levels than protein antigens like antigen 85 protein complex (Ag85), culture filtrate proteins (CFP) and purified protein derivative (PPD). Only immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been detected against DAT and SL-I. Their evolution has a positive correlation with bacillary concentration in tissues.

  17. Triple Immunoglobulin Gene Knockout Transchromosomic Cattle: Bovine Lambda Cluster Deletion and Its Effect on Fully Human Polyclonal Antibody Production

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sano, Akiko; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Kasinathan, Poothappillai; Sullivan, Eddie J.; Wang, Zhongde; Kuroiwa, Yoshimi

    2014-01-01

    Towards the goal of producing fully human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs or hIgGs) in transchromosomic (Tc) cattle, we previously reported that Tc cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (hIGH), kappa-chain (hIGK), and lambda-chain (hIGL) germline loci produced physiological levels of hIgGs when both of the bovine immunoglobulin mu heavy-chains, bIGHM and bIGHML1, were homozygously inactivated (bIGHM−/−, bIGHML1−/−; double knockouts or DKO). However, because endogenous bovine immunoglobulin light chain loci are still intact, the light chains are produced both from the hIGK and hIGL genomic loci on the HAC and from the endogenous bovine kappa-chain (bIGK) and lambda-chain (bIGL) genomic loci, resulting in the production of fully hIgGs (both Ig heavy-chains and light-chains are of human origin: hIgG/hIgκ or hIgG/hIgλ) and chimeric hIgGs (Ig heavy-chains are of human origin while the Ig light-chains are of bovine origin: hIgG/bIgκ or hIgG/bIgλ). To improve fully hIgG production in Tc cattle, we here report the deletion of the entire bIGL joining (J) and constant (C) gene cluster (bIGLJ1-IGLC1 to bIGLJ5-IGLC5) by employing Cre/loxP mediated site-specific chromosome recombination and the production of triple knockout (bIGHM−/−, bIGHML1−/− and bIGL−/−; TKO) Tc cattle. We further demonstrate that bIGL cluster deletion greatly improves fully hIgGs production in the sera of TKO Tc cattle, with 51.3% fully hIgGs (hIgG/hIgκ plus hIgG/hIgλ). PMID:24603704

  18. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Excretory-Secretory Antigen of Fasciola hepatica and Evaluation of Its Efficacy in the Diagnosis of Fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh; Sarkari, Bahador; Moshfe, Abdolali; Jalali, Sedigheh

    2017-02-01

    Parasitological methods are not helpful for the diagnosis of fascioliasis in acute and invasive periods of the disease. Detection of coproantigens seems to be a suitable alternative approach in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. The present study aimed to develop a reliable antigen detection system, using monoclonal antibodies raised against excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Fasciola hepatica, for the diagnosis of fascioliasis. Fasciola adult worms were collected from the bile ducts of infected animals. Species of the fluke was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR). ES antigen of F. hepatica was prepared. For production of monoclonal antibodies, mice were immunized with ES antigens of F. hepatica. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells, using polyethylene glycol. Hybridoma cells secreting specific antibody were expanded and cloned by limiting dilution. Moreover, polyclonal antibody was produced against F. hepatica ES antigen in rabbits. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, using produced monoclonal antibody, was designed and stool samples of infected animals along with control samples were tested by the system. The capture ELISA detected the coproantigen in 27 of 30 (90%) parasitologically confirmed fascioliasis cases, while 4 of 39 (10.25%) samples infected with other parasitic infections showed a positive reaction in this system. No positive reactivity was found with healthy control samples. Accordingly, sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.2% were obtained for the capture ELISA system. The results were compared with those obtained with commercial BIO-X ELISA, and a very good (kappa = 0.9) agreement was found between the commercial kit and the developed capture ELISA. Findings of this study showed that the produced monoclonal antibody has appropriate performance for the detection of Fasciola coproantigen in stool samples and can be appropriately

  19. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Disruption of IL-21 Signaling Affects T Cell-B Cell Interactions and Abrogates Protective Humoral Immunity to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mazliah, Damián; Ng, Dorothy Hui Lin; Freitas do Rosário, Ana Paula; McLaughlin, Sarah; Mastelic-Gavillet, Béatris; Sodenkamp, Jan; Kushinga, Garikai; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-21 signaling is important for germinal center B-cell responses, isotype switching and generation of memory B cells. However, a role for IL-21 in antibody-mediated protection against pathogens has not been demonstrated. Here we show that IL-21 is produced by T follicular helper cells and co-expressed with IFN-γ during an erythrocytic-stage malaria infection of Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Mice deficient either in IL-21 or the IL-21 receptor fail to resolve the chronic phase of P. chabaudi infection and P. yoelii infection resulting in sustained high parasitemias, and are not immune to re-infection. This is associated with abrogated P. chabaudi-specific IgG responses, including memory B cells. Mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, with T cells carrying a targeted disruption of the Il21 gene, or B cells with a targeted disruption of the Il21r gene, demonstrate that IL-21 from T cells signaling through the IL-21 receptor on B cells is necessary to control chronic P. chabaudi infection. Our data uncover a mechanism by which CD4+ T cells and B cells control parasitemia during chronic erythrocytic-stage malaria through a single gene, Il21, and demonstrate the importance of this cytokine in the control of pathogens by humoral immune responses. These data are highly pertinent for designing malaria vaccines requiring long-lasting protective B-cell responses. PMID:25763578

  1. Develop Systems for Manufacturing 100,000,000 Doses of an Emergency Pharmaceutical (e.g. Vaccine or Monoclonal Antibody) Within 2 Months of Product Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-08

    protein production. At Genencor, we have developed strains of Aspergillus niger var. awamori, which demonstrate improved secretion of foreign proteins...2000. Characterization of the kexin-like maturase of Aspergillus niger . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:363-368 Jefferis, R., J. Lund, and J. D. Pound...N., Gieswein C., Park M., Wang H. 2004. Characterization of humanized antibodies secreted by Aspergillus niger . Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:2567

  2. Characterization of a real time H2O2 monitor for use in studies on H2O2 production by antibodies and cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Harish A; Balcavage, Walter X; Waite, Lee R; Johnson, Mary T; Nindl, Gabi

    2003-01-01

    It was recently shown that antibodies catalyze a reaction between water and ultraviolet light (UV) creating singlet oxygen and ultimately H2O2. Although the in vivo relevance of these antibody reactions is unclear, it is interesting that among a wide variety of non-antibody proteins tested, the T cell receptor is the only protein with similar capabilities. In clinical settings UV is believed to exert therapeutic effects by eliminating inflammatory epidermal T cells and we hypothesized that UV-triggered H2O2 production is involved in this process. To test the hypothesis we developed tools to study production of H2O2 by T cell receptors with the long-term goal of understanding, and improving, UV phototherapy. Here, we report the development of an inexpensive, real time H2O2 monitoring system having broad applicability. The detector is a Clark oxygen electrode (Pt, Ag/AgCl) modified to detect UV-driven H2O2 production. Modifications include painting the electrode black to minimize UV effects on the Ag/AgCl electrode and the use of hydrophilic, large pore Gelnots electrode membranes. Electrode current was converted to voltage and then amplified and recorded using a digital multimeter coupled to a PC. A reaction vessel with a quartz window was developed to maintain constant temperature while permitting UV irradiation of the samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the system and its use in cell-free and cell-based assays will be presented. In a cellfree system, production of H2O2 by CD3 antibodies was confirmed using our real time H2O2 monitoring method. Additionally we report the finding that splenocytes and Jurkat T cells also produce H2O2 when exposed to UV light.

  3. Unique Resistance of I/LnJ Mice to a Retrovirus Is Due to Sustained Interferon γ–dependent Production of Virus-neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Alexandra; Case, Laure; Duvall, Melody; Overstrom-Coleman, Max; Monnier, Nilah; Chervonsky, Alexander; Golovkina, Tatyana

    2003-01-01

    Selection of immune escape variants impairs the ability of the immune system to sustain an efficient antiviral response and to control retroviral infections. Like other retroviruses, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is not efficiently eliminated by the immune system of susceptible mice. In contrast, MMTV-infected I/LnJ mice are capable of producing IgG2a virus-neutralizing antibodies, sustain this response throughout their life, and secrete antibody-coated virions into the milk, thereby preventing infection of their progeny. Antibodies were produced in response to several MMTV variants and were cross-reactive to them. Resistance to MMTV infection was recessive and was dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ production, because I/LnJ mice with targeted deletion of the INF-γ gene failed to produce any virus-neutralizing antibodies. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of resistance to retroviral infection that is based on a robust and sustained IFN-γ–dependent humoral immune response. PMID:12538662

  4. The production and characterization of novel heavy-chain antibodies against the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin.

    PubMed

    Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Rasaee, Mohammad J; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Allameh, Abdolamir; Sarrami, Ramin; Nasiry, Habib; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2005-01-01

    Camelidae are known to produce immunoglobulins (Igs) devoid of light chains and constant heavy-chain domains (CH1). Antigen-specific fragments of these heavy-chain IgGs (VHH) are of great interest in biotechnology applications. This paper describes the first example of successfully raised heavy-chain antibodies in Camelus dromedarius (single-humped camel) and Camelus bactrianus (two-humped camel) against a MUC1 related peptide that is found to be an important epitope expressed in cancerous tissue. Camels were immunized against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin and cancerous tissue preparation obtained from patients suffering from breast carcinoma. Three IgG subclasses with different binding properties to protein A and G were purified by affinity chromatography. Both conventional and heavy-chain IgG antibodies were produced in response to MUC1-related peptide. The elicited antibodies could react specifically with the tandem repeat region of MUC1 mucin in an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Anti-peptide antibodies were purified after passing antiserum over two affinity chromatography columns. Using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, the interaction of purified antibodies with different antigens was evaluated. The antibodies were observed to be selectively bound to antigens namely: MUC1 peptide (tandem repeat region), human milk fat globule membrane (HMFG), deglycosylated human milk fat globule membrane (D-HMFG), homogenized cancerous breast tissue and a native MUC1 purified from ascitic fluid. Ka values of specific polyclonal antipeptide antibodies were estimated in C. dromedarius and C. bactrianus, as 7 x 10(10) M(-1) and 1.4 x 10(10) M(-1) respectively.

  5. In vitro model of production of antibodies; a new approach to reveal the presence of key bacteria in polymicrobial environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongcong; Nakka, Sravya; Mansouri, Sepahdar; Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Nayeri, Tayeb; Nayeri, Fariba

    2016-09-09

    There is a rapid emergence of multiple resistant gram-negative bacteria due to overuse of antibiotics in the treatment of infections. Biofilms consist of polymicrobial communities that survive the host's defense system. The key bacteria in biofilms are slow growing and support an attachment and rapid growth of other microorganisms. Current antimicrobial strategies often fail due to poor diagnosis of key pathogens in biofilms. The study aims to develop anti-bacterial human antibodies in vitro from patients who had recently undergone a systemic infection by pathogenic bacteria and to use these antibodies as a tool for detecting bacteria in biofilms. Lymphocytes were separated from whole blood of patients (n = 10) and stimulated with heat-killed bacteria to produce antibodies in vitro. The specificity of antibodies in recognizing the bacteria against which they were directed was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance system (SPR) and electron microscopy. The ulcer secretions from patients with chronic and acute leg ulcers and healthy controls were analyzed by the SPR system and the results were compared with culture studies. The produced antibodies recognized bacteria with high sensitivity (SPR). The antibodies against Enterococcus fecalis bound specifically to the microorganism in a bacterial co-culture that was visualized by electron microscopy. In the present work, a method for producing specific antibodies against bacteria is introduced to recognize bacterial components in body fluids of patients suffering from pathogenic biofilms. This diagnostic technique may be most useful in clinical microbiology and in the choice of antibiotics in the treatment of serious infections.

  6. Characterization of product-related low molecular weight impurities in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shunhai; Liu, Anita P; Yan, Yuetian; Daly, Thomas J; Li, Ning

    2018-05-30

    Traditional SDS-PAGE method and its modern equivalent CE-SDS method are both widely applied to assess the purity of therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug products. However, structural identification of low molecular weight (LMW) impurities using those methods has been challenging and largely based on empirical knowledges. In this paper, we present that hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) coupled with mass spectrometry analysis is a novel and orthogonal method to characterize such LMW impurities present within a purified mAb drug product sample. We show here that after removal of N-linked glycans, the HILIC method separates mAb-related LMW impurities with a size-based elution order. The subsequent mass measurement from a high-resolution accurate mass spectrometer provides direct and unambiguous identification of a variety of low-abundance LMW impurities within a single LC-MS analysis. Free light chain, half antibody, H2L species (antibody possessing a single light chain) and protein backbone-truncated species can all be confidently identified and elucidated in great detail, including the truncation sites and associated post-translational modifications. It is worth noting that this study provides the first example where the H2L species can be directly detected in a mAb drug product sample by intact mass analysis without prior enrichment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

    1991-04-01

    Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Memory-updating abrogates extinction of learned immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Bösche, Katharina; Wirth, Timo; Buck, Benjamin; Beetz, Oliver; Christians, Uwe; Schniedewind, Björn; Lückemann, Laura; Güntürkün, Onur; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    When memories are recalled, they enter a transient labile phase in which they can be impaired or enhanced followed by a new stabilization process termed reconsolidation. It is unknown, however, whether reconsolidation is restricted to neurocognitive processes such as fear memories or can be extended to peripheral physiological functions as well. Here, we show in a paradigm of behaviorally conditioned taste aversion in rats memory-updating in learned immunosuppression. The administration of sub-therapeutic doses of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A together with the conditioned stimulus (CS/saccharin) during retrieval blocked extinction of conditioned taste aversion and learned suppression of T cell cytokine (interleukin-2; interferon-γ) production. This conditioned immunosuppression is of clinical relevance since it significantly prolonged the survival time of heterotopically transplanted heart allografts in rats. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that memories can be updated on both neural and behavioral levels as well as on the level of peripheral physiological systems such as immune functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a vaccine to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture: vaccination of sheep with methanogen fractions induces antibodies that block methane production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wedlock, D N; Pedersen, G; Denis, M; Dey, D; Janssen, P H; Buddle, B M

    2010-02-01

    To develop an understanding of the immune responses of ruminants to methanogens, and to provide proof of a concept that harnessing the immune system of ruminants is a potentially viable approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Four subcellular fractions, namely cytoplasmic, two cell-wall preparations, and cell wall-derived proteins were prepared from Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1. Twenty sheep (10 months of age) were vaccinated with these fractions or with whole cells (n=4 per group). Sheep were re-vaccinated once after 3 weeks, and antibody responses to M. ruminantium M1 antigens in sera and saliva measured using ELISA at 2 weeks after the second vaccination. Antigens recognised by the antisera were visualised using Western blotting. The antisera were tested in vitro for their impact on M. ruminantium M1, measuring the effect on cell growth, methane production, and ability to induce agglutination. Basal levels (pre-vaccination) of antibodies against M. ruminantium M1 antigens were low. Vaccination with the antigenic fractions induced strong antibody responses in serum. Both IgG and IgA responses to methanogen antigens were detected in saliva following vaccination. Western blot analysis of the antisera indicated reactivity of antibodies, and a wide range of proteins was present in the different methanogen fractions. Antisera against the various fractions agglutinated methanogens in an in-vitro assay. In addition, these antisera decreased the growth of a pure culture of a methanogen and production of methane in vitro. Antigens from methanogens are immunogenic in ruminants, and antisera from sheep vaccinated with fractions of methanogens have a significant impact on these organisms, inducing cell agglutination, and decreasing growth of methanogens and production of methane. Only antisera to selected methanogen fractions were able to achieve these effects. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a vaccination strategy to mitigate emission

  10. Violation of an Evolutionarily Conserved Immunoglobulin Diversity Gene Sequence Preference Promotes Production of dsDNA-Specific IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Sanchez, Aaron; Liu, Cun Ren; Vale, Andre M.; Khass, Mohamed; Kapoor, Pratibha; Elgavish, Ada; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Ippolito, Gregory C.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Burrows, Peter D.; Schroeder, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Variability in the developing antibody repertoire is focused on the third complementarity determining region of the H chain (CDR-H3), which lies at the center of the antigen binding site where it often plays a decisive role in antigen binding. The power of VDJ recombination and N nucleotide addition has led to the common conception that the sequence of CDR-H3 is unrestricted in its variability and random in its composition. Under this view, the immune response is solely controlled by somatic positive and negative clonal selection mechanisms that act on individual B cells to promote production of protective antibodies and prevent the production of self-reactive antibodies. This concept of a repertoire of random antigen binding sites is inconsistent with the observation that diversity (DH) gene segment sequence content by reading frame (RF) is evolutionarily conserved, creating biases in the prevalence and distribution of individual amino acids in CDR-H3. For example, arginine, which is often found in the CDR-H3 of dsDNA binding autoantibodies, is under-represented in the commonly used DH RFs rearranged by deletion, but is a frequent component of rarely used inverted RF1 (iRF1), which is rearranged by inversion. To determine the effect of altering this germline bias in DH gene segment sequence on autoantibody production, we generated mice that by genetic manipulation are forced to utilize an iRF1 sequence encoding two arginines. Over a one year period we collected serial serum samples from these unimmunized, specific pathogen-free mice and found that more than one-fifth of them contained elevated levels of dsDNA-binding IgG, but not IgM; whereas mice with a wild type DH sequence did not. Thus, germline bias against the use of arginine enriched DH sequence helps to reduce the likelihood of producing self-reactive antibodies. PMID:25706374

  11. Evaluation of a malarial antibody assay for use in the screening of blood and tissue products for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Lowe, P H J; Lalloo, K; Chiodini, P L

    2004-10-01

    A new recombinant Plasmodium antigen enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the detection of malarial antibodies was evaluated for the screening of 'malaria-risk' blood and tissue donations. A total of 13,269 donor and patient samples were tested by both the EIA and the standard diagnostic antibody immunofluorescence test (IFAT). A total of 114/138 (82.6%) samples from patients with P. falciparum and 11/13 (84.6%) samples from patients with P. vivax tested positive. A total of 714/13,053 (5.47%) samples from donors identified as 'malaria risk', owing to residency or travel, were reactive in the EIA. The assay is more sensitive than a previously implemented malarial antibody EIA (73% in acute P. falciparum and 56% in acute P. vivax infections). The sensitivity of this new EIA is comparable to that of the IFAT, and the specificity is sufficient to screen 'malaria-risk' donors.

  12. The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Dawn M; Jones, Susan Dana; Levine, Howard L

    2015-01-01

    Since the commercialization of the first therapeutic monoclonal antibody product in 1986, this class of biopharmaceutical products has grown significantly so that, as of November 10, 2014, forty-seven monoclonal antibody products have been approved in the US or Europe for the treatment of a variety of diseases, and many of these products have also been approved for other global markets. At the current approval rate of ∼ four new products per year, ∼70 monoclonal antibody products will be on the market by 2020, and combined world-wide sales will be nearly $125 billion. PMID:25529996

  13. Binding diversity of antibodies against external and internal epitopes of the multidrug resistance gene product P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Lehne, G.; De Angelis, P.; Clausen, O.P.F.

    1995-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a trans-membraneous protein that is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in human cancer, including hepatocellular carcinomas and leukemia. There is no consensus regarding methods of choice for analysis of Pgp expression, and development of reliable analytical methods is now essential. We have studied the Pgp expression in human hepatoma and leukemia cell lines using flow cytometry. The aim of the study was to compare binding properties of anti-Pgp antibodies reacting with surface (MRK16, UIC2) and cytoplasmic (C219, JSB-1) epitopes to assess which antibody performed best with respect to fluorescence discrimination. By histogram subtraction the fractions of resistantmore » human hepatoma cells positive for Pgp were 99% (MRK16), 97% (UIC2), 77% (USB-1), and 51% (C219), demonstrating variations in antibody reactivity. The resolution in detecting decreasing levels of Pgp in hepatoma cells was superior for the externally binding antibodies, showing that there is a correlation between antibody reactivity and fluorescence discrimination. Similar results were obtained for parental and resistant KG1a human leukemia cell lines. The Pgp epitopes remained reactive to the anti-Pgp MAbs after methanol fixation and cryopreservation. By dual parameter flow cytometry it was shown that Pgp expression in viable cells may be assessed together with uptake of epirubicin, which was low in cells expressing high levels of Pgp and vice versa. In conclusion, all tested antibodies proved useful for flow cytometric detection of high levels of Pgp, but the externally binding ones were superior in detection of low and variable levels of Pgp. 36 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Next Generation Antibody Therapeutics Using Bispecific Antibody Technology.

    PubMed

    Igawa, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nearly fifty monoclonal antibodies have been approved to date, and the market for monoclonal antibodies is expected to continue to grow. Since global competition in the field of antibody therapeutics is intense, we need to establish novel antibody engineering technologies to provide true benefit for patients, with differentiated product values. Bispecific antibodies are among the next generation of antibody therapeutics that can bind to two different target antigens by the two arms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule, and are thus believed to be applicable to various therapeutic needs. Until recently, large scale manufacturing of human IgG bispecific antibody was impossible. We have established a technology, named asymmetric re-engineering technology (ART)-Ig, to enable large scale manufacturing of bispecific antibodies. Three examples of next generation antibody therapeutics using ART-Ig technology are described. Recent updates on bispecific antibodies against factor IXa and factor X for the treatment of hemophilia A, bispecific antibodies against a tumor specific antigen and T cell surface marker CD3 for cancer immunotherapy, and bispecific antibodies against two different epitopes of soluble antigen with pH-dependent binding property for the elimination of soluble antigen from plasma are also described.

  15. Widespread occurrence of low levels of alternariol in apple and tomato products, as determined by comparative immunochemical assessment using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Yvonne; Curtui, Valeriu; Dietrich, Richard; Gross, Madeleine; Latif, Hadri; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Usleber, Ewald

    2011-06-22

    This study investigated the production of polyclonal (pAB) antibodies and the first time production of monoclonal (mAB) antibodies against the mycotoxin alternariol, and their implementation in enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the rapid determination of alternariol in foods. Both EIAs were highly sensitive, with detection limits (IC₂₀) of 35 ± 6.9 pg/mL (mAb EIA) and 59 ± 16 pg/mL (pAb EIA). Food products (n = 109; apple and tomato products, white wine) from German retail shops were analyzed. At a detection limit of 1-2 μg/kg, alternariol at 1-13 μg/kg was found with high frequency in apple (67%) and tomato (93%) products. Tomatoes with visible signs of Alternaria infection, stored at room temperature for up to 4 weeks, contained alternariol at levels up to 50 mg/kg, as determined by EIA and HPLC-FLD. It is concluded that the alternariol immunoassays present a versatile screening tool which could facilitate food control for Alternaria toxins.

  16. Evaluation of three adjuvants with respect to both adverse effects and the efficacy of antibody production to the Bm86 protein.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Julie; Bonnefond, Romain; Mermoud, Isabelle; Rantoen, Dewi; Meynard, Laure; Munro, Christopher; Lua, Linda H L; Hüe, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Cattle tick infestations remain an important burden for farmers in tropical area like in New Caledonia. With the development of acaricide resistance, tick vaccines should be an attractive alternative to control ticks but their efficacy needs to be improved. In this study three adjuvants were studied in an experimental tick vaccine with a Bm86 protein to assess their performance in terms of antibody productions and adverse reactions following vaccinations. The water-in-oil adjuvant ISA 61 VG led to higher antibody titers compared to a water-in-oil-in-water adjuvant ISA 201 VG and an aqueous polymeric adjuvant Montanide Gel 01. Vaccinations with these three adjuvants did not produce severe general reaction but an increase in skin thickness was observed especially with both oil-based emulsions. These results indicated that the water-in-oil adjuvant is the most interesting to use for this vaccine but local adverse reactions remain an issue.

  17. A simple electroelution method for rapid protein purification: isolation and antibody production of alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Iglesias, Lorena; Estefanell-Ucha, Borja; Barcia-Castro, Leticia; Páez de la Cadena, María; Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Ayude-Vázquez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum produces a number of diseases in human and farm animals which, in most of the cases, are fatal without clinical intervention. Alpha toxin is an important agent and the unique lethal virulent factor produced by Clostridium septicum. This toxin is haemolytic, highly lethal and necrotizing activities but is being used as an antigen to develop animal vaccines. The aim of this study was to isolate the alpha toxin of Clostridium septicum and produce highly specific antibodies against it. In this work, we have developed a simple and efficient method for alpha toxin purification, based on electroelution that can be used as a time-saving method for purifying proteins. This technique avoids contamination by other proteins that could appear during other protein purification techniques such chromatography. The highly purified toxin was used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the antibodies was tested by western blot and these antibodies can be applied to the quantitative determination of alpha toxin by slot blot.

  18. A simple electroelution method for rapid protein purification: isolation and antibody production of alpha toxin from Clostridium septicum

    PubMed Central

    Estefanell-Ucha, Borja; Barcia-Castro, Leticia; Páez de la Cadena, María; Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Ayude-Vázquez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum produces a number of diseases in human and farm animals which, in most of the cases, are fatal without clinical intervention. Alpha toxin is an important agent and the unique lethal virulent factor produced by Clostridium septicum. This toxin is haemolytic, highly lethal and necrotizing activities but is being used as an antigen to develop animal vaccines. The aim of this study was to isolate the alpha toxin of Clostridium septicum and produce highly specific antibodies against it. In this work, we have developed a simple and efficient method for alpha toxin purification, based on electroelution that can be used as a time-saving method for purifying proteins. This technique avoids contamination by other proteins that could appear during other protein purification techniques such chromatography. The highly purified toxin was used to produce polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the antibodies was tested by western blot and these antibodies can be applied to the quantitative determination of alpha toxin by slot blot. PMID:28652930

  19. Production and characterization of a camelid single domain antibody-urease enzyme conjugate for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baomin; Wong, Wah Yau; Hegmann, Elda; Gaspar, Kim; Kumar, Praveen; Chao, Heman

    2015-06-17

    A novel immunoconjugate (L-DOS47) was developed and characterized as a therapeutic agent for tumors expressing CEACAM6. The single domain antibody AFAIKL2, which targets CEACAM6, was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pT7-7 system. High purity urease (HPU) was extracted and purified from Jack bean meal. AFAIKL2 was activated using N-succinimidyl [4-iodoacetyl] aminobenzoate (SIAB) as the cross-linker and then conjugated to urease. The activation and conjugation reactions were controlled by altering pH. Under these conditions, the material ratio achieved conjugation ratios of 8-11 antibodies per urease molecule, the residual free urease content was practically negligible (<2%), and high purity (>95%) L-DOS47 conjugate was produced using only ultradiafiltration to remove unreacted antibody and hydrolyzed cross-linker. L-DOS47 was characterized by a panel of analytical techniques including SEC, IEC, Western blot, ELISA, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping. As the antibody-urease conjugate ratio increased, a higher binding signal was observed. The specificity and cytotoxicity of L-DOS47 was confirmed by screening in four cell lines (BxPC-3, A549, MCF7, and CEACAM6-transfected H23). BxPC-3, a CEACAM6-expressing cell line was found to be most susceptible to L-DOS47. L-DOS47 is being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in human phase I clinical studies for nonsmall cell lung cancer.

  20. Splenic TFH expansion participates in B-cell differentiation and antiplatelet-antibody production during immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Audia, Sylvain; Rossato, Marzia; Santegoets, Kim; Spijkers, Sanne; Wichers, Catharina; Bekker, Cornelis; Bloem, Andries; Boon, Louis; Flinsenberg, Thijs; Compeer, Ewoud; van den Broek, Theo; Facy, Olivier; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Berthier, Sabine; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Martin, Laurent; Ciudad, Marion; Samson, Maxime; Trad, Malika; Lorcerie, Bernard; Janikashvili, Nona; Saas, Philippe; Bonnotte, Bernard; Radstake, Timothy R D J

    2014-10-30

    Antiplatelet-antibody-producing B cells play a key role in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) pathogenesis; however, little is known about T-cell dysregulations that support B-cell differentiation. During the past decade, T follicular helper cells (TFHs) have been characterized as the main T-cell subset within secondary lymphoid organs that promotes B-cell differentiation leading to antibody class-switch recombination and secretion. Herein, we characterized TFHs within the spleen of 8 controls and 13 ITP patients. We show that human splenic TFHs are the main producers of interleukin (IL)-21, express CD40 ligand (CD154), and are located within the germinal center of secondary follicles. Compared with controls, splenic TFH frequency is higher in ITP patients and correlates with germinal center and plasma cell percentages that are also increased. In vitro, IL-21 stimulation combined with an anti-CD40 agonist antibody led to the differentiation of splenic B cells into plasma cells and to the secretion of antiplatelet antibodies in ITP patients. Overall, these results point out the involvement of TFH in ITP pathophysiology and the potential interest of IL-21 and CD40 as therapeutic targets in ITP. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Production of specific IgY antibody to the recombinant FanC protein produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Zibaee, Saeed; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are one of the primary causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in humans, pigs, and sheep. IgY technology has been identified as a promising alternative to generating a mass amount of specific antibody for use in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics. The purpose of this study was to produce specific antibody by egg yolk antibody (IgY) to recombinant FanC protein from ETEC. FanC (K99) gene was amplified from ETEC by specific primers and polymerase chain reaction. The gene was cloned and subcloned into pTZ57R/T and pET32a (+) vectors, respectively. Recombinant vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). Protein expression was investigated by 1 mM IPTG induction. Hens were immunized by the purified recombinant FanC protein. The activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were detected by dot-blotting, Western blotting, and indirect ELISA. We obtained FanC specific IgYs by immunizing the hens with the recombinant FanC protein. The anti-FanC IgY showed binding specifically to the FanC protein of ETEC. The results emphasize that specific IgY against the recombinant FanC protein could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against ETEC infection in animals and humans.

  2. Production of specific IgY antibody to the recombinant FanC protein produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Zibaee, Saeed; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are one of the primary causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in humans, pigs, and sheep. IgY technology has been identified as a promising alternative to generating a mass amount of specific antibody for use in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics. The purpose of this study was to produce specific antibody by egg yolk antibody (IgY) to recombinant FanC protein from ETEC. Materials and Methods: FanC (K99) gene was amplified from ETEC by specific primers and polymerase chain reaction. The gene was cloned and subcloned into pTZ57R/T and pET32a (+) vectors, respectively. Recombinant vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). Protein expression was investigated by 1 mM IPTG induction. Hens were immunized by the purified recombinant FanC protein. The activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were detected by dot-blotting, Western blotting, and indirect ELISA. Results: We obtained FanC specific IgYs by immunizing the hens with the recombinant FanC protein. The anti-FanC IgY showed binding specifically to the FanC protein of ETEC. Conclusion: The results emphasize that specific IgY against the recombinant FanC protein could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27746871

  3. Commercial antibodies and their validation

    PubMed Central

    Voskuil, JLA

    2014-01-01

    Despite an impressive growth in the business of research antibodies a general lack of trust in commercial antibodies remains in place. A variety of issues, each one potentially causing an antibody to fail, underpin the frustrations that scientists endure. Lots of money goes to waste in buying and trying one failing antibody after the other without realizing all the pitfalls that come with the product: Antibodies can get inactivated, both the biological material and the assay itself can potentially be flawed, a single antibody featuring in many different catalogues can be deemed as a set of different products, and a bad choice of antibody type, wrong dilutions, and lack of proper validation can all jeopardize the intended experiments. Antibodies endorsed by scientific research papers do not always meet the scientist’s requirements either due to flawed specifications, or due to batch-to-batch variations. Antibodies can be found with Quality Control data obtained from previous batches that no longer represent the batch on sale. In addition, one cannot assume that every antibody is fit for every application. The best chance of success is to try an antibody that already was confirmed to perform correctly in the required platform. PMID:25324967

  4. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Stabilization Products for Ambient Temperature Shipping and Storage of Viral RNA and Antibody in a Dried Whole Blood Format

    PubMed Central

    Dauner, Allison L.; Gilliland, Theron C.; Mitra, Indrani; Pal, Subhamoy; Morrison, Amy C.; Hontz, Robert D.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of sample integrity during specimen transport can lead to false-negative diagnostic results. In an effort to improve upon the status quo, we used dengue as a model RNA virus to evaluate the stabilization of RNA and antibodies in three commercially available sample stabilization products: Whatman FTA Micro Cards (GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Pittsburgh, PA), DNAstāble Blood tubes (Biomātrica, San Diego, CA), and ViveST tubes (ViveBio, Alpharetta, GA). Both contrived and clinical dengue-positive specimens were stored on these products at ambient temperature or 37°C for up to 1 month. Antibody and viral RNA levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, respectively, and compared with frozen unloaded controls. We observed reduced RNA and antibody levels between stabilized contrived samples and frozen controls at our earliest time point, and this was particularly pronounced for the FTA cards. However, despite some time and temperature dependent loss, a 94.6–97.3% agreement was observed between stabilized clinical specimens and their frozen controls for all products. Additional considerations such as cost, sample volume, matrix, and ease of use should inform any decision to incorporate sample stabilization products into a diagnostic testing workflow. We conclude that DNAstāble Blood and ViveST tubes are useful alternatives to traditional filter paper for ambient temperature shipment of clinical specimens for downstream molecular and serological testing. PMID:25940193

  5. International standards for monoclonal antibodies to support pre- and post-marketing product consistency: Evaluation of a candidate international standard for the bioactivities of rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Sandra; Hufton, Simon E.; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The intrinsic complexity and heterogeneity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is built into the biosimilarity paradigm where critical quality attributes are controlled in exhaustive comparability studies with the reference medicinal product. The long-term success of biosimilars will depend on reassuring healthcare professionals and patients of consistent product quality, safety and efficacy. With this aim, the World Health Organization has endorsed the need for public bioactivity standards for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in support of current controls. We have developed a candidate international potency standard for rituximab that was evaluated in a multi-center collaborative study using participants' own qualified Fc-effector function and cell-based binding bioassays. Dose-response curve model parameters were shown to reflect similar behavior amongst rituximab preparations, albeit with some differences in potency. In the absence of a common reference standard, potency estimates were in poor agreement amongst laboratories, but the use of the candidate preparation significantly reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the candidate rituximab standard can support bioassay performance and improve data harmonization, which when implemented will promote consistency of rituximab products over their life-cycles. This data provides the first scientific evidence that a classical standardization exercise allowing traceability of bioassay data to an international standard is also applicable to rituximab. However, we submit that this new type of international standard needs to be used appropriately and its role not to be mistaken with that of the reference medicinal product. PMID:28985159

  6. International standards for monoclonal antibodies to support pre- and post-marketing product consistency: Evaluation of a candidate international standard for the bioactivities of rituximab.

    PubMed

    Prior, Sandra; Hufton, Simon E; Fox, Bernard; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic complexity and heterogeneity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is built into the biosimilarity paradigm where critical quality attributes are controlled in exhaustive comparability studies with the reference medicinal product. The long-term success of biosimilars will depend on reassuring healthcare professionals and patients of consistent product quality, safety and efficacy. With this aim, the World Health Organization has endorsed the need for public bioactivity standards for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in support of current controls. We have developed a candidate international potency standard for rituximab that was evaluated in a multi-center collaborative study using participants' own qualified Fc-effector function and cell-based binding bioassays. Dose-response curve model parameters were shown to reflect similar behavior amongst rituximab preparations, albeit with some differences in potency. In the absence of a common reference standard, potency estimates were in poor agreement amongst laboratories, but the use of the candidate preparation significantly reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the candidate rituximab standard can support bioassay performance and improve data harmonization, which when implemented will promote consistency of rituximab products over their life-cycles. This data provides the first scientific evidence that a classical standardization exercise allowing traceability of bioassay data to an international standard is also applicable to rituximab. However, we submit that this new type of international standard needs to be used appropriately and its role not to be mistaken with that of the reference medicinal product.

  7. Genistein abrogates G2 arrest induced by curcumin in p53 deficient T47D cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high cost and low level of cancer survival urge the finding of new drugs having better mechanisms. There is a high trend of patients to be “back to nature” and use natural products as an alternative way to cure cancer. The fact is that some of available anticancer drugs are originated from plants, such as taxane, vincristine, vinblastine, pacitaxel. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a dietary pigment present in Curcuma longa rizhome is reported to induce cell cycle arrest in some cell lines. Other study reported that genistein isolated from Glycine max seed inhibited phosphorylation of cdk1, gene involved during G2/M transition and thus could function as G2 checkpoint abrogator. The inhibition of cdk1 phosphorylation is one of alternative strategy which could selectively kill cancer cells and potentially be combined with DNA damaging agent such as curcumin. Methods T47D cell line was treated with different concentrations of curcumin and genistein, alone or in combination; added together or with interval time. Flow Cytometry and MTT assay were used to evaluate cell cycle distribution and viability, respectively. The presence of apoptotic cells was determined using acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining. Results In this study curcumin induced G2 arrest on p53 deficient T47D cells at the concentration of 10 μM. Increasing concentration up to 30 μM increased the number of cell death. Whilst genistein alone at low concentration (≤10 μM) induced cell proliferation, addition of genistein (20 μM) 16 h after curcumin resulted in more cell death (89%), 34% higher than that administered at the same time (56%). The combination treatment resulted in apoptotic cell death. Combining curcumin with high dose of genistein (50 μM) induced necrotic cells. Conclusions Genistein increased the death of curcumin treated T47D cells. Appropriate timing of administration and concentration of genistein determine the outcome of treatment and this method

  8. Future of antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  9. Actin dynamics regulate immediate PAR-2-dependent responses to acute epidermal permeability barrier abrogation.

    PubMed

    Roelandt, Truus; Heughebaert, Carol; Verween, Gunther; Giddelo, Christina; Verbeken, Gilbert; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Devos, Daniel; Crumrine, Debra; Roseeuw, Diane; Elias, Peter M; Hachem, Jean-Pierre

    2011-02-01

    Lamellar body (LB) secretion and terminal differentiation of stratum granulosum (SG) cells are signaled by both protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and caveolin-1 (cav-1). To address the early dynamics of LB secretion, we examined cytoskeletal remodeling of keratinocytes in 3 mouse models following acute barrier abrogation: hairless mice, PAR-2 knockout (-/-) and cav-1 -/-. Under basal conditions, globular (G)-actin accumulates in SG cells cytosol, while filamentous (F)-actin is restricted to peri-membrane domains. Barrier abrogation induces the apical movement of F-actin and the retreat of the SG-G-actin front, paralleled by upstream cytoskeletal kinases activation. This phenomenon was both enhanced by PAR-2 agonist, and inhibited by cytochalasin-D and in PAR-2 knockout mice. We found that plasma membrane conformational changes causing LB secretion are controlled by PAR-2-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. We next addressed the interaction dynamics between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane following PAR-2-induced actin stress fiber formation in both cav-1 -/- and wildtype cells. Actin stress fiber formation is increased in cav-1 -/- cells prior to and following PAR-2 agonist peptide-treatment, while absence of cav-1 inhibits E-cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion. PAR-2 drives cytoskeletal/plasma membrane dynamics that regulate early LB secretion following barrier abrogation, stress fiber formation and keratinocyte adhesion. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of ambient light on monoclonal antibody product quality during small-scale mammalian cell culture process in clear glass bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mallaney, Mary; Wang, Szu-Han; Sreedhara, Alavattam

    2014-01-01

    During a small-scale cell culture process producing a monoclonal antibody, a larger than expected difference was observed in the charge variants profile of the harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) between the 2 L and larger scales (e.g., 400 L and 12 kL). Small-scale studies performed at the 2 L scale consistently showed an increase in acidic species when compared with the material made at larger scale. Since the 2 L bioreactors were made of clear transparent glass while the larger scale reactors are made of stainless steel, the effect of ambient laboratory light on cell culture process in 2 L bioreactors as well as handling the HCCF was carefully evaluated. Photoreactions in the 2 L glass bioreactors including light mediated increase in acidic variants in HCCF and formulation buffers were identified and carefully analyzed. While the acidic variants comprised of a mixture of sialylated, reduced disulfide, crosslinked (nonreducible), glycated, and deamidated forms, an increase in the nonreducible forms, deamidation and Met oxidation was predominantly observed under light stress. The monoclonal antibody produced in glass bioreactors that were protected from light behaved similar to the one produced in the larger scale. Our data clearly indicate that care should be taken when glass bioreactors are used in cell culture studies during monoclonal antibody production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural detection of advanced glycation end products in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta with a novel specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Kume, S.; Takeya, M.; Mori, T.; Araki, N.; Suzuki, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kodama, T.; Miyauchi, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in aortic atherosclerosis, aortic walls were obtained from 25 autopsy cases and examined immunohistochemically and immunoelectron microscopically with a monoclonal antibody specific for AGEs, 6D12. Among the autopsy cases, atherosclerotic lesions were found in the aortas of 22 cases and were composed of diffuse intimal thickening, fatty streaks, atherosclerotic plaques, and/or complicated lesions. In these cases, intracellular AGE accumulation was demonstrated in the intimal lesions of aortic atherosclerosis in 12 cases. Compared with the diffuse intimal thickening, intracellular AGE accumulation was marked in the fatty streaks and atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical double staining with 6D12 and monoclonal antibodies for macrophages or muscle actin or a polyclonal antibody for scavenger receptors demonstrated that the AGE accumulation in macrophages or their related foam cells was marked in the diffuse intimal thickening and fatty streak lesions and that almost all macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells possessed scavenger receptors. Immunoelectron microscopic observation revealed the localization of 6D12-positive reaction in lysosomal lipid vacuoles or electron-dense granules of the foam cells. These results indicate that AGE accumulation occurs in macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and their related foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:7545874

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies Production Platforms: An Opportunity Study of a Non-Protein-A Chromatographic Platform Based on Process Economics.

    PubMed

    Grilo, António L; Mateus, Marília; Aires-Barros, Maria R; Azevedo, Ana M

    2017-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies currently dominate the biopharmaceutical market with growing sales having reached 80 billion USD in 2016. As most top-selling mAbs are approaching the end of their patent life, biopharmaceutical companies compete fiercely in the biosimilars market. These two factors present a strong motivation for alternative process strategies and process optimization. In this work a novel purification strategy for monoclonal antibodies comprising phenylboronic acid multimodal chromatography for capture followed by polishing by ion-exchange monolithic chromatography and packed bed hydrophobic interaction chromatography is presented and compared to the traditional protein-A-based process. Although the capital investment is similar for both processes, the operation cost is 20% lower for the novel strategy. This study shows that the new process is worthwhile investing in and could present a viable alternative to the platform process used by most industrial players. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Production and Characterization of High-Affinity Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoproteins in a Mouse Model Expressing Human Immunoglobulins▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Neil C.; Davies, Sarah L.; Jeffs, Simon A.; Vieira, Sueli M.; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2007-01-01

    Human (Hu) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) are useful tools in the structural and functional analysis of Env, are under development both as potential prophylaxis and as therapy for established HIV-1 infection, and have crucial roles in guiding the design of preventative vaccines. Despite representing more than 50% of infections globally, no MAbs have been generated in any species against C clade HIV-1 Env. To generate HuMAbs to a novel Chinese C clade Env vaccine candidate (primary isolate strain HIV-197CN54), we used BAB5 mice that express a human immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody repertoire in place of endogenous murine immunoglobulins. When immunized with HIV-197CN54 Env, these mice developed antigen-specific IgM antibodies. Hybridoma fusions using splenocytes from these mice enabled the isolation of two Env-specific IgM HuMAbs: N3C5 and N03B11. N3C5 bound to HIV-1 Env from clades A and C, whereas N03B11 bound two geographically distant clade C isolates but not Env from other clades. These HuMAbs bind conformational epitopes within the immunodominant region of the gp41 ectodomain. N3C5 weakly neutralized the autologous isolate in the absence of complement and weakly enhanced infection in the presence of complement. N03B11 has no effect on infectivity in either the presence or the absence of complement. These novel HuMAbs are useful reagents for the study of HIV-1 Env relevant to the global pandemic, and mice producing human immunoglobulin present a tool for the production of such antibodies. PMID:17167037

  14. Production and characterization of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins in a mouse model expressing human immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Neil C; Davies, Sarah L; Jeffs, Simon A; Vieira, Sueli M; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2007-02-01

    Human (Hu) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) are useful tools in the structural and functional analysis of Env, are under development both as potential prophylaxis and as therapy for established HIV-1 infection, and have crucial roles in guiding the design of preventative vaccines. Despite representing more than 50% of infections globally, no MAbs have been generated in any species against C clade HIV-1 Env. To generate HuMAbs to a novel Chinese C clade Env vaccine candidate (primary isolate strain HIV-1(97CN54)), we used BAB5 mice that express a human immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody repertoire in place of endogenous murine immunoglobulins. When immunized with HIV-1(97CN54) Env, these mice developed antigen-specific IgM antibodies. Hybridoma fusions using splenocytes from these mice enabled the isolation of two Env-specific IgM HuMAbs: N3C5 and N03B11. N3C5 bound to HIV-1 Env from clades A and C, whereas N03B11 bound two geographically distant clade C isolates but not Env from other clades. These HuMAbs bind conformational epitopes within the immunodominant region of the gp41 ectodomain. N3C5 weakly neutralized the autologous isolate in the absence of complement and weakly enhanced infection in the presence of complement. N03B11 has no effect on infectivity in either the presence or the absence of complement. These novel HuMAbs are useful reagents for the study of HIV-1 Env relevant to the global pandemic, and mice producing human immunoglobulin present a tool for the production of such antibodies.

  15. Oral delivery of Brucella spp. recombinant protein U-Omp16 abrogates the IgE-mediated milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Ibañez, Andrés Esteban; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Cassataro, Juliana; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies are increasingly common disorders and no therapeutic strategies are yet approved. The unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) is the outer membrane protein of 16 kDa from B. abortus and possesses a mucosal adjuvant property. In this study, we aimed to examine the U-Omp16 capacity to abrogate an allergen-specific Th2 immune response when it is administered as an oral adjuvant in a mouse model of food allergy.   Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and cow's milk proteins (CMP) by gavage and simultaneously treated with U-Omp16 and CMP. Oral challenge with CMP was performed to evaluate the allergic status of mice. Symptoms, local (small bowel cytokine and transcription factor gene expression) and systemic (specific isotypes and spleen cell-secreted cytokines) parameters, and skin tests were done to evaluate the immune response. We found that the oral administration of U-Omp16 with CMP during sensitization dampened the allergic symptoms, with negativization of immediate skin test and increased skin DTH response. Serum specific IgE and IL-5 were inhibited and a Th1 response was promoted (specific IgG2a antibodies and CMP-induced IFN-γ secretion). We found at the mucosal site an inhibition of the gene expression corresponding to IL-13 and Gata-3, with an induction of IFN-γ and T-bet. These results indicated that the oral administration of U-Omp16 significantly controlled the allergic response in sensitized mice with a shift of the balance of Th1- and Th2-T cells toward Th1 predominance. These findings suggest that U-Omp16 may be useful as a Th1-directing adjuvant in an oral vaccine.

  16. Oral delivery of Brucella spp. recombinant protein U-Omp16 abrogates the IgE-mediated milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Ibañez, Andrés Esteban; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Cassataro, Juliana; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies are increasingly common disorders and no therapeutic strategies are yet approved. The unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) is the outer membrane protein of 16 kDa from B. abortus and possesses a mucosal adjuvant property. In this study, we aimed to examine the U-Omp16 capacity to abrogate an allergen-specific Th2 immune response when it is administered as an oral adjuvant in a mouse model of food allergy.   Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and cow’s milk proteins (CMP) by gavage and simultaneously treated with U-Omp16 and CMP. Oral challenge with CMP was performed to evaluate the allergic status of mice. Symptoms, local (small bowel cytokine and transcription factor gene expression) and systemic (specific isotypes and spleen cell-secreted cytokines) parameters, and skin tests were done to evaluate the immune response. We found that the oral administration of U-Omp16 with CMP during sensitization dampened the allergic symptoms, with negativization of immediate skin test and increased skin DTH response. Serum specific IgE and IL-5 were inhibited and a Th1 response was promoted (specific IgG2a antibodies and CMP-induced IFN-γ secretion). We found at the mucosal site an inhibition of the gene expression corresponding to IL-13 and Gata-3, with an induction of IFN-γ and T-bet. These results indicated that the oral administration of U-Omp16 significantly controlled the allergic response in sensitized mice with a shift of the balance of Th1- and Th2-T cells toward Th1 predominance. These findings suggest that U-Omp16 may be useful as a Th1-directing adjuvant in an oral vaccine. PMID:25424811

  17. Production of recombinant antigens and antibodies in Nicotiana benthamiana using 'magnifection' technology: GMP-compliant facilities for small- and large-scale manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Klimyuk, Victor; Pogue, Gregory; Herz, Stefan; Butler, John; Haydon, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the adaptation of the plant virus-based transient expression system, magnICON(®) for the at-scale manufacturing of pharmaceutical proteins. The system utilizes so-called "deconstructed" viral vectors that rely on Agrobacterium-mediated systemic delivery into the plant cells for recombinant protein production. The system is also suitable for production of hetero-oligomeric proteins like immunoglobulins. By taking advantage of well established R&D tools for optimizing the expression of protein of interest using this system, product concepts can reach the manufacturing stage in highly competitive time periods. At the manufacturing stage, the system offers many remarkable features including rapid production cycles, high product yield, virtually unlimited scale-up potential, and flexibility for different manufacturing schemes. The magnICON system has been successfully adaptated to very different logistical manufacturing formats: (1) speedy production of multiple small batches of individualized pharmaceuticals proteins (e.g. antigens comprising individualized vaccines to treat NonHodgkin's Lymphoma patients) and (2) large-scale production of other pharmaceutical proteins such as therapeutic antibodies. General descriptions of the prototype GMP-compliant manufacturing processes and facilities for the product formats that are in preclinical and clinical testing are provided.

  18. Specific antibody for pesticide residue determination produced by antibody-pesticide complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new method for specific antibody production was developed using antibody (Ab)-pesticide complex as a unique immunogen. Parathion (PA) was the targeted pesticide, and rabbit polyclonal antibody (Pab) and mouse monoclonal antibody (Mab) were used as carrier proteins. The Ab-PA complexes were genera...

  19. Oral Vitamin A and Retinoic Acid Supplementation Stimulates Antibody Production and Splenic Stra6 Expression in Tetanus Toxoid–Immunized Mice12

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Libo; Wray, Amanda E.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2012-01-01

    Coadministration of retinoic acid (RA) and polyinosinic acid:polycytidylic acid (PIC) has been shown to cooperatively enhance the anti–tetanus toxoid (anti-TT) vaccine response in adult mice. Germinal center formation in the spleen is critical for a normal antibody response. Recent studies have identified Stimulated by Retinoic Acid-6 (Stra6) as the cell membrane receptor for retinol-binding protein (RBP) in many organs, including spleen. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether orally administered vitamin A (VA) itself, either alone or combined with RA, and/or treatment with PIC regulates Stra6 gene expression in mouse spleen and, concomitantly, antibody production. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were immunized with TT. In an initial kinetic study, oral VA (6 mg/kg) increased anti-TT IgM and IgG production as well as splenic Stra6 mRNA expression. In treatment studies that were analyzed 9 d postimmunization, retinoids including VA, RA, VA and RA combined, and PIC significantly increased plasma anti-TT IgM and IgG (P < 0.05) and splenic Stra6 mRNA (P < 0.05). Treatments that included PIC elevated plasma anti-TT IgM and IgG concentrations >20-fold (P < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry of STRA6 protein in mouse spleen confirmed its increase after immunization and retinoid treatment. In conclusion, retinoid treatments that included VA, RA, VA and RA combined, and the combination of retinoid and PIC stimulated the expression of Stra6 in spleen, which potentially could increase the local uptake of retinol. Concomitantly, these treatments increased the systemic antigen-specific antibody response. The ability of oral retinoids to stimulate systemic immunity has implications for public health and therapeutic use of VA. PMID:22739370

  20. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin B and cathepsin B-Like proteins of Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Seong, Gi-Sang; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kang, Heekyoung; Seo, Ga-Eun; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2017-12-01

    Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics. Seven hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB McAbs and three hybridoma cells secreting rNfCPB-L McAbs were produced. Among these, 2C9 (monoclone for rNfCPB) and 1C8 (monoclone for rNfCPB-L) McAb showed high antibody titres and were finally selected for use. As determined by western blotting, 2C9 McAb bound to N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB protein, which had bands of 28 kDa and 38.4 kDa. 1C8 McAb reacted with N. fowleri lysates, specifically the rNfCPB-L protein, which had bands of 24 kDa and 34 kDa. 2C9 and 1C8 monoclonal antibodies did not bind to lysates of other amoebae, such as N. gruberi, Acanthamoeba castellanii and A. polyphaga in western blot analyses. Immuno-cytochemistry analysis detected NfCPB and NfCPB-L proteins in the cytoplasm of N. fowleri trophozoites, particularly in the pseudopodia and food-cup. These results suggest that monoclonal antibodies produced against rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins may be useful for further immunological study of PAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibody-producting cells correlated with body weight in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, Carl B.; Maule, Alec G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21° C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures.

  2. Production of large numbers of hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against rat IgE using mast cell-deficient w/wv and sl/sld strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Rup, B J

    1989-08-15

    A number of different mouse strains and immunization protocols were used to attempt to make monoclonal antibodies against rat IgE for use in studies of the structure, biological activities and regulation of this class of antibody. Successful production of large numbers of monoclonal antibodies was achieved when mast cell deficient (w/wv and sl/sld) but not conventional (BALB/c, CAF1 or SJL) mice were used. These results suggest that the poor response of conventional strains of mice to rat IgE may be due to the presence of mast cells bearing high affinity receptors for IgE in these mice.

  3. The effect of chronic feeding of diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and antibody production in turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Sklan, D; Shelly, M; Makovsky, B; Geyra, A; Klipper, E; Friedman, A

    2003-03-01

    1. The effects of feeding T-2 toxin or diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) at levels up to 1 ppm for 32 d on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and immune response to enteral and parenteral immunisation were examined in young poults. 2. Slight improvement in growth was observed in some groups of poults fed T-2 or DAS mycotoxins for 32 d, with no change in feed efficiency. Feeding both T-2 and DAS resulted in oral lesions which had maximal severity after 7-15 d. 3. Mild intestinal changes were observed at 32 d but no pathological or histopathological lesions were found. Both mycotoxins altered small intestinal morphology, especially in the jejunum where villi were shorter and thinner. In addition, both DAS and T-2 mycotoxins enhanced the proportion of proliferating cells both in the crypts and along the villi. Migration rates were reduced in the jejunum of poults fed T-2 toxin but did not change in the duodenum or in poults fed DAS. 4. No significant effects of T-2 or DAS were observed on antibody production to antigens administered by enteral or parenteral routes. 5. This study indicates that tricothecene toxins at concentrations of up to 1 ppm for more than 30 d influenced small intestinal morphology but did not affect growth or antibody production.

  4. IRF4 Deficiency Abrogates Lupus Nephritis Despite Enhancing Systemic Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Maciej; Weidenbusch, Marc; Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Ryu, Mi; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Susanti, Heni Eka; Mittruecker, Hans-Willi; Mak, Tak W.

    2011-01-01

    The IFN-regulatory factors IRF1, IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7 modulate processes involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus and lupus nephritis, but the contribution of IRF4, which has multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity, is unknown. To determine a putative pathogenic role of IRF4 in lupus, we crossed Irf4-deficient mice with autoimmune C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice. IRF4 deficiency associated with increased activation of antigen-presenting cells in C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice, resulting in a massive increase in plasma levels of TNF and IL-12p40, suggesting that IRF4 suppresses cytokine release in these mice. Nevertheless, IRF4 deficiency completely protected these mice from glomerulonephritis and lung disease. The mice were hypogammaglobulinemic and lacked antinuclear and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, revealing the requirement of IRF4 for the maturation of plasma cells. As a consequence, Irf4-deficient C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice neither developed immune complex disease nor glomerular activation of complement. In addition, lack of IRF4 impaired the maturation of Th17 effector T cells and reduced plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-21, which are cytokines known to contribute to autoimmune tissue injury. In summary, IRF4 deficiency enhances systemic inflammation and the activation of antigen-presenting cells but also prevents the maturation of plasma cells and effector T cells. Because these adaptive immune effectors are essential for the evolution of lupus nephritis, we conclude that IRF4 promotes the development of lupus nephritis despite suppressing antigen-presenting cells. PMID:21742731

  5. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and antibody production in vitro by silica, talc, bentonite or Corynebacterium parvum: involvement of peroxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Hoffeld, J T

    1983-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether and by what means particles which induce granulomata in vivo can affect murine spleen lymphoproliferative and antibody responses in vitro. Particles of silica, talc, Bentonite or C. parvum cells inhibited lipopolysaccharide- or concanavalin A-stimulated proliferation and sheep red blood cell-induced antibody response in vitro. The inhibition required at least 48 hours exposure of the cells to the particles. The late onset of inhibition and its reproducibility at different cell or mitogen concentrations implicated particle-induced injury to both phagocytes and lymphocytes. Either alpha-tocopherol or 2-mercaptoethanol prevented the particle-induced inhibition of spleen cell responses. alpha-Tocopherol and 2-mercaptoethanol have in common the capacity to protect cells against membrane lipid peroxidation. The inhibitory peroxidative process(es) implicated by these studies are most likely attributable to: (a) stimulation of oxidative metabolism of phagocytic cells by particles; and (b) iron-catalyzed peroxidation directly by the particles. These data may be relevant in understanding the pathogenesis of and devising therapeutic approaches toward various granulomatous conditions.

  6. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids on growth performance, serum lysozyme activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Guo, Yuming; Yuan, Jianmin

    2005-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 240 day-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into four dietary treatments with different inclusion levels of CLA (0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg) for six weeks. Growth performance, peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation, lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (carbon clearance) and serum antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine were examined. There were no significant differences in growth performance among treatments (p > 0.05). Chicks fed CLA diets produced more lysozyme activity in serum than the control group at 2 and 6 weeks of age (p < 0.05). Dietary CLA enhanced the PBL proliferation in response to concanavalin A (ConA) at the age of 42 d (p < 0.05). Phagocytic ability was also affected by dietary CLA and chicks fed CLA diets had faster carbon clearance rate (p < 0.05), but antibody titers to NDV was not influenced by dietary CLA. The results of the study suggested that dietary CLA could enhance innate and cellular immune response in broiler chicks, and not affect the growth performance.

  7. Antibody Engineering for Pursuing a Healthier Future

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdullah F. U. H.; Wang, Rongzhi; Ling, Sumei; Wang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies. These engineered antibodies have been constructed in the hunt for novel therapeutic drugs equipped with enhanced immunoprotective abilities, such as engaging immune effector functions, effective development of fusion proteins, efficient tumor and tissue penetration, and high-affinity antibodies directed against conserved targets. Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. However, there is limited knowledge regarding dynamic antibody development approaches. Therefore, this review extends beyond our understanding of conventional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, recent advances in antibody engineering techniques together with antibody fragments, display technologies, immunomodulation, and broad applications of antibodies are discussed to enhance innovative antibody production in pursuit of a healthier future for humans. PMID:28400756

  8. Limited use of Centritech Lab II Centrifuge in perfusion culture of rCHO cells for the production of recombinant antibody.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung Jin; Oh, Duk Jae; Chang, Ho Nam

    2008-01-01

    Perfusion cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells, producing recombinant antibody against the S surface antigen of Hepatitis B virus, were carried out in continuous and intermittent mode using a Centritech Lab II Centrifuge. In the continuous perfusion process, despite the absence of shear stress from the pump head, long-term operation was not possible because of continuously repeated exposure to oxygen limitation and low temperature, as well as shear stress from centrifugal force. In the intermittent perfusion processes, the frequency of cell-passage through the centrifuge was substantially reduced, compared with the continuous perfusion mode; however, the degree of reduction could not guarantee stable long-term operation. Although various operating parameters were applied in the intermittent perfusion cultures, high cell densities could not be maintained stably. In a single bioreactor culture system, a specific cell that is returned from the centrifuge to the bioreactor could be transferred from the bioreactor to the centrifuge again in the next cycle. These repetitive damages, caused by shear stress from the pump head and centrifugal force, as well as exposure to suboptimal conditions such as oxygen limitation and low temperature below 37 degrees C, were more serious at higher perfusion rates. Subsequently, damaged cells and dead cells were continuously accumulated in the bioreactor. Culture temperature shift from 37 to 33 degrees C increased antibody concentrations but showed inhibitory effects on cell growth. The negative effects of lowering culture temperature on cell growth overwhelmed the positive effects on antibody production. To protect cells from shear stress, Pluronic F-68 was 2-fold concentrated in the culture medium; nevertheless, a significantly higher concentration of Pluronic F-68 (2 g/L) may have inhibitory effects on cell growth.

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies and development of a quantitative immuno-polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and quantify recombinant Glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Abud, J E; Luque, E H; Ramos, J G; Rodriguez, H A

    2017-07-01

    GST-tagged proteins are important tools for the production of recombinant proteins. Removal of GST tag from its fusion protein, frequently by harsh chemical treatments or proteolytic methods, is often required. Thus, the monitoring of the proteins in tag-free form requires a significant effort to determine the remnants of GST during purification process. In the present study, we developed both a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immuno-polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) assay, both specific for detection of recombinant GST (rGST). rGST was expressed in Escherichia coli JM109, using a pGEX4T-3 vector, and several anti-rGST monoclonal antibodies were generated using hybridoma technology. Two of these were rationally selected as capture and detection antibodies, allowing the development of a sandwich ELISA with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μg/ml. To develop the rGST-IPCR assay, we selected "Universal-IPCR" format, comprising the biotin-avidin binding as the coupling system. In addition, the rGST-IPCR was developed in standard PCR tubes, and the surface adsorption of antibodies on PCR tubes, the optimal neutravidin concentrations, the generation of a reporter DNA and the concentration effect were studied and determined. Under optimized assay conditions, the rGST-IPCR assay provided a 100-fold increase in the LOD as well as an expanded working range, in comparison with rGST-ELISA. The proposed method exhibited great potentiality for application in several fields in which measurement of very low levels of GST is necessary, and might provide a model for other IPCR assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for antigens derived from tissue of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affected with plasmacytoid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Newbound, G C; Markham, R J; Speare, D J; Saksida, S M; Després, B M; Horney, B S; Kibenge, F S; Sheppard, J A; Wright, G M; Kent, M L

    1993-09-01

    Two distinct monoclonal antibodies (MAB) were prepared for testing with kidney, spleen, and retrobulbar tissue imprints made from chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) affected with plasmacytoid leukemia. (PL). Hybridomas were prepared from mice immunized with whole and lysed cells purified from renal or retrobulbar PL-positive tissues, which had been obtained from naturally and experimentally infected fish from British Columbia, Canada. The MAB reacted with at least 4 morphologically different cell types; fluorescence was associated with the plasma membrane and cytoplasm. The MAB also reacted with kidney imprints made from chinook salmon affected with a PL-like lymphoproliferative disease in California, indicating that these 2 diseases might be caused by a similar agent. The MAB did not react with any of the kidney or spleen imprints made from wild chinook salmon collected from a river in Ontario, Canada.

  11. Production and characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies binding the Plasmodium falciparum diagnostic biomarker, histidine-rich protein 2.

    PubMed

    Leow, Chiuan Herng; Jones, Martina; Cheng, Qin; Mahler, Stephen; McCarthy, James

    2014-07-18

    Early and accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection is important for providing appropriate treatment to patients with malaria. However, technical limitations of currently available diagnostic tests limit their use in control programs. One possible explanation for the vulnerability of current antibodies used in RDTs is their propensity to degrade at high ambient temperatures. Isolation of new antibodies with better thermal stability represents an appealing approach to improve the performance of RDTs. In this study, phage display technology was deployed to isolate novel binders by screening a human naïve scFv antibody library against recombinant Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (rPfHRP2). The isolated scFv clones were reformatted to whole IgG and the recombinant mAbs were produced in a mammalian CHO cell expression system. To verify the biological activity of these purified recombinant mAbs, range of functional assays were characterized. Two unique clones (D2 and F9) were isolated after five rounds of biopanning. The reformatted and expressed antibodies demonstrated high binding specificity to malaria recombinant PfHRP2 and native proteins. When 5 μg/mL of mAbs applied, mAb C1-13 had the highest sensitivity, with an OD value of 1, the detection achieved 5 ng/mL of rPfHRP2, followed by mAbs D2 and F9 at 10 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL of rPfHRP2, respectively. Although the sensitivity of mAbs D2 and F9 was lower than the control, these recombinant human mAbs have shown better stability compared to mouse mAb C1-13 at various temperatures in DSC and blot assays. In view of epitope mapping, the predominant motif of rPfHRP2 recognized by mAb D2 was AHHAADAHHA, whereas mAb F9 was one amino acid shorter, resulting in AHHAADAHH. mAb F9 had the strongest binding affinity to rPfHRP2 protein, with a KD value of 4.27 × 10(-11) M, followed by control mAb C1-13 at 1.03 × 10(-10) M and mAb D2 at 3.05 × 10(-10) M. Overall, the performance of these mAbs showed

  12. Development of a Cost-effective Ovine Polyclonal Antibody-Based Product, EBOTAb, to Treat Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart David; Callan, Jo; Zeltina, Antra; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Strecker, Thomas; Fehling, Sarah K.; Krähling, Verena; Bosworth, Andrew; Rayner, Emma; Taylor, Irene; Charlton, Sue; Landon, John; Cameron, Ian; Hewson, Roger; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Bowden, Thomas A.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    The highly glycosylated glycoprotein spike of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP1,2) is the primary target of the humoral host response. Recombinant EBOV-GP ectodomain (EBOV-GP1,2ecto) expressed in mammalian cells was used to immunize sheep and elicited a robust immune response and produced high titers of high avidity polyclonal antibodies. Investigation of the neutralizing activity of the ovine antisera in vitro revealed that it neutralized EBOV. A pool of intact ovine immunoglobulin G, herein termed EBOTAb, was prepared from the antisera and used for an in vivo guinea pig study. When EBOTAb was delivered 6 hours after challenge, all animals survived without experiencing fever or other clinical manifestations. In a second series of guinea pig studies, the administration of EBOTAb dosing was delayed for 48 or 72 hours after challenge, resulting in 100% and 75% survival, respectively. These studies illustrate the usefulness of EBOTAb in protecting against EBOV-induced disease. PMID:26715676

  13. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance.

  14. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against recombinant VP8-S2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, K; Nassiri, M R; Tahmoorespur, M; Haghparast, A; Zibaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. VP8 subunit of rotavirus is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Studies showed that immunoglobulin of egg yolk (IgY) from immunized hens has been identified to be a convenient source for specific antibodies for using in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostic to limit the infections. In this study, chimeric VP8-S2 gene was designed using by computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 gene was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a (+) vectors. Then, recombinant pET32a-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). The expressed protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Hens were immunized with the purified VP8-S2 protein three times. IgY was purified from egg yolks using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. Activity and specificity of anti-VP8-S2 IgY were detected by dot-blotting, Western-blotting and indirect ELISA. We obtained anti-VP8-S2 IgY by immunizing hens with the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. The anti-VP8-S2 IgY was showed to bind specifically to the chimeric VP8-S2 protein by dot-blotting, Western-blotting analyses and indirect ELISA. The result of this study indicated that such construction can be useful to investigate as candidates for development of detection methods for simultaneous diagnosis of both infections. Specific IgY against the recombinant VP8-S2 could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus.

  15. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) and use in immunoaffinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Amanda M.; Thompson, Nancy E.; Lamberski, Jennifer A.; Mertz, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is an orphan nuclear receptor whose elevated expression is thought to contribute to breast, colon, and ovarian cancers. In order to investigate the role of ERRα in human disease, there is a need for immunological reagents suitable for detection and purification of ERRα. We expressed recombinant human ERRα in Escherichia coli, purified the protein, and used it to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ERRα. Nine high-affinity mAbs were chosen for their abilities to detect overexpressed ERRα in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Western blots, after which isotyping and preliminary epitope mapping was performed. The mAbs were all IgG subtypes and reacted with several different regions of full-length ERRα. A majority of the mAbs were found to be useful for immunoprecipitation of ERRα, and several could detect DNA-bound ERRα in electrophoretic mobility supershift assays (EMSAs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The suitability of mAbs to detect ERRα in immunofluorescence assays was assessed. One mAb in particular, 2ERR10, could specifically detect endogenous ERRα in mammary carcinoma cells. Finally, we performed assays to screen for mAbs that gently release ERRα in the presence of a low-molecular-weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol) and nonchaotropic salt. Using gentle immunoaffinity chromatography, we were able to isolate ERRα from mammalian cells by eluting with a polyol-salt solution. Our characterization studies show that these monoclonal antibodies perform well in a variety of biochemical assays. We anticipate that these novel reagents will prove useful for the detection and purification of ERRα in research and clinical applications. PMID:22565152

  16. Sera of patients with recurrent miscarriages containing anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB) reduce hCG and progesterone production in trophoblast cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Schönfeldt, Viktoria; Rogenhofer, Nina; Ruf, Katharina; Thaler, Christian J; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive failure including RM has been suggested to correlate with antibodies that cross react with HLA-negative syncytiotrophoblasts and we have reported that 17% of women with 2 or more miscarriages and 34% of women with 3 or more miscarriages express anti-trophoblast antibodies (ATAB). Until now, the mechanism, how ATAB interfere with pregnancy success is not known. HCG and progesterone both play fundamental roles in supporting human pregnancy. Therefore we investigated the effects of sera of RM patients containing ATAB on the hCG and progesterone production of cells of the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. In vitro study to investigate effects of patient sera with and without ATAB on hCG and progesterone secretion of JEG-3 cells. The presence of ATAB was detected as described earlier. Effects of sera from ATAB positive and ATAB negative RM patients on hCG and progesterone secretion by JEG-3 cells were analysed 12 and 24h after plating. Sera of women without pregnancy pathologies served as controls. Sera of ATAB-positive RM patients significantly inhibit hCG secretion of JEG-3 cells for 12h after plating compared to sera of healthy controls (p=0.019) and significantly reduce progesterone production for 12h (p=0.046) and 24h (p=0.027) of co-culture. Sera of ATAB-negative RM patient show no significant effect on progesterone secretion. Inhibition of hCG and progesterone production might point to a mechanism, how ATAB interfere with early pregnancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mousepox detected in a research facility: case report and failure of mouse antibody production testing to identify Ectromelia virus in contaminated mouse serum.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Philippe; Hahn, Nina E; Fraser, Jenelle K; Kendall, Lonnie V; Ziman, Melanie; James, Edward; Shastri, Nilabh; Griffey, Stephen M

    2009-04-01

    An outbreak of mousepox in a research institution was caused by Ectromelia-contaminated mouse serum that had been used for bone marrow cell culture and the cells subsequently injected into the footpads of mice. The disease initially was diagnosed by identification of gross and microscopic lesions typical for Ectromelia infection, including foci of necrosis in the liver and spleen and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the skin. The source of infection was determined by PCR analysis to be serum obtained from a commercial vendor. To determine whether viral growth in tissue culture was required to induce viral infection, 36 mice (BALB/cJ, C57BL/6J) were experimentally exposed intraperitoneally, intradermally (footpad), or intranasally to contaminated serum or bone marrow cell cultures using the contaminated serum in the culture medium. Mice were euthanized when clinical signs developed or after 12 wk. Necropsy, PCR of spleen, and serum ELISA were performed on all mice. Mice injected with cell cultures and their cage contacts developed mousepox, antibodies to Ectromelia, and lesions, whereas mice injected with serum without cells did not. Mouse antibody production, a tool commonly used to screen biologic materials for viral contamination, failed to detect active Ectromelia contamination in mouse serum.

  18. Catecholamine plasma levels, IFN-γ serum levels and antibodies production induced by rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preference.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Cirone, Francesco; Guaricci, Antonio Ciro; Quaranta, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    To explore the possible role of the sympathetic nervous activity in the asymmetrical crosstalk between the brain and immune system, catecholamine (E, NE) plasma levels, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) serum levels and production of antibodies induced by rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preference were measured. The results showed that the direction of behavioural lateralization influenced both epinephrine levels and immune response in dogs. A different kinetic of epinephrine levels after immunization was observed in left-pawed dogs compared to both right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. The titers of antirabies antibodies were lower in left-pawed dogs than in right-pawed and ambidextrous dogs. Similarly, the IFN-γ serum levels were lower in left-pawed dogs than in the other two groups. Taken together, these findings showed that the left-pawed group appeared to be consistently the different group stressing the fundamental role played by the sympathetic nervous system as a mechanistic basis for the crosstalk between the brain and the immune system.

  19. Unique Monoclonal Antibody Recognizing the Third Extracellular Loop of CXCR4 Induces Lymphocyte Agglutination and Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Mediated Syncytium Formation and Productive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Reiko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Murakami, Tsutomu; Baba, Eishi; Lichtenfeld, Julliane; Omori, Takeru; Kimura, Tohru; Tsurutani, Naomi; Fujii, Nobutaka; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Peiper, Stephen C.; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tanaka, Yuetsu

    2001-01-01

    To increase insight into the structural basis of CXCR4 utilization in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a new generation of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was developed in WKA rats. The A80 MAb, which binds an epitope in the third extracellular loop (ECL3) of CXCR4, has unique biologic properties that provide novel insights into CXCR4 function. This agent enhanced syncytium formation in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with X4 or R5 and CEM cells infected with X4 HIV-1 strains. Exposure to A80 increased the productive infection of activated CD4+ T cells and CEM cells with R5 and X4 viruses, respectively. This antibody uniquely induced agglutination of PBMC and CEM cells but did not activate calcium mobilization. Agglutination induced by A80 was inhibited by stromal cell-derived factor 1, T22, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate but was not significantly altered by pretreatment of cells with pertussis toxin, wortmannin, or MAbs to LFA-1, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-3. The binding of the A145 and A120 MAbs was mapped to the N-terminal extracellular domain and a conformational epitope involving ECL1 and ECL2, respectively. Both of these MAbs inhibited HIV-1 infection and lacked the novel properties of A80. These results suggest a new role for CXCR4 in homologous lymphocyte adhesion that is ligand independent and in HIV-1 infection. PMID:11689635

  20. Characterization of a hybridoma-derived T cell factor that promotes the production of antibodies bearing a dominant cross-reactive idiotype(s).

    PubMed

    Wardzala, A M; Bowen, M B; Jendrisak, G S; Bellone, C J

    1986-01-01

    The participation of postulated subsets of T helper cells in antigen-specific antibody responses has generated both interest and controversy among immunologists. Specifically the import as well as the very existence of multiple populations of T helper cells has led to an intense search in recent years for cloned lines of such subsets that permit unambiguous classification and study. Furthermore, the means by which some of these T cells induce antibody responses may be via the elaboration of soluble factors mandating their characterization both biochemically and mechanistically. We have recently reported the existence of a T helper factor present in a 24-h Con A supernatant that specifically enhances an idiotype-bearing (Id+) response to trinitrophenol (TNP). The unique biochemical properties of this substance, namely, its capacity to bind both antigen and cross-reactive idiotype (CRI), has led to the generation of a cloned T cell hybridoma that constitutively "secretes" a factor which appears identical to the helper activity in Con A Sn. The cloned T cell hybridoma, herein designated LOP 1.4, elaborates a factor which selectively enhances the CRI+ anti-TNP antibody response in vitro. The specificity of the assay employed as well as its sensitivity for detecting significant enhancement of the percent CRI+ anti-TNP PFC response lent itself well as a useful vehicle for subsequent characterization of the factor. The LOP 1.4 factor, which can act at the later stages of the B cell response in a dose-dependent fashion, was characterized by affinity chromatography in order to probe the mechanism of its selective Id enhancement. The factor binds both the idiotype and the ligand for which one of the idiotype-bearing monoclonal antibodies is specific. That the factor binds idiotype and can be eluted selectively with ligand but not with noncross-reacting ligand suggests that the factor possesses separate but not independent binding sites, or alternatively, a single binding

  1. Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Sanitization of an Isolator for Aseptic Filling of Monoclonal Antibody Drug Product - Hydrogen Peroxide Uptake and Impact on Protein Quality.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Aaron; Reodl, Thomas; Hui, Ada; Knueppel, Stephanie; Eppler, Kirk; Lehnert, Siegfried; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2018-03-15

    A monoclonal antibody drug product (DP) manufacturing process was transferred to a different production site, where aseptic filling took place within an isolator that was sanitized using vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP). A quality-by-design approach was applied for study design to understand the impact of VPHP uptake in the isolator on DP quality. A combination of small-scale and manufacturing-scale studies was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the monoclonal antibody to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as VPHP uptake mechanisms during the filling process. The acceptable H2O2 level was determined to be 100 ng/mL for the antibody in the H2O2 spiking study; protein oxidation was observed above this threshold. The most prominent sources of VPHP uptake were identified to be via the silicone tubing assembly (associated with the peristaltic pumps) and open, filled vials. Silicone tubing, an effective depot to H2O2, could absorb VPHP during different stages of the filling process and discharge H2O2 into the DP solution during filling interruptions. A small-scale isolator model, established to simulate manufacturing-scale conditions, was a useful tool in understanding H2O2 uptake in relation to tubing dimensions and VPHP concentration in the isolator air (or atmosphere). Although the tubing assembly had absorbed a substantial amount of VPHP during the decontamination phase, the majority of H2O2 could be removed during tubing cleaning and sterilization in the subsequent isolator aeration phase, demonstrating that H2O2 in the DP solution is taken up primarily via atmospheric VPHP residues in the isolator during filling. Picarro sensor monitoring suggested that the validated VPHP aeration process generates reproducible residual VPHP profiles in isolator air, thus allowing small-scale studies to provide more relevant recommendations on tubing size and interruption time limits for commercial manufacturing. The recommended process parameters were demonstrated to be

  2. Microgravity induces inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization through abrogating primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wengui; Xie, Yanfang; He, Jinpeng; Zhou, Jian; Gao, Yuhai; Wei, Wenjun; Ding, Nan; Ma, Huiping; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Keming; Wang, Jufang

    2017-05-12

    It is well documented that microgravity in space environment leads to bone loss in astronauts. These physiological changes have also been validated by human and animal studies and modeled in cell-based analogs. However, the underlying mechanisms are elusive. In the current study, we identified a novel phenomenon that primary cilia (key sensors and functioning organelles) of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) gradually shrank and disappeared almost completely after exposure to simulated microgravity generated by a random positioning machine (RPM). Along with the abrogation of primary cilia, the differentiation, maturation and mineralization of ROBs were inhibited. We also found that the disappearance of primary cilia was prevented by treating ROBs with cytochalasin D, but not with LiCl or dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (Dynlt1) siRNA. The repression of the differentiation, maturation and mineralization of ROBs was effectively offset by cytochalasin D treatment in microgravity conditions. Blocking ciliogenesis using intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) siRNA knockdown inhibited the ability of cytochalasin D to counteract this reduction of osteogenesis. These results indicate that the abrogation of primary cilia may be responsible for the microgravity's inhibition on osteogenesis. Reconstruction of primary cilia may become a potential strategy against bone loss induced by microgravity.

  3. Higher miRNA Tolerance in Immortal Li-Fraumeni Fibroblasts with Abrogated Interferon Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qunfang; Tainsky, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The IFN pathway is abrogated in fibroblasts from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients during spontaneous cellular immortalization, a necessary step in carcinogenesis. Microarray profiling of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) revealed that most miRNAs were upregulated in IFN pathway–defective MDAH087-10 fibroblasts compared with MDAH087-N cells with relatively normal IFN signaling. Overexpression of Dicer, a critical enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, promoted cell growth and colony formation in MDAH087-10 cells. However, double-stranded miRNA produced by Dicer enhanced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in MDAH087-N cells resulting in significant cell death and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, manipulation of the IFN pathway in immortal LFS fibroblasts through transcription factor IRF7 reversed their response to Dicer overexpression due to changed IFN pathway activity. Dicer overexpressing MDAH087-N cells contained lower levels of miRNA than vector control, and conversely much higher miRNA expression was detected in Dicertransfected MDAH087-10 cells. Therefore, cells with a defective IFN pathway have a higher miRNA tolerance than cells with normal IFN pathway. This work indicates for the first time that the IFN pathway as mediated through the transcription factor IRF7 must be disrupted to permit miRNA upregulation to occur in early carcinogenesis. The IFN pathway appears to provide a checkpoint for miRNA level tolerance and its abrogation leads to cellular immortalization. PMID:21199806

  4. Vitamin D treatment abrogates the inflammatory response in paraquat-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Schapochnik, Adriana; da Silva, Marcia Rodrigues; Leal, Mayara Peres; Esteves, Janete; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Sandri, Silvana; de Fátima Teixeira da Silva, Daniela; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliseli; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2018-06-23

    A high incidence of intentional or accidental paraquat (PQ) ingestion is related to irreversible lung fibrosis and no effective therapy is currently available. Vitamin D has emerged with promising results as an immunomodulatory molecule when abrogating the inflammatory responses of lung diseases. Therefore, we have investigated the role of vitamin D treatments on PQ-induced lung fibrosis in male C57/BL6 mice. Lung fibrosis was induced by a single injection of PQ (10 mg/kg; i.p.). The control group received PQ vehicle. Seven days later, after the PQ injection or the vehicle injection, the mice received vitamin D (5 μg/kg, i.p., once a day) or vehicle, for a further 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of vitamin D or the vehicle, the analysis were performed. The vitamin D treatments reduced the number of leukocytes in their BALF and they decreased the IL-6, IL-17, TGF-beta and MMP-9 levels and the abrogated collagenase deposits in their lung tissues. Conversely, the vitamin D treatments increased the resolvin D levels in their BALF. Moreover, their tracheal contractility was also significantly reduced by the vitamin D treatments. Altogether, the data that was obtained showed a promising use of vitamin D, in treating the lung fibrosis that had been induced by the PQ intoxications. This may improve its prognostic use for a non-invasive and low cost therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A Novel Clinically Relevant Strategy to Abrogate Autoimmunity and Regulate Alloimmunity in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vergani, Andrea; D'Addio, Francesca; Jurewicz, Mollie; Petrelli, Alessandra; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Liu, Kaifeng; Law, Kenneth; Schuetz, Christian; Carvello, Michele; Orsenigo, Elena; Deng, Shaoping; Rodig, Scott J.; Ansari, Javeed M.; Staudacher, Carlo; Abdi, Reza; Williams, John; Markmann, James; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Fiorina, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate a new clinically relevant immunoregulatory strategy based on treatment with murine Thymoglobulin mATG Genzyme and CTLA4-Ig in NOD mice to prevent allo- and autoimmune activation using a stringent model of islet transplantation and diabetes reversal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using allogeneic islet transplantation models as well as NOD mice with recent onset type 1 diabetes, we addressed the therapeutic efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms associated with a new immunoregulatory protocol based on prolonged low-dose mATG plus CTLA4-Ig. RESULTS BALB/c islets transplanted into hyperglycemic NOD mice under prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment showed a pronounced delay in allograft rejection compared with untreated mice (mean survival time: 54 vs. 8 days, P < 0.0001). Immunologic analysis of mice receiving transplants revealed a complete abrogation of autoimmune responses and severe downregulation of alloimmunity in response to treatment. The striking effect on autoimmunity was confirmed by 100% diabetes reversal in newly hyperglycemic NOD mice and 100% indefinite survival of syngeneic islet transplantation (NOD.SCID into NOD mice). CONCLUSIONS The capacity to regulate alloimmunity and to abrogate the autoimmune response in NOD mice in different settings confirmed that prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment is a clinically relevant strategy to translate to humans with type 1 diabetes. PMID:20805386

  6. Production of monoclonal antibody and application in indirect competitive ELISA for detecting okadaic acid and dinophytoxin-1 in seafood.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shi-Ying; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yan-Song; Lin, Chao; Meng, Xian-Mei; Yan, Dong-Ming; Li, Zhao-Hui; Yu, Shi-Yu; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2011-08-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and analogues of dinophysistoxin (DTX) are key diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins, which possibly arouse DSP symptoms by consuming the contaminated shellfish. Because of the stable toxicity in high temperature and the long-term carcinogenicity, the outbreaks of DSP related to consumption of bivalve mollusks contaminated by DSP toxins pose a hazard to public health. Therefore, it is worth developing a fast and reliable analytical method for the detection of OA and analogues in shellfish. In this paper, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (icELISA) for detecting OA and DTX-1 in seafood was developed based on monoclonal antibody (McAb). The OA was conjugated to human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by the active ester method as the immune antigen and the detective antigen. The spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with OA-IgG were fused with SP2/0 myeloma cells. A hybridoma cell line, which secreted McAb against OA, was selected by "limiting dilution" cloning. An icELISA was developed based on immobilized conjugate (OA-BSA) competing the McAb with the free OA in seafood sample. A hybridoma cell line, which secreted IgG1 subclass monoclonal antibody (McAb) against OA, was selected. The IC(50) of the McAb for OA and dinophytoxin-1 (DTX-1) were 4.40 and 3.89 ng/mL, respectively. Based on the McAb, an indirect competitive ELISA for detection of OA and DTX-1 in seafood was developed. The regression equation was y = 54.713x - 25.879 with a coefficient correlation of R (2) = 0.9729. The linear range and the limit of detection were 0.4-12.5 and 0.45 ng/mL, respectively. The average recovery of OA and DTX-1 spiked shellfish was 82.29% with the coefficient of variation of 7.67%. The developed icELISA is a fast, sensitive, and convenient assay for detecting of total amount of OA and DTX-1 in seafood.

  7. Plasma membrane Toll-like receptor activation increases bacterial uptake but abrogates endosomal Lactobacillus acidophilus induction of interferon-β.

    PubMed

    Boye, Louise; Welsby, Iain; Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Goriely, Stanislas; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a potent interferon-β (IFN-β) response in dendritic cells (DCs) by a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -dependent mechanism, in turn leading to strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) production. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of different types of endocytosis in the L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β and IL-12 responses and how TLR2 or TLR4 ligation by lipopolysaccharide and Pam3/4CSK4 influenced endocytosis of L. acidophilus and the induced IFN-β and IL-12 production. Lactobacillus acidophilus was endocytosed by constitutive macropinocytosis taking place in the immature cells as well as by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) -dependent phagocytosis but without involvement of plasma membrane TLR2. Stimulation with TLR2 or TLR4 ligands increased macropinocytosis in a Syk-independent manner. As a consequence, incubation of DCs with TLR ligands before incubation with L. acidophilus enhanced the uptake of the bacteria. However, in these experimental conditions, induction of IFN-β and IL-12 was strongly inhibited. As L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β depends on endocytosis and endosomal degradation before signalling and as TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane leading to increased macropinocytosis abrogates IFN-β induction we conclude that plasma membrane TLR stimulation leading to increased macropinocytosis decreases endosomal induction of IFN-β and speculate that this is due to competition between compartments for molecules involved in the signal pathways. In summary, endosomal signalling by L. acidophilus that leads to IFN-β and IL-12 production is inhibited by TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High-level rapid production of full-size monoclonal antibodies in plants by a single-vector DNA replicon system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhong; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Lai, Huafang; Piensook, Khanrat; Cardineau, Guy; Zeitlin, Larry; Whaley, Kevin J.; Arntzen, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Plant viral vectors have great potential in rapid production of important pharmaceutical proteins. However, high-yield production of heterooligomeric proteins that require the expression and assembly of two or more protein subunits often suffers problems due to the “competing” nature of viral vectors derived from the same virus. Previously we reported that a bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV)-derived, three-component DNA replicon system allows rapid production of single recombinant proteins in plants (Huang et al. 2009). In this article, we report further development of this expression system for its application in high-yield production of oligomeric protein complexes including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in plants. We showed that the BeYDV replicon system permits simultaneous efficient replication of two DNA replicons and thus, high-level accumulation of two recombinant proteins in the same plant cell. We also demonstrated that a single vector that contains multiple replicon cassettes was as efficient as the three-component system in driving the expression of two distinct proteins. Using either the non-competing, three-vector system or the multi-replicon single vector, we produced both the heavy and light chain subunits of a protective IgG mAb 6D8 against Ebola virus GP1 (Wilson et al. 2000) at 0.5 mg of mAb per gram leaf fresh weight within 4 days post infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We further demonstrated that full-size tetrameric IgG complex containing two heavy and two light chains was efficiently assembled and readily purified, and retained its functionality in specific binding to inactivated Ebola virus. Thus, our single-vector replicon system provides high-yield production capacity for heterooligomeric proteins, yet eliminates the difficult task of identifying non-competing virus and the need for co-infection of multiple expression modules. The multi-replicon vector represents a significant advance in transient expression technology for

  9. Application of a quality by design approach to the cell culture process of monoclonal antibody production, resulting in the establishment of a design space.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Watari, Akiko; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    This case study describes the application of Quality by Design elements to the process of culturing Chinese hamster ovary cells in the production of a monoclonal antibody. All steps in the cell culture process and all process parameters in each step were identified by using a cause-and-effect diagram. Prospective risk assessment using failure mode and effects analysis identified the following four potential critical process parameters in the production culture step: initial viable cell density, culture duration, pH, and temperature. These parameters and lot-to-lot variability in raw material were then evaluated by process characterization utilizing a design of experiments approach consisting of a face-centered central composite design integrated with a full factorial design. Process characterization was conducted using a scaled down model that had been qualified by comparison with large-scale production data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to establish statistical prediction models for performance indicators and quality attributes; with these, we constructed contour plots and conducted Monte Carlo simulation to clarify the design space. The statistical analyses, especially for raw materials, identified set point values, which were most robust with respect to the lot-to-lot variability of raw materials while keeping the product quality within the acceptance criteria. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Production a monoclonal antibody specific to granulocytes of swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) and its cross reactivity with other crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Min

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3F4 specific to granulocytes of swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, was obtained by immunizing mice with whole haemocytes. mAb 3F4 showed strong immunofluorescent reaction with granulocytes, but no reaction with hyalinocytes. The positive cell percentage of granulocytes was 86.3% detected by Flow cytometry (FCM). A special antigen with molecular weight of about 26kDa was further recognized by mAb 3F4 in haemocytes of P. trituberculatus. mAb 3F4 also showed strong cross-reactivity with haemocytes of Eriocheir sinensis and Petalomera japonica, but no reaction with other crustaceans tested. In E. sinensis, the positive cell percentage was 73.4% for granulocytes and 59.8% for hyalinocytes; while in P. japonica, the positive cell percentage was 81.2% for granulocytes and 7.1% for hyalinocytes. There was also a special antigen with molecular weight of about 31kDa identified by mAb 3F4 in haemocytes of E.sinensis, but no corresponding protein band in P. japonica haemocytes. These results demonstrated that mAb 3F4 can be used as a marker for granulocytes of crabs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of mouse monoclonal antibody against Streptococcus dysgalactiae GapC protein and mapping its conserved B-cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Limeng; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Ziyao; Zhou, Xue; Yu, Liquan; Sun, Hunan; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Yongzhong; Song, Baifen; Ma, Jinzhu; Tong, Chunyu; Zhu, Zhanbo; Cui, Yudong

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae (S. dysgalactiae) GapC protein is a protective antigen that induces partial immunity against S. dysgalactiae infection in animals. To identify the conserved B-cell epitope of S. dysgalactiae GapC, a mouse monoclonal antibody 1E11 (mAb1E11) against GapC was generated and used to screen a phage-displayed 12-mer random peptide library (Ph.D.-12). Eleven positive clones recognized by mAb1E11 were identified, most of which matched the consensus motif TGFFAKK. Sequence of the motif exactly matched amino acids 97-103 of the S. dysgalactiae GapC. In addition, the epitope (97)TGFFAKK(103) showed high homology among different streptococcus species. Site-directed mutagenic analysis further confirmed that residues G98, F99, F100 and K103 formed the core of (97)TGFFAKK(103), and this core motif was the minimal determinant of the B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb1E11. Collectively, the identification of conserved B-cell epitope within S. dysgalactiae GapC highlights the possibility of developing the epitope-based vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a Cost-effective Ovine Polyclonal Antibody-Based Product, EBOTAb, to Treat Ebola Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dowall, Stuart David; Callan, Jo; Zeltina, Antra; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Strecker, Thomas; Fehling, Sarah K; Krähling, Verena; Bosworth, Andrew; Rayner, Emma; Taylor, Irene; Charlton, Sue; Landon, John; Cameron, Ian; Hewson, Roger; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Bowden, Thomas A; Carroll, Miles W

    2016-04-01

    The highly glycosylated glycoprotein spike of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP1,2) is the primary target of the humoral host response. Recombinant EBOV-GP ectodomain (EBOV-GP1,2ecto) expressed in mammalian cells was used to immunize sheep and elicited a robust immune response and produced high titers of high avidity polyclonal antibodies. Investigation of the neutralizing activity of the ovine antisera in vitro revealed that it neutralized EBOV. A pool of intact ovine immunoglobulin G, herein termed EBOTAb, was prepared from the antisera and used for an in vivo guinea pig study. When EBOTAb was delivered 6 hours after challenge, all animals survived without experiencing fever or other clinical manifestations. In a second series of guinea pig studies, the administration of EBOTAb dosing was delayed for 48 or 72 hours after challenge, resulting in 100% and 75% survival, respectively. These studies illustrate the usefulness of EBOTAb in protecting against EBOV-induced disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P.; Paula, Rosemeire F. O.; Mizutani, Erica; Sartorelli, Juliana C.; Milani, Ana M.; Longhini, Ana Leda F.; Oliveira, Elaine C.; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D. R.; Moraes, Adriel S.; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C.; Farias, Alessandro S.; Ceragioli, Helder J.; Santos, Leonilda M. B.; Baranauskas, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGFβ and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P; Paula, Rosemeire F O; Mizutani, Erica; Sartorelli, Juliana C; Milani, Ana M; Longhini, Ana Leda F; Oliveira, Elaine C; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D R; Moraes, Adriel S; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C; Farias, Alessandro S; Ceragioli, Helder J; Santos, Leonilda M B; Baranauskas, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGFβ and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  15. On the origin of C3 nephritic factor (antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase): evidence for the Adam and Eve concept of autoantibody production.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, R E; Stitzel, A E; Tsokos, G

    1992-09-01

    The antibody to the alternative pathway C3 convertase, designated C3 nephritic factor or C3NeF, is an autoantibody that is produced in everyone from the time of birth. The elaboration of C3NeF utilizes germline V-region genes which undergo antigen-driven affinity maturation, resulting in an autoantibody that is produced in large amounts with high affinity and narrow specificity. Our data also suggest that under normal conditions, the idiotypic network may play an important part in the control of this autoantibody. Further, a defect in the network with loss of control or inappropriate stimulation may be an underlying mechanism in the unrestricted production of C3NeF in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

  16. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mohamet, Lisa; Lea, Michelle L; Ward, Christopher M

    2010-09-23

    A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/-) or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb), allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are necessary to increase cell viability of hES cells in suspension.

  17. Production of a soluble single-chain variable fragment antibody against okadaic acid and exploration of its specific binding.

    PubMed

    He, Kuo; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Lixia; Du, Xinjun; Wei, Dong

    2016-06-15

    Okadaic acid is a lipophilic marine algal toxin commonly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Outbreaks of DSP have been increasing and are of worldwide public health concern; therefore, there is a growing demand for more rapid, reliable, and economical analytical methods for the detection of this toxin. In this study, anti-okadaic acid single-chain variable fragment (scFv) genes were prepared by cloning heavy and light chain genes from hybridoma cells, followed by fusion of the chains via a linker peptide. An scFv-pLIP6/GN recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli for expression, and the target scFv was identified with IC-CLEIA (chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay). The IC15 was 0.012 ± 0.02 μg/L, and the IC50 was 0.25 ± 0.03 μg/L. The three-dimensional structure of the scFv was simulated with computer modeling, and okadaic acid was docked to the scFv model to obtain a putative structure of the binding complex. Two predicted critical amino acids, Ser32 and Thr187, were then mutated to verify this theoretical model. Both mutants exhibited significant loss of binding activity. These results help us to understand this specific scFv-antigen binding mechanism and provide guidance for affinity maturation of the antibody in vitro. The high-affinity scFv developed here also has potential for okadaic acid toxin detection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  19. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Christopher A; Honeyfield, Dale C; Densmore, Christine L; Iwanowicz, Luke R

    2012-12-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  20. Production of monoclonal antibodies to Listeria monocytogenes and their application to determine the virulence of isolates from channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Erdenlig, S; Ainsworth, A J; Austin, F W

    1999-07-01

    We produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the extracellular proteins of Listeria monocytogenes EGD grown in Chelex-treated improved minimal medium. Ten of the positive hybridomas generated were chosen for further characterization. Seven of the MAbs reacted with a protein having a molecular mass of 60 kDa. These MAbs inhibited listeriolysin (LLO)-mediated hemolysis, and two of them were specific for LLO and none of the other thiol-activated toxins tested. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis, five of the anti-LLO MAbs reacted with ivanolysin from Listeria ivanovii. Three of the 10 MAbs reacted with a 29-kDa protein on Western blots and neutralized the phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity of L. monocytogenes. These three anti-PC-PLC MAbs did not react with phospholipases from five different gram-positive bacteria. However, the anti-PC-PLC MAbs recognized a 27-kDa extracellular protein from L. ivanovii and neutralized sphingomyelinase activity in a hemolysis test that demonstrates the antigenic relatedness of listerial phospholipases. These data indicate that listerial thiol-activated toxins possess species-specific epitopes and share group-specific epitopes. This is the first description of MAbs that neutralize listerial PC-PLC, and the data suggest that there is antigenic similarity between L. monocytogenes PC-PLC and L. ivanovii sphingomyelinase. The reactions of the MAbs with catfish isolates of L. monocytogenes suggested that some of the isolates examined lack the LLO and/or PC-PLC required for pathogenicity. The MAbs described here differentiated some catfish isolates from previously described type strain-pathogenic isolates and could be useful for detecting and determining the virulence of L. monocytogenes in food and clinical samples and for detecting L. ivanovii in veterinary clinical samples.

  1. Glutamine synthetase gene knockout-human embryonic kidney 293E cells for stable production of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Da Young; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-05-01

    Previously, it was inferred that a high glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293E cells results in elevated resistance to methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and consequently hampers GS-mediated gene amplification and selection by MSX. To overcome this MSX resistance in HEK293E cells, a GS-knockout HEK293E cell line was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the endogenous human GS gene. The GS-knockout in the HEK293E cell line (RK8) was confirmed by Western blot analysis of GS and by observation of glutamine-dependent growth. Unlike the wild type HEK293E cells, the RK8 cells were successfully used as host cells to generate a recombinant HEK293E cell line (rHEK293E) producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb). When the RK8 cells were transfected with the GS expression vector containing the mAb gene, rHEK293E cells producing the mAb could be selected in the absence as well as in the presence of MSX. The gene copies and mRNA expression levels of the mAb in rHEK293E cells were also quantified using qRT-PCR. Taken together, the GS-knockout HEK293E cell line can be used as host cells to generate stable rHEK293E cells producing a mAb through GS-mediated gene selection in the absence as well as in the presence of MSX. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Production of thyrotropin receptor antibodies in acute phase of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection: a case report of a child.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Keiko; Okuno, Keisuke; Ochi, Marika; Kumata, Keisuke; Sano, Hitoshi; Yoneda, Naohiro; Ueyama, Jun-Ichi; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Kanzaki, Susumu; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Various autoantibodies have been reported to be detected during the progression of infectious mononucleosis. We observed a case of infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus primary infection for 2 months, and noticed the transiently increased titer of thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies detected at the acute phase on the 3rd day after admission. At that time, real-time quantitative PCR also revealed the mRNA expressions of an immediate early lytic gene, BZLF1, and a latent gene, EBNA2. The expression of BZLF1 mRNA means that Epstein-Barr virus infects lytically, and EBNA2 protein has an important role in antibody production as well as the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus latency. These results suggest that Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection is relevant to thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies stimulate thyroid follicular cells to produce excessive thyroid hormones and cause Graves' disease. Recently, we reported the thyrotropin receptor autoantibody production from thyrotropin receptor autoantibody-predisposed Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells by the induction of Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection in vitro. This case showed in vivo findings consistent with our previous reports, and is important to consider the pathophysiology of Graves' disease and one of the mechanisms of autoimmunity.

  3. Higher miRNA tolerance in immortal Li-Fraumeni fibroblasts with abrogated interferon signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunfang; Tainsky, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    The IFN pathway is abrogated in fibroblasts from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients during spontaneous cellular immortalization, a necessary step in carcinogenesis. Microarray profiling of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) revealed that most miRNAs were upregulated in IFN pathway-defective MDAH087-10 fibroblasts compared with MDAH087-N cells with relatively normal IFN signaling. Overexpression of Dicer, a critical enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, promoted cell growth and colony formation in MDAH087-10 cells. However, double-stranded miRNA produced by Dicer enhanced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in MDAH087-N cells resulting in significant cell death and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, manipulation of the IFN pathway in immortal LFS fibroblasts through transcription factor IRF7 reversed their response to Dicer overexpression due to changed IFN pathway activity. Dicer overexpressing MDAH087-N cells contained lower levels of miRNA than vector control, and conversely much higher miRNA expression was detected in Dicer-transfected MDAH087-10 cells. Therefore, cells with a defective IFN pathway have a higher miRNA tolerance than cells with normal IFN pathway. This work indicates for the first time that the IFN pathway as mediated through the transcription factor IRF7 must be disrupted to permit miRNA upregulation to occur in early carcinogenesis. The IFN pathway appears to provide a checkpoint for miRNA level tolerance and its abrogation leads to cellular immortalization. © 2011 AACR.

  4. Trichostatin A Abrogates Airway Constriction, but Not Inflammation, in Murine and Human Asthma Models

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Damera, Gautam; Jiang, Meiqi; Jester, William; Hoshi, Toshinori; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may offer novel approaches in the treatment of asthma. We postulate that trichostatin A (TSA), a Class 1 and 2 inhibitor of HDAC, inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in antigen-challenged mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus antigen (AF) and treated with TSA, dexamethasone, or vehicle. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance were measured, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for numbers of leukocytes and concentrations of cytokines. Human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were treated with TSA and their agonist-induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and TSA-treated human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells were evaluated for the agonist-induced activation of Rho and intracellular release of Ca2+. The activity of HDAC in murine lungs was enhanced by antigen and abrogated by TSA. TSA also inhibited methacholine (Mch)-induced increases in RL and decreases in dynamic compliance in naive control mice and in AF-sensitized and -challenged mice. Total cell counts, concentrations of IL-4, and numbers of eosinophils in BALF were unchanged in mice treated with TSA or vehicle, whereas dexamethasone inhibited the numbers of eosinophils in BALF and concentrations of IL-4. TSA inhibited the carbachol-induced contraction of PCLS. Treatment with TSA inhibited the intracellular release of Ca2+ in ASM cells in response to histamine, without affecting the activation of Rho. The inhibition of HDAC abrogates airway hyperresponsiveness to Mch in both naive and antigen-challenged mice. TSA inhibits the agonist-induced contraction of PCLS and mobilization of Ca2+ in ASM cells. Thus, HDAC inhibitors demonstrate a mechanism of action distinct from that of anti-inflammatory agents such as steroids, and represent a promising therapeutic agent for airway disease. PMID:22298527

  5. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with secreted-excreted products from the amphids and the cuticle surface of Globodera pallida affect nematode movement and delay invasion of potato roots.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, L; Porter, A; Haydock, P J; Curtis, R

    2002-12-19

    This paper describes Excreted-secreted proteins (ES) proteins that were immunolocalised in the cuticle, amphids and subventral glands of second stage juveniles of the two species of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis). Monoclonal antibodies reactive with these ES proteins were used in a bioassay to investigate their effect on nematode movement and on their ability to invade potato roots. Antibodies recognising the nematode cuticle surface and the amphids affected nematode movement and delayed nematode penetration of roots. These effects were temporary, since the nematodes were able to recover and infect potato roots. Movement of second stage juveniles treated with the antibodies was impaired for the first 30 min after inoculation: the juveniles remained close to the point of introduction and moved slowly and abnormally. They recovered normal movement after 1-2 h, possibly because the turnover rate of the secreted proteins meant that they were no longer blocked by the monoclonal antibodies. No effect was observed on second stage juveniles treated with an antibody reactive with secretions from the oesophageal glands. Nematodes treated with antibodies reactive with the nematode cuticle surface were notably more affected than those treated with other antibodies; nematodes failed to recover movement when in continuous contact with the antibodies. It is possible that the physical presence of the antibodies on the nematode surface affected their motility. Nematodes treated with antibodies reactive with secretions from the amphids were temporarily unable to move towards potato roots and their exploratory behaviour was greatly affected by the antibody treatment. Whether these antibodies were able to inhibit temporarily the function of the amphids or this effect was due to physical presence of the antibodies blocking the amphidial pore remains to be determined.

  6. Production of pure protein antibodies and development of immunoassays to detect Ara h 3 levels in peanut varieties.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts are one of the most allergenic foods, and are widespread in western food products; therefore, there has been intense research into the allergic nature of the proteins involved. Ara h 3 is one of three immunodominant allergenic proteins responsible. It is a 60 kDa protein which forms follow...

  7. Characterization and purification of proteins suitable for the production of antibodies against ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CaLas), is one of the most devastating pathogens of citrus, and with no effective method of control, poses a serious threat to citrus production throughout the world. In a previous study we described the...

  8. The histidine transporter SLC15A4 coordinates mTOR-dependent inflammatory responses and pathogenic antibody production.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Shimabukuro-Demoto, Shiho; Yoshida-Sugitani, Reiko; Furuyama-Tanaka, Kaori; Karyu, Hitomi; Sugiura, Yuki; Shimizu, Yukiko; Hosaka, Toshiaki; Goto, Motohito; Kato, Norihiro; Okamura, Tadashi; Suematsu, Makoto; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Toyama-Sorimachi, Noriko

    2014-09-18

    SLC15A4 is a lysosome-resident, proton-coupled amino-acid transporter that moves histidine and oligopeptides from inside the lysosome to the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. SLC15A4 is required for Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)- and TLR9-mediated type I interferon (IFN-I) productions in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and is involved in the pathogenesis of certain diseases including lupus-like autoimmunity. How SLC15A4 contributes to diseases is largely unknown. Here we have shown that B cell SLC15A4 was crucial for TLR7-triggered IFN-I and autoantibody productions in a mouse lupus model. SLC15A4 loss disturbed the endolysosomal pH regulation and probably the v-ATPase integrity, and these changes were associated with disruption of the mTOR pathway, leading to failure of the IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-IFN-I regulatory circuit. Importantly, SLC15A4's transporter activity was necessary for the TLR-triggered cytokine production. Our findings revealed that SLC15A4-mediated optimization of the endolysosomal state is integral to a TLR7-triggered, mTOR-dependent IRF7-IFN-I circuit that leads to autoantibody production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal exposure to non-ionizing radiation: effects of WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome, peripheral B-cell compartment and antibody production.

    PubMed

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    During embryogenesis, the development of tissues, organs and systems, including the immune system, is particularly susceptible to the effects of noxious agents. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome and the immune B-cell compartment, including antibody production. Sixteen mated (plug-positive) female mice were assigned to each of the following groups: cage control, sham-exposed and microwave-exposed (WiFi signals at 2.45 GHz, whole body, SAR 4 W/kg, 2 h/day, 14 consecutive days starting 5 days after mating). No effects due to exposure to WiFi signals during pregnancy on mating success, number of newborns/mother and body weight at birth were found. Newborn mice were left to grow until 5 or 26 weeks of age, when immunological analyses were performed. No differences due to exposure were found in spleen cell number, B-cell frequency or antibody serum levels. When challenged in vitro with LPS, B cells from all groups produced comparable amounts of IgM and IgG, and proliferated at a similar level. All these findings were consistently observed in the female and male offspring at both juvenile (5 weeks) and adult (26 weeks) ages. Stress-associated effects as well as age- and/or sex-related differences were observed for several parameters. In conclusion, our results do not show any effect on pregnancy outcome or any early or late effects on B-cell differentiation and function due to prenatal exposure to WiFi signals.

  10. Production of a monoclonal antibody specific to the genus Trichoderma and closely related fungi, and its use to detect Trichoderma spp. in naturally infested composts.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Christopher R; Pitt, Dennis; Wakley, Gavin E; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2002-05-01

    Studies of the interactions between hyperparasitic fungi and their hosts are severely hampered by the absence of methods that allow the unambiguous identification of individual genera in complex environments that contain mixed populations of fungi, such as soil or compost. This study details the development of a monoclonal antibody (MF2) that allows the detection and recovery of Trichoderma spp. in naturally infested composts, and the visualization of hyperparasitic strains of Trichoderma during antagonistic interactions with their hosts. Murine monoclonal antibody MF2, of immunoglobulin class M (IgM), was raised against a protein epitope of a glycoprotein antigen(s) specific for species of the genus Trichoderma and for the closely related fungi Gliocladium viride, Hypomyces chrysospermus, Sphaerostilbella spp. and Hypocrea spp. MF2 did not react with antigens from Gliocladium catenulatum, Gliocladium roseum, Nectria ochroleuca and Clonostachys spp., nor with a range of unrelated soil- and compost-borne fungi. Extracellular production of the MF2 antigen was constitutive. Western-blotting analysis showed that MF2 bound to a ladder of proteins with apparent molecular masses in the range 35-200 kDa. Immunofluorescence studies showed that MF2 bound strongly to the cell walls of hyphae and phialides and the intercalary and terminal chlamydospores of Trichoderma spp., whereas immunogold electron microscopy revealed strong binding of MF2 to the cell walls and septa of hyphae and to the cell walls of phialoconidia. In immunofluorescence studies of dual cultures of Trichoderma and Rhizoctonia solani, only the cell walls of the hyperparasite, which coiled around the host, were stained by MF2. The specificity of MF2 enabled the development of a combined baiting-ELISA technique for the detection of Trichoderma spp. in naturally infested composts. The specificity of this technique was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 r

  11. Principles and application of antibody libraries for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Tye, Gee Jun; Choong, Yee Siew; Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies have been used efficiently for the treatment and diagnosis of many diseases. Recombinant antibody technology allows the generation of fully human antibodies. Phage display is the gold standard for the production of human antibodies in vitro. To generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display, the generation of antibody libraries is crucial. Antibody libraries are classified according to the source where the antibody gene sequences were obtained. The most useful library for infectious diseases is the immunized library. Immunized libraries would allow better and selective enrichment of antibodies against disease antigens. The antibodies generated from these libraries can be translated for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This review focuses on the generation of immunized antibody libraries and the potential applications of the antibodies derived from these libraries.

  12. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    PubMed

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  13. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against group A, B, and C capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis and preparation of latex reagents.

    PubMed Central

    Nato, F; Mazie, J C; Fournier, J M; Slizewicz, B; Sagot, N; Guibourdenche, M; Postic, D; Riou, J Y

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C were produced in order to develop immunological reagents allowing both the detection of soluble antigens during meningococcal meningitis and antigenic serogrouping of N. meningitidis cultures. The performance characteristics of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody latex reagents were compared. For the detection of soluble polysaccharide antigen, polyclonal antibody latex reagent was selected for N. meningitidis A and C. The latex reagent prepared with polyclonal antibodies against N. meningitidis B could not detect capsular polysaccharide even at 1 mg/ml. The monoclonal antibody B latex reagent which detected 100 ng of polysaccharide per ml was therefore chosen. For the serogroup identification of N. meningitidis, the use of a confirmatory test results in an overall specificity of 100% with polyclonal or monoclonal antibody latex reagents. PMID:1909346

  14. gp49B-mediated negative regulation of antibody production by memory and marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Saori; Haniuda, Kei; Nojima, Takuya; Takai, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Daisuke

    2014-07-15

    The rapid Ab responses observed after primary and secondary immunizations are mainly derived from marginal zone (MZ) and memory B cells, respectively, but it is largely unknown how these responses are negatively regulated. Several inhibitory receptors have been identified and their roles have been studied, but mainly on follicular B cells and much less so on MZ B, and never on memory B cells. gp49B is an Ig superfamily member that contains two ITIMs in its cytoplasmic tail, and it has been shown to negatively regulate mast cell, macrophage, and NK cell responses. In this study, we demonstrate that gp49B is preferentially expressed on memory and MZ B cells. We show that gp49B(-/-) mice produce more IgM after a primary immunization and more IgM and IgG1 after a secondary immunization than gp49B(+/+) mice in T cell-dependent immune responses. Memory and MZ B cells from gp49B(-/-) mice also produce more Abs upon in vitro stimulation with CD40 than those from gp49B(+/+) mice. The in vitro IgM production by MZ B cells from gp49B(+/+), but not gp49B(-/-), mice is suppressed by interaction with a putative gp49B ligand, the integrin αvβ3 heterodimer. In addition, gp49B(-/-) mice exhibited exaggerated IgE production in the memory recall response. These results suggest that plasma cell development from memory and MZ B cells, as well as subsequent Ab production, are suppressed via gp49B. In memory B cells, this suppression also prevents excessive IgE production, thus curtailing allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. CHO cells knocked out for TSC2 display an improved productivity of antibodies under fed batch conditions.

    PubMed

    McVey, Duncan; Aronov, Michael; Rizzi, Giovanni; Cowan, Alexis; Scott, Charo; Megill, John; Russell, Reb; Tirosh, Boaz

    2016-09-01

    The kinase mTOR operates in two cellular complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 adjusts metabolic activity according to external growth conditions and nutrients availability. When conditions are prosperous, mTOR facilitates protein and lipid biosyntheses and inhibits autophagy, while under metabolic constraints, however, its attenuation induces a catabolic program, energy preservation and autophagy. CHO is a key cell line for manufacturing of biologics owing to its remarkable ability to grow to high densities and maintain protein production and secretion for extended times. While high mTOR activity has been associated with high productivity in CHO cells, its inhibition by rapamycin has also been documented to augment productivity via promotion of viability. Here using CRISPR/Cas9 editing we engineered CHO cells to enforce high mTORC1 activity by knocking-out TSC2, a major mTOR inhibitory protein, or PTEN, a phosphatase that attenuates the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Only TSC2-deleted cells exhibited a constitutive activation of mTORC1 under fed batch conditions. Cells grew larger in size, synthesized more proteins and displayed an over twofold elevation in their specific productivity. While peak viable cell density was compromised, overall titers increased to an extent dependent upon the parental clone. Our data underscore manipulation of TSC as a strategy to improve performance of CHO cell in bioreactors. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1942-1952. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Safety assessment of enzyme-containing personal cleansing products: exposure characterization and development of IgE antibody to enzymes after a 6-month use test.

    PubMed

    Kelling, C K; Bartolo, R G; Ertel, K D; Smith, L A; Watson, D D; Sarlo, K

    1998-02-01

    reaction. The ability of enzymes to induce development of allergic antibodies in this study led to the conclusion that this prototype enzyme-containing personal cleansing bar would represent an inappropriate use of enzymes in a consumer product application. The likelihood of both induction of an immunologic response and subsequent elicitation of allergy symptoms in a small but significant fraction of the user population was high. This finding resulted in the decision to halt further development of this prototype.

  17. Bacterial production and structure-functional validation of a recombinant antigen-binding fragment (Fab) of an anti-cancer therapeutic antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hun; Sim, Dae-Won; Park, Dongsun; Jung, Tai-Geun; Lee, Seonghwan; Oh, Taeheun; Ha, Jong-Ryul; Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Seo, Min-Duk; Kang, Ho Chul; Kim, Young Pil; Won, Hyung-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Fragment engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as an excellent paradigm to develop highly efficient therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. Engineered mAb fragments can be economically produced in bacterial systems using recombinant DNA technologies. In this work, we established recombinant production in Escherichia coli for monovalent antigen-binding fragment (Fab) adopted from a clinically used anticancer mAB drug cetuximab targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Recombinant DNA constructs were designed to express both polypeptide chains comprising Fab in a single vector and to secrete them to bacterial periplasmic space for efficient folding. Particularly, a C-terminal engineering to confer an interchain disulfide bond appeared to be able to enhance its heterodimeric integrity and EGFR-binding activity. Conformational relevance of the purified final product was validated by mass spectrometry and crystal structure at 1.9 Å resolution. Finally, our recombinant cetuximab-Fab was found to have strong binding affinity to EGFR overexpressed in human squamous carcinoma model (A431) cells. Its binding ability was comparable to that of cetuximab. Its EGFR-binding affinity was estimated at approximately 0.7 nM of Kd in vitro, which was quite stronger than the binding affinity of natural ligand EGF. Hence, the results validate that our construction could serve as an efficient platform to produce a recombinant cetuximab-Fab with a retained antigen-binding functionality.

  18. Annexin A2 antibodies but not inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Sanna, Adriana M; Taylor, Julia R; Skeate, Joseph G; Da Silva, Diane M; Dekker, Lodewijk V; Kast, W Martin

    2016-11-18

    During sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macrophages are initial targets for HIV infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to protect against HIV infection of macrophages through interactions with annexin A2 (A2), which is found on the macrophage cell surface as a heterotetramer (A2t) consisting of A2 and S100A10. Therefore, we investigated potential protein-protein interactions between A2 and HIV-1 gp120 through a series of co-immunoprecipitation assays and a single molecule pulldown (SiMPull) technique. Additionally, inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) that target the interaction between A2 and S100A10 were tested for their ability to impair productive HIV-1 infection of macrophages. Our data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 gp120 and A2 exist, though this interaction may be indirect. Furthermore, an anti-A2 antibody impaired HIV-1 particle production in macrophages in vitro, whereas A2ti did not indicating that annexin A2 may promote HIV-1 infection of macrophages in its monomeric rather than tetrameric form.

  19. Mutations Abrogating VP35 Interaction with Double-Stranded RNA Render Ebola Virus Avirulent in Guinea Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Prins, Kathleen C.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Leung, Daisy W.

    2010-10-11

    Ebola virus (EBOV) protein VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding inhibitor of host interferon (IFN)-{alpha}/{beta} responses that also functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Recent structural studies identified key features, including a central basic patch, required for VP35 dsRNA binding activity. To address the functional significance of these VP35 structural features for EBOV replication and pathogenesis, two point mutations, K319A/R322A, that abrogate VP35 dsRNA binding activity and severely impair its suppression of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} production were identified. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography reveal minimal structural perturbations in the K319A/R322A VP35 double mutant and suggest that lossmore » of basic charge leads to altered function. Recombinant EBOVs encoding the mutant VP35 exhibit, relative to wild-type VP35 viruses, minimal growth attenuation in IFN-defective Vero cells but severe impairment in IFN-competent cells. In guinea pigs, the VP35 mutant virus revealed a complete loss of virulence. Strikingly, the VP35 mutant virus effectively immunized animals against subsequent wild-type EBOV challenge. These in vivo studies, using recombinant EBOV viruses, combined with the accompanying biochemical and structural analyses directly correlate VP35 dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition functions with viral pathogenesis. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for the development of antivirals targeting this critical EBOV virulence factor.« less

  20. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  1. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies to Viral Emerging Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Bradley

    2011-03-31

    During the current period the following key objectives were achieved: demonstration of high titer antibody production by geese following immunization with inactived H1N1 virus; completion of the epitope mapping of West Nile Virus-specific goose antibodies and initiation of epitope mapping of H1N1 flu-specific goose antibodies; advancement in scalable purification of goose antibodies.

  2. Production of reactive oxygen (H2O2) and nitrogen (NO) intermediates and tnf-α in mice genetically selected for high (H) and low (L) antibody response and experimentally infected with Leptospira serovar pomona

    PubMed Central

    Haanwinckel, Maria Cristina Santos; de Oliveira, Silvio Luis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of macrophages, and the production of TNF-α and antibodies against experimental infection by Leptospira serovar Pomona in mice genetically selected for High (H) or Low (L) humoral immune response. To evaluate macrophagic activity, peritoneal and splenic lavages were performed for determination of oxygen (H2O2) and nitrogen (NO) intermediates. The production of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was investigated through bioassays in serum and homogenates of splenic and hepatic cells of control and infected animals, as was as specific antibodies production. The immune response against serovar Pomona in those lines, was characterized by high antibody production, especially in later periods of the infectious process, whereas values of bacterial recovery in culture medium were lower. The production of reactives oxygen and nitrogen intermediate, also helped to eliminate Leptospira Pomona in both lines; H2O2 production an important factor in HIV-A, as well as NO production in LIV-A, especially in later post-inoculation periods. The same was detected for TNF-α. Results suggest that such lines could be an important model to investigate the pathogenesis and the immune response of animals against the several Leptospira serovars. PMID:24031688

  3. Cd-induced production of glomalin by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis) as estimated by monoclonal antibody assay.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Elham; Aliasgharzad, Nasser; Majidi, Jafar; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-10-01

    Glomalin is a specific fungal glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi belonging to the Glomerales which could efficiently sequestrate heavy metals. The glomalin has been introduced as a heat shock protein and there are evidences that increasing levels of heavy metals could enhance its production. We examined the influence of Cd concentrations on glomalin production by AM fungus, as well as its contribution to the sequestration of Cd in both pot and in vitro culture conditions. Pot experiment was carried out using pure sand with Trifolium repens L. as host plant, mycorrhized by Rhizophagus irregularis and treated with Cd levels of 0, 15, 30, and 45 μM. In vitro experiment was performed in two-compartment plates containing the transformed carrot roots mycorrhized with the same fungus and treated with Cd levels of 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mM. The immunoreactive and Bradford reactive glomalin contents in both experiments increased as so raising Cd concentration. Total Cd sequestrated by hyphal glomalin in both cultures was significantly increased as the levels of Cd increased. The highest contents of Cd sequestration in pot (75.78 μg Cd/mg glomalin) and in vitro (11.44 μg Cd/mg glomalin) cultures were recorded at the uppermost levels of Cd, which significantly differed with other levels. Our results suggested that under Cd-induced stress, stimulated production of glomalin by AM fungus may be a protective mechanism against the toxic effect of Cd.

  4. Production of a Suitable Antibody and an Enzyme Immunoassay Kit for the Field Detection of T-2 Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-25

    Known to naturally occur on plants including food products. £> These trichothecenes are highly toxic to eukaryotic cells and are anong the most...Activities and Detection of Naturally O* Occurring 12,13-Epoxy-9-Trichothecenes," Clin. Tbxicol., 5, pp. 495-515. E* 3. Y. Ueno, M. Makajima, K. Sakei, K...North-Holland, N.Y. -13- i 6. S. V. Pathre, C. J. Mirocha (1977) Assay Methods for Trichothecenes and J; Review of Their Natural Occurence in: J. V

  5. Fast protocol for the production of Histoplasma capsulatum antigens for antibody detection in the immunodiagnosis of histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Roseli Santos; Kamikawa, Camila Mika; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    Current methods for the production of Histoplasma capsulatum antigens are problematic in terms of standardization, specificity, stability, repeatability and reproducibility. In this study, we sought to optimize the methodology for producing H. capsulatum antigens, and to evaluate its applicability. Antigenic preparations obtained from 12 H. capsulatum isolates were evaluated by double immunodiffusion and immunoblotting assays against homologous and heterologous sera. The evaluated and optimized protocol allowed a more stable production, as well as repeatable, reproducible, with shorter culture time and less costly. By double immunodiffusion and immunoblotting assays, the best pattern of reactivity was observed for antigens obtained with 33 days of culture from the isolates 200 and 406 against the M antigen and for the isolate 200 with 15 days against H antigen. The SDS-PAGE presented antigenic components of molecular masses between 17 and 119kDa. The immunoblotting sensitivity was 95.5% and 100% with histoplasmosis sera from ill patients and sera from H. capsulatum infected but otherwise healthy patients, respectively, to the antigen derived from isolates 200 and 406. We suggest the employment of the antigen from isolate 200, with 15 or 30 days of culture, in the double immunodiffusion and immunoblotting assays due to its good ability to discriminate both sera from patients with histoplasmosis illness and histoplasmosis infection, in addition to its high specificity against heterologous sera. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. TARGETED DELETION OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 ABROGATES THE LATE INFARCT-SPARING EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract submitted for 82nd annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, May 4-8, 2002 in Washington D.C.

    Targeted Deletion of Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 Abrogates the Late Infarct-Sparing Effect of Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning

    Craig...

  7. Improvement of macrophage dysfunction by administration of anti-transforming growth factor-beta antibody in EL4-bearing hosts.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Tsuru, S; Shiraishi, A

    1994-11-01

    An experimental therapy for improvement of macrophage dysfunction caused by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was tried in EL4 tumor-bearing mice. TGF-beta was detected in cell-free ascitic fluid from EL4-bearers, but not in that from normal mice, by western blot analysis. The ascites also showed growth-suppressive activity against Mv1Lu cells, and the suppressive activity was potentiated by transient acidification. To investigate whether the functions of peritoneal macrophages were suppressed in EL4-bearers, the abilities to produce nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were measured. Both abilities of macrophages in EL4-bearing mice were suppressed remarkably on day 9, and decreased further by day 14, compared with non-tumor-bearing controls. TGF-beta activity was abrogated by administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody to EL4-bearing mice. While a large amount of TGF-beta was detected in ascitic fluid from control EL4-bearers, little TGF-beta was detectable in ascites from EL4-bearers given anti-TGF-beta antibody. Furthermore, while control macrophages exhibited little or no production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha on LPS stimulation in vitro, macrophages from EL4-bearers administered with anti-TGF-beta antibody showed the same ability as normal macrophages. These results clearly indicate that TGF-beta contributes to macrophage dysfunction and that the administration of specific antibody for TGF-beta reverses macrophage dysfunction in EL4-bearing hosts.

  8. Drug-protein conjugates: haptenation of 1-methyl-10 alpha-methoxydihydrolysergol and 5-bromonicotinic acid to albumin for the production of epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies against nicergoline.

    PubMed

    Gabor, F; Hamilton, G; Pittner, F

    1995-09-01

    Two types of monoclonal antibodies were used for the determination of nicergoline in biological matrices. The antibodies were prepared with the hydrolysis products 5-bromonicotinic acid and 1-methyl-10 alpha-methoxydihydrolysergol after hemisuccinoylation to haptens. The current amide bond-generating methods (mixed anhydride-, carbodiimide-, carbodiimide/sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide-, and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide methods) were used in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coupling techniques and yielded conjugates that were haptenated to varying extents. The conjugates exhibiting 23 mol of 1-methyl-10 alpha-methoxydihydrolysergol (MMD) or 41 mol of 5-bromonicotinic acid (BNA) per mole of BSA were used for both immunization of mice and for coating the wells of the microtiter plates to select hybridomas and investigate specificity of the obtained antibodies. The results of hapten-inhibition ELISA using antigen-coated wells indicate that the supernatant of MMD-specific hybridoma exhibited 50% inhibition of antibody binding at 17 +/- 2 micrograms of MMD and at 24.5 +/- 2 micrograms of nicergoline, and the BNA-specific hybridoma exhibited similar inhibition at 147 +/- 6 micrograms of BNA and 500 +/- 30 micrograms of nicergoline. A main requirement for analytical purposes is that two different types of monoclonal antibodies recognize two different epitopes on nicergoline and its main metabolite, as shown by hapten-inhibition ELISA.

  9. Blockade of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) abrogates infection of Chlamydia muridarum murine genital infection model

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Kaori; Chan, Ann M.; Moniz, Raymond J.; Wadehra, Madhuri; Nagy, Agnes; Coulam, C. Paige; Mareninov, Sergey; Lepin, Eric M.; Wu, Anna M.; Kelly, Kathleen A.; Braun, Jonathan; Gordon, Lynn K.

    2012-01-01

    New methods are needed to eradicate or prevent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Blockade of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) by genetic silencing or neutralizing polyclonal antibody reduced chlamydial infectivity in vitro. This study tests the prediction that recombinant anti-EMP2 diabody could reduce early chlamydial infection of the genital tract in vivo. In a murine infection model, pretreatment with anti-EMP2 diabody, as compared to control diabody, significantly reduced bacterial load, tissue production of inflammatory cytokines, recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and local tissue inflammation. These findings support EMP2 as a potential preventative and therapeutic target for genital chlamydial infection. PMID:19159428

  10. Antibody production of wild-type and enzyme V279F variants of PAF-AH as a risk factor for Cardiovascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhani, Anggia N.; Puspitarini, Sapti; Sari, Anissa N.; Widodo

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a leading cause of death in Indonesia nowadays. WHO data in 2012 revealed that 37% of the Indonesian population died from this disease. CAD occurs because of endothelial dysfunction in the arteries. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), is a phospholipase A2 enzyme, encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. This protein is predicted to be involved in inflammatory phospholipid metabolism so it can be used as a biomarker of CAD in the early phase. Thus, the purpose of this research is to discover the difference in antibody production between wild-type and mutant V279F. The PAF-AH enzyme was isolated from mice lymphocyte cells in order to develop this enzyme as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. PAF-AH migrates at 55kDa according to SDS-PAGE analysis. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mutant PAF-AH (V279F) is more antigenic than wild-type PAF-AH. The missense mutation of V279F PAF-AH means this enzyme cannot catabolize the acetyl group at the sn-2 position of PAF.

  11. Design and Validation of a Novel Generic Platform for the Production of Tetravalent IgG1-like Bispecific Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Golay, Josée; Choblet, Sylvie; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Cérutti, Pierre; Ozil, Annick; Loisel, Séverine; Pugnière, Martine; Ubiali, Greta; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier; Berthou, Christian; Kadouche, Jean; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Duonor-Cérutti, Martine

    2016-04-01

    We have designed and validated a novel generic platform for production of tetravalent IgG1-like chimeric bispecific Abs. The VH-CH1-hinge domains of mAb2 are fused through a peptidic linker to the N terminus of mAb1 H chain, and paired mutations at the CH1-CL interface mAb1 are introduced that force the correct pairing of the two different free L chains. Two different sets of these CH1-CL interface mutations, called CR3 and MUT4, were designed and tested, and prototypic bispecific Abs directed against CD5 and HLA-DR were produced (CD5xDR). Two different hinge sequences between mAb1 and mAb2 were also tested in the CD5xDR-CR3 or -MUT4 background, leading to bispecific Ab (BsAbs) with a more rigid or flexible structure. All four Abs produced bound with good specificity and affinity to CD5 and HLA-DR present either on the same target or on different cells. Indeed, the BsAbs were able to efficiently redirect killing of HLA-DR(+) leukemic cells by human CD5(+) cytokine-induced killer T cells. Finally, all BsAbs had a functional Fc, as shown by their capacity to activate human complement and NK cells and to mediate phagocytosis. CD5xDR-CR3 was chosen as the best format because it had overall the highest functional activity and was very stable in vitro in both neutral buffer and in serum. In vivo, CD5xDR-CR3 was shown to have significant therapeutic activity in a xenograft model of human leukemia. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Arsenic induces apoptosis in mouse liver is mitochondria dependent and is abrogated by N-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, Amal; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ghatak, Subhadip

    2007-04-15

    Arsenicosis, caused by arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies, is a major public health problem in India and Bangladesh. Chronic liver disease, often with portal hypertension occurs in chronic arsenicosis, contributes to the morbidity and mortality. The early cellular events that initiate liver cell injury due to arsenicosis have not been studied. Our aim was to identify the possible mechanisms related to arsenic-induced liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced in mice by arsenic treatment. The liver was used for mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Evidence of apoptosis was sought by TUNEL test, caspase assay and histology.more » Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was done to modulate hepatic GSH level. Arsenic treatment in mice caused liver injury associated with increased oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and alteration of MPT. Altered MPT facilitated cytochrome c release in the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to arsenic-treated mice abrogated all these alteration suggesting a glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanism. Oxidative stress in mitochondria and inappropriate MPT are important in the pathogenesis of arsenic induced apoptotic liver cell injury. The phenomenon is GSH dependent and supplementation of NAC might have beneficial effects.« less

  13. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Abrogates Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage in Cardiac Iron Overload Condition

    PubMed Central

    Puukila, Stephanie; Bryan, Sean; Laakso, Anna; Abdel-Malak, Jessica; Gurney, Carli; Agostino, Adrian; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Prasad, Kailash; Khaper, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload. PMID:25822525

  14. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    PubMed

    Puukila, Stephanie; Bryan, Sean; Laakso, Anna; Abdel-Malak, Jessica; Gurney, Carli; Agostino, Adrian; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Prasad, Kailash; Khaper, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  15. Andrographolide derivatives inhibit guanine nucleotide exchange and abrogate oncogenic Ras function

    PubMed Central

    Hocker, Harrison J.; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Chen, Chung-Ying K.; Rambahal, Nandini; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant signaling by oncogenic mutant rat sarcoma (Ras) proteins occurs in ∼15% of all human tumors, yet direct inhibition of Ras by small molecules has remained elusive. Recently, several small-molecule ligands have been discovered that directly bind Ras and inhibit its function by interfering with exchange factor binding. However, it is unclear whether, or how, these ligands could lead to drugs that act against constitutively active oncogenic mutant Ras. Using a dynamics-based pocket identification scheme, ensemble docking, and innovative cell-based assays, here we show that andrographolide (AGP)—a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata—and its benzylidene derivatives bind to transient pockets on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) and inhibit GDP–GTP exchange. As expected for inhibitors of exchange factor binding, AGP derivatives reduced GTP loading of wild-type K-Ras in response to acute EGF stimulation with a concomitant reduction in MAPK activation. Remarkably, however, prolonged treatment with AGP derivatives also reduced GTP loading of, and signal transmission by, oncogenic mutant K-RasG12V. In sum, the combined analysis of our computational and cell biology results show that AGP derivatives directly bind Ras, block GDP–GTP exchange, and inhibit both wild-type and oncogenic K-Ras signaling. Importantly, our findings not only show that nucleotide exchange factors are required for oncogenic Ras signaling but also demonstrate that inhibiting nucleotide exchange is a valid approach to abrogating the function of oncogenic mutant Ras. PMID:23737504

  16. Loss of p53 induces M-phase retardation following G2 DNA damage checkpoint abrogation.

    PubMed

    Minemoto, Yuzuru; Uchida, Sanae; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Shimura, Mari; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masato; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamashita, Katsumi

    2003-04-01

    Most cell lines that lack functional p53 protein are arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle due to DNA damage. When the G2 checkpoint is abrogated, these cells are forced into mitotic catastrophe. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in which p53 was eliminated with the HPV16 E6 gene, exhibited efficient arrest in the G2 phase when treated with adriamycin. Administration of caffeine to G2-arrested cells induced a drastic change in cell phenotype, the nature of which depended on the status of p53. Flow cytometric and microscopic observations revealed that cells that either contained or lacked p53 resumed their cell cycles and entered mitosis upon caffeine treatment. However, transit to the M phase was slower in p53-negative cells than in p53-positive cells. Consistent with these observations, CDK1 activity was maintained at high levels, along with stable cyclin B1, in p53-negative cells. The addition of butyrolactone I, which is an inhibitor of CDK1 and CDK2, to the p53-negative cells reduced the floating round cell population and induced the disappearance of cyclin B1. These results suggest a relationship between the p53 pathway and the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins and possible cross-talk between the G2-DNA damage checkpoint and the mitotic checkpoint.

  17. Simple sugar supplementation abrogates exercise-induced increase in hepcidin in young men.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Maja; Kortas, Jakub; Flis, Damian; Skrobot, Wojciech; Camilleri, Rafal; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2017-01-01

    At present many young people experience too much body iron accumulation. The reason of this phenomenon is not clear. There is accumulating evidences that not proper diet and lack of exercise could be a main contributing factors. This investigation assessed the effects of a diet rich in simple sugars (glucose or fructose) on exercise-induced hepcidin which is hormone regulating iron metabolism. A group of physically active young men completed an incremental exercise test before and after a 3-day diet supplemented with fructose (4 g/kg BM) or glucose (4 g/kg BM). After a 1-week break, they crossed over to the alternate mode for the subsequent 3-days period. Venous blood samples were collected before and after 1 h exercise and were analysed for serum hepcidin, IL-6, CRP, iron, and ferritin. The physiological response to exercise was also determined. The concentration of hepcidin increased 1 h after exercise for the baseline test ( p  < 0.05), whereas no changes in hepcidin were observed in men whose diet was supplemented with fructose or glucose. Blood IL-6 increased significantly after exercise only in subjects supplemented with fructose. Changes in hepcidin did not correlate with shifts in serum IL-6. These data suggest that protective effects of exercise on excess iron accumulation in human body which is mediated by hepcidin can be abrogated by high sugar consumption which is typical for contemporary people.

  18. Cell-wall deficient L. monocytogenes L-forms feature abrogated pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Barbara; Staubli, Titu; Harris, Nicola L.; Rogler, Gerhard; Kopf, Manfred; Loessner, Martin J.; Schuppler, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Stable L-forms are cell wall-deficient bacteria which are able to multiply and propagate indefinitely, despite the absence of a rigid peptidoglycan cell wall. We investigated whether L-forms of the intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes possibly retain pathogenicity, and if they could trigger an innate immune response. While phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes L-forms by non-activated macrophages sometimes resulted in an unexpected persistence of the bacteria in the phagocytes, they were effectively eliminated by IFN-γ preactivated or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM). These findings were in line with the observed down-regulation of virulence factors in the cell-wall deficient L. monocytogenes. Absence of Interferon-β (IFN-β) triggering indicated inability of L-forms to escape from the phagosome into the cytosol. Moreover, abrogated cytokine response in MyD88-deficient dendritic cells (DC) challenged with L. monocytogenes L-forms suggested an exclusive TLR-dependent host response. Taken together, our data demonstrate a strong attenuation of Listeria monocytogenes L-form pathogenicity, due to diminished expression of virulence factors and innate immunity recognition, eventually resulting in elimination of L-form bacteria from phagocytes. PMID:24904838

  19. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C; Leavis, Helen L; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers. Here we characterised the effects of the small-molecule inhibitor 1771 on the growth of E. faecium isolates, alone (28 strains) or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin, daptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin or linezolid (15 strains), and on biofilm formation (16 strains). Inhibition of LTA synthesis at the surface of the cell by compound 1771 in combination with current antibiotic therapy abrogates enterococcal growth in vitro but does not affect mature E. faecium biofilms. Targeting LTA synthesis may provide new possibilities to treat MDR E. faecium infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Cross-reactivity of Antidrug Antibodies to CT-P13 and Infliximab Reference Product (Remicade): An Analysis Using Immunoassays Tagged with Both Agents.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Walter; Jahnsen, Jørgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Danese, Silvio; Panés, Julián; Balsa, Alejandro; Park, Won; Kim, JiSoo; Lee, Jee Un; Yoo, Dae Hyun

    2017-06-01

    During two pivotal clinical trials of the infliximab biosimilar CT-P13 (PLANETAS and PLANETRA), antidrug antibodies (ADAs) and neutralising antibodies (NAbs) were detected in the sera of patients treated with CT-P13 and the reference product (RP; Remicade). The aim was to assess the comparability of Remicade- and CT-P13-tagged immunoassays for the detection of ADAs and NAbs using data from these trials, in order to determine the cross-reactivity of CT-P13 and RP ADAs. Sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis were analysed using an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) bridging assay or Gyros immunoassay, tagged with Remicade or CT-P13 at screening, weeks 14, 30 and 54, and the end of study visit. NAb titre was compared at screening and weeks 14 and 30. The proportion of cross-reactive samples was determined and an inter-rater agreement analysis performed to assess the concordance of results between assays. In PLANETAS, 93.1% (94/101) of RP ADA-positive samples and 93.0% (93/100) of RP NAb-positive samples cross-reacted with CT-P13; 99.0% (103/104) of CT-P13 ADA-positive and 98.0% (98/100) of CT-P13 NAb-positive samples cross-reacted with the RP. In PLANETRA, 94.7% (426/450) of RP ADA-positive samples and 94.3% (415/440) of RP NAb-positive samples cross-reacted with CT-P13, and 96.6% (458/474) of CT-P13 ADA-positive and 96.4% (452/469) of CT-P13 NAb-positive samples cross-reacted with the RP. In both studies, there was strong agreement in outcome between assays at all post-screening time points (PLANETAS: Cohen's κ 0.89-0.98 for ADA, 0.86-0.98 for NAb; PLANETRA: 0.92-0.94 for both ADA and NAb, all p < 0.001). Significant concordance between assays was observed for NAb titre at weeks 14 and 30 (PLANETAS: Spearman's ρ 0.73 and 0.74, respectively; PLANETRA: 0.61 and 0.72, respectively; all p < 0.001). This study has demonstrated that ADAs and NAbs against CT-P13 and RP are cross-reactive, indicating that CT-P13 and RP share immunodominant

  1. Designing two-in-one antibodies.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Ignacio Garcia; Espinoza, Luis R

    2009-09-01

    Evaluation of: Bostrom J, Shang-Fan Y, Kan D et al.: Variants of the antibody Herceptin that interact with HER2 and VEGF at the antigen binding site. Science 323, 1610-1614 (2009). The longstanding held notion that one antibody equals one antigen and, hence, one function has been challenged in recent years. Improved technology in antibody production, especially the accumulation of sequence data of immunoglobulin genes and the advent of PCR have made it possible to clone antibody gene repertoires. The current paper provides further challenge to the notion of one antibody = one antigen by developing 'two-in-one' antibodies with an antigen-binding site that binds two distinct proteins with high affinity. A therapeutic variant antibody of Herceptin (Genentech, CA, USA) was isolated that binds the human EGF receptor (HER)2 and also to VEGF. This development may represent a breakthrough discovery and may have significant implications in the therapy of malignant, infectious, allergic and autoimmune disorders.

  2. Immune Antibody Libraries: Manipulating The Diverse Immune Repertoire for Antibody Discovery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Theam Soon; Chan, Soo Khim

    2016-01-01

    Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries. Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection. This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases. We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Conference scene: progress with promising human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W

    2012-03-01

    Antibodies and antibody-based therapeutics have become big business, with annual sales over US$50 billion, accounting for >6% of worldwide pharmaceutical revenues. Ten molecules have blockbuster status (>US$1 billion), with six generating more than US$6 billion in sales. In excess of 300 products based on this rapidly maturing technology are in clinical trials. The generation and manufacture of human antibodies is now routine, although the cost of goods remains an issue. Optimizing combinations of antibodies with other therapeutics (e.g., chemotherapy) is a major short-term goal, while target validation and product differentiation remain significant hurdles if growth is to continue. Some of the notable highlights of the recent 16th International Conference on Human Antibodies and Hybridomas meeting in Cannes, France are described below. The conference was sponsored by the international journal Human Antibodies, in association with the Integrative Medical Sciences Association (IMSA). The Program Chairman was Professor Mark Glassy, IMSA, San Diego, CA, USA.

  4. Bioprocess development for the production of mouse-human chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor vIII antibody C12 by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Suwen; Deng, Lei; Wang, Huamao; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Siliang; Li, Zhonghai; Guo, Meijin

    2011-05-01

    The mouse-human chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII) antibody C12 is a promising candidate for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, 3 processes were successfully developed to produce C12 by cultivation of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-DG44) cells in serum-free medium. The effect of inoculum density was evaluated in batch cultures of shaker flasks to obtain the optimal inoculum density of 5 × 10(5) cells/mL. Then, the basic metabolic characteristics of CHO-C12 cells were studied in stirred bioreactor batch cultures. The results showed that the limiting concentrations of glucose and glutamine were 6 and 1 mM, respectively. The culture process consumed significant amounts of aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, serine, isoleucine, leucine, and lysine. Aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, and serine were particularly exhausted in the early growth stage, thus limiting cell growth and antibody synthesis. Based on these findings, fed-batch and perfusion processes in the bioreactor were successfully developed with a balanced amino acid feed strategy. Fed-batch and especially perfusion culture effectively maintained high cell viability to prolong the culture process. Furthermore, perfusion cultures maximized the efficiency of nutrient utilization; the mean yield coefficient of antibody to consumed glucose was 44.72 mg/g and the mean yield coefficient of glutamine to antibody was 721.40 mg/g. Finally, in small-scale bioreactor culture, the highest total amount of C12 antibody (1,854 mg) was realized in perfusion cultures. Therefore, perfusion culture appears to be the optimal process for small-scale production of C12 antibody by rCHO-C12 cells.

  5. Monoclonal antibody form and function: manufacturing the right antibodies for treating drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric; Owens, S Michael; Henry, Ralph L

    2006-05-26

    Drug abuse continues to be a major national and worldwide problem, and effective treatment strategies are badly needed. Antibodies are promising therapies for the treatment of medical problems caused by drug abuse, with several candidates in preclinical and early clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies can be designed that have customized affinity and specificity against drugs of abuse, and because antibodies can be designed in various forms, in vivo pharmacokinetic characteristics can be tailored to suit specific clinical applications (eg, long-acting for relapse prevention, or short-acting for overdose). Passive immunization with antibodies against drugs of abuse has several advantages over active immunization, but because large doses of monoclonal antibodies may be needed for each patient, efficient antibody production technology is essential. In this minireview we discuss some of the antibody forms that may be effective clinical treatments for drug abuse, as well as several current and emerging production systems that could bridge the gap from discovery to patient use.

  6. Involvement of atrial natriuretic peptide in abrogated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in ovariectomized rat heart.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, V K; Goyal, A; Gupta, J K; Upadhyay, P K; Yadav, H N

    2018-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an effective mediator of ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-induced cardioprotection. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is downregulated after ovariectomy, which results in reduction in the level of NO. The present study deals with the investigation of the role of ANP in abrogated cardioprotective effect of IPC in the ovariectomized rat heart. Heart was isolated from ovariectomized rat and mounted on Langendorff's apparatus, subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. IPC was given by four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The myocardial infract size was estimated employing triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain, and coronary effluent was analyzed for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release to consider the degree of myocardial injury. The cardiac release of NO was estimated by measuring the level of nitrite in coronary effluent. IPC-mediated cardioprotection was significantly attenuated in ovariectomized rat as compared to normal rat, which was restored by perfusion with ANP. However, this observed cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by perfusion with L-NAME, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and Glibenclamide, a K ATP channel blocker, alone or in combination noted in terms of increase in myocardial infract size, release of CK-MB and LDH, and also decrease in release of NO. Thus, it is suggested that ANP restores the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in the ovariectomized rat heart which may be due to increase in the availability of NO and consequent increase activation of mitochondrial K ATP channels.

  7. Intracerebral CpG Immunotherapy with Carbon Nanotubes Abrogates Growth of Subcutaneous Melanomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haitao; Zhang, Ian; Chen, Xuebo; Zhang, Leying; Wang, Huaqing; Fonseca, Anna Da; Manuel, Edwin R.; Diamond, Don J.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Badie, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recently, we showed that intratumoral delivery of low-dose, immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated with carbon nanotubes (CNT-CpG) was more effective than free CpG and not only eradicated intracranial (i.c.) gliomas, but also induced antitumor immunity that protected mice from subsequent i.c. or systemic tumor rechallenge. Here, we examined if the same “intracerebral immunotherapy” strategy could be applied to the treatment of metastatic brain tumors. Experimental Design Mice with both i.c. and subcutaneous (s.c.) melanomas were injected intratumorally with CNT-CpG into either location. Antitumor responses were assessed by flow cytometry, bioluminescent imaging, and animal survival. Results When given s.c., CNT-CpG response was mostly local, and it only modestly inhibited the growth of i.c. melanomas. However, i.c. CNT-CpG abrogated the growth of not only brain, but also s.c. tumors. Furthermore, compared to s.c. injections, i.c. CNT-CpG elicited a stronger inflammatory response that resulted in more potent antitumor cytotoxicity and improved in vivo trafficking of effector cells into both i.c. and s.c. tumors. To investigate factors that accounted for these observations, CNT-CpG biodistribution and cellular inflammatory responses were examined in both tumor locations. Intracranial melanomas retained the CNT-CpG particles longer and were infiltrated by TLR-9-positive microglia. In contrast, myeloid-derived suppressive cells were more abundant in s.c. tumors. Although depletion of these cells prior to s.c. CNT-CpG therapy enhanced its cytotoxic responses, antitumor responses to brain melanomas were unchanged. Conclusions These findings suggest that intracerebral CNT-CpG immunotherapy is more effective than systemic therapy in generating antitumor responses that target both brain and systemic melanomas. PMID:22904105

  8. Intracerebral CpG immunotherapy with carbon nanotubes abrogates growth of subcutaneous melanomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haitao; Zhang, Ian; Chen, Xuebo; Zhang, Leying; Wang, Huaqing; Da Fonseca, Anna; Manuel, Edwin R; Diamond, Don J; Raubitschek, Andrew; Badie, Behnam

    2012-10-15

    Recently, we showed that intratumoral delivery of low-dose, immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated with carbon nanotubes (CNT-CpG) was more effective than free CpG and not only eradicated intracranial (i.c.) gliomas but also induced antitumor immunity that protected mice from subsequent i.c. or systemic tumor rechallenge. Here, we examined whether the same "intracerebral immunotherapy" strategy could be applied to the treatment of metastatic brain tumors. Mice with both i.c. and s.c. melanomas were injected intratumorally with CNT-CpG into either location. Antitumor responses were assessed by flow cytometry, bioluminescent imaging, and animal survival. When given s.c., CNT-CpG response was mostly local, and it only modestly inhibited the growth of i.c. melanomas. However, i.c. CNT-CpG abrogated the growth of not only brain but also s.c. tumors. Furthermore, compared with s.c. injections, i.c. CNT-CpG elicited a stronger inflammatory response that resulted in more potent antitumor cytotoxicity and improved in vivo trafficking of effector cells into both i.c. and s.c. tumors. To investigate factors that accounted for these observations, CNT-CpG biodistribution and cellular inflammatory responses were examined in both tumor locations. Intracranial melanomas retained the CNT-CpG particles longer and were infiltrated by Toll-like receptor (TLR-9)-positive microglia. In contrast, myeloid-derived suppressive cells were more abundant in s.c. tumors. Although depletion of these cells before s.c. CNT-CpG therapy enhanced its cytotoxic responses, antitumor responses to brain melanomas were unchanged. These findings suggest that intracerebral CNT-CpG immunotherapy is more effective than systemic therapy in generating antitumor responses that target both brain and systemic melanomas. ©2012 AACR

  9. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahad, Amjid; Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Mujeeb, Mohd

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16more » weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway.« less

  10. Abrogation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness but not Inflammation by Rho kinase Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, David I.; Ninin, Fernanda M.C.; Wurmbrand, Allison P.; Liao, James K.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major features of allergic asthma include airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic inflammation, and goblet cell metaplasia. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. By doing so, it can modulate airway smooth muscle cell contraction and leukocyte migration and proliferation. This study was designed to determine the contributions of the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, to AHR, inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in a mast-cell dependent model of allergic airways disease. Methods and Results Repeated intranasal challenges with OVA caused AHR, eosinophilic inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia in wildtype (WT) mice. OVA-induced AHR was partially or completely abrogated in mice haploinsufficient for ROCK2 (ROCK2+/−) or ROCK1 (ROCK1+/−), respectively. In contrast, there was no effect of ROCK insufficiency on allergic airways inflammation, although both ROCK1 and ROCK2 insufficiency attenuated mast cell degranulation. Goblet cell hyperplasia, as indicated by PAS staining, was not different in ROCK1+/− versus WT mice. However, in ROCK2+/− mice, goblet cell hyperplasia was reduced in medium but not large airways. Maximal acetylcholine-induced force generation was reduced in tracheal rings from ROCK1+/− and ROCK2+/− versus WT mice. The ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, also reduced airway responsiveness in OVA-challenged mice, without affecting inflammatory responses. Conclusion In a mast cell model of allergic airways disease, ROCK1 and ROCK2 both contribute to AHR, likely through direct effects on smooth muscle cell and effects on mast-cell degranulation. In addition, ROCK2 but not ROCK1 plays a role in allergen-induced goblet cell hyperplasia. PMID:25323425

  11. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaonan; Han, Chuyang; Jiang, Yuanjun; Han, Ning; Zhang, Miao; Li, Guang; Qiao, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS), subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs. Whether the ERS pathway is involved in radioresistance after administration of cetuximab has not been reported. Herein, we show that cetuximab could increase the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells but not Detroit562 cells. In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells. Silencing GRP78 increased the radiosensitivity of oropharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibited radiation-induced DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair and autophagy. More interestingly, silencing GRP78 abrogated resistance to cetuximab and radiation in Detroit562 cells and had a synergistic effect with cetuximab in increasing the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that overexpression of both GRP78 and EGFR was associated with a poor prognosis in oropharyngeal carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Overall, the results of this study show that radioresistance after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab is mediated by the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78. This suppression was consequently unable to inhibit radiation-induced DSB repair and autophagy in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells, which conferred resistance to radiotherapy and cetuximab. These results suggest that the cooperative effects of radiotherapy and cetuximab could be further improved by inhibiting GRP78 in non-responsive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  12. Carbidopa abrogates L-dopa decarboxylase coactivation of the androgen receptor and delays prostate tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Latif A; Cheng, Helen; Plaa, Nathan; Ghaidi, Fariba; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E; Cox, Michael E; Rennie, Paul S

    2012-06-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer progression to the castration-resistant (CR) lethal state. L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is an AR coactivator that increases in expression with disease progression and is coexpressed with the receptor in prostate adenocarcinoma cells, where it may enhance AR activity. Here, we hypothesize that the DDC enzymatic inhibitor, carbidopa, can suppress DDC-coactivation of AR and retard prostate tumor growth. Treating LNCaP prostate cancer cells with carbidopa in transcriptional assays suppressed the enhanced AR transactivation seen with DDC overexpression and decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels. Carbidopa dose-dependently inhibited cell growth and decreased survival in LNCaP cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. The inhibitory effect of carbidopa on DDC-coactivation of AR and cell growth/survival was also observed in PC3 prostate cancer cells (stably expressing AR). In vivo studies demonstrated that serum PSA velocity and tumor growth rates elevated ∼2-fold in LNCaP xenografts, inducibly overexpressing DDC, were reverted to control levels with carbidopa administration. In castrated mice, treating LNCaP tumors, expressing endogenous DDC, with carbidopa delayed progression to the CR state from 6 to 10 weeks, while serum PSA and tumor growth decreased 4.3-fold and 5.4-fold, respectively. Our study is a first time demonstration that carbidopa can abrogate DDC-coactivation of AR in prostate cancer cells and tumors, decrease serum PSA, reduce tumor growth and delay CR progression. Since carbidopa is clinically approved, it may be readily used as a novel therapeutic strategy to suppress aberrant AR activity and delay prostate cancer progression. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  13. Smallpox Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes (SPICE): Dissecting Functional Sites and Abrogating Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Leung, Marilyn K.; Hauhart, Richard; Fang, Celia J.; Bertram, Paula; Atkinson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Although smallpox was eradicated as a global illness more than 30 years ago, variola virus and other related pathogenic poxviruses, such as monkeypox, remain potential bioterrorist weapons or could re-emerge as natural infections. Poxviruses express virulence factors that down-modulate the host’s immune system. We previously compared functional profiles of the poxviral complement inhibitors of smallpox, vaccinia, and monkeypox known as SPICE, VCP (or VICE), and MOPICE, respectively. SPICE was the most potent regulator of human complement and attached to cells via glycosaminoglycans. The major goals of the present study were to further characterize the complement regulatory and heparin binding sites of SPICE and to evaluate a mAb that abrogates its function. Using substitution mutagenesis, we established that (1) elimination of the three heparin binding sites severely decreases but does not eliminate glycosaminoglycan binding, (2) there is a hierarchy of activity for heparin binding among the three sites, and (3) complement regulatory sites overlap with each of the three heparin binding motifs. By creating chimeras with interchanges of SPICE and VCP residues, a combination of two SPICE amino acids (H77 plus K120) enhances VCP activity ~200-fold. Also, SPICE residue L131 is critical for both complement regulatory function and accounts for the electrophoretic differences between SPICE and VCP. An evolutionary history for these structure-function adaptations of SPICE is proposed. Finally, we identified and characterized a mAb that inhibits the complement regulatory activity of SPICE, MOPICE, and VCP and thus could be used as a therapeutic agent. PMID:19667083

  14. WNT activation by lithium abrogates TP53 mutation associated radiation resistance in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Nataliya; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Martin, Dianna C; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Zhang, Cindy H; Fraser, Michael; Tse, Ken; Poon, Raymond; Shih, David J H; Baskin, Berivan; Ray, Peter N; Bouffet, Eric; Dirks, Peter; von Bueren, Andre O; Pfaff, Elke; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Northcott, Paul A; Kool, Marcel; Pugh, Trevor J; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pietsch, Torsten; Gessi, Marco; Rutkowski, Stefan; Bognár, Laszlo; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Eberhart, Charles G; Conter, Cecile Faure; Fouladi, Maryam; French, Pim J; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Gupta, Nalin; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jung, Shin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Klekner, Almos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Lach, Boleslaw; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Liau, Linda M; Massimi, Luca; Pollack, Ian F; Ra, Young Shin; Rubin, Joshua B; Van Meir, Erwin G; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Weiss, William A; Zitterbart, Karel; Bristow, Robert G; Alman, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Clifford, Steven C; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Tabori, Uri

    2014-12-24

    TP53 mutations confer subgroup specific poor survival for children with medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that WNT activation which is associated with improved survival for such children abrogates TP53 related radioresistance and can be used to sensitize TP53 mutant tumors for radiation. We examined the subgroup-specific role of TP53 mutations in a cohort of 314 patients treated with radiation. TP53 wild-type or mutant human medulloblastoma cell-lines and normal neural stem cells were used to test radioresistance of TP53 mutations and the radiosensitizing effect of WNT activation on tumors and the developing brain. Children with WNT/TP53 mutant medulloblastoma had higher 5-year survival than those with SHH/TP53 mutant tumours (100% and 36.6%±8.7%, respectively (p<0.001)). Introduction of TP53 mutation into medulloblastoma cells induced radioresistance (survival fractions at 2Gy (SF2) of 89%±2% vs. 57.4%±1.8% (p<0.01)). In contrast, β-catenin mutation sensitized TP53 mutant cells to radiation (p<0.05). Lithium, an activator of the WNT pathway, sensitized TP53 mutant medulloblastoma to radiation (SF2 of 43.5%±1.5% in lithium treated cells vs. 56.6±3% (p<0.01)) accompanied by increased number of γH2AX foci. Normal neural stem cells were protected from lithium induced radiation damage (SF2 of 33%±8% for lithium treated cells vs. 27%±3% for untreated controls (p=0.05). Poor survival of patients with TP53 mutant medulloblastoma may be related to radiation resistance. Since constitutive activation of the WNT pathway by lithium sensitizes TP53 mutant medulloblastoma cells and protect normal neural stem cells from radiation, this oral drug may represent an attractive novel therapy for high-risk medulloblastomas.

  15. Genetic analyses of Per.C6 cell clones producing a therapeutic monoclonal antibody regarding productivity and long-term stability.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Lilian Rumi; Lopes Dos Santos, Mariana; Yeda, Fernanda Perez; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith; Moro, Ana Maria

    2016-12-01

    Genetic characterization of protein-producing clones represents additional value to cell line development. In the present study, ten Per.C6 clones producing a Rebmab100 monoclonal antibody were selected using two cloning methods: six clones originated from limiting dilution cloning and four by the automated colony picker ClonePix FL. A stability program was performed for 50 generations, including 4 batches distributed along the timeframe to determine specific productivity (Qp) maintenance. Four stable clones (two from limiting dilution and two from ClonePix FL) were further evaluated. The relative mRNA expression levels of both heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes were verified at generations 0, 30-35, and 50-55 of the stability program. At generations 0 and 30-35, LC gene expression level was higher than HC gene, whereas at generation 50-55, the opposite prevailed. A high correlation was observed between Qp and HC or LC mRNA expression level for all clones at each generation analyzed along the continuous culture. The mRNA stability study was performed at steady-state culture. The LC gene displayed a higher half-life and lower decay constant than HC gene, accounting for the higher observed expression level of LC mRNA in comparison to HC mRNA. Clone R6 was highlighted due its high Qp, mRNA expression levels, and mRNA stability. Besides the benefits of applying genetic characterization for the selection of stable and high-producing clones, the present study shows for the first time the correlation between Qp and HC or LC expression levels and also mRNA stability in clones derived from human cell line Per.C6(®).

  16. [Advances in the study of natural small molecular antibody].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Da-peng

    2012-10-01

    Small molecule antibodies are naturally existed and well functioned but not structurally related to the conventional antibodies. They are only composed of heavy protein chains or light chains, much smaller than common antibody. The first small molecule antibody, called Nanobody was engineered from heavy-chain antibodies found in camelids. Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, "immunoglobulin new antigen receptor"), from which single-domain antibodies called Vnar fragments can be obtained. In addition, free light chain (FLC) antibodies in human bodies are being developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Comparing to intact antibodies, common advantages of small molecule antibodies are with better solubility, tissue penetration, stability towards heat and enzymes, and comparatively low production costs. This article reviews the structural characteristics and mechanism of action of the Nanobody, IgNAR and FLC.

  17. Antibodies to watch in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    The commercial pipeline of recombinant antibody therapeutics is robust and dynamic. As of early December 2014, a total of 6 such products (vedolizumab, siltuximab, ramucirumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, blinatumomab) were granted first marketing approvals in 2014. As discussed in this perspective on antibodies in late-stage development, the outlook for additional approvals, potentially still in 2014 and certainly in 2015, is excellent as marketing applications for 6 antibody therapeutics (secukinumab, evolocumab, mepolizumab, dinutuximab, nivolumab, necitumumab) are undergoing a first regulatory review in the EU or US. Of the 39 novel mAbs currently in Phase 3 studies, a marketing application for one (alirocumab) may be submitted in late 2014, and marketing application submissions for at least 4 (reslizumab, ixekizumab, ocrelizumab, obiltoxaximab) are expected in 2015. Other ‘antibodies to watch’ are those in Phase 3 studies with estimated primary completion dates in late 2014 or 2015, which includes 13 for non-cancer indications (brodalumab, bimagrumab, bococizumab, MABp1, gevokizumab, dupilumab, sirukumab, sarilumab, tildrakizumab, guselkumab, epratuzumab, combination of actoxumab + bezlotoxumab, romosozumab) and 2 (racotumomab and clivatuzumab tetraxetan) undergoing evaluation as treatments for cancer. In addition to the novel antibody therapeutics mentioned, biosimilar infliximab and biosimilar trastuzumab are ‘antibodies to watch’ in 2015 because of their potential for entry into the US market and regulatory review, respectively. PMID:25484055

  18. Antibodies to watch in 2014.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry's progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the "Antibodies to watch" series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration's Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed.

  19. Antibodies to watch in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, mAbs has documented the biopharmaceutical industry’s progress in transitioning antibody therapeutics to first Phase 3 clinical studies and regulatory review, and its success at gaining first marketing approvals for antibody-based products. This installment of the “Antibodies to watch” series outlines events anticipated to occur between December 2013 and the end of 2014, including first regulatory actions on marketing applications for vedolizumab, siltuximab, and ramucirumab, as well as the Fc fusion proteins Factor IX-Fc and Factor VIII-Fc; and the submission of first marketing applications for up to five therapeutics (secukinumab, ch14.18, onartuzumab, necitumumab, gevokizumab). Antibody therapeutics in Phase 3 studies are described, with an emphasis on those with study completion dates in 2014, including antibodies targeting interleukin-17a or the interleukin-17a receptor (secukinumab, ixekizumab, brodalumab), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab), and programmed death 1 receptor (lambrolizumab, nivolumab). Five antibodies with US Food and Drug Administration’s Breakthrough Therapy designation (obinutuzumab, ofatumumab, lambrolizumab, bimagrumab, daratumumab) are also discussed. PMID:24284914

  20. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, David Sherman

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic,more » i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.« less

  1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Liver and Antiphospholipid Antibody Production Precede Disease Onset and Respond to Rapamycin in Lupus‐Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Zachary; Winans, Thomas; Caza, Tiffany; Fernandez, David; Liu, Yuxin; Landas, Steve K.; Banki, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) constitute a diagnostic criterion of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and aPL have been functionally linked to liver disease in patients with SLE. Since the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulator of oxidative stress, a pathophysiologic process that contributes to the development of aPL, this study was undertaken in a mouse model of SLE to examine the involvement of liver mitochondria in lupus pathogenesis. Methods Mitochondria were isolated from lupus‐prone MRL/lpr, C57BL/6.lpr, and MRL mice, age‐matched autoimmunity‐resistant C57BL/6 mice as negative controls, and transaldolase‐deficient mice, a strain that exhibits oxidative stress in the liver. Electron transport chain (ETC) activity was assessed using measurements of oxygen consumption. ETC proteins, which are regulators of mitochondrial homeostasis, and the mTOR complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 were examined by Western blotting. Anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti–β2‐glycoprotein I (anti‐β2GPI) autoantibodies were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay in mice treated with rapamycin or mice treated with a solvent control. Results Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was increased in the livers of 4‐week‐old, disease‐free MRL/lpr mice relative to age‐matched controls. Levels of the mitophagy initiator dynamin‐related protein 1 (Drp1) were depleted while the activity of mTORC1 was increased in MRL/lpr mice. In turn, mTORC2 activity was decreased in MRL and MRL/lpr mice. In addition, levels of aCL and anti‐β2GPI were elevated preceding the development of nephritis in 4‐week‐old MRL, C57BL/6.lpr, and MRL/lpr mice. Transaldolase‐deficient mice showed increased oxygen consumption, depletion of Drp1, activation of mTORC1, and elevated expression of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S3 (NDUFS3), a pro‐oxidant subunit of ETC complex I, as well as increased production of aCL and anti‐β2GPI autoantibodies. Treatment

  2. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Liver and Antiphospholipid Antibody Production Precede Disease Onset and Respond to Rapamycin in Lupus-Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Oaks, Zachary; Winans, Thomas; Caza, Tiffany; Fernandez, David; Liu, Yuxin; Landas, Steve K; Banki, Katalin; Perl, Andras

    2016-11-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) constitute a diagnostic criterion of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and aPL have been functionally linked to liver disease in patients with SLE. Since the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a regulator of oxidative stress, a pathophysiologic process that contributes to the development of aPL, this study was undertaken in a mouse model of SLE to examine the involvement of liver mitochondria in lupus pathogenesis. Mitochondria were isolated from lupus-prone MRL/lpr, C57BL/6.lpr, and MRL mice, age-matched autoimmunity-resistant C57BL/6 mice as negative controls, and transaldolase-deficient mice, a strain that exhibits oxidative stress in the liver. Electron transport chain (ETC) activity was assessed using measurements of oxygen consumption. ETC proteins, which are regulators of mitochondrial homeostasis, and the mTOR complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 were examined by Western blotting. Anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β 2 -glycoprotein I (anti-β 2 GPI) autoantibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in mice treated with rapamycin or mice treated with a solvent control. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption was increased in the livers of 4-week-old, disease-free MRL/lpr mice relative to age-matched controls. Levels of the mitophagy initiator dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) were depleted while the activity of mTORC1 was increased in MRL/lpr mice. In turn, mTORC2 activity was decreased in MRL and MRL/lpr mice. In addition, levels of aCL and anti-β 2 GPI were elevated preceding the development of nephritis in 4-week-old MRL, C57BL/6.lpr, and MRL/lpr mice. Transaldolase-deficient mice showed increased oxygen consumption, depletion of Drp1, activation of mTORC1, and elevated expression of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S3 (NDUFS3), a pro-oxidant subunit of ETC complex I, as well as increased production of aCL and anti-β 2 GPI autoantibodies. Treatment with rapamycin selectively blocked mTORC1 activation

  3. CD22-Binding Synthetic Sialosides Regulate B Lymphocyte Proliferation Through CD22 Ligand-Dependent and Independent Pathways, and Enhance Antibody Production in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Naoko; Imamura, Akihiro; Yonemizu, Tatsuya; Akatsu, Chizuru; Yang, Hongrui; Ueki, Akiharu; Watanabe, Natsuki; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj; Numoto, Nobutaka; Takematsu, Hiromu; Kitazume, Shinobu; Tedder, Thomas F.; Marth, Jamey D.; Ito, Nobutoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are expressed in various immune cells and most of them carry signaling functions. High-affinity synthetic sialoside ligands have been developed for various Siglecs. Therapeutic potentials of the nanoparticles and compounds that contain multiple numbers of these sialosides and other reagents such as toxins and antigens have been demonstrated. However, whether immune responses can be regulated by monomeric sialoside ligands has not yet been known. CD22 (also known as Siglec-2) is an inhibitory molecule preferentially expressed in B lymphocytes (B cells) and is constitutively bound and functionally regulated by α2,6 sialic acids expressed on the same cell (cis-ligands). Here, we developed synthetic sialosides GSC718 and GSC839 that bind to CD22 with high affinity (IC50 ~100 nM), and inhibit ligand binding of CD22. When B cells are activated by B cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation, both GSC718 and GSC839 downregulate proliferation of B cells, and this regulation requires both CD22 and α2,6 sialic acids. This result suggests that these sialosides regulate BCR ligation-induced B cell activation by reversing endogenous ligand-mediated regulation of CD22. By contrast, GSC718 and GSC839 augment B cell proliferation induced by TLR ligands or CD40 ligation, and this augmentation requires CD22 but not α2,6 sialic acids. Thus, these sialosides appear to enhance B cell activation by directly suppressing the inhibitory function of CD22 independently of endogenous ligand-mediated regulation. Moreover, GSC839 augments B cell proliferation that depends on both BCR ligation and CD40 ligation as is the case for in vivo B cell responses to antigens, and enhanced antibody production to the extent comparable to CpG oligonuleotides or a small amount of alum. Although these known adjuvants induce production of the inflammatory cytokines or accumulation of inflammatory cells, CD22-binding sialosides do not. Thus, synthetic

  4. CD22-Binding Synthetic Sialosides Regulate B Lymphocyte Proliferation Through CD22 Ligand-Dependent and Independent Pathways, and Enhance Antibody Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Naoko; Imamura, Akihiro; Yonemizu, Tatsuya; Akatsu, Chizuru; Yang, Hongrui; Ueki, Akiharu; Watanabe, Natsuki; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj; Numoto, Nobutaka; Takematsu, Hiromu; Kitazume, Shinobu; Tedder, Thomas F; Marth, Jamey D; Ito, Nobutoshi; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Kiso, Makoto; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are expressed in various immune cells and most of them carry signaling functions. High-affinity synthetic sialoside ligands have been developed for various Siglecs. Therapeutic potentials of the nanoparticles and compounds that contain multiple numbers of these sialosides and other reagents such as toxins and antigens have been demonstrated. However, whether immune responses can be regulated by monomeric sialoside ligands has not yet been known. CD22 (also known as Siglec-2) is an inhibitory molecule preferentially expressed in B lymphocytes (B cells) and is constitutively bound and functionally regulated by α2,6 sialic acids expressed on the same cell (cis-ligands). Here, we developed synthetic sialosides GSC718 and GSC839 that bind to CD22 with high affinity (IC 50 ~100 nM), and inhibit ligand binding of CD22. When B cells are activated by B cell antigen receptor (BCR) ligation, both GSC718 and GSC839 downregulate proliferation of B cells, and this regulation requires both CD22 and α2,6 sialic acids. This result suggests that these sialosides regulate BCR ligation-induced B cell activation by reversing endogenous ligand-mediated regulation of CD22. By contrast, GSC718 and GSC839 augment B cell proliferation induced by TLR ligands or CD40 ligation, and this augmentation requires CD22 but not α2,6 sialic acids. Thus, these sialosides appear to enhance B cell activation by directly suppressing the inhibitory function of CD22 independently of endogenous ligand-mediated regulation. Moreover, GSC839 augments B cell proliferation that depends on both BCR ligation and CD40 ligation as is the case for in vivo B cell responses to antigens, and enhanced antibody production to the extent comparable to CpG oligonuleotides or a small amount of alum. Although these known adjuvants induce production of the inflammatory cytokines or accumulation of inflammatory cells, CD22-binding sialosides do not. Thus, synthetic

  5. γδ T cells affect IL-4 production and B-cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yafei; Heiser, Ryan A.; Detanico, Thiago O.; Getahun, Andrew; Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; Casper, Tamara L.; Aydintug, M. Kemal; Carding, Simon R.; Ikuta, Koichi; Huang, Hua; Cambier, John C.; Wysocki, Lawrence J.; O’Brien, Rebecca L.; Born, Willi K.

    2015-01-01

    γδ T cells can influence specific antibody responses. Here, we report that mice deficient in individual γδ T-cell subsets have altered levels of serum antibodies, including all major subclasses, sometimes regardless of the presence of αβ T cells. One strain with a partial γδ deficiency that increases IgE antibodies also displayed increases in IL-4–producing T cells (both residual γδ T cells and αβ T cells) and in systemic IL-4 levels. Its B cells expressed IL-4–regulated inhibitory receptors (CD5, CD22, and CD32) at diminished levels, whereas IL-4–inducible IL-4 receptor α and MHCII were increased. They also showed signs of activation and spontaneously formed germinal centers. These mice displayed IgE-dependent features found in hyper-IgE syndrome and developed antichromatin, antinuclear, and anticytoplasmic autoantibodies. In contrast, mice deficient in all γδ T cells had nearly unchanged Ig levels and did not develop autoantibodies. Removing IL-4 abrogated the increases in IgE, antichromatin antibodies, and autoantibodies in the partially γδ-deficient mice. Our data suggest that γδ T cells, controlled by their own cross-talk, affect IL-4 production, B-cell activation, and B-cell tolerance. PMID:25535377

  6. γδ T cells affect IL-4 production and B-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yafei; Heiser, Ryan A; Detanico, Thiago O; Getahun, Andrew; Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Casper, Tamara L; Aydintug, M Kemal; Carding, Simon R; Ikuta, Koichi; Huang, Hua; Cambier, John C; Wysocki, Lawrence J; O'Brien, Rebecca L; Born, Willi K

    2015-01-06

    γδ T cells can influence specific antibody responses. Here, we report that mice deficient in individual γδ T-cell subsets have altered levels of serum antibodies, including all major subclasses, sometimes regardless of the presence of αβ T cells. One strain with a partial γδ deficiency that increases IgE antibodies also displayed increases in IL-4-producing T cells (both residual γδ T cells and αβ T cells) and in systemic IL-4 levels. Its B cells expressed IL-4-regulated inhibitory receptors (CD5, CD22, and CD32) at diminished levels, whereas IL-4-inducible IL-4 receptor α and MHCII were increased. They also showed signs of activation and spontaneously formed germinal centers. These mice displayed IgE-dependent features found in hyper-IgE syndrome and developed antichromatin, antinuclear, and anticytoplasmic autoantibodies. In contrast, mice deficient in all γδ T cells had nearly unchanged Ig levels and did not develop autoantibodies. Removing IL-4 abrogated the increases in IgE, antichromatin antibodies, and autoantibodies in the partially γδ-deficient mice. Our data suggest that γδ T cells, controlled by their own cross-talk, affect IL-4 production, B-cell activation, and B-cell tolerance.

  7. Investigation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera against anthrax toxins resulted in identification of an anti-lethal factor antibody with disease-enhancing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Parul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Priyanka; Joon, Shikha; Sinha, Subrata; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-12-01

    Hybridomas were created using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor). Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immnized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies secreted by all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H10 and H8) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). Single chain variable fragment (LETscFv) was derived from H10 hybridoma. H11 was found to have disease-enhancing property. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature. This in vitro abrogation of disease-enhancement provides the proof of concept that in polyclonal sera the disease enhancing character of a fraction of antibodies is overshadowed by the protective nature of the rest of the antibodies generated on active immunization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Atypical antibody responses in dengue vaccine recipients.

    PubMed

    Kanesa-Thasan, N; Sun, W; Ludwig, G V; Rossi, C; Putnak, J R; Mangiafico, J A; Innis, B L; Edelman, R

    2003-12-01

    Eight of 69 (12%) healthy adult volunteers vaccinated with monovalent live-attenuated dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidates had atypical antibody responses, with depressed IgM:IgG antibody ratios and induction of high-titer hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing (NT) antibodies to all four DENV serotypes. These features suggested flavivirus exposure prior to DENV vaccination, yet no volunteer had a history of previous flavivirus infection, flavivirus vaccination, or antibody to flaviviruses evident before DENV vaccination. Moreover, production of antibody to DENV by atypical responders (AR) was not accelerated compared with antibody responses in the 61 flavivirus-naive responders (NR). Further evaluation revealed no differences in sex, age, race, DENV vaccine candidate received, or clinical signs and symptoms following vaccination between AR and NR. However, viremia was delayed at the onset in AR compared with NR. A comparative panel of all AR and five randomly selected NR found flavivirus cross-reactive antibody after vaccination only in AR. Unexpectedly, six of eight AR had NT antibodies to yellow fever virus (YFV) > 1:10 before vaccination while NR had none (P = 0.04). The AR also universally demonstrated YFV NT antibody titers > or = 1:160 after DENV vaccination, whereas four of five NR failed to seroconvert (P = 0.02). Yellow fever virus priming broadens the antibody response to monovalent DENV vaccination. The effect of flavivirus priming on the clinical and immunologic response to tetravalent DENV vaccine remains to be determined.

  9. Acute administration of vitamin C abrogates protection from ischemic preconditioning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tsovolas, Konstantinos; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Andreadou, Ioanna; Zoga, Anastasia; Demopoulou, Maritina; Iliodromitis, Konstantinos E; Manolaki, Theodora; Markantonis, Sophia L; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2008-04-01

    Vitamin C is considered to be an antioxidant agent that is broadly used. Free radicals are involved in the protective mechanism of preconditioning (PC), but some antioxidant compounds abolish this benefit. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on the protective effect of PC with respect to infarct size and oxidative stress in anesthetized rabbits. Male rabbits were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia and 3h of reperfusion with the following interventions per group: (1) Control (no intervention), (2) Vit C 150 group (i.v. vitamin C at a total dose of 150 mg/kg for 75 min, starting 40 min before the onset of long ischemia and lasting up to the 5th min of reperfusion), (3) Vit C 300 group (i.v. vitamin C at a total dose of 300 mg/kg as previously described), (4) PC group (two cycles of 5 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion), (5) combined PC-Vit C 150 group and (6) combined PC-Vit C 300 group. Blood samples were taken at different time points for malondialdehyde (MDA) assessment as a lipid peroxidation marker and for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. At the end of the experiment the infarct size was determined. Vitamin C, at both doses, did not reduce the infarct size (35.5+/-4.1%, 38.3+/-7.0% vs. 44.9+/-3.3% in the control group) and diminished the protection afforded by PC (32.0+/-2.7%, 43.8+/-3.3% vs. 15.7+/-2.9% in the PC group, P<0.05). At reperfusion there was an elevation of circulating MDA levels in the control and PC groups while in both vitamin C groups the levels were decreased. SOD activity was enhanced in the PC group compared to the controls; vitamin C did not change SOD activity during ischemia-reperfusion. Vitamin C abrogates the beneficial effect of ischemic PC on infarct size and elicits antioxidant properties during ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. The production of the oral mucosa of antiendomysial and anti-tissue-transglutaminase antibodies in patients with celiac disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Compilato, Domenico; Campisi, Giuseppina; Pastore, Luca; Carroccio, Antonio

    2010-12-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong, T cell-mediated enteropathy, triggered by the ingestion of gluten and related prolamins in genetically susceptible subjects, resulting in minor intestinal mucosal injury, including villous atrophy with crypt hyperplasia and intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and subsequent nutrient malabsorption. Although serological tests for antiendomysial (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) autoantibodies are used to screen and follow up on patients with CD, diagnostic confirmation is still based on the histological examination of the small intestinal mucosa. Although the small intestinal mucosa is the main site of the gut involved in CD, other mucosal surfaces (such as gastric, rectal, ileal, and esophageal) belonging to the gastrointestinal tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) can also be involved. A site that could be studied less invasively is the mouth, as it is the first part of the gastrointestinal system and a part of the GALT. Indeed, not only have various oral ailments been reported as possible atypical aspects of CD, but it has been also demonstrated that inflammatory changes occur after oral supramucosal application and a submucosal injection of gliadin into the oral mucosa of CD patients. However, to date, only two studies have assessed the capacity of the oral mucosa of untreated CD patients to EMA and anti-tTG antibodies. In this paper, we will review studies that evaluate the capacity of the oral mucosa to produce specific CD autoantibodies. Discrepancies in sensitivity from the two studies have revealed that biopsy is still not an adequate procedure for the routine diagnostic purposes of CD patients, and a more in-depth evaluation on a larger sample size with standardized collection and analysis methods is merited. However, the demonstration of immunological reactivity to the gluten ingestion of the oral mucosa of CD, in terms of IgA EMA and anti-tTG production, needs to be further evaluated in order to

  11. Production and Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Raised Against Surface Antigens from Mycelium of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici: Evidence for an Extracellular Polyphenol Oxidase.