Science.gov

Sample records for abrogates regulatory function

  1. Smallpox Inhibitor of Complement Enzymes (SPICE): Dissecting Functional Sites and Abrogating Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Leung, Marilyn K.; Hauhart, Richard; Fang, Celia J.; Bertram, Paula; Atkinson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Although smallpox was eradicated as a global illness more than 30 years ago, variola virus and other related pathogenic poxviruses, such as monkeypox, remain potential bioterrorist weapons or could re-emerge as natural infections. Poxviruses express virulence factors that down-modulate the host’s immune system. We previously compared functional profiles of the poxviral complement inhibitors of smallpox, vaccinia, and monkeypox known as SPICE, VCP (or VICE), and MOPICE, respectively. SPICE was the most potent regulator of human complement and attached to cells via glycosaminoglycans. The major goals of the present study were to further characterize the complement regulatory and heparin binding sites of SPICE and to evaluate a mAb that abrogates its function. Using substitution mutagenesis, we established that (1) elimination of the three heparin binding sites severely decreases but does not eliminate glycosaminoglycan binding, (2) there is a hierarchy of activity for heparin binding among the three sites, and (3) complement regulatory sites overlap with each of the three heparin binding motifs. By creating chimeras with interchanges of SPICE and VCP residues, a combination of two SPICE amino acids (H77 plus K120) enhances VCP activity ~200-fold. Also, SPICE residue L131 is critical for both complement regulatory function and accounts for the electrophoretic differences between SPICE and VCP. An evolutionary history for these structure-function adaptations of SPICE is proposed. Finally, we identified and characterized a mAb that inhibits the complement regulatory activity of SPICE, MOPICE, and VCP and thus could be used as a therapeutic agent. PMID:19667083

  2. Andrographolide derivatives inhibit guanine nucleotide exchange and abrogate oncogenic Ras function

    PubMed Central

    Hocker, Harrison J.; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Chen, Chung-Ying K.; Rambahal, Nandini; Sagineedu, Sreenivasa Rao; Shaari, Khozirah; Stanslas, Johnson; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant signaling by oncogenic mutant rat sarcoma (Ras) proteins occurs in ∼15% of all human tumors, yet direct inhibition of Ras by small molecules has remained elusive. Recently, several small-molecule ligands have been discovered that directly bind Ras and inhibit its function by interfering with exchange factor binding. However, it is unclear whether, or how, these ligands could lead to drugs that act against constitutively active oncogenic mutant Ras. Using a dynamics-based pocket identification scheme, ensemble docking, and innovative cell-based assays, here we show that andrographolide (AGP)—a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata—and its benzylidene derivatives bind to transient pockets on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) and inhibit GDP–GTP exchange. As expected for inhibitors of exchange factor binding, AGP derivatives reduced GTP loading of wild-type K-Ras in response to acute EGF stimulation with a concomitant reduction in MAPK activation. Remarkably, however, prolonged treatment with AGP derivatives also reduced GTP loading of, and signal transmission by, oncogenic mutant K-RasG12V. In sum, the combined analysis of our computational and cell biology results show that AGP derivatives directly bind Ras, block GDP–GTP exchange, and inhibit both wild-type and oncogenic K-Ras signaling. Importantly, our findings not only show that nucleotide exchange factors are required for oncogenic Ras signaling but also demonstrate that inhibiting nucleotide exchange is a valid approach to abrogating the function of oncogenic mutant Ras. PMID:23737504

  3. The human papillomavirus type 58 E7 oncoprotein modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Weifang; Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong; Li Jing

    2010-02-05

    HPV type 58 (HPV-58) is the third most common HPV type in cervical cancer from Eastern Asia, yet little is known about how it promotes carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV-58 E7 significantly promoted the proliferation and extended the lifespan of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). HPV-58 E7 abrogated the G1 and the postmitotic checkpoints, although less efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Consistent with these observations, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated the cellular tumor suppressor pRb to a lesser extent than HPV-16 E7. Similar to HPV-16 E7 expressing PHKs, Cdk2 remained active in HPV-58 E7 expressing PHKs despite the presence of elevatedmore » levels of p53 and p21. Interestingly, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated p130 more efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Our study demonstrates a correlation between the ability of down-regulating pRb/p130 and abrogating cell cycle checkpoints by HPV-58 E7, which also correlates with the biological risks of cervical cancer progression associated with HPV-58 infection.« less

  4. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, John C; Hemker, Shelby L; Venta, Patrick J; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Myers, Sherry L; Giger, Urs

    2013-08-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with the disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, John C.; Hemker, Shelby L.; Venta, Patrick J.; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A.; Outerbridge, Catherine A.; Myers, Sherry L.; Giger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9 Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. PMID:23746554

  6. Sulforaphane Potentiates the Efficacy of 17-Allylamino 17-Demethoxygeldanamycin Against Pancreatic Cancer Through Enhanced Abrogation of Hsp90 Chaperone Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Tao; Schwartz, Steven J.; Sun, Duxin

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential molecular chaperone that regulates the stability of a wide range of oncogenic proteins, is a promising target for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the combination efficacy and potential mechanisms of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, and 17-allylamino 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, in pancreatic cancer. MTS assay demonstrated that sulforaphane sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to 17-AAG in vitro. Caspase-3 was activated to 6.4-fold in response to simultaneous treatment with sulforaphane and 17-AAG, whereas 17-AAG alone induced caspase-3 activity to 2-fold compared to control. ATP binding assay and coimmunoprecipitation revealed that sulforaphane disrupted Hsp90-p50Cdc37 interaction, whereas 17-AAG inhibited ATP binding to Hsp90. Concomitant use of sulforaphane and 17-AAG synergistically downregulated Hsp90 client proteins in Mia Paca-2 cells. Co-administration of sulforaphane and 17-AAG in pancreatic cancer xenograft model led to more than 70% inhibition of the tumor growth, whereas 17-AAG alone only suppressed the tumor growth by 50%. Our data suggest that sulforaphane potentiates the efficacy of 17-AAG against pancreatic cancer through enhanced abrogation of Hsp90 function. These findings provide a rationale for further evaluation of broccoli/broccoli sprout preparations combined with 17-AAG for better efficacy and lower dose-limiting toxicity in pancreatic cancer. PMID:21875325

  7. Functional annotation of regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jayesh; Koyutürk, Mehmet; Kim, Yohan; Szpankowski, Wojciech; Subramaniam, Shankar; Grama, Ananth

    2007-07-01

    Standardized annotations of biomolecules in interaction networks (e.g. Gene Ontology) provide comprehensive understanding of the function of individual molecules. Extending such annotations to pathways is a critical component of functional characterization of cellular signaling at the systems level. We propose a framework for projecting gene regulatory networks onto the space of functional attributes using multigraph models, with the objective of deriving statistically significant pathway annotations. We first demonstrate that annotations of pairwise interactions do not generalize to indirect relationships between processes. Motivated by this result, we formalize the problem of identifying statistically overrepresented pathways of functional attributes. We establish the hardness of this problem by demonstrating the non-monotonicity of common statistical significance measures. We propose a statistical model that emphasizes the modularity of a pathway, evaluating its significance based on the coupling of its building blocks. We complement the statistical model by an efficient algorithm and software, Narada, for computing significant pathways in large regulatory networks. Comprehensive results from our methods applied to the Escherichia coli transcription network demonstrate that our approach is effective in identifying known, as well as novel biological pathway annotations. Narada is implemented in Java and is available at http://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/jpandey/narada/.

  8. The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with IL-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils focused on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell. PMID:27780017

  9. The Regulatory Function of Eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-10-01

    Eosinophils are a minority circulating granulocyte classically viewed as being involved in host defense against parasites and promoting allergic reactions. However, a series of new regulatory functions for these cells have been identified in the past decade. During homeostasis, eosinophils develop in the bone marrow and migrate from the blood into target tissues following an eotaxin gradient, with interleukin-5 being a key cytokine for eosinophil proliferation, survival, and priming. In multiple target tissues, eosinophils actively regulate a variety of immune functions through their vast arsenal of granule products and cytokines, as well as direct cellular interaction with cells in proximity. The immunologic regulation of eosinophils extends from innate immunity to adaptive immunity and also involves non-immune cells. Herein, we summarize recent findings regarding novel roles of murine and human eosinophils, focusing on interactions with other hematopoietic cells. We also review new experimental tools available and remaining questions to uncover a greater understanding of this enigmatic cell.

  10. Regulatory T Cells: Differentiation and Function.

    PubMed

    Plitas, George; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2016-09-02

    The immune system of vertebrate animals has evolved to mount an effective defense against a diverse set of pathogens while minimizing transient or lasting impairment in tissue function that could result from the inflammation caused by immune responses to infectious agents. In addition, misguided immune responses to "self" and dietary antigens, as well as to commensal microorganisms, can lead to a variety of inflammatory disorders, including autoimmunity, metabolic syndrome, allergies, and cancer. Regulatory T cells expressing the X chromosome-linked transcription factor Foxp3 suppress inflammatory responses in diverse biological settings and serve as a vital mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 721-5. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Functional Evolution of a cis-Regulatory Module

    PubMed Central

    Palsson, Arnar; Alekseeva, Elena; Bergman, Casey M; Nathan, Janaki; Kreitman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about how regulatory regions evolve in relation to their structure–function may limit the utility of comparative sequence analysis in deciphering cis-regulatory sequences. To address this we applied reverse genetics to carry out a functional genetic complementation analysis of a eukaryotic cis-regulatory module—the even-skipped stripe 2 enhancer—from four Drosophila species. The evolution of this enhancer is non-clock-like, with important functional differences between closely related species and functional convergence between distantly related species. Functional divergence is attributable to differences in activation levels rather than spatiotemporal control of gene expression. Our findings have implications for understanding enhancer structure–function, mechanisms of speciation and computational identification of regulatory modules. PMID:15757364

  12. Functional analysis of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Pampín, Sandra; Rodríguez-Rey, José C

    2007-04-01

    The identification of regulatory polymorphisms has become a key problem in human genetics. In the past few years there has been a conceptual change in the way in which regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms are studied. We revise the new approaches and discuss how gene expression studies can contribute to a better knowledge of the genetics of common diseases. New techniques for the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with changes in gene expression have been recently developed. This, together with a more comprehensive use of the old in-vitro methods, has produced a great amount of genetic information. When added to current databases, it will help to design better tools for the detection of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The identification of functional regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms cannot be done by the simple inspection of DNA sequence. In-vivo techniques, based on primer-extension, and the more recently developed 'haploChIP' allow the association of gene variants to changes in gene expression. Gene expression analysis by conventional in-vitro techniques is the only way to identify the functional consequences of regulatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The amount of information produced in the last few years will help to refine the tools for the future analysis of regulatory gene variants.

  13. Functional Classification of Immune Regulatory Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Rotem; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Nathenson, Stanley G.

    2013-05-01

    Members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) control innate and adaptive immunity and are prime targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and malignancies. We describe a computational method, termed the Brotherhood algorithm, which utilizes intermediate sequence information to classify proteins into functionally related families. This approach identifies functional relationships within the IgSF and predicts additional receptor-ligand interactions. As a specific example, we examine the nectin/nectin-like family of cell adhesion and signaling proteins and propose receptor-ligand interactions within this family. We were guided by the Brotherhood approach and present the high-resolution structural characterization of a homophilic interaction involving themore » class-I MHC-restricted T-cell-associated molecule, which we now classify as a nectin-like family member. The Brotherhood algorithm is likely to have a significant impact on structural immunology by identifying those proteins and complexes for which structural characterization will be particularly informative.« less

  14. Abrogation of Antibody-Induced Arthritis in Mice by a Self-Activating Viridin Prodrug and Association With Impaired Neutrophil and Endothelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Stangenberg, Lars; Ellson, Chris; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Yuan, Hushan; Blois, Joseph; Smith, Ralph A.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Weissleder, Ralph; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test a novel self-activating viridin (SAV) prodrug that slowly releases wortmannin, a potent phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, in a model of antibody-mediated inflammatory arthritis. Methods The SAV prodrug was administered to K/BxN mice or to C57BL/6 (B6) mice that had been injected with K/BxN serum. Ankle thickness was measured, and histologic changes were scored after a 10-day disease course (serum-transfer arthritis). Protease activity was measured by a near-infrared imaging approach using a cleavable cathepsin–selective probe. Further near-infrared imaging techniques were used to analyze early changes in vascular permeability after serum injection, as well as neutrophil–endothelial cell interactions. Neutrophil functions were assessed using an oxidative burst assay as well as a degranulation assay. Results SAV prevented ankle swelling in mice with serum-transfer arthritis in a dose-dependent manner. It also markedly reduced the extent of other features of arthritis, such as protease activity and histology scores for inflammation and joint erosion. Moreover, SAV was an effective therapeutic agent. The underlying mechanisms for the antiinflammatory activity were manifold. Endothelial permeability after serum injection was reduced, as was firm neutrophil attachment to endothelial cells. Endothelial cell activation by tumor necrosis factor α was impeded by SAV, as measured by the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule. Crucial neutrophil functions, such as generation of reactive oxygen species and degranulation of protease-laden vesicles, were decreased by SAV administration. Conclusion A novel SAV prodrug proved strongly antiinflammatory in a murine model of antibody-induced inflammatory arthritis. Its activity could be attributed, at least in part, to the inhibition of neutrophil and endothelial cell functions. PMID:19644878

  15. The p53-p21WAF1 checkpoint pathway plays a protective role in preventing DNA rereplication induced by abrogation of FOXF1 function

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Lee, Ji Shin; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified FOXF1 as a potential tumor suppressor gene with an essential role in preventing DNA rereplication to maintain genomic stability, which is frequently inactivated in breast cancer through the epigenetic mechanism. Here we further addressed the role of the p53-p21WAF1 checkpoint pathway in DNA rereplication induced by silencing of FOXF1. Knockdown of FOXF1 by small interference RNA (siRNA) rendered colorectal p53-null and p21WAF1-null HCT116 cancer cells more susceptible to rereplication and apoptosis than the wild-type parental cells. In parental HCT116 cells with a functional p53 checkpoint, the p53-p21WAF1 checkpoint pathway was activated upon FOXF1 knockdown, which was concurrent with suppression of the CDK2-Rb cascade and induction of G1 arrest. In contrast, these events were not observed in FOXF1-depleted HCT116-p53−/− and HCT116-p21−/− cells, indicating the p53-dependent checkpoint function is vital for inhibiting CDK2 to induce G1 arrest and protect cells from rereplication. The pharmacologic inhibitor (caffeine) of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) protein kinases abolished activation of the p53-p21WAF1 pathway upon FOXF1 knockdown, suggesting that suppression of FOXF1 function triggered the ATM/ATR-mediated DNA damage response. Cosilencing of p53 by siRNA synergistically enhanced the effect of FOXF1 depletion on stimulation of DNA rereplication and apoptosis in wild-type HCT116. Finally, we show that FOXF1 expression is predominantly silenced in breast and colorectal cancer cell lines with inactive p53. Our study demonstrated that the p53-p21WAF1 checkpoint pathway is an intrinsically protective mechanism to prevent DNA rereplication induced by silencing of FOXF1. PMID:21964066

  16. The secreted form of the p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 inhibits IL-23 functions and abrogates IL-23-mediated antitumour effects

    PubMed Central

    Shimozato, Osamu; Ugai, Shin-ichi; Chiyo, Masako; Takenobu, Hisanori; Nagakawa, Hiroyasu; Wada, Akihiko; Kawamura, Kiyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine consisting of a novel p19 molecule and the p40 subunit of IL-12. Since secreted p40 can act as an antagonist for IL-12, we investigated whether p40 also inhibited IL-23-mediated immunological functions. p40 did not induce interferon (IFN)-γ or IL-17 production from splenocytes but impaired IL-23-induced cytokine production by competitive binding to the IL-23 receptors. Furthermore, a mixed population of murine colon carcinoma Colon 26 cells transduced with the p40 gene and those transduced with the IL-23 gene developed tumours in syngenic mice, whereas the IL-23-expressing Colon 26 cells were completely rejected. p40 also suppressed IFN-γ production of antigen-stimulated splenocytes and IL-23-mediated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activities in the mice that rejected Colon 26 cells expressing IL-23. p40 can thereby antagonize IL-23 and is a possible therapeutic agent for suppression of IL-23 functions. PMID:16423037

  17. Overexpression of Escherichia coli udk mimics the absence of T7 Gp2 function and thereby abrogates successful infection by T7 phage.

    PubMed

    Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Savalia, Dhruti; Severinov, Konstantin; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

    2013-02-01

    Successful infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T7 relies upon the transcription of the T7 genome by two different RNA polymerases (RNAps). The bacterial RNAp transcribes early T7 promoters, whereas middle and late T7 genes are transcribed by the T7 RNAp. Gp2, a T7-encoded transcription factor, is a 7 kDa product of an essential middle T7 gene 2, and is a potent inhibitor of the host RNAp. The essential biological role of Gp2 is to inhibit transcription of early T7 genes that fail to terminate efficiently in order to facilitate the coordinated usage of the T7 genome by both host and phage RNAps. Overexpression of the E. coli udk gene, which encodes a uridine/cytidine kinase, interferes with T7 infection. We demonstrate that overexpression of udk antagonizes Gp2 function in E. coli in the absence of T7 infection and thus independently of T7-encoded factors. It seems that overexpression of udk reduces Gp2 stability and functionality during T7 infection, which consequently results in inadequate inhibition of host RNAp and in the accumulation of early T7 transcripts. In other words, overexpression of udk mimics the absence of Gp2 during T7 infection. Our study suggests that the transcriptional regulation of the T7 genome is surprisingly complex and might potentially be affected at many levels by phage- and host-encoded factors.

  18. Hairpin Folding of HIV gp41 Abrogates Lipid Mixing Function at Physiologic pH and Inhibits Lipid Mixing by Exposed gp41 Constructs†

    PubMed Central

    Sackett, Kelly; Nethercott, Matthew J.; Shai, Yechiel; Weliky, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Conformational changes in the HIV gp41 protein are directly correlated with fusion between the HIV and target cell plasma membranes which is the initial step of infection. Key gp41 fusion conformations include an early extended conformation termed pre-hairpin which contains exposed regions and a final low energy conformation termed hairpin which has compact six-helix bundle structure. Current fusion models debate the roles of hairpin and pre-hairpin conformations in the process of membrane merger. In the present work, gp41 constructs have been engineered which correspond to fusion relevant parts of both pre-hairpin and hairpin conformations, and have been analyzed for their ability to induce lipid mixing between membrane vesicles. The data correlate membrane fusion function with the pre-hairpin conformation and suggest that one of the roles of the final hairpin conformation is sequestration of membrane perturbing gp41 regions with consequent loss of the membrane disruption induced earlier by the pre-hairpin structure. To our knowledge, this is the first biophysical study to delineate the membrane fusion potential of gp41 constructs modeling key fusion conformations. PMID:19222185

  19. Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Identity and Function

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, William C.; Deneris, Evan S.

    2017-01-01

    The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life. The transcriptional regulatory networks controlling progenitor cell generation and terminal specification of 5-HT neurons are relatively well-understood, yet the factors controlling 5-HT neuron maturation are only recently coming to light. In this review, we first provide an update on the regulatory network controlling 5-HT neuron development, then delve deeper into the properties and regulatory strategies governing 5-HT neuron maturation. In particular, we discuss the role of the 5-HT neuron terminal selector transcription factor (TF) Pet-1 as a key regulator of 5-HT neuron maturation. Pet-1 was originally shown to positively regulate genes needed for 5-HT synthesis, reuptake and vesicular transport, hence 5-HT neuron-type transmitter identity. It has now been shown to regulate, both positively and negatively, many other categories of genes in 5-HT neurons including ion channels, GPCRs, transporters, neuropeptides, and other transcription factors. Its function as a terminal selector results in the maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability, firing characteristics, and synaptic modulation by several neurotransmitters. Furthermore, there is a temporal requirement for Pet-1 in the control of postmitotic gene expression trajectories thus indicating a direct role in 5-HT neuron maturation. Proper regulation of the maturation of cellular identity is critical for normal neuronal functioning and perturbations in the gene regulatory networks controlling

  20. Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Maturation of Serotonin Neuron Identity and Function.

    PubMed

    Spencer, William C; Deneris, Evan S

    2017-01-01

    The brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system has been extensively studied for its role in normal physiology and behavior, as well as, neuropsychiatric disorders. The broad influence of 5-HT on brain function, is in part due to the vast connectivity pattern of 5-HT-producing neurons throughout the CNS. 5-HT neurons are born and terminally specified midway through embryogenesis, then enter a protracted period of maturation, where they functionally integrate into CNS circuitry and then are maintained throughout life. The transcriptional regulatory networks controlling progenitor cell generation and terminal specification of 5-HT neurons are relatively well-understood, yet the factors controlling 5-HT neuron maturation are only recently coming to light. In this review, we first provide an update on the regulatory network controlling 5-HT neuron development, then delve deeper into the properties and regulatory strategies governing 5-HT neuron maturation. In particular, we discuss the role of the 5-HT neuron terminal selector transcription factor (TF) Pet-1 as a key regulator of 5-HT neuron maturation. Pet-1 was originally shown to positively regulate genes needed for 5-HT synthesis, reuptake and vesicular transport, hence 5-HT neuron-type transmitter identity. It has now been shown to regulate, both positively and negatively, many other categories of genes in 5-HT neurons including ion channels, GPCRs, transporters, neuropeptides, and other transcription factors. Its function as a terminal selector results in the maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability, firing characteristics, and synaptic modulation by several neurotransmitters. Furthermore, there is a temporal requirement for Pet-1 in the control of postmitotic gene expression trajectories thus indicating a direct role in 5-HT neuron maturation. Proper regulation of the maturation of cellular identity is critical for normal neuronal functioning and perturbations in the gene regulatory networks controlling

  1. Oncogenic B-Raf(V600E) abrogates the AKT/B-Raf/Mps1 interaction in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Ruyi; He, Chanting; Cheng, Caixia; Song, Bin; Cui, Heyang; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhao, Zhiping; Bi, Yanghui; Yang, Xiaofeng; Miao, Xiaoping; Guo, Jiansheng; Chen, Xing; Wang, Jinfen; Li, Yaoping; Cheng, Xiaolong; Liu, Jing; Cui, Yongping

    2013-08-28

    Activating B-Raf mutations that deregulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway commonly occur in cancer. Although B-Raf(V600E) induces increased Mps1 protein contributing to centrosome amplification and chromosome instability, the regulatory mechanisms of Mps1 in melanoma cells is not fully understood. Here, we report that Mps1/AKT and B-Raf(WT)/ERK signaling form an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop in melanoma cells; notably, oncogenic B-Raf(V600E) abrogates the negative feedback loop, contributing the aberrant Mps1 functions and tumorigenesis. Our findings raise the possibility that targeting the oncogenic B-Raf and Mps1, especially when used in combination could potentially provide great therapeutic opportunities for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Function does not follow form in gene regulatory circuits.

    PubMed

    Payne, Joshua L; Wagner, Andreas

    2015-08-20

    Gene regulatory circuits are to the cell what arithmetic logic units are to the chip: fundamental components of information processing that map an input onto an output. Gene regulatory circuits come in many different forms, distinct structural configurations that determine who regulates whom. Studies that have focused on the gene expression patterns (functions) of circuits with a given structure (form) have examined just a few structures or gene expression patterns. Here, we use a computational model to exhaustively characterize the gene expression patterns of nearly 17 million three-gene circuits in order to systematically explore the relationship between circuit form and function. Three main conclusions emerge. First, function does not follow form. A circuit of any one structure can have between twelve and nearly thirty thousand distinct gene expression patterns. Second, and conversely, form does not follow function. Most gene expression patterns can be realized by more than one circuit structure. And third, multifunctionality severely constrains circuit form. The number of circuit structures able to drive multiple gene expression patterns decreases rapidly with the number of these patterns. These results indicate that it is generally not possible to infer circuit function from circuit form, or vice versa.

  3. Regulatory T cells: mechanisms of differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Josefowicz, Steven Z; Lu, Li-Fan; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2012-01-01

    The immune system has evolved to mount an effective defense against pathogens and to minimize deleterious immune-mediated inflammation caused by commensal microorganisms, immune responses against self and environmental antigens, and metabolic inflammatory disorders. Regulatory T (Treg) cell-mediated suppression serves as a vital mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and features prominently in autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, allergy, acute and chronic infections, cancer, and metabolic inflammation. The discovery that Foxp3 is the transcription factor that specifies the Treg cell lineage facilitated recent progress in understanding the biology of regulatory T cells. In this review, we discuss cellular and molecular mechanisms in the differentiation and function of these cells.

  4. Memory functions reveal structural properties of gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular function and decision making during tissue development and homeostasis. Mathematical tools based on dynamical systems theory are often used to model these networks, but the size and complexity of these models mean that their behaviour is not always intuitive and the underlying mechanisms can be difficult to decipher. For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. To this end we develop a broadly applicable form of the Zwanzig-Mori projection. By first converting a thermodynamic state ensemble model of gene regulation into mass action reactions we derive a general method that produces a set of time evolution equations for a subset of components of a network. The influence of the rest of the network, the bulk, is captured by memory functions that describe how the subnetwork reacts to its own past state via components in the bulk. These memory functions provide probes of near-steady state dynamics, revealing information not easily accessible otherwise. We illustrate the method on a simple cross-repressive transcriptional motif to show that memory functions not only simplify the analysis of the subnetwork but also have a natural interpretation. We then apply the approach to a GRN from the vertebrate neural tube, a well characterised developmental transcriptional network composed of four interacting transcription factors. The memory functions reveal the function of specific links within the neural tube network and identify features of the regulatory structure that specifically increase the robustness of the network to initial conditions. Taken together, the study provides evidence that Zwanzig-Mori projections offer powerful and effective tools for simplifying and exploring the behaviour of GRNs. PMID:29470492

  5. Functional defect in regulatory T cells in myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Thiruppathi, Muthusamy; Rowin, Julie; Jiang, Qin Li; Sheng, Jian Rong; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Meriggioli, Matthew N.

    2012-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ is a transcription factor necessary for the function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Treg cells maintain immune homeostasis and self-tolerance, and play an important role in the prevention of autoimmune disease. Here, we discuss the role of Treg cells in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG) and review evidence indicating that a significant defect in Treg cell in vitro suppressive function exists in MG patients, without an alteration in circulating frequency. This functional defect is associated with a reduced expression of key functional molecules such as FOXP3 on isolated Treg cells and appears to be more pronounced in immunosuppression-naive MG patients. In vitro administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhanced the suppressive function of Treg cells and up-regulated FOXP3 expression. These findings indicate a clinically relevant Treg cell–intrinsic defect in immune regulation in MG that may reveal a novel therapeutic target. PMID:23252899

  6. Epitranscriptomics: A New Regulatory Mechanism of Brain Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Florian; Calegari, Federico

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications of DNA and chromatin are long known to control stem cell differentiation and organ function but the role of similar modifications at the level or regulatory RNAs is just beginning to emerge. Over 160 RNA modifications have been identified but their abundance, distribution and functional significance are not known. The few available maps of RNA modifications indicated their dynamic regulation during somatic stem cell differentiation, brain development and function in adulthood suggesting a hitherto unsuspected layer of regulation both at the level of RNA metabolism and post-transcriptional control of gene expression. The advent of programmable, RNA-specific CRISPR-Cas editing platforms together with the identification of RNA modifying enzymes now offers the opportunity to investigate the functional role of these elusive epitranscriptome changes. Here, we discuss recent insights in studying the most abundant modifications in functional mRNAs and lncRNAs, N6-methyladenosine and 5-(hydroxy-)methylcytosine, and their role in regulating somatic stem cell differentiation with particular attention to neural stem cells during mammalian corticogenesis. An outlook on novel CRISPR-Cas based systems that allow stem cell reprogramming by epitranscriptome-editing will also be discussed. PMID:29515357

  7. Functional and topological characteristics of mammalian regulatory domains

    PubMed Central

    Symmons, Orsolya; Uslu, Veli Vural; Tsujimura, Taro; Ruf, Sandra; Nassari, Sonya; Schwarzer, Wibke; Ettwiller, Laurence; Spitz, François

    2014-01-01

    Long-range regulatory interactions play an important role in shaping gene-expression programs. However, the genomic features that organize these activities are still poorly characterized. We conducted a large operational analysis to chart the distribution of gene regulatory activities along the mouse genome, using hundreds of insertions of a regulatory sensor. We found that enhancers distribute their activities along broad regions and not in a gene-centric manner, defining large regulatory domains. Remarkably, these domains correlate strongly with the recently described TADs, which partition the genome into distinct self-interacting blocks. Different features, including specific repeats and CTCF-binding sites, correlate with the transition zones separating regulatory domains, and may help to further organize promiscuously distributed regulatory influences within large domains. These findings support a model of genomic organization where TADs confine regulatory activities to specific but large regulatory domains, contributing to the establishment of specific gene expression profiles. PMID:24398455

  8. 34 CFR 303.103 - Abrogation of State sovereign immunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. 303.103 Section... System State Conformity with Part C of the Act and Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity § 303.103 Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. (a) General. A State is not immune under the 11th amendment of the...

  9. 34 CFR 303.103 - Abrogation of State sovereign immunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. 303.103 Section... System State Conformity with Part C of the Act and Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity § 303.103 Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. (a) General. A State is not immune under the 11th amendment of the...

  10. 34 CFR 303.103 - Abrogation of State sovereign immunity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. 303.103 Section... System State Conformity with Part C of the Act and Abrogation of State Sovereign Immunity § 303.103 Abrogation of State sovereign immunity. (a) General. A State is not immune under the 11th amendment of the...

  11. Comparative Evolution of Morphological Regulatory Functions in Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Erika; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali; Childers, Delma S.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transitions play an important role in virulence and virulence-related processes in a wide variety of pathogenic fungi, including the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. While environmental signals, transcriptional regulators, and target genes associated with C. albicans morphogenesis are well-characterized, considerably little is known about morphological regulatory mechanisms and the extent to which they are evolutionarily conserved in less pathogenic and less filamentous non-albicans Candida species (NACS). We have identified specific optimal filament-inducing conditions for three NACS (C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii), which are very limited, suggesting that these species may be adapted for niche-specific filamentation in the host. Only a subset of evolutionarily conserved C. albicans filament-specific target genes were induced upon filamentation in C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii. One of the genes showing conserved expression was UME6, a key filament-specific regulator of C. albicans hyphal development. Constitutive high-level expression of UME6 was sufficient to drive increased filamentation as well as biofilm formation and partly restore conserved filament-specific gene expression in both C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, suggesting that evolutionary differences in filamentation ability among pathogenic Candida species may be partially attributed to alterations in the expression level of a conserved filamentous growth machinery. In contrast to UME6, NRG1, an important repressor of C. albicans filamentation, showed only a partly conserved role in controlling NACS filamentation. Overall, our results suggest that C. albicans morphological regulatory functions are partially conserved in NACS and have evolved to respond to more specific sets of host environmental cues. PMID:23913541

  12. Pretransplantation recipient regulatory T cell suppressive function predicts delayed and slow graft function after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh-Tri J P; Fryml, Elise; Sahakian, Sossy K; Liu, Shuqing; Michel, Rene P; Lipman, Mark L; Mucsi, Istvan; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Tchervenkov, Jean I; Paraskevas, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF) are a continuous spectrum of ischemia-reperfusion-related acute kidney injury (AKI) that increases the risk for acute rejection and graft loss after kidney transplantation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in transplant tolerance and attenuate murine AKI. In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated whether pretransplantation peripheral blood recipient Treg frequency and suppressive function are predictors of DGF and SGF after kidney transplantation. Deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (n=53) were divided into AKI (n=37; DGF, n=10; SGF, n=27) and immediate graft function (n=16) groups. Pretransplantation peripheral blood CD4CD25FoxP3 Treg frequency was quantified by flow cytometry. Regulatory T-cell suppressive function was measured by suppression of autologous effector T-cell proliferation by Treg in co-culture. Pretransplantation Treg suppressive function, but not frequency, was decreased in AKI recipients (P<0.01). In univariate and multivariate analyses accounting for the effects of cold ischemic time and donor age, Treg suppressive function discriminated DGF from immediate graft function recipients in multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio, 0.77; P<0.01), accurately predicted AKI in receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve, 0.82; P<0.01), and predicted 14-day estimated glomerular filtration rate in linear regression (P<0.01). Our results indicate that recipient peripheral blood Treg suppressive function is a potential independent pretransplantation predictor of DGF and SGF.

  13. GARP: a surface molecule of regulatory T cells that is involved in the regulatory function and TGF-β releasing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Jin, Hao; Li, Hui

    2016-07-05

    There are many molecules that define regulatory T cells (Tregs) phenotypically and functionally. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) is a transmembrane protein containing leucine rich repeats. Recently, GARP is found to express highly on the surface of activated Tregs. The combination of GARP and other surface molecules isolates Tregs with higher purity. Besides, GARP is a cell surface molecule of Tregs that maintains their regulatory function and homeosatsis. GARP has also been proved to promote the activation and secretion of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Moreover, its potential value in cancer immunotherapy is also discussed in this work.

  14. Regulatory immune cells and functions in autoimmunity and transplantation immunology.

    PubMed

    Papp, Gabor; Boros, Peter; Nakken, Britt; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2017-05-01

    In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected. Better understanding of the immunological tolerance and the potential modulations of immune regulatory processes are crucial for developing effective therapies in autoimmune diseases as well as in organ transplantation. In this review, we focus on the novel insights regarding the impaired immune regulation and other relevant factors contributing to the development of auto-reactive and graft-reactive immune responses in autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection, respectively. We also address some promising approaches for modification of immune-regulatory processes and tolerogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity and solid organ transplantation, which may be beneficial in future therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On the Concept of Cis-regulatory Information: From Sequence Motifs to Logic Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

    The regulatory genome is about the “system level organization of the core genomic regulatory apparatus, and how this is the locus of causality underlying the twin phenomena of animal development and animal evolution” (E.H. Davidson. The Regulatory Genome: Gene Regulatory Networks in Development and Evolution, Academic Press, 2006). Information processing in the regulatory genome is done through regulatory states, defined as sets of transcription factors (sequence-specific DNA binding proteins which determine gene expression) that are expressed and active at the same time. The core information processing machinery consists of modular DNA sequence elements, called cis-modules, that interact with transcription factors. The cis-modules “read” the information contained in the regulatory state of the cell through transcription factor binding, “process” it, and directly or indirectly communicate with the basal transcription apparatus to determine gene expression. This endowment of each gene with the information-receiving capacity through their cis-regulatory modules is essential for the response to every possible regulatory state to which it might be exposed during all phases of the life cycle and in all cell types. We present here a set of challenges addressed by our CYRENE research project aimed at studying the cis-regulatory code of the regulatory genome. The CYRENE Project is devoted to (1) the construction of a database, the cis-Lexicon, containing comprehensive information across species about experimentally validated cis-regulatory modules; and (2) the software development of a next-generation genome browser, the cis-Browser, specialized for the regulatory genome. The presentation is anchored on three main computational challenges: the Gene Naming Problem, the Consensus Sequence Bottleneck Problem, and the Logic Function Inference Problem.

  16. Functional Association between Regulatory RNAs and the Annexins

    PubMed Central

    Monastyrskaya, Katia

    2018-01-01

    Cells respond to pathophysiological states by activation of stress-induced signalling. Regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) often form stable feed-forward loops which ensure prolongation of the signal, contributing to sustained activation. Members of the annexin protein family act as sensors for Ca2+, pH, and lipid second messengers, and regulate various signalling pathways. Recently, annexins were reported to participate in feedback loops, suppressing miRNA synthesis and attenuating stress-induced dysregulation of gene expression. They can directly or indirectly associate with RNAs, and are transferred between the cells in exosomes and shed microvesicles. The ability of annexins to recruit other proteins and miRNAs into exosomes implicates them in control of cell–cell interactions, affecting the adaptive responses and remodelling processes during disease. The studies summarized in this Review point to an emerging role of annexins in influencing the synthesis, localisation, and transfer of regulatory RNAs. PMID:29462943

  17. Regulatory networks and connected components of the neutral space. A look at functional islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldhaus, G.; Klemm, K.

    2010-09-01

    The functioning of a living cell is largely determined by the structure of its regulatory network, comprising non-linear interactions between regulatory genes. An important factor for the stability and evolvability of such regulatory systems is neutrality - typically a large number of alternative network structures give rise to the necessary dynamics. Here we study the discretized regulatory dynamics of the yeast cell cycle [Li et al., PNAS, 2004] and the set of networks capable of reproducing it, which we call functional. Among these, the empirical yeast wildtype network is close to optimal with respect to sparse wiring. Under point mutations, which establish or delete single interactions, the neutral space of functional networks is fragmented into ≈ 4.7 × 108 components. One of the smaller ones contains the wildtype network. On average, functional networks reachable from the wildtype by mutations are sparser, have higher noise resilience and fewer fixed point attractors as compared with networks outside of this wildtype component.

  18. Abrogation of Cbl-PI3K interaction increases bone formation and osteoblast proliferation.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Tracy; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Barbe, Mary F; Yingling, Vanessa; Sanjay, Archana

    2011-11-01

    Cbl is an adaptor protein and E3 ligase that plays both positive and negative roles in several signaling pathways that affect various cellular functions. Tyrosine 737 is unique to Cbl and phosphorylated by Src family kinases. Phosphorylated CblY737 creates a binding site for the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) that also plays an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. To investigate the role of Cbl-PI3K interaction in bone homeostasis, we examined knock-in mice in which the PI3K binding site on Cbl was ablated due to the substitution of tyrosine 737 to phenylalanine (Cbl(YF/YF), YF mice). We previously reported that bone volume in these mice is increased due to decreased osteoclast function (Adapala et al., J Biol Chem 285:36745-36758, 19). Here, we report that YF mice also have increased bone formation and osteoblast numbers. In ex vivo cultures bone marrow-derived YF osteoblasts showed increased Col1A expression and their proliferation was also significantly augmented. Moreover, proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was increased after treatment with conditioned medium generated by culturing YF bone marrow stromal cells. Expression of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was increased in YF bone marrow stromal cells compared to wild type. Increased immunostaining of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was observed in YF bone marrow stromal cells compared to wild type. Treatment of YF condition medium with neutralizing anti-SDF-1 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies attenuated MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Cumulatively, these results show that abrogation of Cbl-PI3K interaction perturbs bone homeostasis, affecting both osteoclast function and osteoblast proliferation.

  19. Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria; Marciszko, Carin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Nyström, Pär; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2015-11-01

    Previous literature suggests that attention processes such as sustained attention would constitute a developmental foundation for the self-regulatory functions executive functioning and effortful control (e.g., Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008; Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994). Our main aim was to test this hypothesis by studying whether sustained attention at age 1 year can predict individual differences in self-regulatory functions at age 2 years. Longitudinal data from 66 infants and their parents were included in the study. Sustained attention was assessed during free play at age 1 year; executive functioning, measured using an eye-tracking version of the A-not-B task, and effortful control, measured using parental ratings, were assessed at both age 1 and age 2 years. The results did support a longitudinal prediction of individual differences in 2-year-olds' self-regulatory functions as a function of sustained attention at age 1 year. We also found significant improvement in both executive functioning and effortful control over time, and the two self-regulatory constructs were related in toddlerhood but not in infancy. The study helps increase our understanding of the early development of self-regulatory functions necessary for identifying developmental risks and, in the future, for developing new interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics and function of distal regulatory elements during neurogenesis and neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Thakurela, Sudhir; Sahu, Sanjeeb Kumar; Garding, Angela; Tiwari, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulation in mammals involves a complex interplay between promoters and distal regulatory elements that function in concert to drive precise spatiotemporal gene expression programs. However, the dynamics of the distal gene regulatory landscape and its function in the transcriptional reprogramming that underlies neurogenesis and neuronal activity remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a combinatorial analysis of genome-wide data sets for chromatin accessibility (FAIRE-seq) and the enhancer mark H3K27ac, revealing the highly dynamic nature of distal gene regulation during neurogenesis, which gets progressively restricted to distinct genomic regions as neurons acquire a post-mitotic, terminally differentiated state. We further find that the distal accessible and active regions serve as target sites for distinct transcription factors that function in a stage-specific manner to contribute to the transcriptional program underlying neuronal commitment and maturation. Mature neurons respond to a sustained activity of NMDA receptors by epigenetic reprogramming at a large number of distal regulatory regions as well as dramatic reorganization of super-enhancers. Such massive remodeling of the distal regulatory landscape in turn results in a transcriptome that confers a transient loss of neuronal identity and gain of cellular plasticity. Furthermore, NMDA receptor activity also induces many novel prosurvival genes that function in neuroprotective pathways. Taken together, these findings reveal the dynamics of the distal regulatory landscape during neurogenesis and uncover novel regulatory elements that function in concert with epigenetic mechanisms and transcription factors to generate the transcriptome underlying neuronal development and activity. PMID:26170447

  1. Regulatory T cells in atherosclerosis: critical immune regulatory function and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Charlotte; Winkels, Holger; Bürger, Christina; Weber, Christian; Lutgens, Esther; Hansson, Göran K; Gerdes, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by innate and adaptive immune responses. The disease is characterized by sub-endothelial accumulation and modification of lipids in the artery wall triggering an inflammatory reaction which promotes lesion progression and eventual plaque rupture, thrombus formation, and the respective clinical sequelae such as myocardial infarction or stroke. During the past decade, T-cell-mediated immune responses, especially control of pro-inflammatory signals by regulatory T cells (Tregs), have increasingly attracted the interest of experimental and clinical researchers. By suppression of T cell proliferation and secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β, Tregs exert their atheroprotective properties. Atherosclerosis-prone, hyperlipidemic mice harbor systemically less Tregs compared to wild-type mice, suggesting an imbalance of immune cells which affects local and systemic inflammatory and potentially metabolic processes leading to atherogenesis. Restoring or increasing Treg frequency and enhancing their suppressive capacity by various modulations may pose a promising approach for treating inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize the immunological basics of atherosclerosis and introduce the role and contribution of different subsets of T cells. We then discuss experimental data and current knowledge pertaining to Tregs in atherosclerosis and perspectives on manipulating the adaptive immune system to alleviate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  2. Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0557 TITLE: Making Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification PRINCIPAL...Aggressive Prostate Cancer Quiescent by Abrogating Cholesterol Esterification 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0557 5c. PROGRAM...application is to establish the viability of a new strategy of treating late stage PCa through therapeutic targeting of cholesterol metabolism in vivo

  3. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  4. Natural Mutations in Streptococcus agalactiae Resulting in Abrogation of β Antigen Production.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Anastasia; Santos Sanches, Ilda; Florindo, Carlos; Dmitriev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae genome encodes 21 two-component systems (TCS) and a variety of regulatory proteins in order to control gene expression. One of the TCS, BgrRS, comprising the BgrR DNA-binding regulatory protein and BgrS sensor histidine kinase, was discovered within a putative virulence island. BgrRS influences cell metabolism and positively control the expression of bac gene, coding for β antigen at transcriptional level. Inactivation of bgrR abrogated bac gene expression and increased virulence properties of S. agalactiae. In this study, a total of 140 strains were screened for the presence of bac gene, and the TCS bgrR and bgrS genes. A total of 53 strains carried the bac, bgrR and bgrS genes. Most of them (48 strains) expressed β antigen, while five strains did not express β antigen. Three strains, in which bac gene sequence was intact, while bgrR and/or bgrS genes had mutations, and expression of β antigen was absent, were complemented with a constructed plasmid pBgrRS(P) encoding functionally active bgrR and bgrS gene alleles. This procedure restored expression of β antigen indicating the crucial regulatory role of TCS BgrRS. The complemented strain A49V/BgrRS demonstrated attenuated virulence in intraperitoneal mice model of S. agalactiae infection compared to parental strain A49V. In conclusion we showed that disruption of β antigen expression is associated with: i) insertion of ISSa4 upstream the bac gene just after the ribosomal binding site; ii) point mutation G342A resulting a stop codon TGA within the bac gene and a truncated form of β antigen; iii) single deletion (G) in position 439 of the bgrR gene resulting in a frameshift and the loss of DNA-binding domain of the BgrR protein, and iv) single base substitutions in bgrR and bgrS genes causing single amino acid substitutions in BgrR (Arg187Lys) and BgrS (Arg252Gln). The fact that BgrRS negatively controls virulent properties of S. agalactiae gives a novel clue for understanding of S

  5. The Unexplored Mechanisms and Regulatory Functions of Ribosomal Translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejo, Jose Luis

    In every cell, protein synthesis is carried out by the ribosome, a complex macromolecular RNA-protein assembly. Decades of structural and kinetic studies have increased our understanding of ribosome initiation, decoding, translocation and termination. Yet, the underlying mechanism of these fundamental processes has yet to be fully delineated. Hence, the molecular basis of regulation remains obscure. Here, single-molecule fluorescence methods are applied to decipher the mechanism and regulatory roles of the multi-step process of directional substrate translocation on the ribosome that accompanies every round of protein synthesis. In Chapter 1, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is introduced as a tool for studying bacterial ribosome translocation. Chapter 2 details the experimental methods. In Chapter 3, the elongation factor G(EF-G)-catalyzed movement of substrates through the ribosome is examined from several perspectives or signals reporting on various degrees of freedom of ribosome dynamics. Two ribosomal states interconvert in the presence of EF-G(GDP), displaying novel head domain motions, until relocking takes place. In Chapter 4, in order to test if the mentioned fluctuations leading to relocking are correlated to the engagement of the P-site by the peptidyl-tRNA, the translocation of miscoded tRNAs is studied. Severe defects in the relocking stages of translocation reveal the correlation between this new stage of translocation and P-site tRNA engagement.

  6. Emerging Functions of Regulatory T Cells in Tissue Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit; Rudra, Dipayan

    2018-01-01

    CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are a unique subset of helper T-cells, which regulate immune response and establish peripheral tolerance. Tregs not only maintain the tone and tenor of an immune response by dominant tolerance but, in recent years, have also been identified as key players in resolving tissue inflammation and as mediators of tissue healing. Apart from being diverse in their origin (thymic and peripheral) and location (lymphoid and tissue resident), Tregs are also phenotypically heterogeneous as per the orientation of ongoing immune response. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the field of Treg biology in general, and non-lymphoid and tissue-resident Tregs in particular. We elaborate upon well-known visceral adipose tissue, colon, skin, and tumor-infiltrating Tregs and newly identified tissue Treg populations as in lungs, skeletal muscle, placenta, and other tissues. Our attempt is to differentiate Tregs based on distinctive properties of their location, origin, ligand specificity, chemotaxis, and specific suppressive mechanisms. Despite ever expanding roles in maintaining systemic homeostasis, Tregs are employed by large varieties of tumors to dampen antitumor immunity. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of Treg biology in the context of inflammation can be instrumental in effectively managing tissue transplantation, autoimmunity, and antitumor immune responses. PMID:29887862

  7. Testing for Cognitive Function in Animals in a Regulatory Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to dominate a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because peo...

  8. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view

    PubMed Central

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets. PMID:25483299

  9. Immune and regulatory functions of neutrophils in inflammatory bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2016-01-01

    Although historically viewed as merely anti-microbial effectors in acute infection or injury, neutrophils are now appreciated to be functionally versatile with critical roles also in chronic inflammation. Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting gums and bone, is particularly affected by alterations in neutrophil numbers or function, as revealed by observations in monogenic disorders and relevant mouse models. Besides being a significant debilitating disease and health burden in its own right, periodontitis is thus an attractive model to dissect uncharted neutrophil-associated (patho)physiological pathways. Here, we summarize recent evidence that neutrophils can contribute to inflammatory bone loss not only through the typical bystander injury dogma but intriguingly also through their absence from the affected tissue, where they normally perform important immunomodulatory functions. Moreover, we discuss recent advances in the interactions of neutrophils with the vascular endothelium and – upon extravasation – with bacteria, and how the dysregulation of these interactions leads to inflammatory tissue damage. Overall, neutrophils have both protective and destructive roles in periodontitis, as they are involved in both the maintenance of periodontal tissue homeostasis and the induction of inflammatory bone loss. This highlights the importance of developing approaches that promote or sustain a fine balance between homeostatic immunity and inflammatory pathology. PMID:26936034

  10. Testing for cognitive function in animals in a regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Superior cognitive functions have allowed the human species to proliferate in a world of incredible biological diversity. Threats to these essential capacities cannot be ignored, and a strategy is needed to evaluate the hazard posed by exposure to chemical and other agents. Because people exposed to chemicals often complain about confusion and forgetfulness, it is commonly thought that cognitive functions should be sensitive indicators of adverse consequences of chemical exposure. For these reasons, complex tests of cognitive function have been developed and deployed in experimental animal laboratories for decades. However, the results of these tests are rarely used as points of departure for chemical risk assessments. Due to their high cost in time, animals, and equipment, the efficacy and utility of these tests need to be evaluated in relation to cheaper and faster whole-animal screening methods. This review examines evidence for the assertions that cognitive functions represent uniquely sensitive indicators of chemical exposure, and that animal models of these functions are necessary to detect and quantify the neurotoxicity of chemicals. Studies conducted since the early 1980s to compare these approaches to assess the neurotoxicity of chemicals are reviewed for both adult and perinatal exposures in experimental rodents. Forty-one studies of 35 chemicals were found that directly compared acute effects using complex tests (i.e., tests that require training animals) with acute effects using screening tests (i.e., tests that do not require training animals) in adult rodents. Complex tests detected effects of three substances (bitertanol, iso-amyl nitrite, and Pfiesteria toxin) that had no effect on screening tests; for an additional five chemicals (carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl mercury, tetraethyl tin, and Isopar-C), complex tests identified effects at lower doses than did screening tests. Fewer comparable cases were found for developmental exposures: screening and

  11. T Cell Receptor Signaling in the Control of Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming O.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (TReg cells), a specialized T cell lineage, have a pivotal function in the control of self-tolerance and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have revealed a discrete mode of TCR signaling that regulates Treg cell differentiation, maintenance and function and that impacts on gene expression, metabolism, cell adhesion and migration of these cells. Here, we discuss the emerging understanding of TCR-guided differentiation of Treg cells in the context of their function in health and disease. PMID:27026074

  12. Pain acceptance, psychological functioning, and self-regulatory fatigue in temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Burris, Jessica L; Evans, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that chronic pain patients suffer from chronic self-regulatory fatigue: difficulty controlling thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Pain acceptance, which involves responding to pain and related experiences without attempts to control or avoid them (pain willingness), and pursuit of valued life activities regardless of pain (activity engagement) has been associated with various favorable outcomes in chronic pain patients, including better psychological functioning. The study presented here tested the hypotheses that pain acceptance is associated with less psychological distress, higher psychological well-being, and reduced self-regulatory fatigue in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, particularly for those with longer pain duration. Cross-sectional data were provided by 135 TMD patients during an initial evaluation at a university-based tertiary orofacial pain clinic. Results of hierarchical linear regression models indicated that, controlling for pain severity, pain willingness is associated with less psychological distress and lower self-regulatory fatigue, and activity engagement is associated with greater psychological well-being. Furthermore, the effect of pain willingness on psychological distress was moderated by pain duration such that pain willingness was more strongly associated with less psychological distress in patients with longer pain duration; this moderating effect was fully mediated by self-regulatory fatigue. These findings suggest pain willingness may buffer against self-regulatory fatigue in those with longer pain duration, and such conservation of self-regulatory resources may protect against psychological symptoms.

  13. MicroRNAs: Processing, Maturation, Target Recognition and Regulatory Functions

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Girish C.; Singh, Jagjit; Barik, Sailen

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in posttranscriptional gene regulation have revealed another fine-tuning step in the expression of genetic information. A large number of cellular pathways, which act in organismal development and are important in health and disease, appear to be modulated by miRNAs. At the molecular level, miRNAs restrain the production of proteins by affecting the stability of their target mRNA and/or by down-regulating their translation. This review attempts to offer a snapshot of aspects of miRNA coding, processing, target recognition and function in animals. Our goal here is to provide the readers with a thought-provoking and mechanistic introduction to the miRNA world rather than with a detailed encyclopedia. PMID:22468167

  14. Nesfatin-1: functions and physiology of a novel regulatory peptide.

    PubMed

    Dore, Riccardo; Levata, Luka; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schulz, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 was identified in 2006 as a potent anorexigenic peptide involved in the regulation of homeostatic feeding. It is processed from the precursor-peptide NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), which is expressed both in the central nervous system as well as in the periphery, from where it can access the brain via non-saturable transmembrane diffusion. In hypothalamus and brainstem, nesfatin-1 recruits the oxytocin, the melancortin and other systems to relay its anorexigenic properties. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 peptide expression in reward-related areas suggests that nesfatin-1 might also be involved in hedonic feeding. Besides its initially discovered anorexigenic properties, over the last years, other important functions of nesfatin-1 have been discovered, many of them related to energy homeostasis, e.g. energy expenditure and glucose homeostasis. Nesfatin-1 is not only affecting these physiological processes but also the alterations of the metabolic state (e.g. fat mass, glycemic state) have an impact on the synthesis and release of NUCB2 and/or nesfatin-1. Furthermore, nesfatin-1 exerts pleiotropic actions at the level of cardiovascular and digestive systems, as well as plays a role in stress response, behavior, sleep and reproduction. Despite the recent advances in nesfatin-1 research, a putative receptor has not been identified and furthermore potentially distinct functions of nesfatin-1 and its precursor NUCB2 have not been dissected yet. To tackle these open questions will be the major objectives of future research to broaden our knowledge on NUCB2/nesfatin-1. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Recurrent and functional regulatory mutations in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rheinbay, Esther; Parasuraman, Prasanna; Grimsby, Jonna; Tiao, Grace; Engreitz, Jesse M; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Rodriguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Rosenberg, Mara; Hess, Julian; Stewart, Chip; Maruvka, Yosef E; Stojanov, Petar; Cortes, Maria L; Seepo, Sara; Cibulskis, Carrie; Tracy, Adam; Pugh, Trevor J; Lee, Jesse; Zheng, Zongli; Ellisen, Leif W; Iafrate, A John; Boehm, Jesse S; Gabriel, Stacey B; Meyerson, Matthew; Golub, Todd R; Baselga, Jose; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Shioda, Toshi; Bernards, Andre; Lander, Eric S; Getz, Gad

    2017-07-06

    Genomic analysis of tumours has led to the identification of hundreds of cancer genes on the basis of the presence of mutations in protein-coding regions. By contrast, much less is known about cancer-causing mutations in non-coding regions. Here we perform deep sequencing in 360 primary breast cancers and develop computational methods to identify significantly mutated promoters. Clear signals are found in the promoters of three genes. FOXA1, a known driver of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, harbours a mutational hotspot in its promoter leading to overexpression through increased E2F binding. RMRP and NEAT1, two non-coding RNA genes, carry mutations that affect protein binding to their promoters and alter expression levels. Our study shows that promoter regions harbour recurrent mutations in cancer with functional consequences and that the mutations occur at similar frequencies as in coding regions. Power analyses indicate that more such regions remain to be discovered through deep sequencing of adequately sized cohorts of patients.

  16. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  17. Bone marrow-resident NK cells prime monocytes for regulatory function during infection

    PubMed Central

    Askenase, Michael H.; Han, Seong-Ji; Byrd, Allyson L.; da Fonseca, Denise Morais; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Wilhelm, Christoph; Konkel, Joanne E.; Hand, Timothy W.; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Grainger, John R.; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes play diverse roles in immunity, ranging from pathogen killing to immune regulation. How and where this diversity of function is imposed remains poorly understood. Here we show that during acute gastrointestinal infection, priming of monocytes for regulatory function preceded systemic inflammation and was initiated prior to bone marrow egress. Notably, natural killer (NK) cell-derived IFN-γ promoted a regulatory program in monocyte progenitors during development. Early bone marrow NK cell activation was controlled by systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) produced by Batf3-dependent dendritic cells (DC) in the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). This work challenges the paradigm that monocyte function is dominantly imposed by local signals following tissue recruitment, and instead proposes a sequential model of differentiation in which monocytes are pre-emptively educated during development in the bone marrow to promote their tissue-specific function. PMID:26070484

  18. IL-27 Production and STAT3-Dependent Upregulation of B7-H1 Mediate Immune Regulatory Functions of Liver Plasmacytoid DC1

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Benjamin M.; Raimondi, Giorgio; Rosborough, Brian R.; Sumpter, Tina L.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid (p) dendritic cells (DC) are highly-specialized APC that, in addition to their well-recognized role in anti-viral immunity, also regulate immune responses. Liver-resident pDC are considerably less immunostimulatory than those from secondary lymphoid tissues and are equipped to promote immune tolerance/regulation through various mechanisms. IL-27 is an IL-12-family cytokine that regulates the function of both APC and T cells, although little is known about its role in pDC immunobiology. In this study, we show that mouse liver pDC express higher levels of IL-27p28 and EBV-induced protein (Ebi)3 compared to splenic pDC. Both populations of pDC express the IL-27Rα/WSX-1; however, only liver pDC significantly upregulate expression of the co-regulatory molecule B7 homolog-1 (B7-H1) in response to IL-27. Inhibition of STAT3 activation completely abrogates IL-27-induced upregulation of B7-H1 expression on liver pDC. Liver pDC treated with IL-27 increase the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells in MLR, which is dependent upon expression of B7-H1. pDC from Ebi3-deficient mice lacking functional IL-27, show increased capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in MLR. Liver but not spleen pDC suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to OVA, an effect that is lost with Ebi3−/− and B7-H1−/− liver pDC compared to wild-type (WT) liver pDC. These data suggest that IL-27 signaling in pDC promotes their immunoregulatory function and that IL-27 produced by pDC contributes to their capacity to regulate immuneresponses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22508931

  19. Sheep genome functional annotation reveals proximal regulatory elements contributed to the evolution of modern breeds.

    PubMed

    Naval-Sanchez, Marina; Nguyen, Quan; McWilliam, Sean; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Tellam, Ross; Vuocolo, Tony; Reverter, Antonio; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Brauning, Rudiger; Clarke, Shannon; McCulloch, Alan; Zamani, Wahid; Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Pompanon, Francois; Taberlet, Pierre; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna M; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Cockett, Noelle; Daetwyler, Hans; Kijas, James

    2018-02-28

    Domestication fundamentally reshaped animal morphology, physiology and behaviour, offering the opportunity to investigate the molecular processes driving evolutionary change. Here we assess sheep domestication and artificial selection by comparing genome sequence from 43 modern breeds (Ovis aries) and their Asian mouflon ancestor (O. orientalis) to identify selection sweeps. Next, we provide a comparative functional annotation of the sheep genome, validated using experimental ChIP-Seq of sheep tissue. Using these annotations, we evaluate the impact of selection and domestication on regulatory sequences and find that sweeps are significantly enriched for protein coding genes, proximal regulatory elements of genes and genome features associated with active transcription. Finally, we find individual sites displaying strong allele frequency divergence are enriched for the same regulatory features. Our data demonstrate that remodelling of gene expression is likely to have been one of the evolutionary forces that drove phenotypic diversification of this common livestock species.

  20. Metabolic functions of AMPK: aspects of structure and of natural mutations in the regulatory gamma subunits.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Cynthia; Harper, Mary Ellen

    2010-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, is widely accepted as the master regulator of energy levels within the cell. Responding quickly to changing energy demands, AMPK works to restore levels of ATP during times of cellular stress by promoting ATP producing catabolic pathways and inhibiting ATP consuming anabolic ones. As a heterotrimeric protein complex, AMPK's subunits each act in unique and crucial ways to control AMPK function and its localization within the cell. Research in the last decade has identified and begun to characterize the impact of naturally occurring mutations in the gamma regulatory subunits. Mutations in the γ2 subunit have implications for cardiac function and disease, while the R225W mutation in the γ3 subunit have implications for skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and resistance to fatigue. Research focused on structure-function aspects of AMPK regulatory subunits will lead to a better understanding of the roles of AMPK in health and disease.

  1. The development of regulatory functions from birth to 5 years: insights from premature infants.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation by focused attention and delayed response in the 2nd year. Executive functions, behavior adaptation, and self-restraint were measured at 5 years. Regulatory functions showed stability across time, measures, and levels. Structural modeling demonstrated both mediated paths from physiological to self-regulation through emotional and attentional processes and direct continuity between vagal tone and each level of regulation. Results support the coherence of the regulation construct and are consistent with neurobiological models on self and consciousness.

  2. A Functional and Regulatory Network Associated with PIP Expression in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Debily, Marie-Anne; Marhomy, Sandrine El; Boulanger, Virginie; Eveno, Eric; Mariage-Samson, Régine; Camarca, Alessandra; Auffray, Charles; Piatier-Tonneau, Dominique; Imbeaud, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Background The PIP (prolactin-inducible protein) gene has been shown to be expressed in breast cancers, with contradictory results concerning its implication. As both the physiological role and the molecular pathways in which PIP is involved are poorly understood, we conducted combined gene expression profiling and network analysis studies on selected breast cancer cell lines presenting distinct PIP expression levels and hormonal receptor status, to explore the functional and regulatory network of PIP co-modulated genes. Principal Findings Microarray analysis allowed identification of genes co-modulated with PIP independently of modulations resulting from hormonal treatment or cell line heterogeneity. Relevant clusters of genes that can discriminate between [PIP+] and [PIP−] cells were identified. Functional and regulatory network analyses based on a knowledge database revealed a master network of PIP co-modulated genes, including many interconnecting oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, half of which were detected as differentially expressed through high-precision measurements. The network identified appears associated with an inhibition of proliferation coupled with an increase of apoptosis and an enhancement of cell adhesion in breast cancer cell lines, and contains many genes with a STAT5 regulatory motif in their promoters. Conclusions Our global exploratory approach identified biological pathways modulated along with PIP expression, providing further support for its good prognostic value of disease-free survival in breast cancer. Moreover, our data pointed to the importance of a regulatory subnetwork associated with PIP expression in which STAT5 appears as a potential transcriptional regulator. PMID:19262752

  3. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yonglun; Blechingberg, Jenny; Fernandes, Ana Miguel; Li, Shengting; Fryland, Tue; Børglum, Anders D; Bolund, Lars; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-11-14

    FUS (TLS) and EWS (EWSR1) belong to the FET-protein family of RNA and DNA binding proteins. FUS and EWS are structurally and functionally related and participate in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. FUS and EWS are identified in translocation generated cancer fusion proteins and involved in the human neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. To determine the gene regulatory functions of FUS and EWS at the level of chromatin, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Our results show that FUS and EWS bind to a subset of actively transcribed genes, that binding often is downstream the poly(A)-signal, and that binding overlaps with RNA polymerase II. Functional examinations of selected target genes identified that FUS and EWS can regulate gene expression at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes involved in pathways at the RNA regulatory level with potential to mediate normal and disease-associated functions of the FUS and EWS proteins.

  4. E3Net: a system for exploring E3-mediated regulatory networks of cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngwoong; Lee, Hodong; Park, Jong C; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2012-04-01

    Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) is a key enzyme targeting specific substrates in diverse cellular processes for ubiquitination and degradation. The existing findings of substrate specificity of E3 are, however, scattered over a number of resources, making it difficult to study them together with an integrative view. Here we present E3Net, a web-based system that provides a comprehensive collection of available E3-substrate specificities and a systematic framework for the analysis of E3-mediated regulatory networks of diverse cellular functions. Currently, E3Net contains 2201 E3s and 4896 substrates in 427 organisms and 1671 E3-substrate specific relations between 493 E3s and 1277 substrates in 42 organisms, extracted mainly from MEDLINE abstracts and UniProt comments with an automatic text mining method and additional manual inspection and partly from high throughput experiment data and public ubiquitination databases. The significant functions and pathways of the extracted E3-specific substrate groups were identified from a functional enrichment analysis with 12 functional category resources for molecular functions, protein families, protein complexes, pathways, cellular processes, cellular localization, and diseases. E3Net includes interactive analysis and navigation tools that make it possible to build an integrative view of E3-substrate networks and their correlated functions with graphical illustrations and summarized descriptions. As a result, E3Net provides a comprehensive resource of E3s, substrates, and their functional implications summarized from the regulatory network structures of E3-specific substrate groups and their correlated functions. This resource will facilitate further in-depth investigation of ubiquitination-dependent regulatory mechanisms. E3Net is freely available online at http://pnet.kaist.ac.kr/e3net.

  5. Coordination of meristem and boundary functions by transcription factors in the SHOOT MERISTEMLESS regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Simon; Murison, Alexander; Jones, Angharad; Fozard, John; Aida, Mitsuhiro; Band, Leah R; Bennett, Malcolm; Murray, James A H

    2018-04-30

    The Arabidopsis homeodomain transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) is crucial for shoot apical meristem (SAM) function, yet the components and structure of the STM gene regulatory network (GRN) are largely unknown. Here, we show that transcriptional regulators are overrepresented among STM-regulated genes and, using these as GRN components in Bayesian network analysis, we infer STM GRN associations and reveal regulatory relationships between STM and factors involved in multiple aspects of SAM function. These include hormone regulation, TCP-mediated control of cell differentiation, AIL/PLT-mediated regulation of pluripotency and phyllotaxis, and specification of meristem-organ boundary zones via CUC1. We demonstrate a direct positive transcriptional feedback loop between STM and CUC1, despite their distinct expression patterns in the meristem and organ boundary, respectively. Our further finding that STM activates expression of the CUC1-targeting microRNA miR164c combined with mathematical modelling provides a potential solution for this apparent contradiction, demonstrating that these proposed regulatory interactions coupled with STM mobility could be sufficient to provide a mechanism for CUC1 localisation at the meristem-organ boundary. Our findings highlight the central role for the STM GRN in coordinating SAM functions. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Fungal Genes in Context: Genome Architecture Reflects Regulatory Complexity and Function

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Luke M.; Andrianopoulos, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Gene context determines gene expression, with local chromosomal environment most influential. Comparative genomic analysis is often limited in scope to conserved or divergent gene and protein families, and fungi are well suited to this approach with low functional redundancy and relatively streamlined genomes. We show here that one aspect of gene context, the amount of potential upstream regulatory sequence maintained through evolution, is highly predictive of both molecular function and biological process in diverse fungi. Orthologs with large upstream intergenic regions (UIRs) are strongly enriched in information processing functions, such as signal transduction and sequence-specific DNA binding, and, in the genus Aspergillus, include the majority of experimentally studied, high-level developmental and metabolic transcriptional regulators. Many uncharacterized genes are also present in this class and, by implication, may be of similar importance. Large intergenic regions also share two novel sequence characteristics, currently of unknown significance: they are enriched for plus-strand polypyrimidine tracts and an information-rich, putative regulatory motif that was present in the last common ancestor of the Pezizomycotina. Systematic consideration of gene UIR in comparative genomics, particularly for poorly characterized species, could help reveal organisms’ regulatory priorities. PMID:23699226

  7. Functional analysis of two sterol regulatory element binding proteins in Penicillium digitatum

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ruoxin; Wang, Mingshuang; Liu, Xin; Sun, Xuepeng; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2017-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are key regulators for sterol homeostasis in most fungi. In the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum, the SREBP homolog is required for fungicide resistance and regulation of CYP51 expression. In this study, we identified another SREBP transcription factor PdSreB in P. digitatum, and the biological functions of both SREBPs were characterized and compared. Inactivation of PdsreA, PdsreB or both genes in P. digitatum reduced ergosterol contents and increased sensitivities to sterol 14-α-demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) and cobalt chloride. Fungal strains impaired at PdsreA but not PdsreB increased sensitivity to tridemorph and an iron chelator 2,2’-dipyridyl. Virulence assays on citrus fruit revealed that fungal strains impaired at PdsreA, PdsreB or both induce maceration lesions similar to those induced by wild-type. However, ΔPdsreA, ΔPdsreB or the double mutant strain rarely produce aerial mycelia on infected citrus fruit peels. RNA-Seq analysis showed the broad regulatory functions of both SREBPs in biosynthesis, transmembrane transportation and stress responses. Our results provide new insights into the conserved and differentiated regulatory functions of SREBP homologs in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:28467453

  8. Exploring associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological functioning and driver behaviour after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rike, Per-Ola; Johansen, Hans J; Ulleberg, Pål; Lundqvist, Anna; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this prospective one-year follow-up study was to explore the associations between self-regulatory mechanisms and neuropsychological tests as well as baseline and follow-up ratings of driver behaviour. The participants were a cohort of subjects with stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were found fit to drive after a multi-disciplinary driver assessment (baseline). Baseline measures included neuropsychological tests and ratings of self-regulatory mechanisms, i.e., executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version; BRIEF-A) and impulsive personality traits (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale). The participants rated pre-injury driving behaviour on the Driver Behaviour Qestionnaire (DBQ) retrospectively at baseline and after one year of post-injury driving (follow-up). Better performance on neuropsychological tests was significantly associated with more post-injury DBQ Violations. The BRIEF-A main indexes were significantly associated with baseline and follow-up ratings of DBQ Mistakes and follow-up DBQ Inattention. UPPS (lack of) Perseverance was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inattention, whereas UPPS Urgency was significantly associated with baseline DBQ Inexperience and post-injury DBQ Mistakes. There were no significant changes in DBQ ratings from baseline (pre-injury) to follow-up (post-injury). It was concluded that neuropsychological functioning and self-regulatory mechanisms are related to driver behaviour. Some aspects of driver behaviour do not necessarily change after brain injury, reflecting the influence of premorbid driving behaviour or impaired awareness of deficits on post-injury driving behaviour. Further evidence is required to predict the role of self-regulatory mechanisms on driver behaviour and crashes or near misses.

  9. Functional signaling and gene regulatory networks between the oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Biase, Fernando H; Kimble, Katelyn M

    2018-05-10

    The maturation and successful acquisition of developmental competence by an oocyte, the female gamete, during folliculogenesis is highly dependent on molecular interactions with somatic cells. Most of the cellular interactions identified, thus far, are modulated by growth factors, ions or metabolites. We hypothesized that this interaction is also modulated at the transcriptional level, which leads to the formation of gene regulatory networks between the oocyte and cumulus cells. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing transcriptome data from single oocytes and the surrounding cumulus cells collected from antral follicles employing an analytical framework to determine interdependencies at the transcript level. We overlapped our transcriptome data with putative protein-protein interactions and identified hundreds of ligand-receptor pairs that can transduce paracrine signaling between an oocyte and cumulus cells. We determined that 499 ligand-encoding genes expressed in oocytes and cumulus cells are functionally associated with transcription regulation (FDR < 0.05). Ligand-encoding genes with specific expression in oocytes or cumulus cells were enriched for biological functions that are likely associated with the coordinated formation of transzonal projections from cumulus cells that reach the oocyte's membrane. Thousands of gene pairs exhibit significant linear co-expression (absolute correlation > 0.85, FDR < 1.8 × 10 - 5 ) patterns between oocytes and cumulus cells. Hundreds of co-expressing genes showed clustering patterns associated with biological functions (FDR < 0.5) necessary for a coordinated function between the oocyte and cumulus cells during folliculogenesis (i.e. regulation of transcription, translation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and transport). Our analyses revealed a complex and functional gene regulatory circuit between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The regulatory profile of each cumulus-oocyte complex is likely

  10. An essential role for IL-2 receptor in regulatory T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Andrew G; Fan, Xiying; Klein, Ulf; Zheng, Ye; Gasteiger, Georg; Feng, Yongqiang; Fontenot, Jason D.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, expressing abundant amounts of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), are reliant on IL-2 produced by activated T cells. This feature implied a key role for a simple network based on IL-2 consumption by Treg cells in their suppressor function. However, congenital deficiency in IL-2R results in reduced expression of the Treg cell lineage specification factor Foxp3, confounding experimental efforts to understand the role of IL-2R expression and signaling in Treg suppressor function. Using genetic gain and loss of function approaches, we demonstrate that IL-2 capture is dispensable for control of CD4+ T cells, but is important for limiting CD8+ T cell activation, and that IL-2R dependent STAT5 transcription factor activation plays an essential role in Treg cell suppressor function separable from T cell receptor signaling. PMID:27595233

  11. Validation of Skeletal Muscle cis-Regulatory Module Predictions Reveals Nucleotide Composition Bias in Functional Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Chou, Alice Yi; Arenillas, David J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions. PMID:22144875

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the regulatory function mediated by the small regulatory psm-mec RNA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Villaruz, Amer E; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C; Yeh, Anthony J; Nguyen, Thuan H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Queck, S Y; Otto, M

    2014-07-01

    Several methicillin resistance (SCCmec) clusters characteristic of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains harbor the psm-mec locus. In addition to encoding the cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec, this locus has been attributed gene regulatory functions. Here we employed genome-wide transcriptional profiling to define the regulatory function of the psm-mec locus. The immune evasion factor protein A emerged as the primary conserved and strongly regulated target of psm-mec, an effect we show is mediated by the psm-mec RNA. Furthermore, the psm-mec locus exerted regulatory effects that were more moderate in extent. For example, expression of PSM-mec limited expression of mecA, thereby decreasing methicillin resistance. Our study shows that the psm-mec locus has a rare dual regulatory RNA and encoded cytolysin function. Furthermore, our findings reveal a specific mechanism underscoring the recently emerging concept that S. aureus strains balance pronounced virulence and high expression of antibiotic resistance. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. The regulatory function of self-esteem: testing the epistemic and acceptance signaling systems.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Danu Anthony; Logel, Christine; Holmes, John G; Wood, Joanne V; Forest, Amanda L; Gaucher, Danielle; Fitzsimons, Grainné M; Kath, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    The authors draw on sociometer theory (e.g., Leary, 2004) and self-verification theory (e.g., Swann, 1997) to propose an expanded model of the regulatory function of self-esteem. The model suggests that people not only possess an acceptance signaling system that indicates whether relational value is high or low but also possess an epistemic signaling system that indicates whether social feedback is consistent or inconsistent with chronic perceived relational value (i.e., global self-esteem). One correlational study and 5 experiments, with diverse operationalizations of social feedback, demonstrated that the epistemic signaling system responds to self-esteem consistent or inconsistent relational-value feedback with increases or deceases in epistemic certainty. Moreover, Studies 3-6 demonstrated that the acceptance and epistemic signaling systems respond uniquely to social feedback. Finally, Studies 5 and 6 provide evidence that the epistemic signaling system is part of a broader self-regulatory system: Self-esteem inconsistent feedback caused cognitive efforts to decrease the discrepancy between self-views and feedback and caused depleted self-regulatory capacity on a subsequent self-control task. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Differential identity of Filopodia and Tunneling Nanotubes revealed by the opposite functions of actin regulatory complexes.

    PubMed

    Delage, Elise; Cervantes, Diégo Cordero; Pénard, Esthel; Schmitt, Christine; Syan, Sylvie; Disanza, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-12-23

    Tunneling Nanotubes (TNTs) are actin enriched filopodia-like protrusions that play a pivotal role in long-range intercellular communication. Different pathogens use TNT-like structures as "freeways" to propagate across cells. TNTs are also implicated in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, making them promising therapeutic targets. Understanding the mechanism of their formation, and their relation with filopodia is of fundamental importance to uncover their physiological function, particularly since filopodia, differently from TNTs, are not able to mediate transfer of cargo between distant cells. Here we studied different regulatory complexes of actin, which play a role in the formation of both these structures. We demonstrate that the filopodia-promoting CDC42/IRSp53/VASP network negatively regulates TNT formation and impairs TNT-mediated intercellular vesicle transfer. Conversely, elevation of Eps8, an actin regulatory protein that inhibits the extension of filopodia in neurons, increases TNT formation. Notably, Eps8-mediated TNT induction requires Eps8 bundling but not its capping activity. Thus, despite their structural similarities, filopodia and TNTs form through distinct molecular mechanisms. Our results further suggest that a switch in the molecular composition in common actin regulatory complexes is critical in driving the formation of either type of membrane protrusion.

  15. A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) promotes IL-10 production and regulatory functions of human B cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, Charlotte; Audo, Rachel; Yeremenko, Nataliya; Baeten, Dominique; Hahne, Michael; Combe, Bernard; Morel, Jacques; Daïen, Claire

    2016-09-01

    B cells may have a negative regulatory role, mainly mediated by interleukin 10 (IL-10). We recently showed that regulatory B-cell functions are impaired in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and that mice transgenic for a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are protected against collagen-induced arthritis. We aimed to explore the effect of APRIL on human B-cell IL-10 production, in healthy subjects and in patients with RA. The IL-10 production of B-cell was greater with APRIL than with BLyS or control medium, in a dose dependent manner. TACI expression was greater in IL-10 producing B cells (B10) than non-IL-10-producing B cells whereas BAFF-R expression was lower. TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion of T-cells were decreased by APRIL-stimulated B cells. APRIL stimulated STAT3 and STAT3 inhibition decreased B10 cells. APRIL also promoted B10 cells in RA patients. In conclusion, APRIL but not BLyS promotes IL-10 production by CpG-activated B cells and enhances the regulatory role of B cells on T cells. B10 cells in RA patients are responsive to APRIL, which suggests a possible therapeutic application of APRIL to expand B10 cells. This could also explain the difference of clinical efficacy observed between belimumab and atacicept in RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Galectin-9-CD44 interaction enhances stability and function of adaptive regulatory T cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The β-galactoside-binding protein galectin-9 is critical in regulating the immune response, but the mechanism by which it functions remains unclear. We have demonstrated that galectin-9 is highly expressed by induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) and was crucial for the generation and function of iTreg cells, but not natural regulatory T (nTreg) cells. Galectin-9 expression

  17. Regulatory function of Arabidopsis lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) in ethylene response and signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honglin; Sun, Yue; Chang, Jianhong; Zheng, Fangfang; Pei, Haixia; Yi, Yanjun; Chang, Caren; Dong, Chun-Hai

    2016-07-01

    Ethylene as a gaseous plant hormone is directly involved in various processes during plant growth and development. Much is known regarding the ethylene receptors and regulatory factors in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. In Arabidopsis thaliana, REVERSION-TO-ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY1 (RTE1) can interact with and positively regulates the ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1). In this study we report the identification and characterization of an RTE1-interacting protein, a putative Arabidopsis lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) of unknown function. Through bimolecular fluorescence complementation, a direct molecular interaction between LTP1 and RTE1 was verified in planta. Analysis of an LTP1-GFP fusion in transgenic plants and plasmolysis experiments revealed that LTP1 is localized to the cytoplasm. Analysis of ethylene responses showed that the ltp1 knockout is hypersensitive to 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), while LTP1 overexpression confers insensitivity. Analysis of double mutants etr1-2 ltp1 and rte1-3 ltp1 demonstrates a regulatory function of LTP1 in ethylene receptor signaling through the molecular association with RTE1. This study uncovers a novel function of Arabidopsis LTP1 in the regulation of ethylene response and signaling.

  18. USP1 deubiquitinase: cellular functions, regulatory mechanisms and emerging potential as target in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Reversible protein ubiquitination is emerging as a key process for maintaining cell homeostasis, and the enzymes that participate in this process, in particular E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs), are increasingly being regarded as candidates for drug discovery. Human DUBs are a group of approximately 100 proteins, whose cellular functions and regulatory mechanisms remain, with some exceptions, poorly characterized. One of the best-characterized human DUBs is ubiquitin-specific protease 1 (USP1), which plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage. USP1 levels, localization and activity are modulated through several mechanisms, including protein-protein interactions, autocleavage/degradation and phosphorylation, ensuring that USP1 function is carried out in a properly regulated spatio-temporal manner. Importantly, USP1 expression is deregulated in certain types of human cancer, suggesting that USP1 could represent a valid target in cancer therapy. This view has gained recent support with the finding that USP1 inhibition may contribute to revert cisplatin resistance in an in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we describe the current knowledge on the cellular functions and regulatory mechanisms of USP1. We also summarize USP1 alterations found in cancer, combining data from the literature and public databases with our own data. Finally, we discuss the emerging potential of USP1 as a target, integrating published data with our novel findings on the effects of the USP1 inhibitor pimozide in combination with cisplatin in NSCLC cells. PMID:23937906

  19. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.

  20. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Dionna

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241

  1. Immunomodulatory function of regulatory dendritic cells induced by mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Wen; Sun, Li; You, Yong; Li, Fang; Li, Qiu-Bai; Zou, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an excellent model for development of stem cell therapeutics, and their potential treatment in the immunopathogenic diseases have gained further interest after demonstration of immunomodulatory effects on complicated interactions between T cells and even dendritic cells (DCs). However, the mechanisms underlying these immunoregulatory effects of MSCs are poorly understood. In this study, we show that bone marrow derived MSCs can differentiate mature DCs (mDCs) into a distinct regulatory DC population. Compared with mDCs, they have lower expression of CD1a, CD80, CD86 and CD40, but higher expression of CD11b. MSCs induced DCs (MSC-DCs) can hardly stimulate T-cell proliferation even when MSC-DCs are stimulated by LPS. In addition, high endocytosic capacity, low immunogenicity, and strong immunoregulatory function of MSC-DCs are also observed. Moreover, MSC-DCs can efficiently generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells from CD4+CD25-Foxp3-T cells. The inhibitory function of MSC-DCs is mediated not only through TGF-β1, but also by inducing the production of Treg cells or T-cell anergy. These results demonstrate that the immunomodulatory effects of regulatory DCs induced by MSCs provide efficacious treatment for immunopathogenic diseases.

  2. Function of fusion regulatory proteins (FRPs) in immune cells and virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Tsurudome, M; Ito, Y

    2000-01-01

    Two molecules that regulate cell fusion have been identified and designated fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) and FRP-2. FRP-1 is a complex composed of a glycosylated heavy chain and a nonglycosylated light chain that are disulfide linked. FRP-1 heavy chain is identical to 4F2/CD98 heavy chain, whereas FRP-2 is identical to integrin alpha3 subunit. The FRP-1 heavy chain is a multifunctional molecule: that is, fusion regulator, amino acid transporter, integrin regulator, comitogenic factor, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, oncogenic protein, and so on. Several aspects of the structure and function of the FRP-1 system are reviewed: fusion regulatory molecular mechanisms, cross-talk between the FRP-1 and integrin, the FRP-1 system as amino acid transporter, and FRP-1-mediated T-cell activation. The FRP-1 system is involved in virus-mediated cell fusion and multinucleated giant cell formation of blood monocytes. Monoclonal antibodies against human FRP-1 heavy chain induce polykaryocytes that have properties as osteoclasts. Multiple steps participate in molecular mechanisms regulating cell fusion. The FRP-1 heavy chain supports amino acid transport activity and the FRP-1 light chains have recently been cloned as amino acid transporters that require association with the heavy chain to exhibit their activity. Novel pathways for monocyte-dependent regulation of T-cell activation have recently been found that are mediated by the FRP-1 system. In conclusion, the FRP-1 molecules are essential factors for basic cellular functions.

  3. Dabigatran abrogates brain endothelial cell permeability in response to thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Brian Thomas; Gu, Yu-Huan; Izawa, Yoshikane; del Zoppo, Gregory John

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk and severity of thromboembolic stroke. Generally, antithrombotic agents increase the hemorrhagic risk of thromboembolic stroke. However, significant reductions in thromboembolism and intracerebral hemorrhage have been shown with the antithrombin dabigatran compared with warfarin. As thrombin has been implicated in microvessel injury during cerebral ischemia, we hypothesized that dabigatran decreases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage by direct inhibition of the thrombin-mediated increase in cerebral endothelial cell permeability. Primary murine brain endothelial cells (mBECs) were exposed to murine thrombin before measuring permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Thrombin increased mBEC permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, without significant endothelial cell death. Pretreatment of mBECs with dabigatran completely abrogated the effect of thrombin on permeability. Neither the expressions of the endothelial cell β1-integrins nor the tight junction protein claudin-5 were affected by thrombin exposure. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) also increased permeability; this effect was abrogated by treatment with dabigatran, as was the additive effect of thrombin and OGD on permeability. Taken together, these results indicate that dabigatran could contribute to a lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage during embolism-associated ischemia from AF by protection of the microvessel permeability barrier from local thrombin challenge. PMID:25669912

  4. Can microbiota transplantation abrogate murine colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni?

    PubMed

    Heimesaat, M M; Plickert, R; Fischer, A; Göbel, U B; Bereswill, S

    2013-03-01

    Enterocolitis caused by Campylobacter jejuni represents an important socioeconomic burden worldwide. The host-specific intestinal microbiota is essential for maintaining colonization resistance (CR) against C. jejuni in conventional mice. Notably, CR is abrogated by shifts of the intestinal microbiota towards overgrowth with commensal E. coli during acute ileitis. Thus, we investigated whether oral transplantation (TX) of ileal microbiota derived from C. jejuni susceptible mice with acute ileitis overcomes CR of healthy conventional animals. Four days following ileitis microbiota TX or ileitis induction and right before C. jejuni infection, mice displayed comparable loads of main intestinal bacterial groups as shown by culture. Eight days following ileitis induction, but not ileal microbiota TX, however, C. jejuni could readily colonize the gastrointestinal tract of conventional mice and also translocate to extra-intestinal tissue sites such as mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and blood within 4 days following oral infection. Of note, C. jejuni did not further deteriorate histopathology following ileitis induction. Lack of C. jejuni colonization in TX mice was accompanied by a decrease of commensal E. coli loads in the feces 4 days following C. jejuni infection. In summary, oral ileal microbiota TX from susceptible donors is not sufficient to abrogate murine CR against C. jejuni.

  5. Classification and Analysis of Regulatory Pathways Using Graph Property, Biochemical and Physicochemical Property, and Functional Property

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yu-Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Given a regulatory pathway system consisting of a set of proteins, can we predict which pathway class it belongs to? Such a problem is closely related to the biological function of the pathway in cells and hence is quite fundamental and essential in systems biology and proteomics. This is also an extremely difficult and challenging problem due to its complexity. To address this problem, a novel approach was developed that can be used to predict query pathways among the following six functional categories: (i) “Metabolism”, (ii) “Genetic Information Processing”, (iii) “Environmental Information Processing”, (iv) “Cellular Processes”, (v) “Organismal Systems”, and (vi) “Human Diseases”. The prediction method was established trough the following procedures: (i) according to the general form of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC), each of the pathways concerned is formulated as a 5570-D (dimensional) vector; (ii) each of components in the 5570-D vector was derived by a series of feature extractions from the pathway system according to its graphic property, biochemical and physicochemical property, as well as functional property; (iii) the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method was adopted to operate the prediction. A cross-validation by the jackknife test on a benchmark dataset consisting of 146 regulatory pathways indicated that an overall success rate of 78.8% was achieved by our method in identifying query pathways among the above six classes, indicating the outcome is quite promising and encouraging. To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first effort in attempting to identity the type of a pathway system or its biological function. It is anticipated that our report may stimulate a series of follow-up investigations in this new and challenging area. PMID:21980418

  6. Moonlighting microtubule-associated proteins: regulatory functions by day and pathological functions at night.

    PubMed

    Oláh, J; Tőkési, N; Lehotzky, A; Orosz, F; Ovádi, J

    2013-11-01

    The sensing, integrating, and coordinating features of the eukaryotic cells are achieved by the complex ultrastructural arrays and multifarious functions of the cytoskeletal network. Cytoskeleton comprises fibrous protein networks of microtubules, actin, and intermediate filaments. These filamentous polymer structures are highly dynamic and undergo constant and rapid reorganization during cellular processes. The microtubular system plays a crucial role in the brain, as it is involved in an enormous number of cellular events including cell differentiation and pathological inclusion formation. These multifarious functions of microtubules can be achieved by their decoration with proteins/enzymes that exert specific effects on the dynamics and organization of the cytoskeleton and mediate distinct functions due to their moonlighting features. This mini-review focuses on two aspects of the microtubule cytoskeleton. On the one hand, we describe the heteroassociation of tubulin/microtubules with metabolic enzymes, which in addition to their catalytic activities stabilize microtubule structures via their cross-linking functions. On the other hand, we focus on the recently identified moonlighting tubulin polymerization promoting protein, TPPP/p25. TPPP/p25 is a microtubule-associated protein and it displays distinct physiological or pathological (aberrant) functions; thus it is a prototype of Neomorphic Moonlighting Proteins. The expression of TPPP/p25 is finely controlled in the human brain; this protein is indispensable for the development of projections of oligodendrocytes that are responsible for the ensheathment of axons. The nonphysiological, higher or lower TPPP/p25 level leads to distinct CNS diseases. Mechanisms contributing to the control of microtubule stability and dynamics by metabolic enzymes and TPPP/p25 will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Identification of functional elements and regulatory circuits by Drosophila modENCODE

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Sushmita; Ernst, Jason; Kharchenko, Peter V.

    2010-12-22

    To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties across a developmental time course and in multiple cell lines. We have generated more than 700 data sets and discovered protein-coding, noncoding, RNA regulatory, replication, and chromatin elements, more than tripling the annotated portion of the Drosophila genome. Correlated activity patterns of these elements reveal a functional regulatory network, which predicts putative new functions for genes, reveals stage- andmore » tissue-specific regulators, and enables gene-expression prediction. Our results provide a foundation for directed experimental and computational studies in Drosophila and related species and also a model for systematic data integration toward comprehensive genomic and functional annotation. Several years after the complete genetic sequencing of many species, it is still unclear how to translate genomic information into a functional map of cellular and developmental programs. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) (1) and model organism ENCODE (modENCODE) (2) projects use diverse genomic assays to comprehensively annotate the Homo sapiens (human), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) genomes, through systematic generation and computational integration of functional genomic data sets. Previous genomic studies in flies have made seminal contributions to our understanding of basic biological mechanisms and genome functions, facilitated by genetic, experimental, computational, and manual annotation of the euchromatic and heterochromatic genome (3), small genome size, short life cycle, and a deep knowledge of development, gene function, and chromosome biology. The

  8. Impact of alemtuzumab treatment on the survival and function of human regulatory T cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Havari, Evis; Turner, Michael J; Campos-Rivera, Juanita; Shankara, Srinivas; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Roberts, Bruce; Siders, William; Kaplan, Johanne M

    2014-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for the CD52 protein present at high levels on the surface of B and T lymphocytes. In clinical trials, alemtuzumab has shown a clinical benefit superior to that of interferon-β in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis patients. Treatment with alemtuzumab leads to the depletion of circulating lymphocytes followed by a repopulation process characterized by alterations in the number, proportions and properties of lymphocyte subsets. Of particular interest, an increase in the percentage of T cells with a regulatory phenotype (Treg cells) has been observed in multiple sclerosis patients after alemtuzumab. Since Treg cells play an important role in the control of autoimmune responses, the effect of alemtuzumab on Treg cells was further studied in vitro. Alemtuzumab effectively mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of human T lymphocytes and the remaining population was enriched in T cells with a regulatory phenotype. The alemtuzumab-exposed T cells displayed functional regulatory characteristics including anergy to stimulation with allogeneic dendritic cells and ability to suppress the allogeneic response of autologous T cells. Consistent with the observed increase in Treg cell frequency, the CD25hi T-cell population was necessary for the suppressive activity of alemtuzumab-exposed T cells. The mechanism of this suppression was found to be dependent on both cell–cell contact and interleukin-2 consumption. These findings suggest that an alemtuzumab-mediated increase in the proportion of Treg cells may play a role in promoting the long-term efficacy of alemtuzumab in patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:24116901

  9. Do motifs reflect evolved function?--No convergent evolution of genetic regulatory network subgraph topologies.

    PubMed

    Knabe, Johannes F; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Schilstra, Maria J

    2008-01-01

    Methods that analyse the topological structure of networks have recently become quite popular. Whether motifs (subgraph patterns that occur more often than in randomized networks) have specific functions as elementary computational circuits has been cause for debate. As the question is difficult to resolve with currently available biological data, we approach the issue using networks that abstractly model natural genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) which are evolved to show dynamical behaviors. Specifically one group of networks was evolved to be capable of exhibiting two different behaviors ("differentiation") in contrast to a group with a single target behavior. In both groups we find motif distribution differences within the groups to be larger than differences between them, indicating that evolutionary niches (target functions) do not necessarily mold network structure uniquely. These results show that variability operators can have a stronger influence on network topologies than selection pressures, especially when many topologies can create similar dynamics. Moreover, analysis of motif functional relevance by lesioning did not suggest that motifs were of greater importance to the functioning of the network than arbitrary subgraph patterns. Only when drastically restricting network size, so that one motif corresponds to a whole functionally evolved network, was preference for particular connection patterns found. This suggests that in non-restricted, bigger networks, entanglement with the rest of the network hinders topological subgraph analysis.

  10. Microgravity induces inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization through abrogating primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wengui; Xie, Yanfang; He, Jinpeng; Zhou, Jian; Gao, Yuhai; Wei, Wenjun; Ding, Nan; Ma, Huiping; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Keming; Wang, Jufang

    2017-05-12

    It is well documented that microgravity in space environment leads to bone loss in astronauts. These physiological changes have also been validated by human and animal studies and modeled in cell-based analogs. However, the underlying mechanisms are elusive. In the current study, we identified a novel phenomenon that primary cilia (key sensors and functioning organelles) of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) gradually shrank and disappeared almost completely after exposure to simulated microgravity generated by a random positioning machine (RPM). Along with the abrogation of primary cilia, the differentiation, maturation and mineralization of ROBs were inhibited. We also found that the disappearance of primary cilia was prevented by treating ROBs with cytochalasin D, but not with LiCl or dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 (Dynlt1) siRNA. The repression of the differentiation, maturation and mineralization of ROBs was effectively offset by cytochalasin D treatment in microgravity conditions. Blocking ciliogenesis using intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88) siRNA knockdown inhibited the ability of cytochalasin D to counteract this reduction of osteogenesis. These results indicate that the abrogation of primary cilia may be responsible for the microgravity's inhibition on osteogenesis. Reconstruction of primary cilia may become a potential strategy against bone loss induced by microgravity.

  11. Functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements of COL18A1 identified through zebrafish transgenesis.

    PubMed

    Kague, Erika; Bessling, Seneca L; Lee, Josephine; Hu, Gui; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Fisher, Shannon

    2010-01-15

    Type XVIII collagen is a component of basement membranes, and expressed prominently in the eye, blood vessels, liver, and the central nervous system. Homozygous mutations in COL18A1 lead to Knobloch Syndrome, characterized by ocular defects and occipital encephalocele. However, relatively little has been described on the role of type XVIII collagen in development, and nothing is known about the regulation of its tissue-specific expression pattern. We have used zebrafish transgenesis to identify and characterize cis-regulatory sequences controlling expression of the human gene. Candidate enhancers were selected from non-coding sequence associated with COL18A1 based on sequence conservation among mammals. Although these displayed no overt conservation with orthologous zebrafish sequences, four regions nonetheless acted as tissue-specific transcriptional enhancers in the zebrafish embryo, and together recapitulated the major aspects of col18a1 expression. Additional post-hoc computational analysis on positive enhancer sequences revealed alignments between mammalian and teleost sequences, which we hypothesize predict the corresponding zebrafish enhancers; for one of these, we demonstrate functional overlap with the orthologous human enhancer sequence. Our results provide important insight into the biological function and regulation of COL18A1, and point to additional sequences that may contribute to complex diseases involving COL18A1. More generally, we show that combining functional data with targeted analyses for phylogenetic conservation can reveal conserved cis-regulatory elements in the large number of cases where computational alignment alone falls short. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SLAM-seq defines direct gene-regulatory functions of the BRD4-MYC axis.

    PubMed

    Muhar, Matthias; Ebert, Anja; Neumann, Tobias; Umkehrer, Christian; Jude, Julian; Wieshofer, Corinna; Rescheneder, Philipp; Lipp, Jesse J; Herzog, Veronika A; Reichholf, Brian; Cisneros, David A; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schlapansky, Moritz F; Bhat, Pooja; von Haeseler, Arndt; Köcher, Thomas; Obenauf, Anna C; Popow, Johannes; Ameres, Stefan L; Zuber, Johannes

    2018-05-18

    Defining direct targets of transcription factors and regulatory pathways is key to understanding their roles in physiology and disease. We combined SLAM-seq [thiol(SH)-linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA], a method for direct quantification of newly synthesized messenger RNAs (mRNAs), with pharmacological and chemical-genetic perturbation in order to define regulatory functions of two transcriptional hubs in cancer, BRD4 and MYC, and to interrogate direct responses to BET bromodomain inhibitors (BETis). We found that BRD4 acts as general coactivator of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription, which is broadly repressed upon high-dose BETi treatment. At doses triggering selective effects in leukemia, BETis deregulate a small set of hypersensitive targets including MYC. In contrast to BRD4, MYC primarily acts as a selective transcriptional activator controlling metabolic processes such as ribosome biogenesis and de novo purine synthesis. Our study establishes a simple and scalable strategy to identify direct transcriptional targets of any gene or pathway. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Stem cell regulatory function mediated by expression of a novel mouse Oct4 pseudogene

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Huey; Shabbir, Arsalan; Molnar, Merced

    2007-03-30

    Multiple pseudogenes have been proposed for embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific genes, and their abundance suggests that some of these potential pseudogenes may be functional. ES cell-specific expression of Oct4 regulates stem cell pluripotency and self-renewing state. Although Oct4 expression has been reported in adult tissues during gene reprogramming, the detected Oct4 signal might be contributed by Oct4 pseudogenes. Among the multiple Oct4 transcripts characterized here is a {approx}1 kb clone derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells, which shares a {approx}87% sequence homology with the parent Oct4 gene, and has the potential of encoding an 80-amino acid product (designated asmore » Oct4P1). Adenoviral expression of Oct4P1 in mesenchymal stem cells promotes their proliferation and inhibits their osteochondral differentiation. These dual effects of Oct4P1 are reminiscent of the stem cell regulatory function of the parent Oct4, and suggest that Oct4P1 may be a functional pseudogene or a novel Oct4-related gene with a unique function in stem cells.« less

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals O-GlcNAc modification on proteins with key regulatory functions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou-Ling; Chalkley, Robert J; Maynard, Jason C; Wang, Wenfei; Ni, Weimin; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Shin, Kihye; Cheng, Ling; Savage, Dasha; Hühmer, Andreas F R; Burlingame, Alma L; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2017-02-21

    Genetic studies have shown essential functions of O-linked N -acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification in plants. However, the proteins and sites subject to this posttranslational modification are largely unknown. Here, we report a large-scale proteomic identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and sites in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana Using lectin weak affinity chromatography to enrich modified peptides, followed by mass spectrometry, we identified 971 O-GlcNAc-modified peptides belonging to 262 proteins. The modified proteins are involved in cellular regulatory processes, including transcription, translation, epigenetic gene regulation, and signal transduction. Many proteins have functions in developmental and physiological processes specific to plants, such as hormone responses and flower development. Mass spectrometric analysis of phosphopeptides from the same samples showed that a large number of peptides could be modified by either O-GlcNAcylation or phosphorylation, but cooccurrence of the two modifications in the same peptide molecule was rare. Our study generates a snapshot of the O-GlcNAc modification landscape in plants, indicating functions in many cellular regulation pathways and providing a powerful resource for further dissecting these functions at the molecular level.

  15. Ionizing Radiation Selectively Reduces Skin Regulatory T Cells and Alters Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Balint, Klara; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Dentchev, Tzvete; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Cengel, Keith A.; Weissman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    The skin serves multiple functions that are critical for life. The protection from pathogens is achieved by a complicated interaction between aggressive effectors and controlling functions that limit damage. Inhomogeneous radiation with limited penetration is used in certain types of therapeutics and is experienced with exposure to solar particle events outside the protection of the Earth’s magnetic field. This study explores the effect of ionizing radiation on skin immune function. We demonstrate that radiation, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, induces inflammation with resultant specific loss of regulatory T cells from the skin. This results in a hyper-responsive state with increased delayed type hypersensitivity in vivo and CD4+ T cell proliferation in vitro. The effects of inhomogeneous radiation to the skin of astronauts or as part of a therapeutic approach could result in an unexpected enhancement in skin immune function. The effects of this need to be considered in the design of radiation therapy protocols and in the development of countermeasures for extended space travel. PMID:24959865

  16. PLAU inferred from a correlation network is critical for suppressor function of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Chen, Hairong; Probst-Kepper, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Eifes, Serge; del Sol, Antonio; Schughart, Klaus; Zeng, An-Ping; Balling, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    Human FOXP3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Several genes are known to be important for murine Tregs, but for human Tregs the genes and underlying molecular networks controlling the suppressor function still largely remain unclear. Here, we describe a strategy to identify the key genes directly from an undirected correlation network which we reconstruct from a very high time-resolution (HTR) transcriptome during the activation of human Tregs/CD4+ T-effector cells. We show that a predicted top-ranked new key gene PLAU (the plasminogen activator urokinase) is important for the suppressor function of both human and murine Tregs. Further analysis unveils that PLAU is particularly important for memory Tregs and that PLAU mediates Treg suppressor function via STAT5 and ERK signaling pathways. Our study demonstrates the potential for identifying novel key genes for complex dynamic biological processes using a network strategy based on HTR data, and reveals a critical role for PLAU in Treg suppressor function. PMID:23169000

  17. N-CAM Exhibits a Regulatory Function in Pathological Angiogenesis in Oxygen Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders; Wolfhagen Sand, Fredrik; Gerhardt, Holger; Semb, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity are diseases caused by pathological angiogenesis in the retina as a consequence of local hypoxia. The underlying mechanism for epiretinal neovascularization (tuft formation), which contributes to blindness, has yet to be identified. Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is expressed by Müller cells and astrocytes, which are in close contact with the retinal vasculature, during normal developmental angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Notably, during oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) N-CAM accumulated on astrocytes surrounding the epiretinal tufts. Here, we show that N-CAM ablation results in reduced vascular tuft formation due to reduced endothelial cell proliferation despite an elevation in VEGFA mRNA expression, whereas retinal developmental angiogenesis was unaffected. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that N-CAM exhibits a regulatory function in pathological angiogenesis in OIR. This is a novel finding that can be of clinical relevance in diseases associated with proliferative vasculopathy. PMID:22043302

  18. The regulatory function of self-conscious emotion: insights from patients with orbitofrontal damage.

    PubMed

    Beer, Jennifer S; Heerey, Erin A; Keltner, Dacher; Scabini, Donatella; Knight, Robert T

    2003-10-01

    Although once considered disruptive, self-conscious emotions are now theorized to be fundamentally involved in the regulation of social behavior. The present study examined the social regulation function of self-conscious emotions by comparing healthy participants with a neuropsychological population--patients with orbitofrontal lesions--characterized by selective regulatory deficits. Orbitofrontal patients and healthy controls participated in a series of tasks designed to assess their social regulation and self-conscious emotions. Another task assessed the ability to infer others' emotional states, an appraisal process involved in self-conscious emotion. Consistent with the theory that self-conscious emotions are important for regulating social behavior, the findings show that deficient behavioral regulation is associated with inappropriate self-conscious emotions that reinforce maladaptive behavior. Additionally, deficient behavioral regulation is associated with impairments in interpreting the self-conscious emotions of others.

  19. Upregulation of neurovascular communication through filamin abrogation promotes ectopic periventricular neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Lanctot, Alison A; Guo, Yan; Feng, Yuanyi

    2016-09-24

    Neuronal fate-restricted intermediate progenitors (IPs) are derived from the multipotent radial glia (RGs) and serve as the direct precursors for cerebral cortical neurons, but factors that control their neurogenic plasticity remain elusive. Here we report that IPs' neuron production is enhanced by abrogating filamin function, leading to the generation of periventricular neurons independent of normal neocortical neurogenesis and neuronal migration. Loss of Flna in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) led RGs to undergo changes resembling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with exuberant angiogenesis that together changed the microenvironment and increased neurogenesis of IPs. We show that by collaborating with β-arrestin, Flna maintains the homeostatic signaling between the vasculature and NPCs, and loss of this function results in escalated Vegfa and Igf2 signaling, which exacerbates both EMT and angiogenesis to further potentiate IPs' neurogenesis. These results suggest that the neurogenic potential of IPs may be boosted in vivo by manipulating Flna-mediated neurovascular communication.

  20. Self-regulatory processes and exercise adherence in older adults: executive function and self-efficacy effects.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Edward; Mullen, Sean P; Szabo, Amanda N; White, Siobhan M; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; Voss, Michelle; Erickson, Kirk; Prakash, Ruchika; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-09-01

    Self-efficacy and the use of self-regulatory strategies are consistently associated with physical activity behavior. Similarly, behavioral inhibition and cognitive resource allocation-indices of executive control function-have also been associated with this health behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between self-regulatory processes, such as executive function, and sustained exercise behavior. Older adults (N=177, mean age=66.44 years) completed measures of executive function, self-reported use of self-regulatory strategies, and self-efficacy prior to and during the first month of a 12-month exercise intervention. Percentage of exercise classes attended over the following 11 months was used to represent adherence. Data were collected from 2007 to 2010 and analyzed in 2010-2011. Structural equation models were tested examining the effect of executive function and strategy use on adherence via efficacy. As hypothesized, results showed significant direct effects of two elements of executive function and of strategy use on self-efficacy and of efficacy on adherence. In addition, there were significant indirect effects of strategy use and executive function on adherence via self-efficacy. Higher levels of executive function and use of self-regulatory strategies at the start of an exercise program enhance beliefs in exercise capabilities, which in turn leads to greater adherence. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dual functions of a small regulatory subunit in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Phillips, Charles B; Ranaghan, Matthew; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Wu, Yujiao; Willliams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2016-04-21

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, a process crucial for bioenergetics and Ca(2+) signaling, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca(2+)-activated Ca(2+) channel, with the Ca(2+) pore formed by the MCU protein and Ca(2+)-dependent activation mediated by MICU subunits. Recently, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein EMRE was identified as a uniporter subunit absolutely required for Ca(2+) permeation. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of EMRE remain largely unexplored. Here, we determine the transmembrane orientation of EMRE, and show that its known MCU-activating function is mediated by the interaction of transmembrane helices from both proteins. We also reveal a second function of EMRE: to maintain tight MICU regulation of the MCU pore, a role that requires EMRE to bind MICU1 using its conserved C-terminal polyaspartate tail. This dual functionality of EMRE ensures that all transport-competent uniporters are tightly regulated, responding appropriately to a dynamic intracellular Ca(2+) landscape.

  2. The Alternative NF-κB Pathway in Regulatory T Cell Homeostasis and Suppressive Function.

    PubMed

    Grinberg-Bleyer, Yenkel; Caron, Rachel; Seeley, John J; De Silva, Nilushi S; Schindler, Christian W; Hayden, Matthew S; Klein, Ulf; Ghosh, Sankar

    2018-04-01

    CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential regulators of immune responses. Perturbation of Treg homeostasis or function can lead to uncontrolled inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in Treg biology remains an active area of investigation. It has been shown previously that the NF-κB family of transcription factors, in particular, the canonical pathway subunits, c-Rel and p65, are crucial for the development, maintenance, and function of Tregs. However, the role of the alternative NF-κB pathway components, p100 and RelB, in Treg biology remains unclear. In this article, we show that conditional deletion of the p100 gene, nfkb2 , in Tregs, resulted in massive inflammation because of impaired suppressive function of nfkb2 -deficient Tregs. Surprisingly, mice lacking RelB in Tregs did not exhibit the same phenotype. Instead, deletion of both relb and nfkb2 rescued the inflammatory phenotype, demonstrating an essential role for p100 as an inhibitor of RelB in Tregs. Our data therefore illustrate a new role for the alternative NF-κB signaling pathway in Tregs that has implications for the understanding of molecular pathways driving tolerance and immunity. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Garp as a therapeutic target for modulation of T regulatory cell function.

    PubMed

    Shevach, Ethan M

    2017-02-01

    Foxp3 + T regulatory cells (Tregs) play critical roles in immune homeostasis primarily by suppressing many aspects of the immune response. Tregs uniquely express GARP on their cell surface and GARP functions as a delivery system for latent TGF-β. As Treg-derived TGF-β may mediate the suppressive functions of Tregs, GARP may represent a target to inhibit Treg suppression in cancer or augment suppression in autoimmunity. Areas covered: This article will focus on 1) the role of Treg-derived TGF-β in the suppressive activity of Treg, 2) the cellular and molecular regulation of expression of GARP on mouse and human Tregs, 3) the role of integrins in the activation of latent-TGF-β/GARP complex, 4) an overview of our present understanding of the function of the latent-TGF-β/GARP complex. Expert opinion: Two approaches are outlined for targeting the L-TGF-β1/GARP complex for therapeutic purposes. Tregs play a major role in suppressive effector T cell responses to tumors and TGF-β1 may be a major contributor to this process. One approach is to specifically block the production of active TGF-β1 from Tregs as an adjunct to tumor immunotherapy. The second approach in autoimmunity is to selectively enhance the production of TGF-β by Tregs at sites of chronic inflammation.

  4. Characterizing regulatory and functional differentiation between maize mesophyll and bundle sheath cells by transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Ming; Liu, Wen-Yu; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh; Shen, Meng-Ni; Lu, Chen-Hua; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Yang, Hui-Wen; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Chen, Sean C-C; Chen, Stella Maris; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Ku, Maurice S B

    2012-09-01

    To study the regulatory and functional differentiation between the mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) cells of maize (Zea mays), we isolated large quantities of highly homogeneous M and BS cells from newly matured second leaves for transcriptome profiling by RNA sequencing. A total of 52,421 annotated genes with at least one read were found in the two transcriptomes. Defining a gene with more than one read per kilobase per million mapped reads as expressed, we identified 18,482 expressed genes; 14,972 were expressed in M cells, including 53 M-enriched transcription factor (TF) genes, whereas 17,269 were expressed in BS cells, including 214 BS-enriched TF genes. Interestingly, many TF gene families show a conspicuous BS preference in expression. Pathway analyses reveal differentiation between the two cell types in various functional categories, with the M cells playing more important roles in light reaction, protein synthesis and folding, tetrapyrrole synthesis, and RNA binding, while the BS cells specialize in transport, signaling, protein degradation and posttranslational modification, major carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen metabolism, cell division and organization, and development. Genes coding for several transporters involved in the shuttle of C(4) metabolites and BS cell wall development have been identified, to our knowledge, for the first time. This comprehensive data set will be useful for studying M/BS differentiation in regulation and function.

  5. A Functionally Conserved Gene Regulatory Network Module Governing Olfactory Neuron Diversity.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyun; Barish, Scott; Okuwa, Sumie; Maciejewski, Abigail; Brandt, Alicia T; Reinhold, Dominik; Jones, Corbin D; Volkan, Pelin Cayirlioglu

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neuron diversity is required for organisms to decipher complex environmental cues. In Drosophila, the olfactory environment is detected by 50 different olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes that are clustered in combinations within distinct sensilla subtypes. Each sensilla subtype houses stereotypically clustered 1-4 ORN identities that arise through asymmetric divisions from a single multipotent sensory organ precursor (SOP). How each class of SOPs acquires a unique differentiation potential that accounts for ORN diversity is unknown. Previously, we reported a critical component of SOP diversification program, Rotund (Rn), increases ORN diversity by generating novel developmental trajectories from existing precursors within each independent sensilla type lineages. Here, we show that Rn, along with BarH1/H2 (Bar), Bric-à-brac (Bab), Apterous (Ap) and Dachshund (Dac), constitutes a transcription factor (TF) network that patterns the developing olfactory tissue. This network was previously shown to pattern the segmentation of the leg, which suggests that this network is functionally conserved. In antennal imaginal discs, precursors with diverse ORN differentiation potentials are selected from concentric rings defined by unique combinations of these TFs along the proximodistal axis of the developing antennal disc. The combinatorial code that demarcates each precursor field is set up by cross-regulatory interactions among different factors within the network. Modifications of this network lead to predictable changes in the diversity of sensilla subtypes and ORN pools. In light of our data, we propose a molecular map that defines each unique SOP fate. Our results highlight the importance of the early prepatterning gene regulatory network as a modulator of SOP and terminally differentiated ORN diversity. Finally, our model illustrates how conserved developmental strategies are used to generate neuronal diversity.

  6. Toward a functional definition of a "rare disease" for regulatory authorities and funding agencies.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Joe T R; Coyle, Doug; Evans, Gerald; Martin, Janet; Winquist, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The designation of a disease as "rare" is associated with some substantial benefits for companies involved in new drug development, including expedited review by regulatory authorities and relaxed criteria for reimbursement. How "rare disease" is defined therefore has major financial implications, both for pharmaceutical companies and for insurers or public drug reimbursement programs. All existing definitions are based, somewhat arbitrarily, on disease incidence or prevalence. What is proposed here is a functional definition of rare based on an assessment of the feasibility of measuring the efficacy of a new treatment in conventional randomized controlled trials, to inform regulatory authorities and funding agencies charged with assessing new therapies being considered for public funding. It involves a five-step process, involving significant negotiations between patient advocacy groups, pharmaceutical companies, physicians, and public drug reimbursement programs, designed to establish the feasibility of carrying out a randomized controlled trial with sufficient statistical power to show a clinically significant treatment effect. The steps are as follows: 1) identification of a specific disease, including appropriate genetic definition; 2) identification of clinically relevant outcomes to evaluate efficacy; 3) establishment of the inherent variability of measurements of clinically relevant outcomes; 4) calculation of the sample size required to assess the efficacy of a new treatment with acceptable statistical power; and 5) estimation of the difficulty of recruiting an adequate sample size given the estimated prevalence or incidence of the disorder in the population and the inclusion criteria to be used. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory functional territory of PLK-1 and their substrates beyond mitosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiv; Sharma, Garima; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Kim, Jaebong

    2017-06-06

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is a well-known (Ser/Thr) mitotic protein kinase and is considered as a proto-oncogene. As hyper-activation of PLK-1 is broadly associated with poor prognosis and cancer progression, it is one of the most extensively studied mitotic kinases. During mitosis, PLK-1 regulates various cell cycle events, such as spindle pole maturation, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. However, studies have demonstrated that the role of PLK-1 is not only restricted to mitosis, but PLK-1 can also regulate other vital events beyond mitosis, including transcription, translation, ciliogenesis, checkpoint adaptation and recovery, apoptosis, chromosomes dynamics etc. Recent reviews have tried to define the regulatory role of PLK-1 during mitosis progression and tumorigenesis, but its' functional role beyond mitosis is still largely unexplored. PLK-1 can regulate the activity of many proteins that work outside of its conventional territory. The dysregulation of these proteins can cause diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, tumorigenesis etc. and may also lead to drug resistance. Thus, in this review, we discussed the versatile role of PLK-1 and tried to collect data to validate its' functional role in cell cycle regulation apart from mitosis.

  8. Intracellular concentrations of 65 species of transcription factors with known regulatory functions in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ishihama, Akira; Kori, Ayako; Koshio, Etsuko; Yamada, Kayoko; Maeda, Hiroto; Shimada, Tomohiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Iwata, Akira; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2014-08-01

    The expression pattern of the Escherichia coli genome is controlled in part by regulating the utilization of a limited number of RNA polymerases among a total of its approximately 4,600 genes. The distribution pattern of RNA polymerase changes from modulation of two types of protein-protein interactions: the interaction of core RNA polymerase with seven species of the sigma subunit for differential promoter recognition and the interaction of RNA polymerase holoenzyme with about 300 different species of transcription factors (TFs) with regulatory functions. We have been involved in the systematic search for the target promoters recognized by each sigma factor and each TF using the newly developed Genomic SELEX system. In parallel, we developed the promoter-specific (PS)-TF screening system for identification of the whole set of TFs involved in regulation of each promoter. Understanding the regulation of genome transcription also requires knowing the intracellular concentrations of the sigma subunits and TFs under various growth conditions. This report describes the intracellular levels of 65 species of TF with known function in E. coli K-12 W3110 at various phases of cell growth and at various temperatures. The list of intracellular concentrations of the sigma factors and TFs provides a community resource for understanding the transcription regulation of E. coli under various stressful conditions in nature. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Protein interaction network topology uncovers melanogenesis regulatory network components within functional genomics datasets.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsiang; Milenković, Tijana; Memisević, Vesna; Aruri, Jayavani; Przulj, Natasa; Ganesan, Anand K

    2010-06-15

    RNA-mediated interference (RNAi)-based functional genomics is a systems-level approach to identify novel genes that control biological phenotypes. Existing computational approaches can identify individual genes from RNAi datasets that regulate a given biological process. However, currently available methods cannot identify which RNAi screen "hits" are novel components of well-characterized biological pathways known to regulate the interrogated phenotype. In this study, we describe a method to identify genes from RNAi datasets that are novel components of known biological pathways. We experimentally validate our approach in the context of a recently completed RNAi screen to identify novel regulators of melanogenesis. In this study, we utilize a PPI network topology-based approach to identify targets within our RNAi dataset that may be components of known melanogenesis regulatory pathways. Our computational approach identifies a set of screen targets that cluster topologically in a human PPI network with the known pigment regulator Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB). Validation studies reveal that these genes impact pigment production and EDNRB signaling in pigmented melanoma cells (MNT-1) and normal melanocytes. We present an approach that identifies novel components of well-characterized biological pathways from functional genomics datasets that could not have been identified by existing statistical and computational approaches.

  10. Protein interaction network topology uncovers melanogenesis regulatory network components within functional genomics datasets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background RNA-mediated interference (RNAi)-based functional genomics is a systems-level approach to identify novel genes that control biological phenotypes. Existing computational approaches can identify individual genes from RNAi datasets that regulate a given biological process. However, currently available methods cannot identify which RNAi screen "hits" are novel components of well-characterized biological pathways known to regulate the interrogated phenotype. In this study, we describe a method to identify genes from RNAi datasets that are novel components of known biological pathways. We experimentally validate our approach in the context of a recently completed RNAi screen to identify novel regulators of melanogenesis. Results In this study, we utilize a PPI network topology-based approach to identify targets within our RNAi dataset that may be components of known melanogenesis regulatory pathways. Our computational approach identifies a set of screen targets that cluster topologically in a human PPI network with the known pigment regulator Endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB). Validation studies reveal that these genes impact pigment production and EDNRB signaling in pigmented melanoma cells (MNT-1) and normal melanocytes. Conclusions We present an approach that identifies novel components of well-characterized biological pathways from functional genomics datasets that could not have been identified by existing statistical and computational approaches. PMID:20550706

  11. Vitamin D Status Is Positively Correlated with Regulatory T Cell Function in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Joost; Thewissen, Mariëlle; Peelen, Evelyn; Menheere, Paul; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Damoiseaux, Jan; Hupperts, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Background In several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), a compromised regulatory T cell (Treg) function is believed to be critically involved in the disease process. In vitro, the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D has been shown to promote Treg development. A poor vitamin D status has been linked with MS incidence and MS disease activity. In the present study, we assess a potential in vivo correlation between vitamin D status and Treg function in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in 29 RRMS patients. The number of circulating Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry, and their functionality was tested in vitro in a CFSE-based proliferation suppression assay. Additionally, the intracellular cytokine profile of T helper cells was determined directly ex-vivo by flow-cytometry. Serum levels of 25(OH)D correlated positively with the ability of Tregs to suppress T cell proliferation (R = 0.590, P = 0.002). No correlation between 25(OH)D levels and the number of Tregs was found. The IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (Th1/Th2-balance) was more directed towards IL-4 in patients with favourable 25(OH)D levels (R = −0.435, P = 0.023). Conclusions/Significance These results show an association of high 25(OH)D levels with an improved Treg function, and with skewing of the Th1/Th2 balance towards Th2. These findings suggest that vitamin D is an important promoter of T cell regulation in vivo in MS patients. It is tempting to speculate that our results may not only hold for MS, but also for other autoimmune diseases. Future intervention studies will show whether modulation of vitamin D status results in modulation of the T cell response and subsequent amelioration of disease activity. PMID:19675671

  12. TSH Receptor Signaling Abrogation by a Novel Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rauf; Realubit, Ronald B.; Karan, Charles; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves’ disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS). The identification of the TSHR antagonist was performed using a transcription-based TSH-inhibition bioassay. TSHR-expressing CHO cells, which also expressed a luciferase-tagged CRE response element, were optimized using bovine TSH as the activator, in a 384 well plate format, which had a Z score of 0.3–0.6. Using this HTS assay, we screened a diverse library of ~80,000 compounds at a final concentration of 16.7 μM. The selection criteria for a positive hit were based on a mean signal threshold of ≥50% inhibition of control TSH stimulation. The screening resulted in 450 positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0.56%. A secondary confirmation screen against TSH and forskolin – a post receptor activator of adenylyl cyclase – confirmed one TSHR-specific candidate antagonist molecule (named VA-K-14). This lead molecule had an IC50 of 12.3 μM and a unique chemical structure. A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations. In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. Furthermore, this molecule was capable of inhibiting TSHR stimulation by GD patient sera and monoclonal-stimulating TSHR antibodies. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has

  13. Form and function in gene regulatory networks: the structure of network motifs determines fundamental properties of their dynamical state space.

    PubMed

    Ahnert, S E; Fink, T M A

    2016-07-01

    Network motifs have been studied extensively over the past decade, and certain motifs, such as the feed-forward loop, play an important role in regulatory networks. Recent studies have used Boolean network motifs to explore the link between form and function in gene regulatory networks and have found that the structure of a motif does not strongly determine its function, if this is defined in terms of the gene expression patterns the motif can produce. Here, we offer a different, higher-level definition of the 'function' of a motif, in terms of two fundamental properties of its dynamical state space as a Boolean network. One is the basin entropy, which is a complexity measure of the dynamics of Boolean networks. The other is the diversity of cyclic attractor lengths that a given motif can produce. Using these two measures, we examine all 104 topologically distinct three-node motifs and show that the structural properties of a motif, such as the presence of feedback loops and feed-forward loops, predict fundamental characteristics of its dynamical state space, which in turn determine aspects of its functional versatility. We also show that these higher-level properties have a direct bearing on real regulatory networks, as both basin entropy and cycle length diversity show a close correspondence with the prevalence, in neural and genetic regulatory networks, of the 13 connected motifs without self-interactions that have been studied extensively in the literature. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  15. Fingolimod treatment abrogates chikungunya virus-induced arthralgia.

    PubMed

    Teo, Teck-Hui; Chan, Yi-Hao; Lee, Wendy W L; Lum, Fok-Moon; Amrun, Siti Naqiah; Her, Zhisheng; Rajarethinam, Ravisankar; Merits, Andres; Rötzschke, Olaf; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2017-02-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the many rheumatic arthropod-borne alphaviruses responsible for debilitating joint inflammation in humans. Despite the severity in many endemic regions, clinically approved intervention targeting the virus remains unavailable. CD4 + T cells have been shown to mediate CHIKV-induced joint inflammation in mice. We demonstrate here that transfer of splenic CD4 + T cells from virus-infected C57BL/6 mice into virus-infected T cell receptor-deficient (TCR -/- ) mice recapitulated severe joint pathology including inflammation, vascular leakages, subcutaneous edema, and skeletal muscle necrosis. Proteome-wide screening identified dominant CD4 + T cell epitopes in nsP1 and E2 viral antigens. Transfer of nsP1- or E2-specific primary CD4 + T cell lines into CHIKV-infected TCR -/- recipients led to severe joint inflammation and vascular leakage. This pathogenic role of virus-specific CD4 + T cells in CHIKV infections led to the assessment of clinically approved T cell-suppressive drugs for disease intervention. Although drugs targeting interleukin-2 pathway were ineffective, treatment with fingolimod, an agonist of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor, successfully abrogated joint pathology in CHIKV-infected animals by blocking the migration of CD4 + T cells into the joints without any effect on viral replication. These results set the stage for further clinical evaluation of fingolimod in the treatment of CHIKV-induced joint pathologies. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels.

  17. IL-2 infusion abrogates humoral immune responses in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, D J; Prentice, H G; Heslop, H E; Bello, C; Brenner, M K

    1992-01-01

    Although IL-2 infusion enhances cell-mediated cytotoxicity in patients with neoplastic disease, administration is paradoxically associated with a modest fall in total serum IgG and an increased risk of infection. We now show that the adverse effects of IL-2 infusion on the humoral immune system are substantial. Although IL-2 induces the B cell growth and differentiating factors IL-4 and IL-6, infusion abrogates primary antibody responses entirely and reduces secondary antibody responses 50-fold following antigen challenge. There is no evidence of the generation of cells with suppressive activity on B cells but IL-2 increases the ratio of circulating virgin:memory cells. These results may help to explain the increased rate of bacterial infection in patients receiving IL-2. As IL-2 plays a central role in the generation of an immune response, the finding that it is also sufficiently immunosuppressive to inhibit primary- and secondary-type antibody responses suggests that exploration of the underlying mechanisms may provide insights into immune system homeostasis and may offer new approaches to therapeutic immunosuppression. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1544235

  18. Functional studies of the Ciona intestinalis myogenic regulatory factor reveal conserved features of chordate myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Stephanie A; Colantuono, Bonnie J; Sullivan, Kelly; Khare, Parul; Meedel, Thomas H

    2013-04-15

    Ci-MRF is the sole myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate chordate. In order to investigate its properties we developed a simple in vivo assay based on misexpressing Ci-MRF in the notochord of Ciona embryos. We used this assay to examine the roles of three structural motifs that are conserved among MRFs: an alanine-threonine (Ala-Thr) dipeptide of the basic domain that is known in vertebrates as the myogenic code, a cysteine/histidine-rich (C/H) domain found just N-terminal to the basic domain, and a carboxy-terminal amphipathic α-helix referred to as Helix III. We show that the Ala-Thr dipeptide is necessary for normal Ci-MRF function, and that while eliminating the C/H domain or Helix III individually has no demonstrable effect on Ci-MRF, simultaneous loss of both motifs significantly reduces its activity. Our studies also indicate that direct interaction between CiMRF and an essential E-box of Ciona Troponin I is required for the expression of this muscle-specific gene and that multiple classes of MRF-regulated genes exist in Ciona. These findings are consistent with substantial conservation of MRF-directed myogenesis in chordates and demonstrate for the first time that the Ala/Thr dipeptide of the basic domain of an invertebrate MRF behaves as a myogenic code. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. FARE-CAFE: a database of functional and regulatory elements of cancer-associated fusion events.

    PubMed

    Korla, Praveen Kumar; Cheng, Jack; Huang, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation (CT) is of enormous clinical interest because this disorder is associated with various major solid tumors and leukemia. A tumor-specific fusion gene event may occur when a translocation joins two separate genes. Currently, various CT databases provide information about fusion genes and their genomic elements. However, no database of the roles of fusion genes, in terms of essential functional and regulatory elements in oncogenesis, is available. FARE-CAFE is a unique combination of CTs, fusion proteins, protein domains, domain-domain interactions, protein-protein interactions, transcription factors and microRNAs, with subsequent experimental information, which cannot be found in any other CT database. Genomic DNA information including, for example, manually collected exact locations of the first and second break points, sequences and karyotypes of fusion genes are included. FARE-CAFE will substantially facilitate the cancer biologist's mission of elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. This database will ultimately help to develop 'novel' therapeutic approaches. Database URL: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/FARE-CAFE. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Seeing through the dark: New insights into the immune regulatory functions of vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chrysothemis C.; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The importance of vitamin A for host defense is undeniable and the study of its mechanisms is paramount. Of the estimated 250 million preschool children who are vitamin A deficient (VAD), 10% will die from their increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Vitamin A supplementation was established in the 1980s as one of the most successful interventions in the developing world. Understanding how Vitamin A controls immunity will curb the mortality and morbidity associated with VAD and exploit the immune enhancing capacity of vitamin A to heighten host resistance to infectious disease. The discoveries that retinoic acid (RA) imprints the homing of leukocytes to the gut and enhanced the induction of regulatory T-cells highlighted a potential role for RA in mucosal tolerance. However, emerging data tells of a more profound systemic impact of RA on leukocyte function and commitment. In animal models using genetic manipulation of RA signaling, we learn when and how RA controls T-cell fate. Here we review the role for RA as a critical checkpoint regulator in the differentiation of CD4+ T-cells within the immune system. PMID:25808452

  1. FARE-CAFE: a database of functional and regulatory elements of cancer-associated fusion events

    PubMed Central

    Korla, Praveen Kumar; Cheng, Jack; Huang, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jeffrey J. P.; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation (CT) is of enormous clinical interest because this disorder is associated with various major solid tumors and leukemia. A tumor-specific fusion gene event may occur when a translocation joins two separate genes. Currently, various CT databases provide information about fusion genes and their genomic elements. However, no database of the roles of fusion genes, in terms of essential functional and regulatory elements in oncogenesis, is available. FARE-CAFE is a unique combination of CTs, fusion proteins, protein domains, domain–domain interactions, protein–protein interactions, transcription factors and microRNAs, with subsequent experimental information, which cannot be found in any other CT database. Genomic DNA information including, for example, manually collected exact locations of the first and second break points, sequences and karyotypes of fusion genes are included. FARE-CAFE will substantially facilitate the cancer biologist’s mission of elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. This database will ultimately help to develop ‘novel’ therapeutic approaches. Database URL: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/FARE-CAFE PMID:26384373

  2. Extracytoplasmic function σ factors of the widely distributed group ECF41 contain a fused regulatory domain

    PubMed Central

    Wecke, Tina; Halang, Petra; Staroń, Anna; Dufour, Yann S; Donohue, Timothy J; Mascher, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria need signal transducing systems to respond to environmental changes. Next to one- and two-component systems, alternative σ factors of the extra-cytoplasmic function (ECF) protein family represent the third fundamental mechanism of bacterial signal transduction. A comprehensive classification of these proteins identified more than 40 phylogenetically distinct groups, most of which are not experimentally investigated. Here, we present the characterization of such a group with unique features, termed ECF41. Among analyzed bacterial genomes, ECF41 σ factors are widely distributed with about 400 proteins from 10 different phyla. They lack obvious anti-σ factors that typically control activity of other ECF σ factors, but their structural genes are often predicted to be cotranscribed with carboxymuconolactone decarboxylases, oxidoreductases, or epimerases based on genomic context conservation. We demonstrate for Bacillus licheniformis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides that the corresponding genes are preceded by a highly conserved promoter motif and are the only detectable targets of ECF41-dependent gene regulation. In contrast to other ECF σ factors, proteins of group ECF41 contain a large C-terminal extension, which is crucial for σ factor activity. Our data demonstrate that ECF41 σ factors are regulated by a novel mechanism based on the presence of a fused regulatory domain. PMID:22950025

  3. Seeing through the dark: New insights into the immune regulatory functions of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brown, Chrysothemis C; Noelle, Randolph J

    2015-05-01

    The importance of vitamin A for host defense is undeniable and the study of its mechanisms is paramount. Of the estimated 250 million preschool children who are vitamin A-deficient (VAD), 10% will die from their increased susceptibility to infectious disease. Vitamin A supplementation was established in the 1980s as one of the most successful interventions in the developing world. Understanding how vitamin A controls immunity will help curb the mortality and morbidity associated with vitamin A deficiency and exploit the immune-enhancing capacity of vitamin A to heighten host resistance to infectious disease. The discoveries that retinoic acid (RA) imprints the homing of leukocytes to the gut and enhances the induction of regulatory T cells, highlighted a potential role for RA in mucosal tolerance. However, more recently emerging data tell of a more profound systemic impact of RA on leukocyte function and commitment. In animal models using genetic manipulation of RA signaling, we learned when and how RA controls T cell fate. Here, we review the role for RA as a critical checkpoint regulator in the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells within the immune system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Accumulation and suppressive function of regulatory T cells in malignant ascites: Reducing their suppressive function using arsenic trioxide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zilong; Hu, Shidong; Wu, Youjun; Li, Songyan; He, Changzheng; Xing, Xiaowei; Wang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohui

    2018-04-01

    Although adoptive cell therapy (ACT) has demonstrated effective and remarkable clinical responses in several studies, this approach does not lead to objective clinical responses in all cases. The function of ACT is often compromised by various tumor escape mechanisms, including the accumulation of immunoregulatory cells. As a result of peritoneal metastasis in the terminal stage, malignant ascites fluid lacks effectiveness and is a poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The present study assessed T-cell subsets in lymphocytes derived from malignant ascites, and investigated the effects of arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ascites-derived tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in vitro . In this study, lymphocytes were separated from malignant ascites and T-cell subsets were detected via flow cytometry. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Abundant Tregs were observed in ascites lymphocytes, which and exhibited a significantly increased frequency compared with that in the peripheral blood of patients. Furthermore, As 2 O 3 treatment significantly reduced Treg numbers and Foxp3 mRNA levels in vitro (P<0.05). IFN-γ levels in the supernatant of ascites-derived TILs were increased by As 2 O 3 , whereas IL-10 and TGF-β levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05). As 2 O 3 may induce selective depletion and inhibit immunosuppressive function of Tregs, and may enhance the cytotoxic activity of ascites-derived TILs.

  5. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on airway epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, Manon; Bilodeau, Claudia; Maillé, Émilie; LaFayette, Shantelle L; McKay, Geoffrey A; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Beaudoin, Trevor; Desrosiers, Martin-Yvon; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are associated with progressive epithelial damage and lung function decline. In addition to its role in tissue injury, the persistent presence of P. aeruginosa-secreted products may also affect epithelial repair ability, raising the need for new antivirulence therapies. The purpose of our study was to better understand the outcomes of P. aeruginosa exoproducts exposure on airway epithelial repair processes to identify a strategy to counteract their deleterious effect. We found that P. aeruginosa exoproducts significantly decreased wound healing, migration, and proliferation rates, and impaired the ability of directional migration of primary non-cystic fibrosis (CF) human airway epithelial cells. Impact of exoproducts was inhibited after mutations in P. aeruginosa genes that encoded for the quorum-sensing (QS) transcriptional regulator, LasR, and the elastase, LasB, whereas impact was restored by LasB induction in ΔlasR mutants. P. aeruginosa purified elastase also induced a significant decrease in non-CF epithelial repair, whereas protease inhibition with phosphoramidon prevented the effect of P. aeruginosa exoproducts. Furthermore, treatment of P. aeruginosa cultures with 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a QS inhibitor, abrogated the negative impact of P. aeruginosa exoproducts on airway epithelial repair. Finally, we confirmed our findings in human airway epithelial cells from patients with CF, a disease featuring P. aeruginosa chronic respiratory infection. These data demonstrate that secreted proteases under the control of the LasR QS system impair airway epithelial repair and that QS inhibitors could be of benefit to counteract the deleterious effect of P. aeruginosa in infected patients.-Ruffin, M., Bilodeau, C., Maillé, É., LaFayette, S. L., McKay, G. A., Trinh, N. T. N., Beaudoin, T., Desrosiers, M.-Y., Rousseau, S., Nguyen, D., Brochiero, E. Quorum-sensing inhibition abrogates the deleterious impact

  6. Percentage and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ting-Jun; Cao, Xue-Liang; Luan, Sha; Cui, Wan-Hui; Qiu, Si-Huang; Wang, Yi-Chao; Zhao, Chang-Jiu; Fu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The current study observed the percentage of peripheral blood (PB) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the influence of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on the proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells in patients with hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, preliminary discussions are presented on the action mechanism of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on hyperthyroidism attacks. The present study identified that compared with the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in healthy control subjects, no significant changes were observed in the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in patients with hyperthyroidism (P>0.05). For patients with hyperthyroidism, CD4+CD25+ Tregs exhibited significantly reduced inhibition of the proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells and decreased secretion capacity on the cytokines of CD4 T cells, compared with those of healthy control subjects (P<0.05). In addition, it was demonstrated that thyroid function of patients with hyperthyroidism was significantly improved (P<0.05) subsequent to receiving medication. Compared with the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in patients with hyperthyroidism before treatment, no significant changes were observed in the percentage of PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs in hyperthyroidism patients following treatment (P>0.05). In the patients with hyperthyroidism, following treatment, CD4+CD25+ Tregs exhibited significantly increased inhibition of the proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells and increased secretion capacity of CD4 T cell cytokines, compared with those of the patients with hyperthyroidism prior to treatment (P<0.05). PB CD4+CD25+ Tregs function was decreased in patients with hyperthyroidism, and its non-proportional decrease may be closely associated with the occurrence and progression of hyperthyroidism. PMID:29207121

  7. Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor-2 in the fibrotic kidney: regulation, target specificity, and functional implication.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ruoyun; He, Weichun; Lin, Xia; Kiss, Lawrence P; Liu, Youhua

    2008-05-01

    Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor-2 (Smurf2) is an E3 ubiqutin ligase that plays a pivotal role in regulating TGF-beta signaling via selectively targeting key components of the Smad pathway for degradation. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of Smurf2 expression, its target specificity, and the functional implication of its induction in the fibrotic kidney. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Smurf2 was upregulated specifically in renal tubules of kidney biopsies from patients with various nephropathies. In vitro, Smurf2 mRNA and protein were induced in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HKC-8) upon TGF-beta1 stimulation. Ectopic expression of Smurf2 was sufficient to reduce the steady-state levels of Smad2, but not Smad1, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7, in HKC-8 cells. Interestingly, Smurf2 was also able to downregulate the Smad transcriptional corepressors Ski, SnoN, and TG-interacting factor. Inhibition of the proteasomal pathway prevented Smurf2-mediated downregulation of Smad2 and Smad corepressors. Functionally, overexpression of Smurf2 enhanced the transcription of the TGF-beta-responsive promoter and augmented TGF-beta1-mediated E-cadherin suppression, as well as fibronectin and type I collagen induction in HKC-8 cells. These results indicate that Smurf2 specifically targets both positive and negative Smad regulators for destruction in tubular epithelial cells, thereby providing a complex fine-tuning of TGF-beta signaling. It appears that dysregulation of Smurf2 could contribute to an aberrant TGF-beta/Smad signaling in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis.

  8. Functional characterization of a regulatory human T-cell subpopulation increasing during autologous MLR.

    PubMed Central

    Cosulich, M E; Risso, A; Canonica, G W; Bargellesi, A

    1986-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the heterogeneity of helper T cells in humans using two different monoclonal antibodies: 5/9 and MLR4. The former identifies 15-20% of resting T lymphocytes from peripheral blood and corresponds to an anti-helper/inducer T cell. The second antibody, MLR4, recognizes 5% of total T lymphocytes and partially overlaps with the 5/9+ T cells. In order to investigate functional differences within the 5/9+ cells, we separated two different subsets (5/9+ MLR+ and 5/9+ MLR4-) by a rosetting technique. Although both subsets provide help for Ig synthesis in a PWM-stimulated culture, only the 5/9+ MLR4- fraction gave a proliferative response in both autologous and allogeneic MLR and to soluble protein antigens. The effect of radiation on the ability of the two subsets to provide help for Ig synthesis showed that the 5/9+ MLR4+ subset is highly radiation-sensitive, while 5/9+ MLR- is relatively radiation-resistant. In a further series of experiments, 5/9+ MLR4+ cells isolated after activation in an autologous MLR but not by Con A, were no longer able to induce T-cell differentiation but now showed a strong suppressor effect. The 5/9+ MLR4- subset separated from the same cultures did not display any suppressor function. These data demonstrate in fresh PBL the existence of a radiation-sensitive regulatory subset exerting a helper activity, and which acquires suppressor activity after activation in autologous MLR. PMID:2936679

  9. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) controls myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sorim; Kang, Kyeongah; Cha, Jae Seon; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Hee Gu; Kim, Yonghwan; Yang, Young; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2016-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature cells that do not differentiate into mature myeloid cells. Two major populations of PMN-MDSCs (Ly6G high Ly6C low Gr1 high CD11b + ) and MO-MDSCs (Ly6G - Ly6C high Gr-1 int CD11b + ) have an immune suppressive function. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) has a role in the negative regulation of TLR signaling and is associated with lymphoid cell development. However, the roles of IRF4 in myeloid cell differentiation are unclear. In this study, we found that IRF4 expression was remarkably suppressed during the development of MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment. Both the mRNA and protein levels of IRF4 in MDSCs were gradually reduced, depending on the development of tumors in the 4T1 model. siRNA-mediated knockdown of IRF4 in bone marrow cells promoted the differentiation of PMN-MDSCs. Similarly, IRF4 inhibition in bone marrow cells using simvastatin, which has been known to inhibit IRF4 expression, increased PMN-MDSC numbers. In contrast, IRF4 overexpression in bone marrow cells inhibited the total numbers of MDSCs, especially PMN-MDSCs. Notably, treatment with IL-4, an upstream regulator of IRF4, induced IRF4 expression in the bone marrow cells, and consequently, IL-4-induced IRF4 expression resulted in a decrease in PMN-MDSC numbers. Finally, we confirmed that IRF4 expression in MDSCs can modulate their activity to inhibit T cell proliferation through IL-10 production and ROS generation, and myeloid-specific deletion of IRF4 leads to the increase of MDSC differentiation. Our present findings indicate that IRF4 reduction induced by tumor formation can increase the number of MDSCs, and increases in the IRF4 expression in MDSCs may infringe on the immune-suppressive function of MDSCs. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. A prior-based integrative framework for functional transcriptional regulatory network inference

    PubMed Central

    Siahpirani, Alireza F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Transcriptional regulatory networks specify regulatory proteins controlling the context-specific expression levels of genes. Inference of genome-wide regulatory networks is central to understanding gene regulation, but remains an open challenge. Expression-based network inference is among the most popular methods to infer regulatory networks, however, networks inferred from such methods have low overlap with experimentally derived (e.g. ChIP-chip and transcription factor (TF) knockouts) networks. Currently we have a limited understanding of this discrepancy. To address this gap, we first develop a regulatory network inference algorithm, based on probabilistic graphical models, to integrate expression with auxiliary datasets supporting a regulatory edge. Second, we comprehensively analyze our and other state-of-the-art methods on different expression perturbation datasets. Networks inferred by integrating sequence-specific motifs with expression have substantially greater agreement with experimentally derived networks, while remaining more predictive of expression than motif-based networks. Our analysis suggests natural genetic variation as the most informative perturbation for network inference, and, identifies core TFs whose targets are predictable from expression. Multiple reasons make the identification of targets of other TFs difficult, including network architecture and insufficient variation of TF mRNA level. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our inference algorithm to infer stress-specific regulatory networks and for regulator prioritization. PMID:27794550

  11. Pathogenic adaptation of intracellular bacteria by rewiring a cis-regulatory input function.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Suzanne E; Walthers, Don; Tomljenovic, Ana M; Mulder, David T; Silphaduang, Uma; Duong, Nancy; Lowden, Michael J; Wickham, Mark E; Waller, Ross F; Kenney, Linda J; Coombes, Brian K

    2009-03-10

    The acquisition of DNA by horizontal gene transfer enables bacteria to adapt to previously unexploited ecological niches. Although horizontal gene transfer and mutation of protein-coding sequences are well-recognized forms of pathogen evolution, the evolutionary significance of cis-regulatory mutations in creating phenotypic diversity through altered transcriptional outputs is not known. We show the significance of regulatory mutation for pathogen evolution by mapping and then rewiring a cis-regulatory module controlling a gene required for murine typhoid. Acquisition of a binding site for the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 regulator, SsrB, enabled the srfN gene, ancestral to the Salmonella genus, to play a role in pathoadaptation of S. typhimurium to a host animal. We identified the evolved cis-regulatory module and quantified the fitness gain that this regulatory output accrues for the bacterium using competitive infections of host animals. Our findings highlight a mechanism of pathogen evolution involving regulatory mutation that is selected because of the fitness advantage the new regulatory output provides the incipient clones.

  12. Pathogenic adaptation of intracellular bacteria by rewiring a cis-regulatory input function

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Suzanne E.; Walthers, Don; Tomljenovic, Ana M.; Mulder, David T.; Silphaduang, Uma; Duong, Nancy; Lowden, Michael J.; Wickham, Mark E.; Waller, Ross F.; Kenney, Linda J.; Coombes, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of DNA by horizontal gene transfer enables bacteria to adapt to previously unexploited ecological niches. Although horizontal gene transfer and mutation of protein-coding sequences are well-recognized forms of pathogen evolution, the evolutionary significance of cis-regulatory mutations in creating phenotypic diversity through altered transcriptional outputs is not known. We show the significance of regulatory mutation for pathogen evolution by mapping and then rewiring a cis-regulatory module controlling a gene required for murine typhoid. Acquisition of a binding site for the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 regulator, SsrB, enabled the srfN gene, ancestral to the Salmonella genus, to play a role in pathoadaptation of S. typhimurium to a host animal. We identified the evolved cis-regulatory module and quantified the fitness gain that this regulatory output accrues for the bacterium using competitive infections of host animals. Our findings highlight a mechanism of pathogen evolution involving regulatory mutation that is selected because of the fitness advantage the new regulatory output provides the incipient clones. PMID:19234126

  13. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tomonori; Sawada, Daisuke; Ishida, Yu; Aihara, Kotaro; Aoki, Yumeko; Takehara, Isao; Takano, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×10(10) washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively). Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013). The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008), whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003). The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic activity was elevated in the CP2305 group (p=0.0401 and

  14. Regulatory effect of paraprobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 on gut environment and function

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Tomonori; Sawada, Daisuke; Ishida, Yu; Aihara, Kotaro; Aoki, Yumeko; Takehara, Isao; Takano, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) is a strain of Lactobacillus isolated from a stool sample from a healthy adult that showed beneficial effects on health as a paraprobiotic. In a previous study, we demonstrated that CP2305-fermented heat-treated milk modified gut functions more than artificially acidified sour milk. Thus, the regulatory activity of the former beverage was attributed to the inactivated CP2305 cells. Objective The aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of non-viable paraprobiotic CP2305 cells to regulating human gut functions. We thus conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded parallel group trial. Design The trial included 118 healthy participants with relatively low or high stool frequencies. The test beverage was prepared by adding 1×1010 washed, heat-treated, and dried CP2305 cells directly to the placebo beverage. The participants ingested a bottle of the assigned beverage daily for 3 weeks and answered daily questionnaires about defecation and quality of life. Fecal samples were collected and the fecal characteristics, microbial metabolite contents of the feces and composition of fecal microbiota were evaluated. Results The number of evacuations and the scores for fecal odors were significantly improved in the group that consumed the CP2305-containing beverage compared with those of the group that consumed the placebo (p=0.035 and p=0.040, respectively). Regarding the fecal contents of microbial metabolites, the level of fecal p-cresol was significantly decreased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p=0.013). The Bifidobacterium content of the intestinal microbiota was significantly increased in the CP2305 group relative to that of the placebo group (p<0.008), whereas the content of Clostridium cluster IV was significantly decreased (p<0.003). The parasympathetic nerve activity of the autonomic nervous system became dominant and the total power of autonomic activity was elevated

  15. Genomic identification of regulatory elements by evolutionary sequence comparison and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Loots, Gabriela G

    2008-01-01

    Despite remarkable recent advances in genomics that have enabled us to identify most of the genes in the human genome, comparable efforts to define transcriptional cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression are lagging behind. The difficulty of this task stems from two equally important problems: our knowledge of how regulatory elements are encoded in genomes remains elementary, and there is a vast genomic search space for regulatory elements, since most of mammalian genomes are noncoding. Comparative genomic approaches are having a remarkable impact on the study of transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes and currently represent the most efficient and reliable methods of predicting noncoding sequences likely to control the patterns of gene expression. By subjecting eukaryotic genomic sequences to computational comparisons and subsequent experimentation, we are inching our way toward a more comprehensive catalog of common regulatory motifs that lie behind fundamental biological processes. We are still far from comprehending how the transcriptional regulatory code is encrypted in the human genome and providing an initial global view of regulatory gene networks, but collectively, the continued development of comparative and experimental approaches will rapidly expand our knowledge of the transcriptional regulome.

  16. Neurotensin may function as a regulatory peptide in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Davis, T P; Crowell, S; McInturff, B; Louis, R; Gillespie, T

    1991-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) has been postulated to act as a modulatory agent in the central nervous system. Besides its presence in mammalian brain, NT is produced by small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCLC) and cell lines derived from these tumors. Receptors have also been characterized in some SCLC cell lines leading to the suggestion that NT could regulate the growth of SCLC in an autocrine fashion similar to bombesin/GRP. Previously, we had reported that a 10 nM dose of NT and NT(8-13), but not NT(1-8), elevated cytosolic Ca2+, indicating that SCLC NT receptors may use Ca2+ as a second messenger. Using intact SCLC cells we report that time-course incubations with NT lead to the formation of the amino-terminal fragment NT(1-8) and small amounts of the C-terminal fragment NT(9-13). These fragments are formed by metalloendopeptidase 3.4.24.15 cleaving enzyme at the Arg8-Arg9 bond of NT. Significant levels of soluble 3.4.24.15 (10-17 nmoles/mg Pr-/min) are present in SCLC cell lines. Using the in vitro clonogenic assay we tested the effect of 0.5, 5.0 and 10.0 nM doses of NT, NT(1-8) and NT(8-13) on SCLC clonal growth. NT and the C-terminal fragment NT(8-13) stimulated colony formation whereas the N-terminal fragment did not. In summary, NT may function as a regulatory peptide in SCLC through the formation of peptide fragments.

  17. Early Pregnancy Factor Enhances the Generation and Function of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quangang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Chen, Renjin; Liu, Jing; Liu, Peng; Hu, Ankang; Wu, Lianlian; Hua, Hui; Yuan, Honghua

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms of fetal semi-allograft acceptance by the mother's immune system have been the target of many immunological studies. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a molecule present in the serum of pregnant mammals soon after conception that has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether immune cells such as CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the suppressive mechanism of EPF. Accordingly, CD4 + CD25 - T cells were isolated from spleens of female C57BL/6 mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody, anti-CD28 antibody and IL-2 in the presence or absence of EPF. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the differentiation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells to CD4 + CD25 + Tregs. We thus found a remarkable rise in the Treg ratio in the EPF-treated cells. Higher mRNA and protein levels of fork head box P3 (Foxp3), a marker of the Treg lineage, were also observed in cells treated with EPF. Furthermore, the effect of EPF on Treg immunosuppressive capacity was evaluated. EPF treatment induced the expression of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β1 in Tregs. The suppressive capacity of Tregs was further measured by their capability to inhibit T cell receptor-mediated proliferation of CD4 + CD25 - T cells. We thus found that EPF exposure can enhance the immunosuppressive functions of Tregs. Overall, our data suggest that EPF induces the differentiation of Tregs and increases their immunosuppressive activities, which might be an important mechanism to inhibit immune responses during pregnancy.

  18. Functional cis-regulatory modules encoded by mouse-specific endogenous retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vasavi; Choudhary, Mayank N. K.; Pehrsson, Erica; Xing, Xiaoyun; Fiore, Christopher; Pandey, Manishi; Maricque, Brett; Udawatta, Methma; Ngo, Duc; Chen, Yujie; Paguntalan, Asia; Ray, Tammy; Hughes, Ava; Cohen, Barak A.; Wang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules contain multiple transcription factor (TF)-binding sites and integrate the effects of each TF to control gene expression in specific cellular contexts. Transposable elements (TEs) are uniquely equipped to deposit their regulatory sequences across a genome, which could also contain cis-regulatory modules that coordinate the control of multiple genes with the same regulatory logic. We provide the first evidence of mouse-specific TEs that encode a module of TF-binding sites in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The majority (77%) of the individual TEs tested exhibited enhancer activity in mouse ESCs. By mutating individual TF-binding sites within the TE, we identified a module of TF-binding motifs that cooperatively enhanced gene expression. Interestingly, we also observed the same motif module in the in silico constructed ancestral TE that also acted cooperatively to enhance gene expression. Our results suggest that ancestral TE insertions might have brought in cis-regulatory modules into the mouse genome. PMID:28348391

  19. Hill functions for stochastic gene regulatory networks from master equations with split nodes and time-scale separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipan, Ovidiu; Ferwerda, Cameron

    2018-02-01

    The deterministic Hill function depends only on the average values of molecule numbers. To account for the fluctuations in the molecule numbers, the argument of the Hill function needs to contain the means, the standard deviations, and the correlations. Here we present a method that allows for stochastic Hill functions to be constructed from the dynamical evolution of stochastic biocircuits with specific topologies. These stochastic Hill functions are presented in a closed analytical form so that they can be easily incorporated in models for large genetic regulatory networks. Using a repressive biocircuit as an example, we show by Monte Carlo simulations that the traditional deterministic Hill function inaccurately predicts time of repression by an order of two magnitudes. However, the stochastic Hill function was able to capture the fluctuations and thus accurately predicted the time of repression.

  20. Distinctive Regulatory T Cells and Altered Cytokine Profile Locally in the Airways of Young Smokers with Normal Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Ostadkarampour, Mahyar; Müller, Malin; Öckinger, Johan; Kullberg, Susanna; Lindén, Anders; Eklund, Anders; Grunewald, Johan; Wahlström, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Smoking influences the immune system in different ways and, hypothetically, effects on pulmonary effector and regulatory T cells emerge as potentially detrimental. Therefore, we characterized the frequencies and characteristics of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets in the blood and lungs of young tobacco smokers. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood were obtained from healthy moderate smokers (n = 18; 2–24 pack-years) and never-smokers (n = 15), all with normal lung function. Cells were stimulated ex vivo and key intracellular cytokines (IFNγ, IL-17, IL-10 and TNFα) and transcription factors (Foxp3, T-bet and Helios) were analyzed using flow cytometry. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with a decline in lung IL-17+ CD4+ T cells, increased IFNγ+ CD8+ T cells and these alterations relate to the history of daily cigarette consumption. There is an increased fraction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells being Helios- in the lungs of smokers. Cytokine production is mainly confined to the Helios- T cells, both in regulatory and effector subsets. Moreover, we detected a decline of Helios+Foxp3- postulated regulatory CD8+ T cells in smokers. These alterations in the immune system are likely to increase risk for infection and may have implications for autoimmune processes initiated in the lungs among tobacco smokers. PMID:27798682

  1. Functional analysis of the upstream regulatory region of chicken miR-17-92 cluster.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min; Zhang, Wen-jian; Xing, Tian-yu; Yan, Xiao-hong; Li, Yu-mao; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2016-08-01

    miR-17-92 cluster plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, animal development and tumorigenesis. The transcriptional regulation of miR-17-92 cluster has been extensively studied in mammals, but not in birds. To date, avian miR-17-92 cluster genomic structure has not been fully determined. The promoter location and sequence of miR-17-92 cluster have not been determined, due to the existence of a genomic gap sequence upstream of miR-17-92 cluster in all the birds whose genomes have been sequenced. In this study, genome walking was used to close the genomic gap upstream of chicken miR-17-92 cluster. In addition, bioinformatics analysis, reporter gene assay and truncation mutagenesis were used to investigate functional role of the genomic gap sequence. Genome walking analysis showed that the gap region was 1704 bp long, and its GC content was 80.11%. Bioinformatics analysis showed that in the gap region, there was a 200 bp conserved sequence among the tested 10 species (Gallus gallus, Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, Possum, Danio rerio, Rana nigromaculata), which is core promoter region of mammalian miR-17-92 host gene (MIR17HG). Promoter luciferase reporter gene vector of the gap region was constructed and reporter assay was performed. The result showed that the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506) was 417 times than that of negative control (empty pGL3 basic vector), suggesting that chicken miR-17-92 cluster promoter exists in the gap region. To further gain insight into the promoter structure, two different truncations for the cloned gap sequence were generated by PCR. One had a truncation of 448 bp at the 5'-end and the other had a truncation of 894 bp at the 3'-end. Further reporter analysis showed that compared with the promoter activity of pGL3-cMIR17HG (-4228/-2506), the reporter activities of the 5'-end truncation and the 3'-end truncation were reduced by 19

  2. The regulatory function of social referencing in preschoolers with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An important developmental task is to learn to recognize another person as a source of information and to utilize this information as a method of learning about the surrounding world. This socially guided form of learning, referred to as social referencing, is critical for the development of children’s understanding of other people, themselves and their surrounding world. In the present project, the regulatory function of social referencing was examined in two genetic disorders that are characterized by differing patterns of socio-cognitive development: Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Methods Participants were 20 children with DS and 20 children with WS aged 42 to 71 months, matched on chronological age and gender. Each child participated in four studies: one study in which we examined performance in a social referencing paradigm and three studies in which we considered performance on tasks designed to tap each of three component abilities (initiating eye contact, gaze following and emotional responsivity) important for success in social referencing. Results The majority of children in both groups demonstrated positive behavioral responses regarding the stimulus in the Social Referencing task when the adult communicated a joyful message but did not regulate their own behavior in accordance with the adult’s expression of fear. Between-group differences were observed in both conditions, with most differences indicating more advanced socio-communicative competence for children with DS than for children with WS even though the overall intellectual abilities and receptive language abilities of the children with WS were significantly higher than were those of the children with DS. The results of follow-up studies indicated that children with DS were more likely to initiate eye contact (unsolicited) and to follow another person’s gaze in triadic situations than were children with WS. Neither group regulated their behavior in response to

  3. Elements in the transcriptional regulatory region flanking herpes simplex virus type 1 oriS stimulate origin function.

    PubMed

    Wong, S W; Schaffer, P A

    1991-05-01

    Like other DNA-containing viruses, the three origins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA replication are flanked by sequences containing transcriptional regulatory elements. In a transient plasmid replication assay, deletion of sequences comprising the transcriptional regulatory elements of ICP4 and ICP22/47, which flank oriS, resulted in a greater than 80-fold decrease in origin function compared with a plasmid, pOS-822, which retains these sequences. In an effort to identify specific cis-acting elements responsible for this effect, we conducted systematic deletion analysis of the flanking region with plasmid pOS-822 and tested the resulting mutant plasmids for origin function. Stimulation by cis-acting elements was shown to be both distance and orientation dependent, as changes in either parameter resulted in a decrease in oriS function. Additional evidence for the stimulatory effect of flanking sequences on origin function was demonstrated by replacement of these sequences with the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter, resulting in nearly wild-type levels of oriS function. In competition experiments, cotransfection of cells with the test plasmid, pOS-822, and increasing molar concentrations of a competitor plasmid which contained the ICP4 and ICP22/47 transcriptional regulatory regions but lacked core origin sequences resulted in a significant reduction in the replication efficiency of pOS-822, demonstrating that factors which bind specifically to the oriS-flanking sequences are likely involved as auxiliary proteins in oriS function. Together, these studies demonstrate that trans-acting factors and the sites to which they bind play a critical role in the efficiency of HSV-1 DNA replication from oriS in transient-replication assays.

  4. Functional conservation between rodents and chicken of regulatory sequences driving skeletal muscle gene expression in transgenic chickens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Regulatory elements that control expression of specific genes during development have been shown in many cases to contain functionally-conserved modules that can be transferred between species and direct gene expression in a comparable developmental pattern. An example of such a module has been identified at the rat myosin light chain (MLC) 1/3 locus, which has been well characterised in transgenic mouse studies. This locus contains two promoters encoding two alternatively spliced isoforms of alkali myosin light chain. These promoters are differentially regulated during development through the activity of two enhancer elements. The MLC3 promoter alone has been shown to confer expression of a reporter gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle in transgenic mice and the addition of the downstream MLC enhancer increased expression levels in skeletal muscle. We asked whether this regulatory module, sufficient for striated muscle gene expression in the mouse, would drive expression in similar domains in the chicken. Results We have observed that a conserved downstream MLC enhancer is present in the chicken MLC locus. We found that the rat MLC1/3 regulatory elements were transcriptionally active in chick skeletal muscle primary cultures. We observed that a single copy lentiviral insert containing this regulatory cassette was able to drive expression of a lacZ reporter gene in the fast-fibres of skeletal muscle in chicken in three independent transgenic chicken lines in a pattern similar to the endogenous MLC locus. Reporter gene expression in cardiac muscle tissues was not observed for any of these lines. Conclusions From these results we conclude that skeletal expression from this regulatory module is conserved in a genomic context between rodents and chickens. This transgenic module will be useful in future investigations of muscle development in avian species. PMID:20184756

  5. Functional Assessment of Disease-Associated Regulatory Variants In Vivo Using a Versatile Dual Colour Transgenesis Strategy in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Shipra; Gordon, Christopher T.; Foster, Robert G.; Melin, Lucie; Abadie, Véronique; Baujat, Geneviève; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas; van Heyningen, Veronica; Kleinjan, Dirk A.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of gene regulation by sequence variation in non-coding regions of the genome is now recognised as a significant cause of human disease and disease susceptibility. Sequence variants in cis-regulatory elements (CREs), the primary determinants of spatio-temporal gene regulation, can alter transcription factor binding sites. While technological advances have led to easy identification of disease-associated CRE variants, robust methods for discerning functional CRE variants from background variation are lacking. Here we describe an efficient dual-colour reporter transgenesis approach in zebrafish, simultaneously allowing detailed in vivo comparison of spatio-temporal differences in regulatory activity between putative CRE variants and assessment of altered transcription factor binding potential of the variant. We validate the method on known disease-associated elements regulating SHH, PAX6 and IRF6 and subsequently characterise novel, ultra-long-range SOX9 enhancers implicated in the craniofacial abnormality Pierre Robin Sequence. The method provides a highly cost-effective, fast and robust approach for simultaneously unravelling in a single assay whether, where and when in embryonic development a disease-associated CRE-variant is affecting its regulatory function. PMID:26030420

  6. Integrated analysis of microRNA and gene expression profiles reveals a functional regulatory module associated with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Wenshan; Yang, Aiting; Xu, Anjian; Wang, Huan; Cong, Min; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; You, Hong

    2017-12-15

    Liver fibrosis, characterized with the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, represents the final common pathway of chronic liver inflammation. Ever-increasing evidence indicates microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation has important implications in the different stages of liver fibrosis. However, our knowledge of miRNA-gene regulation details pertaining to such disease remains unclear. The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets of patients suffered from cirrhosis were extracted for integrated analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R web tool. Putative target gene prediction of DEMs was carried out using the intersection of five major algorithms: DIANA-microT, TargetScan, miRanda, PICTAR5 and miRWalk. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory network (FMGRN) was constructed based on the computational target predictions at the sequence level and the inverse expression relationships between DEMs and DEGs. DAVID web server was selected to perform KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory module was generated based on the biological interpretation. Internal connections among genes in liver fibrosis-related module were determined using String database. MiRNA-gene regulatory modules related to liver fibrosis were experimentally verified in recombinant human TGFβ1 stimulated and specific miRNA inhibitor treated LX-2 cells. We totally identified 85 and 923 dysregulated miRNAs and genes in liver cirrhosis biopsy samples compared to their normal controls. All evident miRNA-gene pairs were identified and assembled into FMGRN which consisted of 990 regulations between 51 miRNAs and 275 genes, forming two big sub-networks that were defined as down-network and up-network, respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that up-network was prominently involved in several KEGG pathways, in which "Focal adhesion", "PI3K-Akt signaling pathway" and "ECM

  7. Bringing a probiotic-containing functional food to the market: microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues.

    PubMed

    Sanders, M E; Huis in't Veld, J

    1999-01-01

    Properly formulated probiotic-containing foods offer consumers a low risk, low cost dietary component that has the potential to promote health in a variety of ways. Several such products are available commercially, although markets in Japan and Europe are more developed than in the USA. Once healthful attributes of a probiotic product have been identified, there remain microbiological, product, regulatory and labeling issues to be addressed prior to marketing. Microbiological and product issues include safety, effective scale-up for manufacturing, definition of probiotic activity, probiotic stability in the product over the course of product manufacture, shelf-life and consumption, definition of effective dose and target population(s), and development of quality assurance approaches. Examples of probiotic-containing foods are given. Regulatory and labeling issues are complicated because they differ for each country, but are likewise critical because they provide the means for communication of the product benefits to the consumer. The regulatory climate worldwide appears to be one of caution about overstating the benefits of such products but at the same time not preventing corporate commitment to marketing.

  8. Loss of p53 induces M-phase retardation following G2 DNA damage checkpoint abrogation.

    PubMed

    Minemoto, Yuzuru; Uchida, Sanae; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Shimura, Mari; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masato; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Yamashita, Katsumi

    2003-04-01

    Most cell lines that lack functional p53 protein are arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle due to DNA damage. When the G2 checkpoint is abrogated, these cells are forced into mitotic catastrophe. A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in which p53 was eliminated with the HPV16 E6 gene, exhibited efficient arrest in the G2 phase when treated with adriamycin. Administration of caffeine to G2-arrested cells induced a drastic change in cell phenotype, the nature of which depended on the status of p53. Flow cytometric and microscopic observations revealed that cells that either contained or lacked p53 resumed their cell cycles and entered mitosis upon caffeine treatment. However, transit to the M phase was slower in p53-negative cells than in p53-positive cells. Consistent with these observations, CDK1 activity was maintained at high levels, along with stable cyclin B1, in p53-negative cells. The addition of butyrolactone I, which is an inhibitor of CDK1 and CDK2, to the p53-negative cells reduced the floating round cell population and induced the disappearance of cyclin B1. These results suggest a relationship between the p53 pathway and the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of mitotic cyclins and possible cross-talk between the G2-DNA damage checkpoint and the mitotic checkpoint.

  9. CLIP-seq analysis of multi-mapped reads discovers novel functional RNA regulatory sites in the human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zijun; Xing, Yi

    2017-09-19

    Crosslinking or RNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (CLIP-seq or RIP-seq) allows transcriptome-wide discovery of RNA regulatory sites. As CLIP-seq/RIP-seq reads are short, existing computational tools focus on uniquely mapped reads, while reads mapped to multiple loci are discarded. We present CLAM (CLIP-seq Analysis of Multi-mapped reads). CLAM uses an expectation-maximization algorithm to assign multi-mapped reads and calls peaks combining uniquely and multi-mapped reads. To demonstrate the utility of CLAM, we applied it to a wide range of public CLIP-seq/RIP-seq datasets involving numerous splicing factors, microRNAs and m6A RNA methylation. CLAM recovered a large number of novel RNA regulatory sites inaccessible by uniquely mapped reads. The functional significance of these sites was demonstrated by consensus motif patterns and association with alternative splicing (splicing factors), transcript abundance (AGO2) and mRNA half-life (m6A). CLAM provides a useful tool to discover novel protein-RNA interactions and RNA modification sites from CLIP-seq and RIP-seq data, and reveals the significant contribution of repetitive elements to the RNA regulatory landscape of the human transcriptome. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Role of Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 (Lag-3) in Conventional and Regulatory T Cell Function in Allogeneic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sega, Emanuela I.; Leveson-Gower, Dennis B.; Florek, Mareike; Schneidawind, Dominik; Luong, Richard H.; Negrin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Lag-3 has emerged as an important molecule in T cell biology. We investigated the role of Lag-3 in conventional T cell (Tcon) and regulatory T cell (Treg) function in murine GVHD with the hypothesis that Lag-3 engagement diminishes alloreactive T cell responses after bone marrow transplantation. We demonstrate that Lag-3 deficient Tcon (Lag-3−/− Tcon) induce significantly more severe GVHD than wild type (WT) Tcon and that the absence of Lag-3 on CD4 but not CD8 T cells is responsible for exacerbating GVHD. Lag-3−/− Tcon exhibited increased activation and proliferation as indicated by CFSE and bioluminescence imaging analyses and higher levels of activation markers such as CD69, CD107a, granzyme B, and Ki-67 as well as production of IL-10 and IFN-g early after transplantation. Lag-3−/− Tcon were less responsive to suppression by WT Treg as compared to WT Tcon. The absence of Lag-3, however, did not impair Treg function as both Lag-3−/− and WT Treg equally suppress the proliferation of Tcon in vitro and in vivo and protect against GVHD. Further, we demonstrate that allogeneic Treg acquire recipient MHC class II molecules through a process termed trogocytosis. As MHC class II is a ligand for Lag-3, we propose a novel suppression mechanism employed by Treg involving the acquisition of host MHC-II followed by the engagement of Lag-3 on T cells. These studies demonstrate for the first time the biologic function of Lag-3 expression on conventional and regulatory T cells in GVHD and identify Lag-3 as an important regulatory molecule involved in alloreactive T cell proliferation and activation after bone marrow transplantation. PMID:24475140

  11. Function, dynamics and evolution of network motif modules in integrated gene regulatory networks of worm and plant.

    PubMed

    Defoort, Jonas; Van de Peer, Yves; Vermeirssen, Vanessa

    2018-06-05

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) consist of different molecular interactions that closely work together to establish proper gene expression in time and space. Especially in higher eukaryotes, many questions remain on how these interactions collectively coordinate gene regulation. We study high quality GRNs consisting of undirected protein-protein, genetic and homologous interactions, and directed protein-DNA, regulatory and miRNA-mRNA interactions in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data-integration framework integrates interactions in composite network motifs, clusters these in biologically relevant, higher-order topological network motif modules, overlays these with gene expression profiles and discovers novel connections between modules and regulators. Similar modules exist in the integrated GRNs of worm and plant. We show how experimental or computational methodologies underlying a certain data type impact network topology. Through phylogenetic decomposition, we found that proteins of worm and plant tend to functionally interact with proteins of a similar age, while at the regulatory level TFs favor same age, but also older target genes. Despite some influence of the duplication mode difference, we also observe at the motif and module level for both species a preference for age homogeneity for undirected and age heterogeneity for directed interactions. This leads to a model where novel genes are added together to the GRNs in a specific biological functional context, regulated by one or more TFs that also target older genes in the GRNs. Overall, we detected topological, functional and evolutionary properties of GRNs that are potentially universal in all species.

  12. Modelling Human Regulatory Variation in Mouse: Finding the Function in Genome-Wide Association Studies and Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schmouth, Jean-François; Bonaguro, Russell J.; Corso-Diaz, Ximena; Simpson, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing body of literature from genome-wide association studies and human whole-genome sequencing highlights the identification of large numbers of candidate regulatory variants of potential therapeutic interest in numerous diseases. Our relatively poor understanding of the functions of non-coding genomic sequence, and the slow and laborious process of experimental validation of the functional significance of human regulatory variants, limits our ability to fully benefit from this information in our efforts to comprehend human disease. Humanized mouse models (HuMMs), in which human genes are introduced into the mouse, suggest an approach to this problem. In the past, HuMMs have been used successfully to study human disease variants; e.g., the complex genetic condition arising from Down syndrome, common monogenic disorders such as Huntington disease and β-thalassemia, and cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1. In this commentary, we highlight a novel method for high-throughput single-copy site-specific generation of HuMMs entitled High-throughput Human Genes on the X Chromosome (HuGX). This method can be applied to most human genes for which a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct can be derived and a mouse-null allele exists. This strategy comprises (1) the use of recombineering technology to create a human variant–harbouring BAC, (2) knock-in of this BAC into the mouse genome using Hprt docking technology, and (3) allele comparison by interspecies complementation. We demonstrate the throughput of the HuGX method by generating a series of seven different alleles for the human NR2E1 gene at Hprt. In future challenges, we consider the current limitations of experimental approaches and call for a concerted effort by the genetics community, for both human and mouse, to solve the challenge of the functional analysis of human regulatory variation. PMID:22396661

  13. Poor allostimulatory function of liver plasmacytoid DC is associated with pro-apoptotic activity, dependent on regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tokita, Daisuke; Sumpter, Tina L.; Raimondi, Giorgio; Zahorchak, Alan F.; Wang, Zhiliang; Nakao, Atsunori; Mazariegos, George V.; Abe, Masanori; Thomson, Angus W.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The liver is comparatively rich in plasmacytoid (p) dendritic cells (DC),- innate immune effector cells that are also thought to play key roles in the induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. Methods Liver and spleen pDC were purified from fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand-reated control or lipopolysaccharide-injected C57BL/10 mice. Flow cytometric and molecular biologic assays were used to characterize their function and interaction with naturally-occurring regulatory T cells (Treg). Results While IL-10 production was greater for freshly-isolated liver compared with splenic pDC, the former produced less bioactive IL-12p70. Moreover, liver pDC expressed a low Delta4/Jagged1 Notch ligand ratio, skewed towards T helper 2 cell differentiation/cytokine production, and promoted allogeneic CD4+ T cell apoptosis. T cell proliferation in response to liver pDC was, however, enhanced by blocking IL-10 function at the initiation of cultures. In the absence of naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, similar levels of T cell proliferation were induced by liver and spleen pDC and the pro-apoptotic activity of liver pDC was reversed. Conclusion The inferior T cell allostimulatory activity of in vivo-stimulated liver pDC may depend on the presence and function of Treg, a property that may contribute to inherent liver tolerogenicity. PMID:18926588

  14. The Segregated Expression of Voltage-Gated Potassium and Sodium Channels in Neuronal Membranes: Functional Implications and Regulatory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Duménieu, Maël; Oulé, Marie; Kreutz, Michael R.; Lopez-Rojas, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells with apparent functional and morphological differences between dendrites and axon. A critical determinant for the molecular and functional identity of axonal and dendritic segments is the restricted expression of voltage-gated ion channels (VGCs). Several studies show an uneven distribution of ion channels and their differential regulation within dendrites and axons, which is a prerequisite for an appropriate integration of synaptic inputs and the generation of adequate action potential (AP) firing patterns. This review article will focus on the signaling pathways leading to segmented expression of voltage-gated potassium and sodium ion channels at the neuronal plasma membrane and the regulatory mechanisms ensuring segregated functions. We will also discuss the relevance of proper ion channel targeting for neuronal physiology and how alterations in polarized distribution contribute to neuronal pathology. PMID:28484374

  15. Use of a Drosophila Genome-Wide Conserved Sequence Database to Identify Functionally Related cis-Regulatory Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Thomas; Yavatkar, Amarendra S; Kuzin, Alexander; Kundu, Mukta; Tyson, Leonard J; Ross, Jermaine; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Lee, Chi-Hon; Awasaki, Takeshi; Lee, Tzumin; Odenwald, Ward F

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phylogenetic footprinting has revealed that cis-regulatory enhancers consist of conserved DNA sequence clusters (CSCs). Currently, there is no systematic approach for enhancer discovery and analysis that takes full-advantage of the sequence information within enhancer CSCs. Results: We have generated a Drosophila genome-wide database of conserved DNA consisting of >100,000 CSCs derived from EvoPrints spanning over 90% of the genome. cis-Decoder database search and alignment algorithms enable the discovery of functionally related enhancers. The program first identifies conserved repeat elements within an input enhancer and then searches the database for CSCs that score highly against the input CSC. Scoring is based on shared repeats as well as uniquely shared matches, and includes measures of the balance of shared elements, a diagnostic that has proven to be useful in predicting cis-regulatory function. To demonstrate the utility of these tools, a temporally-restricted CNS neuroblast enhancer was used to identify other functionally related enhancers and analyze their structural organization. Conclusions: cis-Decoder reveals that co-regulating enhancers consist of combinations of overlapping shared sequence elements, providing insights into the mode of integration of multiple regulating transcription factors. The database and accompanying algorithms should prove useful in the discovery and analysis of enhancers involved in any developmental process. Developmental Dynamics 241:169–189, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key findings A genome-wide catalog of Drosophila conserved DNA sequence clusters. cis-Decoder discovers functionally related enhancers. Functionally related enhancers share balanced sequence element copy numbers. Many enhancers function during multiple phases of development. PMID:22174086

  16. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-19

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met(5)]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met(5)]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  17. The use of in vitro transcription to probe regulatory functions of viral protein domains.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Paul M; Song, Chao-Zhong; Green, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads), like other DNA tumor viruses, have evolved specific regulatory genes that facilitate virus replication by controlling the transcription of other viral genes as well as that of key cellular genes. In this regard, the E1A transcription unit contains multiple protein domains that can transcriptionally activate or repress cellular genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Studies using in vitro transcription have provided a basis for a molecular understanding of the interaction of viral regulatory proteins with the transcriptional machinery of the cell and continue to inform our understanding of transcription regulation. This chapter provides examples of the use of in vitro transcription to analyze transcriptional activation and transcriptional repression by purified, recombinant Ad E1A protein domains and single amino acid substitution mutants as well as the use of protein-affinity chromatography to identify host cell transcription factors involved in viral transcriptional regulation. A detailed description is provided of the methodology to prepare nuclear transcription extract, to prepare biologically active protein domains, to prepare affinity depleted transcription extracts, and to analyze transcription by primer extension and by run-off assay using naked DNA templates.

  18. Using Synthetic Biology to Distinguish and Overcome Regulatory and Functional Barriers Related to Nitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xia; Yang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Li; Wang, Ji-Long; Cheng, Qi; Dixon, Ray; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a complex process requiring multiple genes working in concert. To date, the Klebsiella pneumoniae nif gene cluster, divided into seven operons, is one of the most studied systems. Its nitrogen fixation capacity is subject to complex cascade regulation and physiological limitations. In this report, the entire K. pneumoniae nif gene cluster was reassembled as operon-based BioBrick parts in Escherichia coli. It provided ∼100% activity of native K. pneumoniae system. Based on the expression levels of these BioBrick parts, a T7 RNA polymerase–LacI expression system was used to replace the σ54-dependent promoters located upstream of nif operons. Expression patterns of nif operons were critical for the maximum activity of the recombinant system. By mimicking these expression levels with variable-strength T7-dependent promoters, ∼42% of the nitrogenase activity of the σ54-dependent nif system was achieved in E. coli. When the newly constructed T7-dependent nif system was challenged with different genetic and physiological conditions, it bypassed the original complex regulatory circuits, with minor physiological limitations. Therefore, we have successfully replaced the nif regulatory elements with a simple expression system that may provide the first step for further research of introducing nif genes into eukaryotic organelles, which has considerable potentials in agro-biotechnology. PMID:23935879

  19. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  20. Sequence and functional characterization of MIRNA164 promoters from Brassica shows copy number dependent regulatory diversification among homeologs.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aditi; Anand, Saurabh; Singh, Neer K; Das, Sandip

    2018-03-12

    The impact of polyploidy on functional diversification of cis-regulatory elements is poorly understood. This is primarily on account of lack of well-defined structure of cis-elements and a universal regulatory code. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on characterization of sequence and functional diversification of paralogous and homeologous promoter elements associated with MIR164 from Brassica. The availability of whole genome sequence allowed us to identify and isolate a total of 42 homologous copies of MIR164 from diploid species-Brassica rapa (A-genome), Brassica nigra (B-genome), Brassica oleracea (C-genome), and allopolyploids-Brassica juncea (AB-genome), Brassica carinata (BC-genome) and Brassica napus (AC-genome). Additionally, we retrieved homologous sequences based on comparative genomics from Arabidopsis lyrata, Capsella rubella, and Thellungiella halophila, spanning ca. 45 million years of evolutionary history of Brassicaceae. Sequence comparison across Brassicaceae revealed lineage-, karyotype, species-, and sub-genome specific changes providing a snapshot of evolutionary dynamics of miRNA promoters in polyploids. Tree topology of cis-elements associated with MIR164 was found to re-capitulate the species and family evolutionary history. Phylogenetic shadowing identified transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) conserved across Brassicaceae, of which, some are already known as regulators of MIR164 expression. Some of the TFBS were found to be distributed in a sub-genome specific (e.g., SOX specific to promoter of MIR164c from MF2 sub-genome), lineage-specific (YABBY binding motif, specific to C. rubella in MIR164b), or species-specific (e.g., VOZ in A. thaliana MIR164a) manner which might contribute towards genetic and adaptive variation. Reporter activity driven by promoters associated with MIR164 paralogs and homeologs was majorly in agreement with known role of miR164 in leaf shaping, regulation of lateral root development and

  1. Human mesenchymal stromal cells enhance the immunomodulatory function of CD8+CD28− regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiuli; Zheng, Haiqing; Chen, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yanwen; Huang, Weijun; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Gang; Xia, Wenjie; Sun, Qiquan; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2015-01-01

    One important aspect of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-mediated immunomodulation is the recruitment and induction of regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, we do not yet know whether MSCs have similar effects on the other subsets of Treg cells. Herein, we studied the effects of MSCs on CD8+CD28− Treg cells and found that the MSCs could not only increase the proportion of CD8+CD28− T cells, but also enhance CD8+CD28−T cells' ability of hampering naive CD4+ T-cell proliferation and activation, decreasing the production of IFN-γ by activated CD4+ T cells and inducing the apoptosis of activated CD4+ T cells. Mechanistically, the MSCs affected the functions of the CD8+CD28− T cells partially through moderate upregulating the expression of IL-10 and FasL. The MSCs had no distinct effect on the shift from CD8+CD28+ T cells to CD8+CD28− T cells, but did increase the proportion of CD8+CD28− T cells by reducing their rate of apoptosis. In summary, this study shows that MSCs can enhance the regulatory function of CD8+CD28− Treg cells, shedding new light on MSCs-mediated immune regulation. PMID:25482073

  2. Pretransplant Recipient Circulating CD4+CD127lo/- Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2+ Regulatory T Cells: A Surrogate of Regulatory T Cell-Suppressive Function and Predictor of Delayed and Slow Graft Function After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh-Tri J P; Fryml, Elise; Sahakian, Sossy K; Liu, Shuqing; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Lipman, Mark; Tchervenkov, Jean I; Paraskevas, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF) are ischemia-reperfusion-associated acute kidney injuries (AKI) that decrease long-term graft survival after kidney transplantation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are protective in murine AKI, and their suppressive function predictive of AKI in kidney transplantation. The conventional Treg cell function coculture assay is however time-consuming and labor intensive. We sought a simpler alternative to measure Treg cell function and predict AKI. In this prospective observational cohort study, pretransplant recipient circulating CD4+CD25+CD127lo/- and CD4+CD127lo/- tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2)+ Treg cells were measured by flow cytometry in 76 deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (DGF, n = 18; SGF, n = 34; immediate graft function [IGF], n = 24). In a subset of 37 recipients, pretransplant circulating Treg cell-suppressive function was also quantified by measuring the suppression of autologous effector T-cell proliferation by Treg cell in coculture. The TNFR2+ expression on CD4+CD127lo/- T cells correlated with Treg cell-suppressive function (r = 0.63, P < 0.01). In receiver operating characteristic curves, percentage and absolute number of CD4+CD127lo/-TNFR2+ Treg cell predicted DGF from non-DGF (IGF + SGF) with area under the curves of 0.75 and 0.77, respectively, and also AKI (DGF + SGF) from IGF with area under the curves of 0.76 and 0.72, respectively (P < 0.01). Prediction of AKI (DGF + SGF) from IGF remained significant in multivariate logistic regression accounting for cold ischemic time, donor age, previous transplant, and pretransplant dialysis modality. Pretransplant recipient circulating CD4+CD127lo/-TNFR2+ Treg cell is potentially a simpler alternative to Treg cell function as a pretransplant recipient immune marker for AKI (DGF + SGF), independent from donor and organ procurement characteristics.

  3. A regulatory role for TGF-β signaling in the establishment and function of the thymic medulla.

    PubMed

    Hauri-Hohl, Mathias; Zuklys, Saulius; Holländer, Georg A; Ziegler, Steven F

    2014-06-01

    Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are critical in establishing and maintaining the appropriate microenvironment for negative selection and maturation of immunocompetent T cells with a self-tolerant T cell antigen receptor repertoire. Cues that direct proliferation and maturation of mTECs are provided by members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily expressed on developing thymocytes. Here we demonstrate a negative role of the morphogen TGF-β in tempering these signals under physiological conditions, limiting both growth and function of the thymic medulla. Eliminating TGF-β signaling specifically in TECs or by pharmacological means increased the size of the mTEC compartment, enhanced negative selection and functional maturation of medullary thymocytes as well as the production of regulatory T cells, thus reducing the autoreactive potential of peripheral T cells.

  4. Impaired function of CD4+/CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes characterizes the self-limited hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Alessandro; Vitiello, Laura; Atripaldi, Luigi; Sbreglia, Costanza; Grattacaso, Stella; Bellopede, Pasquale; Patarino, Tommaso; Morelli, Giuseppe; Altamura, Simona; Racioppi, Luigi; Perrella, Oreste

    2008-07-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes a transient illness leaving permanent protection against reinfection. Few data are available on the regulatory mechanisms involved in the CD4+ T helper activation. We aimed to investigate the frequency and function of CD3+/CD4+/CD25+ T cells with regulatory function (Tregs) during acute HAV infection. We enrolled 35 consecutive patients and 15 healthy donors, enumerated Tregs by flow cytometry assay and evaluated, after immunomagnetical sorting with magnetic beads, their ability to inhibit the proliferation of CD4+/CD25- T lymphocytes at different ratios (1:1, 1:10, 1:20). All patients had the usual course of infection. Our immunological analysis showed Tregs frequency in these patients (6.5% [range, 5-8.8%]; 36 [range, 10-87] cells) did not have any statistical difference compared with healthy donors (6% [range, 5-8%]; 48 (range, 23-71) cells), while their ability to suppress CD4+/CD25- was drastically reduced at different ratios (Mann-Whitney U-test; ratio 1:1, 93% vs 72%, z = -3.34, P < 0.0001; ratio 1:10, 86% vs 51%, z = -4.04, P < 0.001; ratio 1:20, 56% vs 30%, z = -3.43, P < 0.0001). After the seroconversion, CD4+/CD25+ frequency and function in HAV-infected patients did not differ from healthy individuals. CD4+/CD25+ T cells seem to be impaired in their function during the HAV acute infection. This evidence might help to determine an optimal T helper cell immune network that is a predisposing factor for a self-limiting disease.

  5. Cooperative Regulatory Functions of miR858 and MYB83 during Cyst Nematode Parasitism1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Kihm, Christina; Baum, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recently have been established as key regulators of transcriptome reprogramming that define cell function and identity. Nevertheless, the molecular functions of the greatest number of miRNA genes remain to be determined. Here, we report cooperative regulatory functions of miR858 and its MYB83 transcription factor target gene in transcriptome reprogramming during Heterodera cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Gene expression analyses and promoter-GUS fusion assays documented a role of miR858 in posttranscriptional regulation of MYB83 in the Heterodera schachtii-induced feeding sites, the syncytia. Constitutive overexpression of miR858 interfered with H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis, leading to reduced susceptibility, while reduced miR858 abundance enhanced plant susceptibility. Similarly, MYB83 expression increases were conducive to nematode infection because overexpression of a noncleavable coding sequence of MYB83 significantly increased plant susceptibility, whereas a myb83 mutation rendered the plants less susceptible. In addition, RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes involved in hormone signaling pathways, defense response, glucosinolate biosynthesis, cell wall modification, sugar transport, and transcriptional control are the key etiological factors by which MYB83 facilitates nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we discovered that miR858-mediated silencing of MYB83 is tightly regulated through a feedback loop that might contribute to fine-tuning the expression of more than a thousand of MYB83-regulated genes in the H. schachtii-induced syncytium. Together, our results suggest a role of the miR858-MYB83 regulatory system in finely balancing gene expression patterns during H. schachtii parasitism of Arabidopsis to ensure optimal cellular function. PMID:28512179

  6. Proteome-wide Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots Reveals Regulatory Elements Predicted to Impact Biological Function and Disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Matthew P; Dewhurst, Henry; Sundararaman, Niveda

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function - a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) - a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al., 2015). Here, we apply SAPH-ire to the set of eukaryotic protein families containing experimental PTM and 3D structure data - capturing 1,325 protein families with 50,839 unique PTM sites organized into 31,747 modified alignment positions (MAPs), of which 2010 (∼6%) possess known biological function. Here, we show that using an artificial neural network model (SAPH-ire NN) trained to identify MAP hotspots with biological function results in prediction outcomes that far surpass the use of single hotspot features, including nearest neighbor PTM clustering methods. We find the greatest enhancement in prediction for positions with PTM counts of five or less, which represent 98% of all MAPs in the eukaryotic proteome and 90% of all MAPs found to have biological function. Analysis of the top 1092 MAP hotspots revealed 267 of truly unknown function (containing 5443 distinct PTMs). Of these, 165 hotspots could be mapped to human KEGG pathways for normal and/or disease physiology. Many high-ranking hotspots were also found to be disease-associated pathogenic sites of amino acid substitution despite the lack of observable PTM in the human protein family member. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that the functional relevance of a PTM can be predicted very effectively by neural network models, revealing a large but testable

  7. Proteome-wide Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots Reveals Regulatory Elements Predicted to Impact Biological Function and Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Dewhurst, Henry; Sundararaman, Niveda

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function - a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) - a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al., 2015). Here, we apply SAPH-ire to the set of eukaryotic protein families containing experimental PTM and 3D structure data - capturing 1,325 protein families with 50,839 unique PTM sites organized into 31,747 modified alignment positions (MAPs), of which 2010 (∼6%) possess known biological function. Here, we show that using an artificial neural network model (SAPH-ire NN) trained to identify MAP hotspots with biological function results in prediction outcomes that far surpass the use of single hotspot features, including nearest neighbor PTM clustering methods. We find the greatest enhancement in prediction for positions with PTM counts of five or less, which represent 98% of all MAPs in the eukaryotic proteome and 90% of all MAPs found to have biological function. Analysis of the top 1092 MAP hotspots revealed 267 of truly unknown function (containing 5443 distinct PTMs). Of these, 165 hotspots could be mapped to human KEGG pathways for normal and/or disease physiology. Many high-ranking hotspots were also found to be disease-associated pathogenic sites of amino acid substitution despite the lack of observable PTM in the human protein family member. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that the functional relevance of a PTM can be predicted very effectively by neural network models, revealing a large but testable

  8. Insights into Autoregulation of Notch3 from Structural and Functional Studies of Its Negative Regulatory Region.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang; Choi, Sung Hee; Hu, Tiancen; Tiyanont, Kittichoat; Habets, Roger; Groot, Arjan J; Vooijs, Marc; Aster, Jon C; Chopra, Rajiv; Fryer, Christy; Blacklow, Stephen C

    2015-07-07

    Notch receptors are transmembrane proteins that undergo activating proteolysis in response to ligand stimulation. A negative regulatory region (NRR) maintains receptor quiescence by preventing protease cleavage prior to ligand binding. We report here the X-ray structure of the NRR of autoinhibited human Notch3, and compare it with the Notch1 and Notch2 NRRs. The overall architecture of the autoinhibited conformation, in which three LIN12-Notch repeat (LNR) modules wrap around a heterodimerization domain, is preserved in Notch3, but the autoinhibited conformation of the Notch3 NRR is less stable. The Notch3 NRR uses a highly conserved surface on the third LNR module to form a dimer in the crystal. Similar homotypic interfaces exist in Notch1 and Notch2. Together, these studies reveal distinguishing structural features associated with increased basal activity of Notch3, demonstrate increased ligand-independent signaling for disease-associated mutations that map to the Notch3 NRR, and identify a conserved dimerization interface present in multiple Notch receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Succession of splicing regulatory elements determines cryptic 5΄ss functionality

    PubMed Central

    Brillen, Anna-Lena; Schöneweis, Katrin; Walotka, Lara; Hartmann, Linda; Müller, Lisa; Ptok, Johannes; Kaisers, Wolfgang; Poschmann, Gereon; Stühler, Kai; Buratti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A critical step in exon definition is the recognition of a proper splice donor (5΄ss) by the 5’ end of U1 snRNA. In the selection of appropriate 5΄ss, cis-acting splicing regulatory elements (SREs) are indispensable. As a model for 5΄ss recognition, we investigated cryptic 5΄ss selection within the human fibrinogen Bβ-chain gene (FGB) exon 7, where we identified several exonic SREs that simultaneously acted on up- and downstream cryptic 5΄ss. In the FGB exon 7 model system, 5΄ss selection iteratively proceeded along an alternating sequence of U1 snRNA binding sites and interleaved SREs which in principle supported different 3’ exon ends. Like in a relay race, SREs either suppressed a potential 5΄ss and passed the splicing baton on or splicing actually occurred. From RNA-Seq data, we systematically selected 19 genes containing exons with silent U1 snRNA binding sites competing with nearby highly used 5΄ss. Extensive SRE analysis by different algorithms found authentic 5΄ss significantly more supported by SREs than silent U1 snRNA binding sites, indicating that our concept may permit generalization to a model for 5΄ss selection and 3’ exon end definition. PMID:28039323

  10. Relationships between gross- and fine motor functions, cognitive abilities, and self-regulatory aspects of students with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    This article reports research on self-regulatory aspects (i.e., goal-setting, self-efficacy and self-evaluation) of secondary and post-secondary students with congenital motor disabilities, who performed a ball-throwing-at-a-target task. Participants were divided into four subgroups presenting distinct combinations of motor and cognitive abilities (i.e., normal cognitive development and mild physical disabilities, normal cognitive development and severe physical disabilities, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and mild physical disabilities, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and severe physical disabilities). Results showed that students presenting mild motor disabilities exhibited a positive self-concept and self-regulation profile, irrespective of their cognitive functioning. Students with considerable motor disabilities, but without cognitive challenges, presented a negative, though realistic self-concept and self-regulation profile. Finally, students with considerable motor disabilities and mild-to-moderate cognitive disabilities showed a positive, though unrealistic, self-regulation profile. The nature of the diverse relationship of motor and cognitive (dis)abilities to specific self-regulatory aspects are discussed, and important instructional implications are mentioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disorder-function relationships for the cell cycle regulatory proteins p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Diana M; Yoon, Mi-Kyung; Ou, Li; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-04-01

    The classic structure-function paradigm has been challenged by a recently identified class of proteins: intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Despite their lack of stable secondary or tertiary structure, IDPs are prevalent in all forms of life and perform myriad cellular functions, including signaling and regulation. Importantly, disruption of IDP homeostasis is associated with numerous human diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Despite wide recognition of IDPs, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functions are not fully understood. Here we review the structural features and disorder-function relationships for p21 and p27, two cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) regulators involved in controlling cell division and fate. Studies of p21 bound to Cdk2/cyclin A revealed that a helix stretching mechanism mediates binding promiscuity. Further, investigations of Tyr88-phosphorylated p27 identified a signaling conduit that controls cell division and is disrupted in certain cancers. These mechanisms rely upon a balance between nascent structure in the free state, induced folding upon binding, and persistent flexibility within functional complexes. Although these disorder-function relationships are likely to be recapitulated in other IDPs, it is also likely that the vocabulary of their mechanisms is much more extensive than is currently understood. Further study of the physical properties of IDPs and elucidation of their links with function are needed to fully understand the mechanistic language of IDPs.

  12. Memory-updating abrogates extinction of learned immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Bösche, Katharina; Wirth, Timo; Buck, Benjamin; Beetz, Oliver; Christians, Uwe; Schniedewind, Björn; Lückemann, Laura; Güntürkün, Onur; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    When memories are recalled, they enter a transient labile phase in which they can be impaired or enhanced followed by a new stabilization process termed reconsolidation. It is unknown, however, whether reconsolidation is restricted to neurocognitive processes such as fear memories or can be extended to peripheral physiological functions as well. Here, we show in a paradigm of behaviorally conditioned taste aversion in rats memory-updating in learned immunosuppression. The administration of sub-therapeutic doses of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A together with the conditioned stimulus (CS/saccharin) during retrieval blocked extinction of conditioned taste aversion and learned suppression of T cell cytokine (interleukin-2; interferon-γ) production. This conditioned immunosuppression is of clinical relevance since it significantly prolonged the survival time of heterotopically transplanted heart allografts in rats. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that memories can be updated on both neural and behavioral levels as well as on the level of peripheral physiological systems such as immune functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SLAP deficiency enhances number and function of regulatory T cells preventing chronic autoimmune arthritis in SKG mice.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Shaw, Laura A; Joetham, Anthony; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Gelfand, Erwin W; Dragone, Leonard L

    2011-02-15

    To test if manipulating TCR complex-mediated signaling (TCR signaling) could treat autoimmune disease, we generated the double SKG Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) knockout (DSSKO) mouse model. The SKG mutation in ZAP70 and SLAP have opposing functions on the regulation of TCR signaling. The combination of these two mutations alters TCR signaling in the context of a defined genetic background, uniform environmental conditions, and a well-characterized signaling disruption. In contrast to SKG mice, DSSKO mice do not develop zymosan-induced chronic autoimmune arthritis. This arthritis prevention is not due to significant alterations in thymocyte development or repertoire selection but instead enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased numbers of Th17 cells skewing the ratio of Tregs to autoreactive effector T cells. Treg depletion and/or functional blockade led to the development of arthritis in DSSKO mice. In vitro suppression of effector T cell proliferation was also enhanced, demonstrating that DSSKO mice have increased numbers of Tregs with increased function. Understanding how TCR signals influence development, expansion, and function of Tregs in DSSKO mice could advance our ability to manipulate Treg biology to treat ultimately autoimmune disease.

  14. SLAP Deficiency Enhances Number and Function of Regulatory T Cells Preventing Chronic Autoimmune Arthritis in SKG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lisa K.; Shaw, Laura A.; Joetham, Anthony; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Dragone, Leonard L.

    2011-01-01

    To test if manipulating TCR complex-mediated signaling (TCR signaling) could treat autoimmune disease, we generated the double SKG Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) knockout (DSSKO) mouse model. The SKG mutation in ZAP70 and SLAP have opposing functions on the regulation of TCR signaling. The combination of these two mutations alters TCR signaling in the context of a defined genetic background, uniform environmental conditions, and a well-characterized signaling disruption. In contrast to SKG mice, DSSKO mice do not develop zymosan-induced chronic autoimmune arthritis. This arthritis prevention is not due to significant alterations in thymocyte development or repertoire selection but instead enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreased numbers of Th17 cells skewing the ratio of Tregs to autoreactive effector T cells. Treg depletion and/or functional blockade led to the development of arthritis in DSSKO mice. In vitro suppression of effector T cell proliferation was also enhanced, demonstrating that DSSKO mice have increased numbers of Tregs with increased function. Understanding how TCR signals influence development, expansion, and function of Tregs in DSSKO mice could advance our ability to manipulate Treg biology to treat ultimately autoimmune disease. PMID:21248251

  15. mTOR Complex 1 Signaling Regulates the Generation and Function of Central and Effector Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Im-Hong; Oh, Min-Hee; Zhao, Liang; Patel, Chirag H; Arwood, Matthew L; Xu, Wei; Tam, Ada J; Blosser, Richard L; Wen, Jiayu; Powell, Jonathan D

    2018-06-08

    The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a critical integrator of signals from the immune microenvironment capable of regulating T cell activation, differentiation, and function. The precise role of mTOR in the control of regulatory T cell (Treg) differentiation and function is complex. Pharmacologic inhibition and genetic deletion of mTOR promotes the generation of Tregs even under conditions that would normally promote generation of effector T cells. Alternatively, mTOR activity has been observed to be increased in Tregs, and the genetic deletion of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-scaffold protein Raptor inhibits Treg function. In this study, by employing both pharmacologic inhibitors and genetically altered T cells, we seek to clarify the role of mTOR in Tregs. Our studies demonstrate that inhibition of mTOR during T cell activation promotes the generation of long-lived central Tregs with a memory-like phenotype in mice. Metabolically, these central memory Tregs possess enhanced spare respiratory capacity, similar to CD8 + memory cells. Alternatively, the generation of effector Tregs (eTregs) requires mTOR function. Indeed, genetic deletion of Rptor leads to the decreased expression of ICOS and PD-1 on the eTregs. Overall, our studies define a subset of mTORC1 hi eTregs and mTORC1 lo central Tregs. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ding-Sheng; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Ke; Gao, Lu; Peng, Juan; Gong, Hui; Chen, Yingjie; Yang, Qinglin; Liu, Peter P.; Fan, Guo-Chang; Zou, Yunzeng; Li, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a complex pathological process that involves multiple factors including inflammation and apoptosis. Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is a multifunctional regulator that participates in immune regulation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. However, the role of IRF7 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. We performed aortic banding in cardiac-specific IRF7 transgenic mice, IRF7 knockout mice, and the wild-type littermates of these mice. Our results demonstrated that IRF7 was downregulated in aortic banding–induced animal hearts and cardiomyocytes that had been treated with angiotensin II or phenylephrine for 48 hours. Accordingly, heart-specific overexpression of IRF7 significantly attenuated pressure overload–induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction, whereas loss of IRF7 led to opposite effects. Moreover, IRF7 protected against angiotensin II–induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mechanistically, we identified that IRF7-dependent cardioprotection was mediated through IRF7 binding to inhibitor of κB kinase-β, and subsequent nuclear factor-κB inactivation. In fact, blocking nuclear factor-κB signaling with cardiac-specific inhibitors of κBαS32A/S36A super-repressor transgene counteracted the adverse effect of IRF7 deficiency. Conversely, activation of nuclear factor-κB signaling via a cardiac-specific conditional inhibitor of κB kinase-βS177E/S181E (constitutively active) transgene negated the antihypertrophic effect of IRF7 overexpression. Our data demonstrate that IRF7 acts as a novel negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signaling and may constitute a potential therapeutic target for pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:24396025

  17. Social disadvantage and the self-regulatory function of justice beliefs.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Kristin; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Kay, Aaron C

    2011-01-01

    Five studies support the hypothesis that beliefs in societal fairness offer a self-regulatory benefit for members of socially disadvantaged groups. Specifically, members of disadvantaged groups are more likely than members of advantaged groups to calibrate their pursuit of long-term goals to their beliefs about societal fairness. In Study 1, low socioeconomic status (SES) undergraduate students who believed more strongly in societal fairness showed greater intentions to persist in the face of poor performance on a midterm examination. In Study 2, low SES participants who believed more strongly in fairness reported more willingness to invest time and effort to achieve desirable career outcomes. In Study 3, ethnic minority participants exposed to a manipulation suggesting that fairness conditions in their country were improving reported more willingness to invest resources in pursuit of long-term goals, relative to ethnic minority participants in a control condition. Study 4 replicated Study 3 using an implicit priming procedure, demonstrating that perceptions of the personal relevance of societal fairness mediate these effects. Across these 4 studies, no link between fairness beliefs and self-regulation emerged for members of advantaged (high SES, ethnic majority) groups. Study 5 contributed evidence from the World Values Survey and a representative sample (Inglehart, Basañez, Diez-Medrano, Halman, & Luijkx, 2004). Respondents reported more motivation to work hard to the extent that they believed that rewards were distributed fairly; this effect emerged more strongly for members of lower SES groups than for members of higher SES groups, as indicated by both self-identified social class and ethnicity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A regulatory governance perspective on health technology assessment (HTA) in France: the contextual mediation of common functional pressures.

    PubMed

    Barron, Anthony J G; Klinger, Corinna; Shah, Sara Mehmood Birchall; Wright, John S F

    2015-02-01

    The new regulatory governance perspective has introduced several insights to the study of health technology assessment (HTA): it has broadened the scope for the analysis of HTA; it has provided a more sophisticated account of national diversity and the potential for cross-border policy learning; and, it has dissolved the distinction between HTA assessment and appraisal processes. In this paper, we undertake a qualitative study of the French process for HTA with a view to introducing a fourth insight: that the emergence and continuing function of national agencies for HTA follows a broadly evolutionary pattern in which contextual factors play an important mediating role. We demonstrate that the French process for HTA is characterised by distinctive institutions, processes and evidential requirements. Consistent with the mediating role of this divergent policy context, we argue that even initiatives for the harmonisation of national approaches to HTA are likely to meet with divergent national policy responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GP96 is a GARP chaperone and controls regulatory T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Wu, Bill X; Metelli, Alessandra; Thaxton, Jessica E; Hong, Feng; Rachidi, Saleh; Ansa-Addo, Ephraim; Sun, Shaoli; Vasu, Chenthamarakshan; Yang, Yi; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2015-02-01

    Molecular chaperones control a multitude of cellular functions via folding chaperone-specific client proteins. CD4+FOXP3+ Tregs play key roles in maintaining peripheral tolerance, which is subject to regulation by multiple molecular switches, including mTOR and hypoxia-inducible factor. It is not clear whether GP96 (also known as GRP94), which is a master TLR and integrin chaperone, controls Treg function. Using murine genetic models, we demonstrated that GP96 is required for Treg maintenance and function, as loss of GP96 resulted in instability of the Treg lineage and impairment of suppressive functions in vivo. In the absence of GP96, Tregs were unable to maintain FOXP3 expression levels, resulting in systemic accumulation of pathogenic IFN-γ-producing and IL-17-producing T cells. We determined that GP96 serves as an essential chaperone for the cell-surface protein glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), which is a docking receptor for latent membrane-associated TGF-β (mLTGF-β). The loss of both GARP and integrins on GP96-deficient Tregs prevented expression of mLTGF-β and resulted in inefficient production of active TGF-β. Our work demonstrates that GP96 regulates multiple facets of Treg biology, thereby placing Treg stability and immunosuppressive functions strategically under the control of a major stress chaperone.

  20. Cord blood derived CD4+ CD25(high) T cells become functional regulatory T cells upon antigen encounter.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Elisabeth; Bannert, Christina; Gruber, Saskia; Klunker, Sven; Spittler, Andreas; Akdis, Cezmi A; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Eiwegger, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Upon antigen exposure, cord blood derived T cells respond to ubiquitous environmental antigens by high proliferation. To date it remains unclear whether these "excessive" responses relate to different regulatory properties of the putative T regulatory cell (Treg) compartment or even expansion of the Treg compartment itself. Cord blood (>37 week of gestation) and peripheral blood (healthy controls) were obtained and different Treg cell subsets were isolated. The suppressive potential of Treg populations after antigen exposure was evaluated via functional inhibition assays ([(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay and CFSE staining) with or without allergen stimulation. The frequency and markers of CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) T cells were characterized by mRNA analysis and flow cytometry. Cord blood derived CD4(+)CD25(high) cells did not show substantial suppressor capacity upon TCR activation, in contrast to CD4(+)CD25(high) cells freshly purified from adult blood. This could not be explained by a lower frequency of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high)cells or FOXP3 mRNA expression. However, after antigen-specific stimulation in vitro, these cells showed strong proliferation and expansion and gained potent suppressive properties. The efficiency of their suppressive capacity can be enhanced in the presence of endotoxins. If T-cells were sorted according to their CD127 expression, a tiny subset of Treg cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low)) is highly suppressive even without prior antigen exposure. Cord blood harbors a very small subset of CD4(+)CD25(high) Treg cells that requires antigen-stimulation to show expansion and become functional suppressive Tregs.

  1. A MEK Inhibitor Abrogates Myeloproliferative Disease in Kras Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lyubynska, Natalya; Gorman, Matthew F.; Lauchle, Jennifer O.; Hong, Wan Xing; Akutagawa, Jon K.; Shannon, Kevin; Braun, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML and JMML) are aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasms that are incurable with conventional chemotherapy. Mutations that deregulate Ras signaling play a central pathogenic role in both disorders, and Mx1-Cre, KrasLSL-G12D mice that express the Kras oncogene develop a fatal disease that closely mimics these two leukemias in humans. Activated Ras controls multiple downstream effectors, but the specific pathways that mediate the leukemogenic effects of hyperactive Ras are unknown. We used PD0325901, a highly selective pharmacological inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), a downstream component of the Ras signaling network, to address how deregulated Raf/MEK/ERK signaling drives neoplasm formation in Mx1-Cre, KrasLSL-G12D mice. PD0325901 treatment induced a rapid and sustained reduction in leukocyte counts, enhanced erythropoiesis, prolonged mouse survival, and corrected the aberrant proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells. These responses were due to direct effects of PD0325901 on Kras mutant cells rather than to stimulation of normal hematopoietic cell proliferation. Consistent with the in vivo response, inhibition of MEK reversed the cytokine hypersensitivity characteristic of KrasG12D hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. Our data demonstrate that deregulated Raf/MEK/ERK signaling is integral to the growth of Kras-mediated myeloproliferative neoplasias, and further suggest that MEK inhibition could be a useful way to ameliorate functional hematologic abnormalities in patients with CMML and JMML. PMID:21451123

  2. Role of affective self-regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Albert; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study with 464 older adolescents (14 to 19 years at Time 1; 16 to 21 years at Time 2) tested the structural paths of influence through which perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation operates in concert with perceived behavioral efficacy in governing diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Self-efficacy to regulate positive and negative affect is accompanied by high efficacy to manage one's academic development, to resist social pressures for antisocial activities, and to engage oneself with empathy in others' emotional experiences. Perceived self-efficacy for affect regulation essentially operated mediationally through the latter behavioral forms of self-efficacy rather than directly on prosocial behavior, delinquent conduct, and depression. Perceived empathic self-efficacy functioned as a generalized contributor to psychosocial functioning. It was accompanied by prosocial behavior and low involvement in delinquency but increased vulnerability to depression in adolescent females.

  3. Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Regulatory Functions in Immunity, Development, Circadian Rhythm, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Donald N.; Kang, Hong Soon; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    In this overview, we provide an update on recent progress made in understanding the mechanisms of action, physiological functions, and roles in disease of retinoic acid related orphan receptors (RORs). We are particularly focusing on their roles in the regulation of adaptive and innate immunity, brain function, retinal development, cancer, glucose and lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, metabolic and inflammatory diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. We also summarize the current status of ROR agonists and inverse agonists, including their regulation of ROR activity and their therapeutic potential for management of various diseases in which RORs have been implicated. PMID:26878025

  4. Downregulated regulatory T cell function is associated with increased peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori-infection.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nader; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Elahi, Shokrollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Rashidii, Reza; Sarafnejad, Abdulfatah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Faridani, Rana; Tahmasbi, Kamran; Kheiri, Soleiman; Razavi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronically colonizes gastric/duodenal mucosa and induces gastroduodenal disease such as gastritis and peptic ulcer and induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. The objective of this study was to determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer and determined the relationship between main virulence factor of H. pylori and Tregs. A total of 89 patients with gastritis, 63 patients with peptic ulcer and 40 healthy, H. pylori-negative subjects were enrolled in this study. Expression of CD4 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, bacterial virulence factors and histopathological assessments. TGF-β1, IL-10 and FOXP3 expressions were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The numbers of CD4 + and Foxp3 + T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3, INF-γ and IL-17A in infected patients were significantly higher than the ones in uninfected patients. Also, the number of CD4 + T cells was independent on the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) and outer inflammatory protein A (oipA), but it was positively correlated with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). Instead, the number of Foxp3 + T cells was dependent on the vacA and oipA, but it was independent on cagA. The number of Foxp3 + T cells and the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1 and FOXP3 in infected patients with gastritis were significantly higher than the ones in infected patients with peptic ulcer. Moreover, the number of CD4 + T cells and the expression of IL-17A and INF-γ was the lowest in the gastritis patients, however, increased progressively in the peptic ulcer patients. Additionally, the numbers of CD4 + and Foxp3 + T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3 and INF-γ were positively

  5. An Epistatic Interaction between Themis1 and Vav1 Modulates Regulatory T Cell Function and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Development.

    PubMed

    Pedros, Christophe; Gaud, Guillaume; Bernard, Isabelle; Kassem, Sahar; Chabod, Marianne; Lagrange, Dominique; Andréoletti, Olivier; Dejean, Anne S; Lesourne, Renaud; Fournié, Gilbert J; Saoudi, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-15

    The development of inflammatory diseases depends on complex interactions between several genes and various environmental factors. Discovering new genetic risk factors and understanding the mechanisms whereby they influence disease development is of paramount importance. We previously reported that deficiency in Themis1, a new actor of TCR signaling, impairs regulatory T cell (Treg) function and predisposes Brown-Norway (BN) rats to spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we reveal that the epistasis between Themis1 and Vav1 controls the occurrence of these phenotypes. Indeed, by contrast with BN rats, Themis1 deficiency in Lewis rats neither impairs Treg suppressive functions nor induces pathological manifestations. By using congenic lines on the BN genomic background, we show that the impact of Themis1 deficiency on Treg suppressive functions depends on a 117-kb interval coding for a R63W polymorphism that impacts Vav1 expression and functions. Indeed, the introduction of a 117-kb interval containing the Lewis Vav1-R63 variant restores Treg function and protects Themis1-deficient BN rats from spontaneous IBD development. We further show that Themis1 binds more efficiently to the BN Vav1-W63 variant and is required to stabilize its recruitment to the transmembrane adaptor LAT and to fully promote the activation of Erk kinases. Together, these results highlight the importance of the signaling pathway involving epistasis between Themis1 and Vav1 in the control of Treg suppressive function and susceptibility to IBD development. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Binding of hepatitis A virus to its cellular receptor 1 inhibits T-regulatory cell functions in humans.

    PubMed

    Manangeeswaran, Mohanraj; Jacques, Jérôme; Tami, Cecilia; Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Amharref, Nadia; Perrella, Oreste; Casasnovas, Jose M; Umetsu, Dale T; Dekruyff, Rosemarie H; Freeman, Gordon J; Perrella, Alessandro; Kaplan, Gerardo G

    2012-06-01

    CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells suppress immune responses and control self-tolerance and immunity to pathogens, cancer, and alloantigens. Most pathogens activate Treg cells to minimize immune-mediated tissue damage and prevent clearance, which promotes chronic infections. However, hepatitis A virus (HAV) temporarily inhibits Treg-cell functions. We investigated whether the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule, inhibits the function of Treg cells to control HAV infection. We studied the effects of HAV interaction with HAVCR1 on human T cells using binding, signal transduction, apoptosis, activation, suppression, cytokine production, and confocal microscopy analyses. Cytokines were analyzed in sera from 14 patients with HAV infection using bead arrays. Human Treg cells constitutively express HAVCR1. Binding of HAV to HAVCR1 blocked phosphorylation of Akt, prevented activation of the T-cell receptor, and inhibited function of Treg cells. At the peak viremia, patients with acute HAV infection had no Treg-cell suppression function, produced low levels of transforming growth factor-β , which limited leukocyte recruitment and survival, and produced high levels of interleukin-22, which prevented liver damage. Interaction between HAV and its receptor HAVCR1 inhibits Treg-cell function, resulting in an immune imbalance that allows viral expansion with limited hepatocellular damage during early stages of infection-a characteristic of HAV pathogenesis. The mechanism by which HAV is cleared in the absence of Treg-cell function could be used as a model to develop anticancer therapies, modulate autoimmune and allergic responses, and prevent transplant rejection. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel effector phenotype of Tim-3+ regulatory T cells leads to enhanced suppressive function in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuqing; McMichael, Elizabeth L; Shayan, Gulidanna; Li, Jing; Chen, Kevin; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Kane, Lawrence P; Lu, Binfeng; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-04-30

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important suppressive cells among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Treg express the well-known immune checkpoint receptor PD-1, which is reported to mark "exhausted" Treg with lower suppressive function. T cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim)-3, a negative regulator of Th1 immunity, is expressed by a sizeable fraction of TIL Tregs, but the functional status of Tim-3+ Tregs remains unclear. CD4+CTLA-4+CD25high Treg were sorted from freshly excised head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TIL based on Tim-3 expression. Functional and phenotypic features of these Tim-3+ and Tim-3- TIL Tregs were tested by in vitro suppression assays and multi-color flow cytometry. Gene expression profiling and NanoString analysis of Tim-3+ TIL Treg were performed. A murine HNSCC tumor model was used to test the effect of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on Tim-3+ Treg.  Results: Despite high PD-1 expression, Tim-3+ TIL Treg displayed a greater capacity to inhibit naïve T cell proliferation than Tim-3- Treg. Tim-3+ Treg from human HNSCC TIL also displayed an effector-like phenotype, with more robust expression of CTLA-4, PD-1, CD39 and IFN-γ receptor. Exogenous IFN-γ treatment could partially reverse the suppressive function of Tim-3+ TIL Treg. Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy downregulated Tim-3 expression on Tregs isolated from murine HNSCC tumors, and this treatment reversed the suppressive function of HNSCC TIL Tregs. Tim-3+ Treg are functionally and phenotypically distinct in HNSCC TIL, and are highly effective at inhibiting T cell proliferation despite high PD-1 expression.  IFN-γ induced by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy may be beneficial by reversing Tim-3+ Treg suppression. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Abdominal {gamma}-Radiation Induces an Accumulation of Function-Impaired Regulatory T Cells in the Small Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Billiard, Fabienne; Buard, Valerie; Benderitter, Marc

    Purpose: To assess the frequency and the functional characteristics of one major component of immune tolerance, the CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) in a mouse model of abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to a single abdominal dose of {gamma}-radiation (10 Gy). We evaluated small intestine Treg infiltration by Foxp3 immunostaining and the functional suppressive activity of Tregs isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. Results: Foxp3 immunostaining showed that radiation induced a long-term infiltration of the intestine by Tregs (levels 5.5 times greater than in controls). Co-culture of Tregs from mesenteric lymph nodes with CD4{sup +} effectormore » cells showed that the Tregs had lost their suppressive function. This loss was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of Foxp3, TGF-{beta}, and CTLA-4 mRNA, all required for optimal Treg function. At Day 90 after irradiation, Tregs regained their suppressive activity as forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-{beta}), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression returned to normal. Analysis of the secretory function of mesenteric lymph node Tregs, activated in vitro with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 Abs, showed that this dysfunction was independent of a defect in interleukin-10 secretion. Conclusion: Radiation caused a long-term accumulation of function-impaired Foxp3{sup +}CD4{sup +} Tregs in the intestine. Our study provides new insights into how radiation affects the immune tolerance in peripheral tissues.« less

  9. Characterization of "cis"-regulatory elements ("c"RE) associated with mammary gland function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Bos taurus genome assembly has propelled dairy science into a new era; still, most of the information encoded in the genome has not yet been decoded. The human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has spearheaded the identification and annotation of functional genomic elements in the hu...

  10. Fatigue is not associated with impaired function of regulatory T cells in untreated patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yaldizli, Ozguer; Kumar, Manoj; Vago, Susanne; Kreuzfelder, Erich; Limmroth, Volker; Putzki, Norman

    2009-01-01

    The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated fatigue is poorly understood. Immunological mechanisms may play a role. Alterations in immunological profile indicate a chronic immune activation in MS patients with fatigue. T-regulatory (Treg) cells seem to play a key role in coordinating autoimmune mechanisms in MS. This is the first study investigating the relationship between Treg cell function and fatigue in MS patients. In this cross-sectional in vitro, ex vivo study, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 MS patients with fatigue, determined lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry and suppressive function of Treg cells in PBMC cultures with antigen stimulation. Forkhead box protein 3 expression was evaluated by PCR. Results were compared with 20 MS patients without fatigue and with 19 healthy controls. Leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets including Treg cell frequency did not differ in patients with and without fatigue. Co-culturing of Treg cells with CD4+CD25- cells did not lead to a significant suppression of myelin basic protein- and pokeweed mitogen-induced proliferation in MS patients in contrast to healthy controls. There were no statistical differences between MS patients with and without fatigue regarding this suppression activity. Fatigue seems not to be associated with impaired function of Treg cells in untreated MS patients.

  11. Regulatory functions of SnRK1 in stress-responsive gene expression and in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Hong, Jung-Woo; Kim, Eun-Chul; Yoo, Sang-Dong

    2012-04-01

    Sucrose-nonfermentation1-related protein kinase1 (SnRK1) is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor protein that regulates gene expression in response to energy depletion in plants. Efforts to elucidate the functions and mechanisms of this protein kinase are hampered, however, by inherent growth defects of snrk1-null mutant plants. To overcome these limitations and study SnRK1 functions in vivo, we applied a method combining transient expression in leaf mesophyll protoplasts and stable expression in transgenic plants. We found that both rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SnRK1 activities critically influence stress-inducible gene expression and the induction of stress tolerance. Genetic, molecular, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further revealed that the nuclear SnRK1 modulated target gene transcription in a submergence-dependent manner. From early seedling development through late senescence, SnRK1 activities appeared to modulate developmental processes in the plants. Our findings offer insight into the regulatory functions of plant SnRK1 in stress-responsive gene regulation and in plant growth and development throughout the life cycle.

  12. The Conscience as a Regulatory Function: Empathy, Shame, Pride, Guilt, and Moral Orientation in Delinquent Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schalkwijk, Frans; Stams, Geert Jan; Stegge, Hedy; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap

    2016-05-01

    This study examines an emotion-based theory of the conscience, which provides forensic practitioners tools for assessing the state of the conscience. It is operationalized as an emotion-regulating function, making use of empathy, self-conscious emotions, such as shame, pride or guilt, and moral judgment. This was put to test in a questionnaire survey with 59 delinquent and 275 non-delinquent juveniles. As was hypothesized, the functioning of the conscience of these groups differed, with offenders having lower levels of some aspects of empathic capacity, being less prone to experiencing shame and guilt, being more prone to experiencing pride, and being more punishment oriented than victim oriented. The research confirmed that operationalization of the conscience in terms of empathy, self-conscious emotions, and moral orientation is feasible. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Regulatory function of homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) family proteins during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Groot, Edwin P

    2017-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins (HD-ZIPs) form a plant-specific family of transcription factors functioning as homo- or heterodimers. Certain members of all four classes of this family are involved in embryogenesis, the focus of this review. They support auxin biosynthesis, transport and response, which are in turn essential for the apical-basal patterning of the embryo, radicle formation and outgrowth of the cotyledons. They transcriptionally regulate meristem regulators to maintain the shoot apical meristem once it is initiated. Some members are specific to the protoderm, the outermost layer of the embryo, and play a role in shoot apical meristem function. Within classes, homeodomain-leucine zippers tend to act redundantly during embryo development, and there are many examples of regulation within and between classes of homeodomain-leucine zippers. This indicates a complex network of regulation that awaits future experiments to uncover. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Investigating diversity and possible functions of G-quadruplexes in regulatory regions of maize genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    G4-quadruplexes are reversible DNA structures that likely function in gene regulation, but exactly how they work is not known. G4 DNA can be predicted from sequence motifs such as the pattern G-G-G-N(1,7)-G-G-G-N(1,7)-G-G-G-N(1,7)-G-G-G-N(1,7). In the maize genome, G4 motifs were found to occupy ...

  15. Regulatory mechanisms of RNA function: emerging roles of DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Jobert, Laure; Nilsen, Hilde

    2014-07-01

    The acquisition of an appropriate set of chemical modifications is required in order to establish correct structure of RNA molecules, and essential for their function. Modification of RNA bases affects RNA maturation, RNA processing, RNA quality control, and protein translation. Some RNA modifications are directly involved in the regulation of these processes. RNA epigenetics is emerging as a mechanism to achieve dynamic regulation of RNA function. Other modifications may prevent or be a signal for degradation. All types of RNA species are subject to processing or degradation, and numerous cellular mechanisms are involved. Unexpectedly, several studies during the last decade have established a connection between DNA and RNA surveillance mechanisms in eukaryotes. Several proteins that respond to DNA damage, either to process or to signal the presence of damaged DNA, have been shown to participate in RNA quality control, turnover or processing. Some enzymes that repair DNA damage may also process modified RNA substrates. In this review, we give an overview of the DNA repair proteins that function in RNA metabolism. We also discuss the roles of two base excision repair enzymes, SMUG1 and APE1, in RNA quality control.

  16. Design of Conditionally Active STATs: Insights into STAT Activation and Gene Regulatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Milocco, Lawrence H.; Haslam, Jennifer A.; Rosen, Jonathan; Seidel, H. Martin

    1999-01-01

    The STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway is activated by a large number of cytokines and growth factors. We sought to design a conditionally active STAT that could not only provide insight into basic questions about STAT function but also serve as a powerful tool to determine the precise biological role of STATs. To this end, we have developed a conditionally active STAT by fusing STATs with the ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor (ER). We have demonstrated that the resulting STAT-ER chimeras are estrogen-inducible transcription factors that retain the functional and biochemical characteristics of the cognate wild-type STATs. In addition, these tools have allowed us to evaluate separately the contribution of tyrosine phosphorylation and dimerization to STAT function. We have for the first time provided experimental data supporting the model that the only apparent role of STAT tyrosine phosphorylation is to drive dimerization, as dimerization alone is sufficient to unmask a latent STAT nuclear localization sequence and induce nuclear translocation, sequence-specific DNA binding, and transcriptional activity. PMID:10082558

  17. Differential requirement of PKC-θ in the development and function of Natural Regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sonal; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Vasu, Chenthamarakshan; Kumar, Anvita; Shang, Weirong; Sun, Zuoming

    2008-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ natural Treg cells, which are developed in the thymus, migrate to the periphery to actively maintain self-tolerance. Similar to conventional T cells, TCR signals are critical for the development and activation of Treg cell inhibitory function. While PKC-θ-mediated TCR signals are required for the activation of peripheral naïve T cells, they are dispensable for their thymic development. Here, we show that mice deficient in PKC-θ had a greatly reduced number of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells, which was independent of PKC-θ-regulated survival, as transgenic Bcl-xL could not restore the Treg cell population in PKC-θ−/− mice. Active and WT PKC-θ markedly stimulated, whereas inactive PKC-θ and dominant negative NFAT inhibited Foxp3 promoter activity. In addition, mice-deficient in calcineurin Aβ had a decreased Treg cell population, similar to that observed in PKC-θ deficient mice. It is likely that PKC-θ promoted the development of Treg cells by enhancing Foxp3 expression via activation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Finally, Treg cells deficient in PKC-θ were as potent as WT Treg cells in inhibiting T cell activation, indicating that PKC-θ was not required for Treg cell-mediated inhibitory function. Our data highlight the contrasting roles PKC-θ plays in conventional T cell and natural Treg cell function. PMID:18842300

  18. Sodium chloride inhibits the suppressive function of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Amanda L; Kitz, Alexandra; Wu, Chuan; Lowther, Daniel E; Rodriguez, Donald M; Vudattu, Nalini; Deng, Songyan; Herold, Kevan C; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Hafler, David A

    2015-11-02

    FOXP3+ Tregs are central for the maintenance of self-tolerance and can be defective in autoimmunity. In multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes, dysfunctional self-tolerance is partially mediated by a population of IFNγ-secreting Tregs. It was previously reported that increased NaCl concentrations promote the induction of proinflammatory Th17 cells and that high-salt diets exacerbate experimental models of autoimmunity. Here, we have shown that increasing NaCl, either in vitro or in murine models via diet, markedly impairs Treg function. NaCl increased IFNγ secretion in Tregs, and reducing IFNγ - either by neutralization with anti-IFNγ antibodies or shRNA-mediated knockdown - restored suppressive activity in Tregs. The heightened IFNγ secretion and loss of Treg function were mediated by the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1). A high-salt diet also impaired human Treg function and was associated with the induction of IFNγ-secreting Tregs in a xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease model and in adoptive transfer models of experimental colitis. Our results demonstrate a putative role for an environmental factor that promotes autoimmunity by inducing proinflammatory responses in CD4 effector cells and Treg pathways.

  19. Sweat, the driving force behind normal skin: an emerging perspective on functional biology and regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Ono, Emi; Kijima, Akiko; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Katayama, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The various symptoms associated with excessive or insufficient perspiration can significantly reduce a patient's quality of life. If a versatile and minimally invasive method could be established for returning sweat activity to normalcy, there is no question that it could be used in the treatment of many diseases that are believed to involve perspiration. For this reason, based on an understanding of the sweat-gland control function and sweat activity, it was necessary to conduct a comprehensive search for the factors that control sweating, such as the central and peripheral nerves that control sweat-gland function, the microenvironment surrounding the sweat glands, and lifestyle. We focused on the mechanism by which atopic dermatitis leads to hypohidrosis and confirmed that histamine inhibits acetylcholinergic sweating. Acetylcholine promotes the phosphorylation of glycogen synthesis kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the sweat-gland secretory cells and leads to sensible perspiration. By suppressing the phosphorylation of GSK3β, histamine inhibits the movement of sweat from the sweat-gland secretory cells through the sweat ducts, which could presumably be demonstrated by dynamic observations of the sweat glands using two-photon microscopy. It is expected that the discovery of new factors that control sweat-gland function can contribute to the treatment of diseases associated with dyshidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic disorder mediates the diverse regulatory functions of the Cdk inhibitor p21

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefeng; Fisher, John C.; Mathew, Rose; Ou, Li; Otieno, Steve; Sublett, Jack; Xiao, Limin; Chen, Jianhan; Roussel, Martine F.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, well-defined three-dimensional structure was thought to be essential for protein function. However, myriad biological functions are performed by highly dynamic, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). IDPs often fold upon binding their biological targets and frequently exhibit “binding diversity” by targeting multiple ligands. We sought to understand the physical basis of IDP binding diversity and herein report that the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, p21Cip1, adaptively binds to and inhibits the various Cdk/cyclin complexes that regulate eukaryotic cell division. Based on results from NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical and cellular assays, we show that structural adaptability of a helical sub-domain within p21 termed LH enables two other sub-domains termed D1 and D2 to specifically bind conserved surface features of the cyclin and Cdk subunits, respectively, within otherwise structurally distinct Cdk/cyclin complexes. Adaptive folding upon binding is likely to mediate the diverse biological functions of the thousands of IDPs present in eukaryotes. PMID:21358637

  1. Cytokines in the central nervous system: regulatory roles in neuronal function, cell death and repair.

    PubMed

    Sei, Y; Vitković, L; Yokoyama, M M

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neurons and glia can synthesize and secrete cytokines, which play critical roles in maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) by mediating the interaction between cells via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Circulating cytokines and soluble receptors also regulate neuronal function via endocrine mechanisms. Disturbance of the cytokine-mediated interaction between cells may lead to neuronal dysfunction and/or cell death and contribute to the pathogenesis of the CNS diseases (e.g., ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and HIV encephalopathy). Defining the molecular pathways of cytokine dysregulation and neurotoxicity may help to elucidate potential therapeutic interventions for many devastating CNS diseases.

  2. Isolation and characterization of naturally occurring subclasses of human peripheral blood T cells with regulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Strelkauskas, A J; Schauf, V; Wilson, B S; Chess, L; Schlossman, S F

    1978-04-01

    By utilizing naturally occurring autoimmune antibodies from patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, we have isolated and functionally characterized two unique subpopulations of T cells. JRA+ T cells, i.e., those identified by sera from these patients, react poorly in response to allogeneic cells, respond to Con A but not PHA, and do not help in the synthesis and secretion of Ig by B cells. In contrast, JRA- T cells, i.e., those not identified by sera from these patients, respond very well to allogeneic cells, proliferate well in response to PHA but not Con A, and more interestingly, can greatly enhance the secretion of Ig by B cells.

  3. Biomechanical Forces Promote Immune Regulatory Function of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Miguel F; Vaidya, Abishek B; Evans, Siobahn M; Lee, Hyun J; Aertker, Benjamin M; Alexander, Alexander J; Price, Katherine M; Ozuna, Joyce A; Liao, George P; Aroom, Kevin R; Xue, Hasen; Gu, Liang; Omichi, Rui; Bedi, Supinder; Olson, Scott D; Cox, Charles S; Wenzel, Pamela L

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are believed to mobilize from the bone marrow in response to inflammation and injury, yet the effects of egress into the vasculature on MSC function are largely unknown. Here we show that wall shear stress (WSS) typical of fluid frictional forces present on the vascular lumen stimulates antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mediators, as well as chemokines capable of immune cell recruitment. WSS specifically promotes signaling through NFκB-COX2-prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by activated immune cells. Ex vivo conditioning of MSCs by WSS improved therapeutic efficacy in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, as evidenced by decreased apoptotic and M1-type activated microglia in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that force provides critical cues to MSCs residing at the vascular interface which influence immunomodulatory and paracrine activity, and suggest the potential therapeutic use of force for MSC functional enhancement. Stem Cells 2017;35:1259-1272. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Programmable chemical reaction networks: emulating regulatory functions in living cells using a bottom-up approach.

    PubMed

    van Roekel, Hendrik W H; Rosier, Bas J H M; Meijer, Lenny H H; Hilbers, Peter A J; Markvoort, Albert J; Huck, Wilhelm T S; de Greef, Tom F A

    2015-11-07

    Living cells are able to produce a wide variety of biological responses when subjected to biochemical stimuli. It has become apparent that these biological responses are regulated by complex chemical reaction networks (CRNs). Unravelling the function of these circuits is a key topic of both systems biology and synthetic biology. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology together with the realisation that current experimental tools are insufficient to quantitatively understand the molecular logic of pathways inside living cells has triggered renewed interest in the bottom-up development of CRNs. This builds upon earlier work of physical chemists who extensively studied inorganic CRNs and showed how a system of chemical reactions can give rise to complex spatiotemporal responses such as oscillations and pattern formation. Using purified biochemical components, in vitro synthetic biologists have started to engineer simplified model systems with the goal of mimicking biological responses of intracellular circuits. Emulation and reconstruction of system-level properties of intracellular networks using simplified circuits are able to reveal key design principles and molecular programs that underlie the biological function of interest. In this Tutorial Review, we present an accessible overview of this emerging field starting with key studies on inorganic CRNs followed by a discussion of recent work involving purified biochemical components. Finally, we review recent work showing the versatility of programmable biochemical reaction networks (BRNs) in analytical and diagnostic applications.

  5. Conserved regulatory mechanism controls the development of cells with rooting functions in land plants.

    PubMed

    Tam, Thomas Ho Yuen; Catarino, Bruno; Dolan, Liam

    2015-07-21

    Land plants develop filamentous cells-root hairs, rhizoids, and caulonemata-at the interface with the soil. Members of the group XI basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors encoded by LOTUS JAPONICUS ROOTHAIRLESS1-LIKE (LRL) genes positively regulate the development of root hairs in the angiosperms Lotus japonicus, Arabidopsis thaliana, and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that auxin promotes rhizoid and caulonema development by positively regulating the expression of PpLRL1 and PpLRL2, the two LRL genes in the Physcomitrella patens genome. Although the group VIII bHLH proteins, AtROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 and AtROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1, promote root-hair development by positively regulating the expression of AtLRL3 in A. thaliana, LRL genes promote rhizoid development independently of PpROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1 and PpROOT HAIR DEFECITVE SIX-LIKE2 (PpRSL1 and PpRSL2) gene function in P. patens. Together, these data demonstrate that both LRL and RSL genes are components of an ancient auxin-regulated gene network that controls the development of tip-growing cells with rooting functions among most extant land plants. Although this network has diverged in the moss and the angiosperm lineages, our data demonstrate that the core network acted in the last common ancestor of the mosses and angiosperms that existed sometime before 420 million years ago.

  6. Conserved regulatory mechanism controls the development of cells with rooting functions in land plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Thomas Ho Yuen; Catarino, Bruno; Dolan, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Land plants develop filamentous cells—root hairs, rhizoids, and caulonemata—at the interface with the soil. Members of the group XI basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors encoded by LOTUS JAPONICUS ROOTHAIRLESS1-LIKE (LRL) genes positively regulate the development of root hairs in the angiosperms Lotus japonicus, Arabidopsis thaliana, and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that auxin promotes rhizoid and caulonema development by positively regulating the expression of PpLRL1 and PpLRL2, the two LRL genes in the Physcomitrella patens genome. Although the group VIII bHLH proteins, AtROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 and AtROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1, promote root-hair development by positively regulating the expression of AtLRL3 in A. thaliana, LRL genes promote rhizoid development independently of PpROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE1 and PpROOT HAIR DEFECITVE SIX-LIKE2 (PpRSL1 and PpRSL2) gene function in P. patens. Together, these data demonstrate that both LRL and RSL genes are components of an ancient auxin-regulated gene network that controls the development of tip-growing cells with rooting functions among most extant land plants. Although this network has diverged in the moss and the angiosperm lineages, our data demonstrate that the core network acted in the last common ancestor of the mosses and angiosperms that existed sometime before 420 million years ago. PMID:26150509

  7. Multipronged regulatory functions of a novel endonuclease (TieA) from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Tenguria, Shivendra; Kumar, Naveen; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-11-02

    Helicobacter pylori portrays a classical paradigm of persistent bacterial infections. A well balanced homeostasis of bacterial effector functions and host responses is purported to be the key in achieving long term colonization in specific hosts. H. pylori nucleases have been shown to assist in natural transformation, but their role in virulence and colonization remains elusive. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the involvement of these nucleases in the pathogenesis of H. pylori Here, we report the multifaceted role of a TNFR-1 interacting endonuclease A (TieA) from H. pylori. tieA expression is differentially regulated in response to environmental stress and post adherence to gastric epithelial cells. Studies with isogenic knockouts of tieA revealed it to be a secretory protein which translocates into the host gastric epithelial cells independent of a type IV secretion system, gets phosphorylated by DNA-PK kinase and auto-phosphorylates as serine kinase. Furthermore, TieA binds to and cleaves DNA in a non-specific manner and promotes Fas mediated apoptosis in AGS cells. Additionally, TieA induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion via activation of transcription factor AP-1 and signaled through MAP kinase pathway. Collectively, TieA with its multipronged and moonlighting functions could facilitate H. pylori in maintaining a balance of bacterial adaptation, and elimination by the host responses. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Multipronged regulatory functions of a novel endonuclease (TieA) from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A.; Tenguria, Shivendra; Kumar, Naveen; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori portrays a classical paradigm of persistent bacterial infections. A well balanced homeostasis of bacterial effector functions and host responses is purported to be the key in achieving long term colonization in specific hosts. H. pylori nucleases have been shown to assist in natural transformation, but their role in virulence and colonization remains elusive. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the involvement of these nucleases in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. Here, we report the multifaceted role of a TNFR-1 interacting endonuclease A (TieA) from H. pylori. tieA expression is differentially regulated in response to environmental stress and post adherence to gastric epithelial cells. Studies with isogenic knockouts of tieA revealed it to be a secretory protein which translocates into the host gastric epithelial cells independent of a type IV secretion system, gets phosphorylated by DNA-PK kinase and auto-phosphorylates as serine kinase. Furthermore, TieA binds to and cleaves DNA in a non-specific manner and promotes Fas mediated apoptosis in AGS cells. Additionally, TieA induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion via activation of transcription factor AP-1 and signaled through MAP kinase pathway. Collectively, TieA with its multipronged and moonlighting functions could facilitate H. pylori in maintaining a balance of bacterial adaptation, and elimination by the host responses. PMID:27550181

  9. Functional identification and regulatory analysis of Δ6-fatty acid desaturase from the oleaginous fungus Mucor sp. EIM-10.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianzhang; Liu, Hongjiao; Niu, Yongchao; Qi, Feng; Zhang, Mingliang; Huang, Jianzhong

    2017-03-01

    To enlarge the diversity of the desaturases associated with PUFA biosynthesis and to better understand the transcriptional regulation of desaturases, a Δ 6 -desaturase gene (Md6) from Mucor sp. and its 5'-upstream sequence was functionally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of the Δ 6 -fatty acid desaturase (Md6) in S. cerevisiae showed that Md6 could convert linolenic acid to γ-linolenic acid. Computational analysis of the promoter of Md6 suggested it contains several eukaryotic fundamental transcription regulatory elements. In vivo functional analysis of the promoter showed the 5'-upstream sequence of Md6 could initiate expression of GFP and Md6 itself in S. cerevisiae. A series deletion analysis of the promoter suggested that sequence between -919 to -784 bp (relative to start site) named as eMd6 is the key factor for high activity of Δ 6 -desaturase. The activity of Δ 6 -desaturase was increased by 2.8-fold and 2.5-fold when the eMd6 sequence was placed upstream of -434 with forward or reverse orientations respectively. To our best knowledge, the native promoter of Md6 from Mucor is the strongest promoter for Δ 6 -desaturase reported so far and the sequence between -919 to -784 bp is an enhancer for Δ 6 -desaturase activity.

  10. [Advance in research on regulatory mechanism and functions of neutral sphingomyelinse 2].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Guo, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2), which located mainly on the plasma membrane, hydrolyzes sphingomyelin into ceramide and plays an important role in the physiological and pathological regulation of cell apoptosis, cell growth arrest, and inflammation. nSMase2 is also involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease and the bone growth.Under neutral pH and the presence of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(+), the activity of nSMase2 is induced by oxidative stress through phosphorylation. Furthermore, the induced interaction of anionic phospholipids and the signaling molecules like receptor for activated C-kinase 1/embryonic ectodermal development with nSMase2 are also crucial mechanisms of protein activation. In the review, recent research advances in the structure and function of nSMase2 and its underlying mechanisms are summarized.

  11. A Functional Imaging Study of Self-Regulatory Capacities in Persons Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Davidson, Stephanie M.; Klahr, Kristin; Herder, Carl L.; Sikora, Chamonix O.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a disorder of speech fluency with an unknown pathogenesis. The similarity of its phenotype and natural history with other childhood neuropsychiatric disorders of frontostriatal pathology suggests that stuttering may have a closely related pathogenesis. We investigated in this study the potential involvement of frontostriatal circuits in developmental stuttering. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 persons with stuttering and 52 fluent controls during performance of the Simon Spatial Incompatibility Task. We examined differences between the two groups of blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation associated with two neural processes, the resolution of cognitive conflict and the context-dependent adaptation to changes in conflict. Stuttering speakers and controls did not differ on behavioral performance on the task. In the presence of conflict-laden stimuli, however, stuttering speakers activated more strongly the cingulate cortex, left anterior prefrontal cortex, right medial frontal cortex, left supplementary motor area, right caudate nucleus, and left parietal cortex. The magnitude of activation in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated inversely in stuttering speakers with symptom severity. Stuttering speakers also showed blunted activation during context-dependent adaptation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region that mediates cross-temporal contingencies. Frontostriatal hyper-responsivity to conflict resembles prior findings in other disorders of frontostriatal pathology, and therefore likely represents a general mechanism supporting functional compensation for an underlying inefficiency of neural processing in these circuits. The reduced activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex likely represents the inadequate readiness of stuttering speakers to execute a sequence of motor responses. PMID:24587104

  12. Structural decoding of netrin-4 reveals a regulatory function towards mature basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Reuten, Raphael; Patel, Trushar R.; McDougall, Matthew; Rama, Nicolas; Nikodemus, Denise; Gibert, Benjamin; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Prein, Carina; Meier, Markus; Metzger, Stéphanie; Zhou, Zhigang; Kaltenberg, Jennifer; McKee, Karen K.; Bald, Tobias; Tüting, Thomas; Zigrino, Paola; Djonov, Valentin; Bloch, Wilhelm; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Poschl, Ernst; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Ehrbar, Martin; Mehlen, Patrick; Stetefeld, Jörg; Koch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Netrins, a family of laminin-related molecules, have been proposed to act as guidance cues either during nervous system development or the establishment of the vascular system. This was clearly demonstrated for netrin-1 via its interaction with the receptors DCC and UNC5s. However, mainly based on shared homologies with netrin-1, netrin-4 was also proposed to play a role in neuronal outgrowth and developmental/pathological angiogenesis via interactions with netrin-1 receptors. Here, we present the high-resolution structure of netrin-4, which shows unique features in comparison with netrin-1, and show that it does not bind directly to any of the known netrin-1 receptors. We show that netrin-4 disrupts laminin networks and basement membranes (BMs) through high-affinity binding to the laminin γ1 chain. We hypothesize that this laminin-related function is essential for the previously described effects on axon growth promotion and angiogenesis. Our study unveils netrin-4 as a non-enzymatic extracellular matrix protein actively disrupting pre-existing BMs. PMID:27901020

  13. Novel functions for the endocytic regulatory proteins MICAL-L1 and EHD1 in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, James B; Katafiasz, Dawn; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    During interphase, recycling endosomes mediate the transport of internalized cargo back to the plasma membrane. However, in mitotic cells, recycling endosomes are essential for the completion of cytokinesis, the last phase of mitosis that promotes the physical separation the two daughter cells. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular determinants that regulate recycling endosome dynamics during cytokinesis remains incomplete. We have previously demonstrated that Molecule Interacting with CasL Like-1 (MICAL-L1) and C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain protein 1 (EHD1) coordinately regulate receptor transport from tubular recycling endosomes during interphase. However, their potential roles in controlling cytokinesis had not been addressed. In this study, we show that MICAL-L1 and EHD1 regulate mitosis. Depletion of either protein resulted in increased numbers of bi-nucleated cells. We provide evidence that bi-nucleation in MICAL-L1- and EHD1-depleted cells is a consequence of impaired recycling endosome transport during late cytokinesis. However, depletion of MICAL-L1, but not EHD1, resulted in aberrant chromosome alignment and lagging chromosomes, suggesting an EHD1-independent function for MICAL-L1 earlier in mitosis. Moreover, we provide evidence that MICAL-L1 and EHD1 differentially influence microtubule dynamics during early and late mitosis. Collectively, our new data suggest several unanticipated roles for MICAL-L1 and EHD1 during the cell cycle. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differential regulatory functions of three classes of phosphatidylinositol and phosphoinositide 3-kinases in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinlei; Long, Yun Chau; Shen, Han-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved and exquisitely regulated self-eating cellular process with important biological functions. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PtdIns3Ks) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in the autophagic process. Here we aim to recapitulate how 3 classes of these lipid kinases differentially regulate autophagy. Generally, activation of the class I PI3K suppresses autophagy, via the well-established PI3K-AKT-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway. In contrast, the class III PtdIns3K catalytic subunit PIK3C3/Vps34 forms a protein complex with BECN1 and PIK3R4 and produces phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P), which is required for the initiation and progression of autophagy. The class II enzyme emerged only recently as an alternative source of PtdIns3P and autophagic initiator. However, the orthodox paradigm is challenged by findings that the PIK3CB catalytic subunit of class I PI3K acts as a positive regulator of autophagy, and PIK3C3 was thought to be an amino acid sensor for MTOR, which curbs autophagy. At present, a number of PtdIns3K and PI3K inhibitors, including specific PIK3C3 inhibitors, have been developed for suppression of autophagy and for clinical applications in autophagy-related human diseases. PMID:26018563

  15. Global Regulatory Functions of the Staphylococcus aureus Endoribonuclease III in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lioliou, Efthimia; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Caldelari, Isabelle; Helfer, Anne-Catherine; Fechter, Pierre; Vandenesch, François; Vogel, Jörg; Romby, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    RNA turnover plays an important role in both virulence and adaptation to stress in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. However, the molecular players and mechanisms involved in these processes are poorly understood. Here, we explored the functions of S. aureus endoribonuclease III (RNase III), a member of the ubiquitous family of double-strand-specific endoribonucleases. To define genomic transcripts that are bound and processed by RNase III, we performed deep sequencing on cDNA libraries generated from RNAs that were co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type RNase III or two different cleavage-defective mutant variants in vivo. Several newly identified RNase III targets were validated by independent experimental methods. We identified various classes of structured RNAs as RNase III substrates and demonstrated that this enzyme is involved in the maturation of rRNAs and tRNAs, regulates the turnover of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs, and autoregulates its synthesis by cleaving within the coding region of its own mRNA. Moreover, we identified a positive effect of RNase III on protein synthesis based on novel mechanisms. RNase III–mediated cleavage in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) enhanced the stability and translation of cspA mRNA, which encodes the major cold-shock protein. Furthermore, RNase III cleaved overlapping 5′UTRs of divergently transcribed genes to generate leaderless mRNAs, which constitutes a novel way to co-regulate neighboring genes. In agreement with recent findings, low abundance antisense RNAs covering 44% of the annotated genes were captured by co-immunoprecipitation with RNase III mutant proteins. Thus, in addition to gene regulation, RNase III is associated with RNA quality control of pervasive transcription. Overall, this study illustrates the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation mediated by RNase III. PMID:22761586

  16. Genistein abrogates G2 arrest induced by curcumin in p53 deficient T47D cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high cost and low level of cancer survival urge the finding of new drugs having better mechanisms. There is a high trend of patients to be “back to nature” and use natural products as an alternative way to cure cancer. The fact is that some of available anticancer drugs are originated from plants, such as taxane, vincristine, vinblastine, pacitaxel. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a dietary pigment present in Curcuma longa rizhome is reported to induce cell cycle arrest in some cell lines. Other study reported that genistein isolated from Glycine max seed inhibited phosphorylation of cdk1, gene involved during G2/M transition and thus could function as G2 checkpoint abrogator. The inhibition of cdk1 phosphorylation is one of alternative strategy which could selectively kill cancer cells and potentially be combined with DNA damaging agent such as curcumin. Methods T47D cell line was treated with different concentrations of curcumin and genistein, alone or in combination; added together or with interval time. Flow Cytometry and MTT assay were used to evaluate cell cycle distribution and viability, respectively. The presence of apoptotic cells was determined using acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining. Results In this study curcumin induced G2 arrest on p53 deficient T47D cells at the concentration of 10 μM. Increasing concentration up to 30 μM increased the number of cell death. Whilst genistein alone at low concentration (≤10 μM) induced cell proliferation, addition of genistein (20 μM) 16 h after curcumin resulted in more cell death (89%), 34% higher than that administered at the same time (56%). The combination treatment resulted in apoptotic cell death. Combining curcumin with high dose of genistein (50 μM) induced necrotic cells. Conclusions Genistein increased the death of curcumin treated T47D cells. Appropriate timing of administration and concentration of genistein determine the outcome of treatment and this method

  17. Actin dynamics regulate immediate PAR-2-dependent responses to acute epidermal permeability barrier abrogation.

    PubMed

    Roelandt, Truus; Heughebaert, Carol; Verween, Gunther; Giddelo, Christina; Verbeken, Gilbert; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Devos, Daniel; Crumrine, Debra; Roseeuw, Diane; Elias, Peter M; Hachem, Jean-Pierre

    2011-02-01

    Lamellar body (LB) secretion and terminal differentiation of stratum granulosum (SG) cells are signaled by both protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and caveolin-1 (cav-1). To address the early dynamics of LB secretion, we examined cytoskeletal remodeling of keratinocytes in 3 mouse models following acute barrier abrogation: hairless mice, PAR-2 knockout (-/-) and cav-1 -/-. Under basal conditions, globular (G)-actin accumulates in SG cells cytosol, while filamentous (F)-actin is restricted to peri-membrane domains. Barrier abrogation induces the apical movement of F-actin and the retreat of the SG-G-actin front, paralleled by upstream cytoskeletal kinases activation. This phenomenon was both enhanced by PAR-2 agonist, and inhibited by cytochalasin-D and in PAR-2 knockout mice. We found that plasma membrane conformational changes causing LB secretion are controlled by PAR-2-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. We next addressed the interaction dynamics between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane following PAR-2-induced actin stress fiber formation in both cav-1 -/- and wildtype cells. Actin stress fiber formation is increased in cav-1 -/- cells prior to and following PAR-2 agonist peptide-treatment, while absence of cav-1 inhibits E-cadherin-mediated cell-to-cell adhesion. PAR-2 drives cytoskeletal/plasma membrane dynamics that regulate early LB secretion following barrier abrogation, stress fiber formation and keratinocyte adhesion. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells induce functionally active T-regulatory lymphocytes in a paracrine fashion and ameliorate experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    PubMed

    Tasso, Roberta; Ilengo, Cristina; Quarto, Rodolfo; Cancedda, Ranieri; Caspi, Rachel R; Pennesi, Giuseppina

    2012-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) have regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, exerted by cell-cell contact and in a paracrine fashion. Part of their immunosuppressive activity has been ascribed to their ability to promote the induction of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T lymphocytes with regulatory functions (Treg). Here the authors studied the effect of MSCs on the induction of Treg and on the development of autoimmunity, and they examined the possibility that MSC-mediated Treg induction could be attributed to the secretion of soluble factors. The authors induced experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in mice by immunization with the 1-20 peptide of the intraphotoreceptor binding protein. At the same time, some of the animals were treated intraperitoneally with syngeneic MSCs. The authors checked T-cell responses and in vitro Treg conversion by cell proliferation and blocking assays, in cell-cell contact and transwell settings. TGFβ and TGFβ receptor gene expression analyses were performed by real-time PCR. The authors found that a single intraperitoneal injection of MSCs was able to significantly attenuate EAU and that a significantly higher percentage of adaptive Treg was present in MSC-treated mice than in MSC-untreated animals. In vitro blocking of antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II precluded priming and clonal expansion of antigen-specific Treg, whereas blockade of TGFβ impaired the expression of FoxP3, preventing the conversion of CD4+ T cells into functionally active Treg. The authors demonstrated that MSCs can inhibit EAU and that their immunomodulatory function is due at least in part to the induction of antigen-specific Treg in a paracrine fashion by secreting TGFβ.

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1 Regulates the Function of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 by Inducing Its Sumoylation

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Gretchen L.; Shackelford, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) induces multiple signal transduction pathways during latent EBV infection via its C-terminal activating region 1 (CTAR1), CTAR2, and the less-studied CTAR3. One mechanism by which LMP1 regulates cellular activation is through the induction of protein posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation and ubiquitination. We recently documented that LMP1 induces a third major protein modification by physically interacting with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 through CTAR3 and inducing the sumoylation of cellular proteins in latently infected cells. We have now identified a specific target of LMP1-induced sumoylation, interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7). We hypothesize that during EBV latency, LMP1 induces the sumoylation of IRF7, limiting its transcriptional activity and modulating the activation of innate immune responses. Our data show that endogenously sumoylated IRF7 is detected in latently infected EBV lymphoblastoid cell lines. LMP1 expression coincided with increased sumoylation of IRF7 in a CTAR3-dependent manner. Additional experiments show that LMP1 CTAR3-induced sumoylation regulates the expression and function of IRF7 by decreasing its turnover, increasing its nuclear retention, decreasing its DNA binding, and limiting its transcriptional activation. Finally, we identified that IRF7 is sumoylated at lysine 452. These data demonstrate that LMP1 CTAR3 does in fact function in intracellular signaling, leading to biologic effects. We propose that CTAR3 is an important signaling region of LMP1 that regulates protein function by sumoylation. We have shown specifically that LMP1 CTAR3, in cooperation with CTAR2, can limit the ability of IRF7 to induce innate immune responses by inducing the sumoylation of IRF7. PMID:22951831

  20. Environmental toxicants perturb human Sertoli cell adhesive function via changes in F-actin organization mediated by actin regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Lee, Will M.; John, Constance M.; Turek, Paul J.; Silvestrini, Bruno; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can human Sertoli cells cultured in vitro and that have formed an epithelium be used as a model to monitor toxicant-induced junction disruption and to better understand the mechanism(s) by which toxicants disrupt cell adhesion at the Sertoli cell blood–testis barrier (BTB)? SUMMARY ANSWER Our findings illustrate that human Sertoli cells cultured in vitro serve as a reliable system to monitor the impact of environmental toxicants on the BTB function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Suspicions of a declining trend in semen quality and a concomitant increase in exposures to environmental toxicants over the past decades reveal the need of an in vitro system that efficiently and reliably monitors the impact of toxicants on male reproductive function. Furthermore, studies in rodents have confirmed that environmental toxicants impede Sertoli cell BTB function in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION We examined the effects of two environmental toxicants: cadmium chloride (0.5–20 µM) and bisphenol A (0.4–200 µM) on human Sertoli cell function. Cultured Sertoli cells from three men were used in this study, which spanned an 18-month period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Human Sertoli cells from three subjects were cultured in F12/DMEM containing 5% fetal bovine serum. Changes in protein expression were monitored by immunoblotting using specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence analyses were used to assess changes in the distribution of adhesion proteins, F-actin and actin regulatory proteins following exposure to two toxicants: cadmium chloride and bisphenol A (BPA). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Human Sertoli cells were sensitive to cadmium and BPA toxicity. Changes in the localization of cell adhesion proteins were mediated by an alteration of the actin-based cytoskeleton. This alteration of F-actin network in Sertoli cells as manifested by truncation and depolymerization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli cell BTB was caused by

  1. Functional and genomic analyses of FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells as regulatory T (Treg)-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Joon-Young; Kim, Han-Jong; Hurt, Elaine M.

    2007-10-12

    FOXP3, a forkhead transcription factor is essential for the development and function of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs). In contrast to conversion of murine naive T cells to Tregs by transduction of Foxp3, it is controversial whether ectopic expression of FOXP3 in human CD4{sup +} T cells is sufficient for acquisition of suppressive activity. Here, we show that retroviral transduction of FOXP3 induces a Treg phenotype in human leukemic CD4{sup +} Jurkat-T cells, evidenced by increased expression of Treg-associated cell surface markers as well as inhibition of cytokine production. Furthermore, FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells suppress the proliferation of humanmore » CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} T cells. Additionally, DNA microarray analysis identifies Treg-related genes regulated by FOXP3. Our study demonstrates that enforced expression of FOXP3 confers Treg-like properties on Jurkat-T cells, which can be a convenient and efficient Treg-like cell model for further study to identify Treg cell surface markers and target genes regulated by FOXP3.« less

  2. PGE2 contributes to TGF-β induced T regulatory cell function in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baratelli, Felicita; Lee, Jay M; Hazra, Saswati; Lin, Ying; Walser, Tonya C; Schaue, Dorthe; Pak, Peter S; Elashoff, David; Reckamp, Karen; Zhang, Ling; Fishbein, Michael C; Sharma, Sherven; Dubinett, Steven M

    2010-01-01

    CD4+CD25bright regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in cancer-mediated immunosuppression. We and others have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) induce CD4+CD25brightFOXP3+Treg. Based on these studies, we investigated the requirement for PGE2 in Treg induction by TGF-β. TGF-β stimulation of human CD4+ T cells induced COX-2-dependent production of PGE2. PGE2-neutralizing antibody treatment significantly reduced the suppressive function of TGF-β-induced Treg (TGF-β-Treg) in vitro. TGF-β concentration measured in the plasma of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients directly correlated with the frequency of circulating CD4+CD25brightFOXP3+T cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed increased FOXP3 expression in circulating CD4+CD25+HLA-DR- cells of lung cancer patients compared to control subjects. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed co-expression of TGF-β, COX-2, and FOXP3 in serial sections from resected lung tumor tissues. All together these observations suggest interplay between TGF-β and COX-2 in the induction of Treg activities. Interrupting TGF-β and PGE2 signaling may be important in therapeutic interventions that aim to limit Tregfunction in lung cancer. PMID:20733946

  3. Regulatory T cells are recruited in the infarcted mouse myocardium and may modulate fibroblast phenotype and function

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Amit; Dobaczewski, Marcin; Rai, Vikrant; Haque, Zaffar; Chen, Wei; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in suppressing immune responses regulating behavior and gene expression in effector T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Tregs infiltrate the infarcted myocardium; however, their role the inflammatory and reparative response after myocardial infarction remains poorly understood. We used FoxP3EGFP reporter mice to study Treg trafficking in the infarcted heart and examined the effects of Treg depletion on postinfarction remodeling using an anti-CD25 antibody. Moreover, we investigated the in vitro effects of Tregs on cardiac fibroblast phenotype and function. Low numbers of Tregs infiltrated the infarcted myocardium after 24–72 h of reperfusion. Treg depletion had no significant effects on cardiac dysfunction and scar size after reperfused myocardial infarction but accelerated ventricular dilation and accentuated apical remodeling. Enhanced myocardial dilation in Treg-depleted animals was associated with increased expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and accentuated macrophage infiltration. In vitro, Tregs modulated the cardiac fibroblast phenotype, reducing expression of α-smooth muscle actin, decreasing expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3, and attenuating contraction of fibroblast-populated collagen pads. Our findings suggest that endogenous Tregs have modest effects on the inflammatory and reparative response after myocardial infarction. However, the anti-inflammatory and matrix-preserving properties of Tregs may suggest a role for Treg-based cell therapy in the attenuation of adverse postinfarction remodeling. PMID:25128167

  4. Structure and catalytic regulatory function of ubiquitin specific protease 11 N-terminal and ubiquitin-like domains.

    PubMed

    Harper, Stephen; Gratton, Hayley E; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Scott, David J; Emsley, Jonas; Dreveny, Ingrid

    2014-05-13

    The ubiquitin specific protease 11 (USP11) is implicated in DNA repair, viral RNA replication, and TGFβ signaling. We report the first characterization of the USP11 domain architecture and its role in regulating the enzymatic activity. USP11 consists of an N-terminal "domain present in USPs" (DUSP) and "ubiquitin-like" (UBL) domain, together referred to as DU domains, and the catalytic domain harboring a second UBL domain. Crystal structures of the DU domains show a tandem arrangement with a shortened β-hairpin at the two-domain interface and altered surface characteristics compared to the homologues USP4 and USP15. A conserved VEVY motif is a signature feature at the two-domain interface that shapes a potential protein interaction site. Small angle X-ray scattering and gel filtration experiments are consistent with the USP11DU domains and full-length USP11 being monomeric. Unexpectedly, we reveal, through kinetic assays of a series of deletion mutants, that the catalytic activity of USP11 is not regulated through intramolecular autoinhibition or activation by the N-terminal DU or UBL domains. Moreover, ubiquitin chain cleavage assays with all eight linkages reveal a preference for Lys(63)-, Lys(6)-, Lys(33)-, and Lys(11)-linked chains over Lys(27)-, Lys(29)-, and Lys(48)-linked and linear chains consistent with USP11's function in DNA repair pathways that is mediated by the protease domain. Our data support a model whereby USP11 domains outside the catalytic core domain serve as protein interaction or trafficking modules rather than a direct regulatory function of the proteolytic activity. This highlights the diversity of USPs in substrate recognition and regulation of ubiquitin deconjugation.

  5. Allocation of distinct organ fates from a precursor field requires a shift in expression and function of gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinjin; Baker, Luke R.; Bashirullah, Arash

    2018-01-01

    A common occurrence in metazoan development is the rise of multiple tissues/organs from a single uniform precursor field. One example is the anterior forebrain of vertebrates, which produces the eyes, hypothalamus, diencephalon, and telencephalon. Another instance is the Drosophila wing disc, which generates the adult wing blade, the hinge, and the thorax. Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that are comprised of signaling pathways and batteries of transcription factors parcel the undifferentiated field into discrete territories. This simple model is challenged by two observations. First, many GRN members that are thought to control the fate of one organ are actually expressed throughout the entire precursor field at earlier points in development. Second, each GRN can simultaneously promote one of the possible fates choices while repressing the other alternatives. It is therefore unclear how GRNs function to allocate tissue fates if their members are uniformly expressed and competing with each other within the same populations of cells. We address this paradigm by studying fate specification in the Drosophila eye-antennal disc. The disc, which begins its development as a homogeneous precursor field, produces a number of adult structures including the compound eyes, the ocelli, the antennae, the maxillary palps, and the surrounding head epidermis. Several selector genes that control the fates of the eye and antenna, respectively, are first expressed throughout the entire eye-antennal disc. We show that during early stages, these genes are tasked with promoting the growth of the entire field. Upon segregation to distinct territories within the disc, each GRN continues to promote growth while taking on the additional roles of promoting distinct primary fates and repressing alternate fates. The timing of both expression pattern restriction and expansion of functional duties is an elemental requirement for allocating fates within a single field. PMID:29351292

  6. Regulatory network analysis of Epstein-Barr virus identifies functional modules and hub genes involved in infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Poorebrahim, Mansour; Salarian, Ali; Najafi, Saeideh; Abazari, Mohammad Foad; Aleagha, Maryam Nouri; Dadras, Mohammad Nasr; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Ataei, Atousa; Poortahmasebi, Vahdat

    2017-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and establishes lifetime infection associated with a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to develop an integrative gene regulatory network (GRN) approach and overlying gene expression data to identify the representative subnetworks for IM and EBV latent infection (LI). After identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in both IM and LI gene expression profiles, functional annotations were applied using gene ontology (GO) and BiNGO tools, and construction of GRNs, topological analysis and identification of modules were carried out using several plugins of Cytoscape. In parallel, a human-EBV GRN was generated using the Hu-Vir database for further analyses. Our analysis revealed that the majority of DEGs in both IM and LI were involved in cell-cycle and DNA repair processes. However, these genes showed a significant negative correlation in the IM and LI states. Furthermore, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) - a hub gene with the highest centrality score - appeared to be the key player in cell cycle regulation in IM disease. The most significant functional modules in the IM and LI states were involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis, respectively. Human-EBV network analysis revealed several direct targets of EBV proteins during IM disease. Our study provides an important first report on the response to IM/LI EBV infection in humans. An important aspect of our data was the upregulation of genes associated with cell cycle progression and proliferation.

  7. Functional Conservation of the Glide/Gcm Regulatory Network Controlling Glia, Hemocyte, and Tendon Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Popkova, Anna; Southall, Tony D.; Aiello, Giuseppe; Brand, Andrea H.; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screens allow us to understand how transcription factors trigger developmental processes, including cell specification. A major challenge is identification of their binding sites because feedback loops and homeostatic interactions may mask the direct impact of those factors in transcriptome analyses. Moreover, this approach dissects the downstream signaling cascades and facilitates identification of conserved transcriptional programs. Here we show the results and the validation of a DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) genome-wide screen that identifies the direct targets of Glide/Gcm, a potent transcription factor that controls glia, hemocyte, and tendon cell differentiation in Drosophila. The screen identifies many genes that had not been previously associated with Glide/Gcm and highlights three major signaling pathways interacting with Glide/Gcm: Notch, Hedgehog, and JAK/STAT, which all involve feedback loops. Furthermore, the screen identifies effector molecules that are necessary for cell-cell interactions during late developmental processes and/or in ontogeny. Typically, immunoglobulin (Ig) domain–containing proteins control cell adhesion and axonal navigation. This shows that early and transiently expressed fate determinants not only control other transcription factors that, in turn, implement a specific developmental program but also directly affect late developmental events and cell function. Finally, while the mammalian genome contains two orthologous Gcm genes, their function has been demonstrated in vertebrate-specific tissues, placenta, and parathyroid glands, begging questions on the evolutionary conservation of the Gcm cascade in higher organisms. Here we provide the first evidence for the conservation of Gcm direct targets in humans. In sum, this work uncovers novel aspects of cell specification and sets the basis for further understanding of the role of conserved Gcm gene regulatory cascades. PMID:26567182

  8. Organophosphate-induced changes in the PKA regulatory function of Swiss Cheese/NTE lead to behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Jill S; Cassar, Marlène; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  9. The function of the RNA-binding protein TEL1 in moss reveals ancient regulatory mechanisms of shoot development.

    PubMed

    Vivancos, Julien; Spinner, Lara; Mazubert, Christelle; Charlot, Florence; Paquet, Nicolas; Thareau, Vincent; Dron, Michel; Nogué, Fabien; Charon, Céline

    2012-03-01

    The shoot represents the basic body plan in land plants. It consists of a repeated structure composed of stems and leaves. Whereas vascular plants generate a shoot in their diploid phase, non-vascular plants such as mosses form a shoot (called the gametophore) in their haploid generation. The evolution of regulatory mechanisms or genetic networks used in the development of these two kinds of shoots is unclear. TERMINAL EAR1-like genes have been involved in diploid shoot development in vascular plants. Here, we show that disruption of PpTEL1 from the moss Physcomitrella patens, causes reduced protonema growth and gametophore initiation, as well as defects in gametophore development. Leafy shoots formed on ΔTEL1 mutants exhibit shorter stems with more leaves per shoot, suggesting an accelerated leaf initiation (shortened plastochron), a phenotype shared with the Poaceae vascular plants TE1 and PLA2/LHD2 mutants. Moreover, the positive correlation between plastochron length and leaf size observed in ΔTEL1 mutants suggests a conserved compensatory mechanism correlating leaf growth and leaf initiation rate that would minimize overall changes in plant biomass. The RNA-binding protein encoded by PpTEL1 contains two N-terminus RNA-recognition motifs, and a third C-terminus non-canonical RRM, specific to TEL proteins. Removal of the PpTEL1 C-terminus (including this third RRM) or only 16-18 amino acids within it seriously impairs PpTEL1 function, suggesting a critical role for this third RRM. These results show a conserved function of the RNA-binding PpTEL1 protein in the regulation of shoot development, from early ancestors to vascular plants, that depends on the third TEL-specific RRM.

  10. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  11. Circulating gluten-specific FOXP3+CD39+ regulatory T cells have impaired suppressive function in patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura; Munier, C Mee Ling; Seddiki, Nabila; van Bockel, David; Ontiveros, Noé; Hardy, Melinda Y; Gillies, Jana K; Levings, Megan K; Reid, Hugh H; Petersen, Jan; Rossjohn, Jamie; Anderson, Robert P; Zaunders, John J; Tye-Din, Jason A; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2017-12-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by dietary gluten. Although the effector T-cell response in patients with celiac disease has been well characterized, the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the loss of tolerance to gluten remains poorly understood. We sought to define whether patients with celiac disease have a dysfunction or lack of gluten-specific forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) + Treg cells. Treated patients with celiac disease underwent oral wheat challenge to stimulate recirculation of gluten-specific T cells. Peripheral blood was collected before and after challenge. To comprehensively measure the gluten-specific CD4 + T-cell response, we paired traditional IFN-γ ELISpot with an assay to detect antigen-specific CD4 + T cells that does not rely on tetramers, antigen-stimulated cytokine production, or proliferation but rather on antigen-induced coexpression of CD25 and OX40 (CD134). Numbers of circulating gluten-specific Treg cells and effector T cells both increased significantly after oral wheat challenge, peaking at day 6. Surprisingly, we found that approximately 80% of the ex vivo circulating gluten-specific CD4 + T cells were FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cells, which reside within the pool of memory CD4 + CD25 + CD127 low CD45RO + Treg cells. Although we observed normal suppressive function in peripheral polyclonal Treg cells from patients with celiac disease, after a short in vitro expansion, the gluten-specific FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cells exhibited significantly reduced suppressive function compared with polyclonal Treg cells. This study provides the first estimation of FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cell frequency within circulating gluten-specific CD4 + T cells after oral gluten challenge of patients with celiac disease. FOXP3 + CD39 + Treg cells comprised a major proportion of all circulating gluten-specific CD4 + T cells but had impaired suppressive function, indicating that Treg cell dysfunction might be a key

  12. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Lansdell, Casey; Alkayyal, Almohanad A.; Baxter, Katherine E.; Angka, Leonard; Zhang, Jiqing; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Stephenson, Kyle B.; Parato, Kelley; Bramson, Jonathan L.; Bell, John C.; Lichty, Brian D.; Auer, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA)—dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT) and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy), we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B) in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients. PMID:27196057

  13. Understanding regulatory networks requires more than computing a multitude of graph statistics. Comment on "Drivers of structural features in gene regulatory networks: From biophysical constraints to biological function" by O.C. Martin et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkačik, Gašper

    2016-07-01

    The article by O. Martin and colleagues provides a much needed systematic review of a body of work that relates the topological structure of genetic regulatory networks to evolutionary selection for function. This connection is very important. Using the current wealth of genomic data, statistical features of regulatory networks (e.g., degree distributions, motif composition, etc.) can be quantified rather easily; it is, however, often unclear how to interpret the results. On a graph theoretic level the statistical significance of the results can be evaluated by comparing observed graphs to ;randomized; ones (bravely ignoring the issue of how precisely to randomize!) and comparing the frequency of appearance of a particular network structure relative to a randomized null expectation. While this is a convenient operational test for statistical significance, its biological meaning is questionable. In contrast, an in-silico genotype-to-phenotype model makes explicit the assumptions about the network function, and thus clearly defines the expected network structures that can be compared to the case of no selection for function and, ultimately, to data.

  14. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  15. Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Anderson, Jorge; Contreras, Lydia M

    2013-01-01

    RNAs have many important functional properties, including that they are independently controllable and highly tunable. As a result of these advantageous properties, their use in a myriad of sophisticated devices has been widely explored. Yet, the exploitation of RNAs for synthetic applications is highly dependent on the ability to characterize the many new molecules that continue to be discovered by large-scale sequencing and high-throughput screening techniques. In this review, we present an exhaustive survey of the most recent synthetic bacterial riboswitches and small RNAs while emphasizing their virtues in gene expression management. We also explore the use of these RNA components as building blocks in the RNA synthetic biology toolbox and discuss examples of synthetic RNA components used to rewire bacterial regulatory circuitry. We anticipate that this field will expand its catalog of smart devices by mimicking and manipulating natural RNA mechanisms and functions. PMID:24356572

  16. Functional characterisation of Arabidopsis SPL7 conserved protein domains suggests novel regulatory mechanisms in the Cu deficiency response.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Xing, Shuping; Huijser, Peter

    2014-08-30

    The Arabidopsis SQUAMOSA PROMOTER-BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factor SPL7 reprograms cellular gene expression to adapt plant growth and cellular metabolism to copper (Cu) limited culture conditions. Plant cells require Cu to maintain essential processes, such as photosynthesis, scavenging reactive oxygen species, cell wall lignification and hormone sensing. More specifically, SPL7 activity promotes a high-affinity Cu-uptake system and optimizes Cu (re-)distribution to essential Cu-proteins by means of specific miRNAs targeting mRNA transcripts for those dispensable. However, the functional mechanism underlying SPL7 activation is still to be elucidated. As SPL7 transcript levels are largely non-responsive to Cu availability, post-translational modification seems an obvious possibility. Previously, it was reported that the SPL7 SBP domain does not bind to DNA in vitro in the presence of Cu ions and that SPL7 interacts with a kin17 domain protein to raise SPL7-target gene expression upon Cu deprivation. Here we report how additional conserved SPL7 protein domains may contribute to the Cu deficiency response in Arabidopsis. Cytological and biochemical approaches confirmed an operative transmembrane domain (TMD) and uncovered a dual localisation of SPL7 between the nucleus and an endomembrane system, most likely the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This new perspective unveiled a possible link between Cu deficit and ER stress, a metabolic dysfunction found capable of inducing SPL7 targets in an SPL7-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo protein-protein interaction assays revealed that SPL7 is able to homodimerize, probably mediated by the IRPGC domain. These observations, in combination with the constitutive activation of SPL7 targets, when ectopically expressing the N-terminal part of SPL7 including the SBP domain, shed some light on the mechanisms governing SPL7 function. Here, we propose a revised model of SPL7 activation and regulation. According to our

  17. Cloning, cell-type specificity, and regulatory function of the mouse alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor promoter.

    PubMed

    Zuscik, M J; Piascik, M T; Perez, D M

    1999-12-01

    The functionality of a 3422-base pair promoter fragment from the mouse alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1B)AR) gene was examined. This fragment, cloned from a mouse genomic library, was found to have significant sequence homology to the known human and rat alpha(1B)AR promoters. However, the consensus motif of several key cis-acting elements is not conserved among the rat, human, and mouse genes, suggesting species specificity. Confirming fidelity of the murine promoter, robust in vitro expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter was detected in known alpha(1B)AR-expressing BC(3)H1, NB41A3, and DDT(1)MF-2 cells transiently transfected with a promoter-CAT construct. Conversely, minimal CAT expression was detected in known alpha(1B)AR-negative RAT-1 and R3T3 cells. These findings were extended by transfecting the same promoter-CAT construct into various primary cell types. In support of the hypothesis that alpha(1)ARs are differentially expressed in the smooth muscle of the vasculature, primary cultures of superior mesenteric and renal artery vascular smooth muscle cells showed significantly stronger CAT expression than did vascular smooth muscle cells derived from pulmonary, femoral, and iliac arteries. Primary osteoblastic bone-forming cells, which are known to be alpha(1B)AR negative, showed minimal CAT expression. Indicating regulatory function through cis-acting elements, RAT-1, R3T3, NB41A3, BC(3)H1, and DDT(1)MF2 cells transfected with the promoter-CAT construct all showed increased CAT production when challenged with forskolin or hypoxic conditions. Additionally, tissue-specific regulation of the promoter was observed when cells were simultaneously challenged with both forskolin and hypoxia. These results collectively demonstrate that a 3.4-kb PvuII fragment of the murine alpha(1B)AR gene promoter can: 1) drive tissue-specific production of a CAT reporter in both clonal and primary cell lines; and 2) confer tissue-specific regulation

  18. Peanut-specific type 1 regulatory T cells induced in vitro from allergic subjects are functionally impaired.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, Laurence; Jenks, Jennifer Anne; Chinthrajah, Sharon; Dominguez, Tina; Block, Whitney; Zhou, Xiaoying; Noshirvan, Arram; Gregori, Silvia; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Bacchetta, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Peanut allergy (PA) is a life-threatening condition that lacks regulator-approved treatment. Regulatory T type 1 (T R 1) cells are potent suppressors of immune responses and can be induced in vivo upon repeated antigen exposure or in vitro by using tolerogenic dendritic cells. Whether oral immunotherapy (OIT) leads to antigen-specific T R 1 cell induction has not been established. We sought to determine whether peanut-specific T R 1 cells can be generated in vitro from peripheral blood of patients with PA at baseline or during OIT and whether they are functional compared with peanut-specific T R 1 cells induced from healthy control (HC) subjects. Tolerogenic dendritic cells were differentiated in the presence of IL-10 from PBMCs of patients with PA and HC subjects pulsed with the main peanut allergens of Arachis hypogaea, Ara h 1 and 2, and used as antigen-presenting cells for autologous CD4 + T cells (CD4 + T cells coincubated with tolerogenic dendritic cells pulsed with the main peanut allergens [pea-T10 cells]). Pea-T10 cells were characterized by the presence of CD49b + lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) + T R 1 cells, antigen-specific proliferative responses, and cytokine production. CD49b + LAG3 + T R 1 cells were induced in pea-T10 cells at comparable percentages from HC subjects and patients with PA. Despite their antigen specificity, pea-T10 cells of patients with PA with or without OIT, as compared with those of HC subjects, were not anergic and had high T H 2 cytokine production upon peanut-specific restimulation. Peanut-specific T R 1 cells can be induced from HC subjects and patients with PA, but those from patients with PA are functionally defective independent of OIT. The unfavorable T R 1/T H 2 ratio is discussed as a possible cause of PA T R 1 cell impairment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulatory Eosinophils Suppress T Cells Partly through Galectin-10.

    PubMed

    Lingblom, Christine; Andersson, Jennie; Andersson, Kerstin; Wennerås, Christine

    2017-06-15

    Eosinophils have the capacity to regulate the function of T cell subsets. Our aim was to test the hypothesis of the existence of a regulatory subset of eosinophils. Human eosinophils were incubated with T cells that were stimulated with allogeneic leukocytes or CD3/CD28 cross-linking. After 2 d of coculture, 11% of the eosinophils gained CD16 expression. A CD16 hi subset of eosinophils, encompassing 1-5% of all eosinophils, was also identified in the blood of healthy subjects. FACS sorting showed that these CD16 hi eosinophils were significantly stronger suppressors of T cell proliferation than were conventional CD16 neg eosinophils. Human eosinophils contain stores of the immunoregulatory protein galectin-10. We found that Ab-mediated neutralization of galectin-10 partially abrogated the suppressive function of the eosinophils. Moreover, recombinant galectin-10 by itself was able to suppress T cell proliferation. Finally, we detected galectin-10-containing immune synapses between eosinophils and lymphocytes. To conclude, we describe a subset of suppressive eosinophils expressing CD16 that may escape detection because CD16-based negative selection is the standard procedure for the isolation of human eosinophils. Moreover, we show that galectin-10 functions as a T cell-suppressive molecule in eosinophils. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Ionizing radiation abrogates the pro-tumorigenic capacity of cancer-associated fibroblasts co-implanted in xenografts.

    PubMed

    Grinde, Maria Tunset; Vik, Jørg; Camilio, Ketil André; Martinez-Zubiaurre, Inigo; Hellevik, Turid

    2017-04-25

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundantly present in solid tumors and affect tumorigenesis and therapeutic responses. In the context of clinical radiotherapy, the impact of irradiated CAFs to treatment outcomes is largely unexplored. Aiming at improving radiotherapy efficacy, we have here explored the effect of radiation on the inherent pro-tumorigenic capacity of CAFs in animals. Ionizing radiation was delivered to cultured CAFs as single-high or fractionated doses. Tumor development was compared in mice receiving A549 lung tumor cells admixed with irradiated or control CAFs. Biological mechanisms behind tumor growth regulation were investigated by quantitative histology and immunohistochemistry. Viability assessments confirmed that irradiated CAFs are fully functional prior to implantation. However, the enhanced tumorigenic effect observed in tumors co-implanted with control CAFs was abrogated in tumors established with irradiated CAFs. Experiments to ascertain fate of implanted fibroblasts showed that exogenously administered CAFs reside at the implantation site for few days, suggesting that tumor growth regulation from admixed CAFs take place during initial tumor formation. Our work demonstrate that irradiated CAFs lose their pro-tumorigenic potential in vivo, affecting angiogenesis and tumor engraftment. This finding propose a previously unknown advantageous effect induced by radiotherapy, adding to the direct cytotoxic effects on transformed epithelial cells.

  1. Higher miRNA Tolerance in Immortal Li-Fraumeni Fibroblasts with Abrogated Interferon Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qunfang; Tainsky, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The IFN pathway is abrogated in fibroblasts from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients during spontaneous cellular immortalization, a necessary step in carcinogenesis. Microarray profiling of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) revealed that most miRNAs were upregulated in IFN pathway–defective MDAH087-10 fibroblasts compared with MDAH087-N cells with relatively normal IFN signaling. Overexpression of Dicer, a critical enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, promoted cell growth and colony formation in MDAH087-10 cells. However, double-stranded miRNA produced by Dicer enhanced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in MDAH087-N cells resulting in significant cell death and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, manipulation of the IFN pathway in immortal LFS fibroblasts through transcription factor IRF7 reversed their response to Dicer overexpression due to changed IFN pathway activity. Dicer overexpressing MDAH087-N cells contained lower levels of miRNA than vector control, and conversely much higher miRNA expression was detected in Dicertransfected MDAH087-10 cells. Therefore, cells with a defective IFN pathway have a higher miRNA tolerance than cells with normal IFN pathway. This work indicates for the first time that the IFN pathway as mediated through the transcription factor IRF7 must be disrupted to permit miRNA upregulation to occur in early carcinogenesis. The IFN pathway appears to provide a checkpoint for miRNA level tolerance and its abrogation leads to cellular immortalization. PMID:21199806

  2. Vitamin D treatment abrogates the inflammatory response in paraquat-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Schapochnik, Adriana; da Silva, Marcia Rodrigues; Leal, Mayara Peres; Esteves, Janete; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; Sandri, Silvana; de Fátima Teixeira da Silva, Daniela; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliseli; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2018-06-23

    A high incidence of intentional or accidental paraquat (PQ) ingestion is related to irreversible lung fibrosis and no effective therapy is currently available. Vitamin D has emerged with promising results as an immunomodulatory molecule when abrogating the inflammatory responses of lung diseases. Therefore, we have investigated the role of vitamin D treatments on PQ-induced lung fibrosis in male C57/BL6 mice. Lung fibrosis was induced by a single injection of PQ (10 mg/kg; i.p.). The control group received PQ vehicle. Seven days later, after the PQ injection or the vehicle injection, the mice received vitamin D (5 μg/kg, i.p., once a day) or vehicle, for a further 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose of vitamin D or the vehicle, the analysis were performed. The vitamin D treatments reduced the number of leukocytes in their BALF and they decreased the IL-6, IL-17, TGF-beta and MMP-9 levels and the abrogated collagenase deposits in their lung tissues. Conversely, the vitamin D treatments increased the resolvin D levels in their BALF. Moreover, their tracheal contractility was also significantly reduced by the vitamin D treatments. Altogether, the data that was obtained showed a promising use of vitamin D, in treating the lung fibrosis that had been induced by the PQ intoxications. This may improve its prognostic use for a non-invasive and low cost therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A Novel Clinically Relevant Strategy to Abrogate Autoimmunity and Regulate Alloimmunity in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vergani, Andrea; D'Addio, Francesca; Jurewicz, Mollie; Petrelli, Alessandra; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Liu, Kaifeng; Law, Kenneth; Schuetz, Christian; Carvello, Michele; Orsenigo, Elena; Deng, Shaoping; Rodig, Scott J.; Ansari, Javeed M.; Staudacher, Carlo; Abdi, Reza; Williams, John; Markmann, James; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Fiorina, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate a new clinically relevant immunoregulatory strategy based on treatment with murine Thymoglobulin mATG Genzyme and CTLA4-Ig in NOD mice to prevent allo- and autoimmune activation using a stringent model of islet transplantation and diabetes reversal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using allogeneic islet transplantation models as well as NOD mice with recent onset type 1 diabetes, we addressed the therapeutic efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms associated with a new immunoregulatory protocol based on prolonged low-dose mATG plus CTLA4-Ig. RESULTS BALB/c islets transplanted into hyperglycemic NOD mice under prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment showed a pronounced delay in allograft rejection compared with untreated mice (mean survival time: 54 vs. 8 days, P < 0.0001). Immunologic analysis of mice receiving transplants revealed a complete abrogation of autoimmune responses and severe downregulation of alloimmunity in response to treatment. The striking effect on autoimmunity was confirmed by 100% diabetes reversal in newly hyperglycemic NOD mice and 100% indefinite survival of syngeneic islet transplantation (NOD.SCID into NOD mice). CONCLUSIONS The capacity to regulate alloimmunity and to abrogate the autoimmune response in NOD mice in different settings confirmed that prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment is a clinically relevant strategy to translate to humans with type 1 diabetes. PMID:20805386

  4. Mutations Abrogating VP35 Interaction with Double-Stranded RNA Render Ebola Virus Avirulent in Guinea Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Prins, Kathleen C.; Delpeut, Sebastien; Leung, Daisy W.

    2010-10-11

    Ebola virus (EBOV) protein VP35 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding inhibitor of host interferon (IFN)-{alpha}/{beta} responses that also functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Recent structural studies identified key features, including a central basic patch, required for VP35 dsRNA binding activity. To address the functional significance of these VP35 structural features for EBOV replication and pathogenesis, two point mutations, K319A/R322A, that abrogate VP35 dsRNA binding activity and severely impair its suppression of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} production were identified. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography reveal minimal structural perturbations in the K319A/R322A VP35 double mutant and suggest that lossmore » of basic charge leads to altered function. Recombinant EBOVs encoding the mutant VP35 exhibit, relative to wild-type VP35 viruses, minimal growth attenuation in IFN-defective Vero cells but severe impairment in IFN-competent cells. In guinea pigs, the VP35 mutant virus revealed a complete loss of virulence. Strikingly, the VP35 mutant virus effectively immunized animals against subsequent wild-type EBOV challenge. These in vivo studies, using recombinant EBOV viruses, combined with the accompanying biochemical and structural analyses directly correlate VP35 dsRNA binding and IFN inhibition functions with viral pathogenesis. Moreover, these studies provide a framework for the development of antivirals targeting this critical EBOV virulence factor.« less

  5. IL-4 production by group 2 innate lymphoid cells promotes food allergy by blocking regulatory T-cell function.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Oettgen, Hans C; Chatila, Talal

    2016-09-01

    Food allergy is a major health issue, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote allergic inflammation. However their role in food allergy is largely unknown. We sought to investigate the role of ILC2s in food allergy. Food allergy-prone mice with a gain-of-function mutation in the IL-4 receptor α chain (Il4raF709) were orally sensitized with food allergens, and the ILC2 compartment was analyzed. The requirement for ILC2s in food allergy was investigated by using Il4raF709, IL-33 receptor-deficient (Il1rl1(-/-)), IL-13-deficient (Il13(-/-)), and IL-4-deficient (Il4(-/-)) mice and by adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded ILC2s. Direct effects of ILC2s on regulatory T (Treg) cells and mast cells were analyzed in coculture experiments. Treg cell control of ILC2s was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Il4raF709 mice with food allergy exhibit increased numbers of ILC2s. IL-4 secretion by ILC2s contributes to the allergic response by reducing allergen-specific Treg cell and activating mast cell counts. IL-33 receptor deficiency in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice protects against allergen sensitization and anaphylaxis while reducing ILC2 induction. Adoptive transfer of wild-type and Il13(-/-) but not Il4(-/-) ILC2s restored sensitization in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice. Treg cells suppress ILC2s in vitro and in vivo. IL-4 production by IL-33-stimulated ILC2s blocks the generation of allergen-specific Treg cells and favors food allergy. Strategies to block ILC2 activation or the IL-33/IL-33 receptor pathway can lead to innovative therapies in the treatment of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional architecture and global properties of the Corynebacterium glutamicum regulatory network: Novel insights from a dataset with a high genomic coverage.

    PubMed

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Tauch, Andreas

    2017-09-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped soil bacterium able to grow on a diversity of carbon sources like sugars and organic acids. It is a biotechnological relevant organism because of its highly efficient ability to biosynthesize amino acids, such as l-glutamic acid and l-lysine. Here, we reconstructed the most complete C. glutamicum regulatory network to date and comprehensively analyzed its global organizational properties, systems-level features and functional architecture. Our analyses show the tremendous power of Abasy Atlas to study the functional organization of regulatory networks. We created two models of the C. glutamicum regulatory network: all-evidences (containing both weak and strong supported interactions, genomic coverage=73%) and strongly-supported (only accounting for strongly supported evidences, genomic coverage=71%). Using state-of-the-art methodologies, we prove that power-law behaviors truly govern the connectivity and clustering coefficient distributions. We found a non-previously reported circuit motif that we named complex feed-forward motif. We highlighted the importance of feedback loops for the functional architecture, beyond whether they are statistically over-represented or not in the network. We show that the previously reported top-down approach is inadequate to infer the hierarchy governing a regulatory network because feedback bridges different hierarchical layers, and the top-down approach disregards the presence of intermodular genes shaping the integration layer. Our findings all together further support a diamond-shaped, three-layered hierarchy exhibiting some feedback between processing and coordination layers, which is shaped by four classes of systems-level elements: global regulators, locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of ninety-eight 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange…

  8. Shared Enhancer Activity in the Limbs and Phallus and Functional Divergence of a Limb-Genital cis-Regulatory Element in Snakes.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos R; Mihala, Alexandra G; Park, Sungdae; Wang, Jialiang S; Johnson, Kenji K; Lauderdale, James D; Menke, Douglas B

    2015-10-12

    The amniote phallus and limbs differ dramatically in their morphologies but share patterns of signaling and gene expression in early development. Thus far, the extent to which genital and limb transcriptional networks also share cis-regulatory elements has remained unexplored. We show that many limb enhancers are retained in snake genomes, suggesting that these elements may function in non-limb tissues. Consistent with this, our analysis of cis-regulatory activity in mice and Anolis lizards reveals that patterns of enhancer activity in embryonic limbs and genitalia overlap heavily. In mice, deletion of HLEB, an enhancer of Tbx4, produces defects in hindlimbs and genitalia, establishing the importance of this limb-genital enhancer for development of these different appendages. Further analyses demonstrate that the HLEB of snakes has lost hindlimb enhancer function while retaining genital activity. Our findings identify roles for Tbx4 in genital development and highlight deep similarities in cis-regulatory activity between limbs and genitalia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impairment of regulatory capacity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells mediated by dendritic cell polarization and hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Shu; Xiao, Yichuan; Xu, Jingwei; Jiang, Qian; Jin, Min; Jiang, Xiaohua; Guo, Hua; Ning, Guang; Zhang, Yanyun

    2011-04-15

    Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. The immune dysfunction in GD involves the generation of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) autoantibodies that presumably arise consequent to interactions among dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, the immunological mechanisms of interactions between them that lead to the induction and regulation of this autoimmune disease are poorly defined. In this study, we investigated whether DCs are the main cause of the defective activity of Treg cells in GD patients. We found a significant decrease in the percentage of circulating CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells in untreated GD patients (uGD), which was negatively correlated with the concentration of TSHR autoantibodies. uGD-derived DCs were polarized to increase the number of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conferred the ability to abrogate the suppressive function of Treg cells through inducing apoptosis of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in an IFN-α-dependent manner, and elevated thyroid hormones further exacerbated the effect. The nucleotide UDP, which inhibits IFN-α secretion of pDCs through P2Y6 receptor signaling, restored the suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells. Collectively, uGD-derived DCs through pDC polarization and elevated thyroid hormones act in concert to impair the regulatory capacity of Treg cells, facilitating the production of TSHR autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of GD.

  10. The ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8(+) T cells and regulatory CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Teh, Hung-Sia

    2014-03-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor ThPOK plays a crucial role in CD4 T-cell development and CD4/CD8 lineage decision. In ThPOK-deficient mice, developing T cells expressing MHC class II-restricted T-cell receptors are redirected into the CD8 T-cell lineage. In this study, we investigated whether the ThPOK transgene affected the development and function of two additional types of T cells, namely self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. Self-specific CD8 T cells are characterized by high expression of CD44, CD122, Ly6C, 1B11 and proliferation in response to either IL-2 or IL-15. The ThPOK transgene converted these self-specific CD8 T cells into CD4 T cells. The converted CD4(+) T cells are no longer self-reactive, lose the characteristics of self-specific CD8 T cells, acquire the properties of conventional CD4 T cells and survive poorly in peripheral lymphoid organs. By contrast, the ThPOK transgene promoted the development of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells resulting in an increased recovery of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells that expressed higher transforming growth factor-β-dependent suppressor activity. These studies indicate that the ThPOK transcription factor differentially affects the development and function of self-specific CD8 T cells and CD4(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Higher miRNA tolerance in immortal Li-Fraumeni fibroblasts with abrogated interferon signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunfang; Tainsky, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    The IFN pathway is abrogated in fibroblasts from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients during spontaneous cellular immortalization, a necessary step in carcinogenesis. Microarray profiling of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) revealed that most miRNAs were upregulated in IFN pathway-defective MDAH087-10 fibroblasts compared with MDAH087-N cells with relatively normal IFN signaling. Overexpression of Dicer, a critical enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, promoted cell growth and colony formation in MDAH087-10 cells. However, double-stranded miRNA produced by Dicer enhanced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in MDAH087-N cells resulting in significant cell death and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, manipulation of the IFN pathway in immortal LFS fibroblasts through transcription factor IRF7 reversed their response to Dicer overexpression due to changed IFN pathway activity. Dicer overexpressing MDAH087-N cells contained lower levels of miRNA than vector control, and conversely much higher miRNA expression was detected in Dicer-transfected MDAH087-10 cells. Therefore, cells with a defective IFN pathway have a higher miRNA tolerance than cells with normal IFN pathway. This work indicates for the first time that the IFN pathway as mediated through the transcription factor IRF7 must be disrupted to permit miRNA upregulation to occur in early carcinogenesis. The IFN pathway appears to provide a checkpoint for miRNA level tolerance and its abrogation leads to cellular immortalization. © 2011 AACR.

  12. Trichostatin A Abrogates Airway Constriction, but Not Inflammation, in Murine and Human Asthma Models

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Damera, Gautam; Jiang, Meiqi; Jester, William; Hoshi, Toshinori; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Panettieri, Reynold A.

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may offer novel approaches in the treatment of asthma. We postulate that trichostatin A (TSA), a Class 1 and 2 inhibitor of HDAC, inhibits airway hyperresponsiveness in antigen-challenged mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus antigen (AF) and treated with TSA, dexamethasone, or vehicle. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance were measured, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for numbers of leukocytes and concentrations of cytokines. Human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were treated with TSA and their agonist-induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and TSA-treated human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells were evaluated for the agonist-induced activation of Rho and intracellular release of Ca2+. The activity of HDAC in murine lungs was enhanced by antigen and abrogated by TSA. TSA also inhibited methacholine (Mch)-induced increases in RL and decreases in dynamic compliance in naive control mice and in AF-sensitized and -challenged mice. Total cell counts, concentrations of IL-4, and numbers of eosinophils in BALF were unchanged in mice treated with TSA or vehicle, whereas dexamethasone inhibited the numbers of eosinophils in BALF and concentrations of IL-4. TSA inhibited the carbachol-induced contraction of PCLS. Treatment with TSA inhibited the intracellular release of Ca2+ in ASM cells in response to histamine, without affecting the activation of Rho. The inhibition of HDAC abrogates airway hyperresponsiveness to Mch in both naive and antigen-challenged mice. TSA inhibits the agonist-induced contraction of PCLS and mobilization of Ca2+ in ASM cells. Thus, HDAC inhibitors demonstrate a mechanism of action distinct from that of anti-inflammatory agents such as steroids, and represent a promising therapeutic agent for airway disease. PMID:22298527

  13. A cis-regulatory sequence driving metabolic insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: functional characterisation and signatures of selection.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Craig S; Smith, Ian; Lynd, Amy; Yawson, Alexander Egyir; Weetman, David; Paine, Mark J I; Donnelly, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Although cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are frequently up-regulated in mosquitoes resistant to insecticides, no regulatory motifs driving these expression differences with relevance to wild populations have been identified. Transposable elements (TEs) are often enriched upstream of those CYP450s involved in insecticide resistance, leading to the assumption that they contribute regulatory motifs that directly underlie the resistance phenotype. A partial CuRE1 (Culex Repetitive Element 1) transposable element is found directly upstream of CYP9M10, a cytochrome P450 implicated previously in larval resistance to permethrin in the ISOP450 strain of Culex quinquefasciatus, but is absent from the equivalent genomic region of a susceptible strain. Via expression of CYP9M10 in Escherichia coli we have now demonstrated time- and NADPH-dependant permethrin metabolism, prerequisites for confirmation of a role in metabolic resistance, and through qPCR shown that CYP9M10 is >20-fold over-expressed in ISOP450 compared to a susceptible strain. In a fluorescent reporter assay the region upstream of CYP9M10 from ISOP450 drove 10× expression compared to the equivalent region (lacking CuRE1) from the susceptible strain. Close correspondence with the gene expression fold-change implicates the upstream region including CuRE1 as a cis-regulatory element involved in resistance. Only a single CuRE1 bearing allele, identical to the CuRE1 bearing allele in the resistant strain, is found throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast to the diversity encountered in non-CuRE1 alleles. This suggests a single origin and subsequent spread due to selective advantage. CuRE1 is detectable using a simple diagnostic. When applied to C. quinquefasciatus larvae from Ghana we have demonstrated a significant association with permethrin resistance in multiple field sites (mean Odds Ratio = 3.86) suggesting this marker has relevance to natural populations of vector mosquitoes. However, when CuRE1 was excised

  14. Dietary Apigenin Exerts Immune-Regulatory Activity in Vivo by Reducing NF-κB Activity, Halting Leukocyte Infiltration and Restoring Normal Metabolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Horacio; Arango, Daniel; Nicholas, Courtney; Duarte, Silvia; Nuovo, Gerard J.; He, Wei; Voss, Oliver H.; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Guttridge, Denis C.; Grotewold, Erich; Doseff, Andrea I.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of inflammatory diseases and the adverse effects associated with the long-term use of current anti-inflammatory therapies prompt the identification of alternative approaches to reestablish immune balance. Apigenin, an abundant dietary flavonoid, is emerging as a potential regulator of inflammation. Here, we show that apigenin has immune-regulatory activity in vivo. Apigenin conferred survival to mice treated with a lethal dose of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) restoring normal cardiac function and heart mitochondrial Complex I activity. Despite the adverse effects associated with high levels of splenocyte apoptosis in septic models, apigenin had no effect on reducing cell death. However, we found that apigenin decreased LPS-induced apoptosis in lungs, infiltration of inflammatory cells and chemotactic factors’ accumulation, re-establishing normal lung architecture. Using NF-κB luciferase transgenic mice, we found that apigenin effectively modulated NF-κB activity in the lungs, suggesting the ability of dietary compounds to exert immune-regulatory activity in an organ-specific manner. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the underlying immune-regulatory mechanisms of dietary nutraceuticals in vivo. PMID:26938530

  15. Dietary Apigenin Exerts Immune-Regulatory Activity in Vivo by Reducing NF-κB Activity, Halting Leukocyte Infiltration and Restoring Normal Metabolic Function.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Arango, Daniel; Nicholas, Courtney; Duarte, Silvia; Nuovo, Gerard J; He, Wei; Voss, Oliver H; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Guttridge, Denis C; Grotewold, Erich; Doseff, Andrea I

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of inflammatory diseases and the adverse effects associated with the long-term use of current anti-inflammatory therapies prompt the identification of alternative approaches to reestablish immune balance. Apigenin, an abundant dietary flavonoid, is emerging as a potential regulator of inflammation. Here, we show that apigenin has immune-regulatory activity in vivo. Apigenin conferred survival to mice treated with a lethal dose of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) restoring normal cardiac function and heart mitochondrial Complex I activity. Despite the adverse effects associated with high levels of splenocyte apoptosis in septic models, apigenin had no effect on reducing cell death. However, we found that apigenin decreased LPS-induced apoptosis in lungs, infiltration of inflammatory cells and chemotactic factors' accumulation, re-establishing normal lung architecture. Using NF-κB luciferase transgenic mice, we found that apigenin effectively modulated NF-κB activity in the lungs, suggesting the ability of dietary compounds to exert immune-regulatory activity in an organ-specific manner. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the underlying immune-regulatory mechanisms of dietary nutraceuticals in vivo.

  16. The positive regulatory function of the 5'-proximal open reading frames in GCN4 mRNA can be mimicked by heterologous, short coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N P; Mueller, P P; Hinnebusch, A G

    1988-01-01

    Translational control of GCN4 expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by multiple AUG codons present in the leader of GCN4 mRNA, each of which initiates a short open reading frame of only two or three codons. Upstream AUG codons 3 and 4 are required to repress GCN4 expression in normal growth conditions; AUG codons 1 and 2 are needed to overcome this repression in amino acid starvation conditions. We show that the regulatory function of AUG codons 1 and 2 can be qualitatively mimicked by the AUG codons of two heterologous upstream open reading frames (URFs) containing the initiation regions of the yeast genes PGK and TRP1. These AUG codons inhibit GCN4 expression when present singly in the mRNA leader; however, they stimulate GCN4 expression in derepressing conditions when inserted upstream from AUG codons 3 and 4. This finding supports the idea that AUG codons 1 and 2 function in the control mechanism as translation initiation sites and further suggests that suppression of the inhibitory effects of AUG codons 3 and 4 is a general consequence of the translation of URF 1 and 2 sequences upstream. Several observations suggest that AUG codons 3 and 4 are efficient initiation sites; however, these sequences do not act as positive regulatory elements when placed upstream from URF 1. This result suggests that efficient translation is only one of the important properties of the 5' proximal URFs in GCN4 mRNA. We propose that a second property is the ability to permit reinitiation following termination of translation and that URF 1 is optimized for this regulatory function. Images PMID:3065626

  17. Adeno-associated virus type 2 rep gene-mediated inhibition of basal gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves its negative regulatory functions.

    PubMed Central

    Oelze, I; Rittner, K; Sczakiel, G

    1994-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2), a human parvovirus which is apathogenic in adults, inhibits replication and gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in human cells. The rep gene of AAV-2, which was shown earlier to be sufficient for this negative interference, also down-regulated the expression of heterologous sequences driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1. This effect was observed in the absence of the HIV-1 transactivator Tat, i.e., at basal levels of LTR-driven transcription. In this work, we studied the involvement of functional subsequences of the HIV-1 LTR in rep-mediated inhibition in the absence of Tat. Mutated LTRs driving an indicator gene (cat) were cointroduced into human SW480 cells together with rep alone or with double-stranded DNA fragments or RNA containing sequences of the HIV-1 LTR. The results indicate that rep strongly enhances the function of negative regulatory elements of the LTR. In addition, the experiments revealed a transcribed sequence element located within the TAR-coding sequence termed AHHH (AAV-HIV homology element derived from HIV-1) which is involved in rep-mediated inhibition. The AHHH element is also involved in down-regulation of basal expression levels in the absence of rep, suggesting that AHHH also contributes to negative regulatory functions of the LTR of HIV-1. In contrast, positive regulatory elements of the HIV-1 LTR such as the NF kappa B and SP1 binding sites have no significant influence on the rep-mediated inhibition. Images PMID:8289357

  18. Role of extracytoplasmic function sigma factor PG1660 (RpoE) in the oxidative stress resistance regulatory network of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Y.; Rutanhira, H.; Chen, X.; Mishra, A.; Wang, C.; Fletcher, H.M.

    2018-01-01

    Summary In Porphyromonas gingivalis, the protein PG1660, composed of 174 amino acids, is annotated as an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor (RpoE homologue-σ24). Because PG1660 can modulate several virulence factors and responds to environmental signals in P. gingivalis, its genetic properties were evaluated. PG1660 is co-transcribed with its downstream gene PG1659, and the transcription start site was identified as adenine residue 54-nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start codon. In addition to binding its own promoter, using the purified rPG1660 and RNAP core enzyme from Escherichia coli with the PG1660 promoter DNA as template, the function of PG1660 as a sigma factor was demonstrated in an in vitro transcription assay. Transcriptome analyses of a P. gingivalis PG1660-defective isogenic mutant revealed that under oxidative stress conditions 176 genes including genes involved in secondary metabolism were downregulated more than two-fold compared with the parental strain. The rPG1660 protein also showed the ability to bind to the promoters of the highly downregulated genes in the PG1660-deficient mutant. As the ECF sigma factor PG0162 has a 29% identity with PG1660 and can modulate its expression, the cross-talk between their regulatory networks was explored. The expression profile of the PG0162PG1660-deficient mutant (P. gingivalis FLL356) revealed that the type IX secretion system genes and several virulence genes were downregulated under hydrogen peroxide stress conditions. Taken together, we have confirmed that PG1660 can function as a sigma factor, and plays an important regulatory role in the oxidative stress and virulence regulatory network of P. gingivalis. PMID:29059500

  19. Positive and Negative Regulatory Mechanisms for Fine-Tuning Cellularity and Functions of Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Taishin; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Nobuko; Yoshinaga, Riko; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J

    2015-01-01

    Self-tolerant T cells and regulatory T cells develop in the thymus. A wide variety of cell-cell interactions in the thymus is required for the differentiation, proliferation, and repertoire selection of T cells. Various secreted and cell surface molecules expressed in thymic epithelial cells (TECs) mediate these processes. Moreover, cytokines expressed by cells of hematopoietic origin regulate the cellularity of TECs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family RANK ligand, lymphotoxin, and CD40 ligand, expressed in T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promote the differentiation and proliferation of medullary TECs (mTECs) that play critical roles in the induction of immune tolerance. A recent study suggests that interleukin-22 (IL-22) produced by ILCs promotes regeneration of TECs after irradiation. Intriguingly, tumor growth factor-β and osteoprotegerin limit cellularity of mTECs, thereby attenuating regulatory T cell generation. We will review recent insights into the molecular basis for cell-cell interactions regulating differentiation and proliferation of mTECs and also discuss about a perspective on use of mathematical models for understanding this complicated system.

  20. TARGETED DELETION OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 ABROGATES THE LATE INFARCT-SPARING EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract submitted for 82nd annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, May 4-8, 2002 in Washington D.C.

    Targeted Deletion of Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 Abrogates the Late Infarct-Sparing Effect of Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning

    Craig...

  1. Transiently Reduced PI3K/Akt Activity Drives the Development of Regulatory Function in Antigen-Stimulated Naïve T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasenberg, Mike; Reichardt, Peter; Gunzer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are central for immune homeostasis and divided in thymus-derived natural Tregs and peripherally induced iTreg. However, while phenotype and function of iTregs are well known, a remarkable lack exists in knowledge about signaling mechanisms leading to their generation from naïve precursors in peripheral tissues. Using antigen specific naïve T-cells from mice, we investigated CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3- iTreg induction during antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with weak antigen presenting cells (APC). We show that early signaling pathways such as ADAM-17-activation appeared similar in developing iTreg and effector cells (Teff) and both initially shedded CD62-L. But iTreg started reexpressing CD62-L after 24 h while Teff permanently downmodulated it. Furthermore, between 24 and 72 hours iTreg presented with significantly lower phosphorylation levels of Akt-S473 suggesting lower activity of the PI3K/Akt-axis. This was associated with a higher expression of the Akt hydrophobic motif-specific phosphatase PHLPP1 in iTreg. Importantly, the lack of costimulatory signals via CD28 from weak APC was central for the development of regulatory function in iTreg but not for the reappearance of CD62-L. Thus, T-cells display a window of sensitivity after onset of TCR triggering within which the intensity of the PI3K/Akt signal controls entry into either effector or regulatory pathways. PMID:23874604

  2. Comprehensive analysis of the functional microRNA–mRNA regulatory network identifies miRNA signatures associated with glioma malignant progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongsheng; Xu, Juan; Chen, Hong; Bai, Jing; Li, Shengli; Zhao, Zheng; Shao, Tingting; Jiang, Tao; Ren, Huan; Kang, Chunsheng; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    Glioma is the most common and fatal primary brain tumour with poor prognosis; however, the functional roles of miRNAs in glioma malignant progression are insufficiently understood. Here, we used an integrated approach to identify miRNA functional targets during glioma malignant progression by combining the paired expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs across 160 Chinese glioma patients, and further constructed the functional miRNA–mRNA regulatory network. As a result, most tumour-suppressive miRNAs in glioma progression were newly discovered, whose functions were widely involved in gliomagenesis. Moreover, three miRNA signatures, with different combinations of hub miRNAs (regulations≥30) were constructed, which could independently predict the survival of patients with all gliomas, high-grade glioma and glioblastoma. Our network-based method increased the ability to identify the prognostic biomarkers, when compared with the traditional method and random conditions. Hsa-miR-524-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p, shared by these three signatures, acted as protective factors and their expression decreased gradually during glioma progression. Functional analysis of these miRNA signatures highlighted their critical roles in cell cycle and cell proliferation in glioblastoma malignant progression, especially hsa-miR-524-5p and hsa-miR-628-5p exhibited dominant regulatory activities. Therefore, network-based biomarkers are expected to be more effective and provide deep insights into the molecular mechanism of glioma malignant progression. PMID:24194606

  3. Opioid maintenance therapy restores CD4+ T cell function by normalizing CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cell frequencies in heroin user.

    PubMed

    Riss, Gina-Lucia; Chang, Dae-In; Wevers, Carolin; Westendorf, Astrid M; Buer, Jan; Scherbaum, Norbert; Hansen, Wiebke

    2012-08-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence that heroin addiction is associated with severe alterations in immune function, which might contribute to an increased risk to contract infectious diseases like hepatitis B and C or HIV. However, the impact of heroin consumption on the CD4(+) T cell compartment is not well understood. Therefore, we analyzed the frequency and functional phenotype of CD4(+) T cells as well as immune-suppressive CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells (Tregs) isolated from the peripheral blood of opiate addicts currently abusing heroin (n=27) in comparison to healthy controls (n=25) and opiate addicts currently in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT; n=27). Interestingly, we detected a significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(high) Tregs in the peripheral blood of heroin addicted patients in contrast to patients in OMT. The proliferative response of CD4(+) T cells upon stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies was significantly decreased in heroin users, but could be restored by depletion of CD25(high) regulatory T cells from CD4(+) T cells to similar values as observed from healthy controls and patients in OMT. These results suggest that impaired immune responses observed in heroin users are related to the expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high) Tregs and more importantly, can be restored by OMT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aging is Associated with Impaired Renal Function, INF-gamma Induced Inflammation and with Alterations in Iron Regulatory Proteins Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elísio; Fernandes, João; Ribeiro, Sandra; Sereno, José; Garrido, Patrícia; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Coimbra, Susana; Catarino, Cristina; Belo, Luís; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Vala, Helena; Alves, Rui; Reis, Flávio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Our aim was to contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of anemia in elderly, by studying how aging affects renal function, iron metabolism, erythropoiesis and the inflammatory response, using an experimental animal model. The study was performed in male Wistar, a group of young rats with 2 months age and an old one with 18 months age. Old rats presented a significant higher urea, creatinine, interferon (INF)-gamma, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor serum levels, as well as increased counts of reticulocytes and RDW. In addition, these rats showed significant lower erythropoietin (EPO) and iron serum levels. Concerning gene expression of iron regulatory proteins, old rats presented significantly higher mRNA levels of hepcidin (Hamp), transferrin (TF), transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) and hemojuvelin (HJV); divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mRNA levels were significantly higher in duodenal tissue; EPO gene expression was significantly higher in liver and lower in kidney, and the expression of the EPOR was significantly higher in both liver and kidney. Our results showed that aging is associated with impaired renal function, which could be in turn related with the inflammatory process and with a decline in EPO renal production. Moreover, we also propose that aging may be associated with INF-gamma-induced inflammation and with alterations upon iron regulatory proteins gene expression.

  5. Identifying Functional Mechanisms of Gene and Protein Regulatory Networks in Response to a Broader Range of Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Cellular responses to sudden environmental stresses or physiological changes provide living organisms with the opportunity for final survival and further development. Therefore, it is an important topic to understand protective mechanisms against environmental stresses from the viewpoint of gene and protein networks. We propose two coupled nonlinear stochastic dynamic models to reconstruct stress-activated gene and protein regulatory networks via microarray data in response to environmental stresses. According to the reconstructed gene/protein networks, some possible mutual interactions, feedforward and feedback loops are found for accelerating response and filtering noises in these signaling pathways. A bow-tie core network is also identified to coordinate mutual interactions and feedforward loops, feedback inhibitions, feedback activations, and cross talks to cope efficiently with a broader range of environmental stresses with limited proteins and pathways. PMID:20454442

  6. Inactivation of DNA-Binding Response Regulator Sak189 Abrogates β-Antigen Expression and Affects Virulence of Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Rozhdestvenskaya, Anastasia S.; Totolian, Artem A.; Dmitriev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae is able to colonize numerous tissues employing different mechanisms of gene regulation, particularly via two-component regulatory systems. These systems sense the environmental stimuli and regulate expression of the genes including virulence genes. Recently, the novel two-component regulatory system Sak188/Sak189 was identified. In S. agalactiae genome, it was adjacent to the bac gene encoding for β-antigen, an important virulence factor. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the sak188 and sak189 genes were inactivated, and the functional role of Sak188/Sak189 two-component system in regulation of the β-antigen expression was investigated. It was demonstrated that both transcription of bac gene and expression of encoded β-antigen were controlled by Sak189 response regulator, but not Sak188 histidine kinase. It was also found that the regulation occurred at transcriptional level. Finally, insertional inactivation of sak189 gene, but not sak188 gene, significantly affected virulent properties of S. agalactiae. Conclusions/Significance Sak189 response regulator is necessary for activation of bac gene transcription. It also controls the virulent properties of S. agalactiae. Given that the primary functional role of Sak188/Sak189 two-component systems is a control of bac gene transcription, this system can be annotated as BgrR/S (bac gene regulatory system). PMID:20419089

  7. Arsenic induces apoptosis in mouse liver is mitochondria dependent and is abrogated by N-acetylcysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, Amal; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ghatak, Subhadip

    2007-04-15

    Arsenicosis, caused by arsenic contamination of drinking water supplies, is a major public health problem in India and Bangladesh. Chronic liver disease, often with portal hypertension occurs in chronic arsenicosis, contributes to the morbidity and mortality. The early cellular events that initiate liver cell injury due to arsenicosis have not been studied. Our aim was to identify the possible mechanisms related to arsenic-induced liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced in mice by arsenic treatment. The liver was used for mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Evidence of apoptosis was sought by TUNEL test, caspase assay and histology.more » Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was done to modulate hepatic GSH level. Arsenic treatment in mice caused liver injury associated with increased oxidative stress in liver mitochondria and alteration of MPT. Altered MPT facilitated cytochrome c release in the cytosol, activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of NAC to arsenic-treated mice abrogated all these alteration suggesting a glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanism. Oxidative stress in mitochondria and inappropriate MPT are important in the pathogenesis of arsenic induced apoptotic liver cell injury. The phenomenon is GSH dependent and supplementation of NAC might have beneficial effects.« less

  8. Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside Abrogates Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage in Cardiac Iron Overload Condition

    PubMed Central

    Puukila, Stephanie; Bryan, Sean; Laakso, Anna; Abdel-Malak, Jessica; Gurney, Carli; Agostino, Adrian; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Prasad, Kailash; Khaper, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload. PMID:25822525

  9. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    PubMed

    Puukila, Stephanie; Bryan, Sean; Laakso, Anna; Abdel-Malak, Jessica; Gurney, Carli; Agostino, Adrian; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Prasad, Kailash; Khaper, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  10. Simple sugar supplementation abrogates exercise-induced increase in hepcidin in young men.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Maja; Kortas, Jakub; Flis, Damian; Skrobot, Wojciech; Camilleri, Rafal; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej

    2017-01-01

    At present many young people experience too much body iron accumulation. The reason of this phenomenon is not clear. There is accumulating evidences that not proper diet and lack of exercise could be a main contributing factors. This investigation assessed the effects of a diet rich in simple sugars (glucose or fructose) on exercise-induced hepcidin which is hormone regulating iron metabolism. A group of physically active young men completed an incremental exercise test before and after a 3-day diet supplemented with fructose (4 g/kg BM) or glucose (4 g/kg BM). After a 1-week break, they crossed over to the alternate mode for the subsequent 3-days period. Venous blood samples were collected before and after 1 h exercise and were analysed for serum hepcidin, IL-6, CRP, iron, and ferritin. The physiological response to exercise was also determined. The concentration of hepcidin increased 1 h after exercise for the baseline test ( p  < 0.05), whereas no changes in hepcidin were observed in men whose diet was supplemented with fructose or glucose. Blood IL-6 increased significantly after exercise only in subjects supplemented with fructose. Changes in hepcidin did not correlate with shifts in serum IL-6. These data suggest that protective effects of exercise on excess iron accumulation in human body which is mediated by hepcidin can be abrogated by high sugar consumption which is typical for contemporary people.

  11. Cell-wall deficient L. monocytogenes L-forms feature abrogated pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Barbara; Staubli, Titu; Harris, Nicola L.; Rogler, Gerhard; Kopf, Manfred; Loessner, Martin J.; Schuppler, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Stable L-forms are cell wall-deficient bacteria which are able to multiply and propagate indefinitely, despite the absence of a rigid peptidoglycan cell wall. We investigated whether L-forms of the intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes possibly retain pathogenicity, and if they could trigger an innate immune response. While phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes L-forms by non-activated macrophages sometimes resulted in an unexpected persistence of the bacteria in the phagocytes, they were effectively eliminated by IFN-γ preactivated or bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM). These findings were in line with the observed down-regulation of virulence factors in the cell-wall deficient L. monocytogenes. Absence of Interferon-β (IFN-β) triggering indicated inability of L-forms to escape from the phagosome into the cytosol. Moreover, abrogated cytokine response in MyD88-deficient dendritic cells (DC) challenged with L. monocytogenes L-forms suggested an exclusive TLR-dependent host response. Taken together, our data demonstrate a strong attenuation of Listeria monocytogenes L-form pathogenicity, due to diminished expression of virulence factors and innate immunity recognition, eventually resulting in elimination of L-form bacteria from phagocytes. PMID:24904838

  12. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C; Leavis, Helen L; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers. Here we characterised the effects of the small-molecule inhibitor 1771 on the growth of E. faecium isolates, alone (28 strains) or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin, daptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin or linezolid (15 strains), and on biofilm formation (16 strains). Inhibition of LTA synthesis at the surface of the cell by compound 1771 in combination with current antibiotic therapy abrogates enterococcal growth in vitro but does not affect mature E. faecium biofilms. Targeting LTA synthesis may provide new possibilities to treat MDR E. faecium infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity of gut microflora is required for the generation of B cell with regulatory properties in a skin graft model

    PubMed Central

    Alhabbab, R.; Blair, P.; Elgueta, R.; Stolarczyk, E.; Marks, E.; Becker, P. D.; Ratnasothy, K.; Smyth, L.; Safinia, N.; Sharif-Paghaleh, E.; O’Connell, S.; Noelle, R. J.; Lord, G. M.; Howard, J. K.; Spencer, J.; Lechler, R. I.; Lombardi, G.

    2015-01-01

    B cells have been reported to promote graft rejection through alloantibody production. However, there is growing evidence that B cells can contribute to the maintenance of tolerance. Here, we used a mouse model of MHC-class I mismatched skin transplantation to investigate the contribution of B cells to graft survival. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of B cells prolongs skin graft survival but only when the B cells were isolated from mice housed in low sterility “conventional” (CV) facilities and not from mice housed in pathogen free facilities (SPF). However, prolongation of skin graft survival was lost when B cells were isolated from IL-10 deficient mice housed in CV facilities. The suppressive function of B cells isolated from mice housed in CV facilities correlated with an anti-inflammatory environment and with the presence of a different gut microflora compared to mice maintained in SPF facilities. Treatment of mice in the CV facility with antibiotics abrogated the regulatory capacity of B cells. Finally, we identified transitional B cells isolated from CV facilities as possessing the regulatory function. These findings demonstrate that B cells, and in particular transitional B cells, can promote prolongation of graft survival, a function dependent on licensing by gut microflora. PMID:26109230

  14. Generation, cryopreservation, function and in vivo persistence of ex-vivo expanded cynomolgus monkey regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Lien; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2015-01-01

    We expanded flow-sorted Foxp3+ cynomolgus monkey regulatory T cells (Treg) >1000-fold after three rounds of stimulation with anti-CD3 mAb-loaded artificial antigen-presenting cells, rapamycin (first round only) and IL-2. The expanded Treg maintained their expression of Treg signature markers, CD25, CD27, CD39, Foxp3, Helios, and CTLA-4, as well as CXCR3, which plays an important role in T cell migration to sites of inflammation. In contrast to expanded effector T cells (Teff), expanded Treg produced minimal IFN-γ and IL-17 and no IL-2 and potently suppressed Teff proliferation. Following cryopreservation, thawed Treg were less viable than their freshly-expanded counterparts, although no significant changes in phenotype or suppressive ability were observed. Additional rounds of stimulation/expansion restored maximal viability. Furthermore, adoptively-transferred autologous Treg expanded from cryopreserved second round stocks and labeled with CFSE or VPD450 were detected in blood and secondary lymphoid tissues of normal or immunosuppressed recipients at least two months after their systemic infusion. PMID:25732601

  15. Disturbance of smooth muscle regulatory function by Eisenia foetida toxin lysenin: insight into the mechanism of smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Czuryło, Edward A; Kulikova, Natalia; Sobota, Andrzej

    2008-05-01

    Lysenin, a toxin present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is known to cause a long-lasting contraction of rat aorta smooth muscle strips. We addressed the mechanisms underlying its action on smooth muscle cells and present the first report demonstrating a completely new property of lysenin unrelated to its basic sphingomyelin-binding ability. Here we report lysenin enhancement effect on smooth muscle actomyosin ATPase activity and the ability of networking the actin filaments. The maximum enhancement of the ATPase activity of actomyosin at 120 mM KCl was observed at a molar ratio of lysenin to actin of about 1:10(5), while at 70 mM KCl at the ratio of about 1:10(6). The effect of lysenin became most pronounced only when both smooth muscle regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and caldesmon, were present. Co-sedimentation experiments indicated that lysenin did not displace neither tropomyosin nor caldesmon from the thin filament. Thus, the lysenin-dependent abolishment of the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the ATPase activity was related rather to the modification of the filament structure. The ability of the toxin to exert its stimulatory effect at extremely low concentrations (as low as one molecule of lysenin per 10(6) actin molecules) may result from the long-range cooperative transitions in the entire thin filament with an involvement of smooth muscle tropomyosin, while the role of caldesmon may be limited exclusively to the inhibition of ATPase activity.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of mouse Msx1 gene promoter: sequence conservation with human MSX1 promoter points at potential regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, S M; Ferland, L H; Robert, B; Abdelhay, E

    1998-06-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are related to one of the most divergent homeobox genes of Drosophila, the muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, and are expressed in a well-defined pattern at sites of tissue interactions. This pattern of expression is conserved in vertebrates as diverse as quail, zebrafish, and mouse in a range of sites including neural crest, appendages, and craniofacial structures. In the present work, we performed structural and functional analyses in order to identify potential cis-acting elements that may be regulating Msx1 gene expression. To this end, a 4.9-kb segment of the 5'-flanking region was sequenced and analyzed for transcription-factor binding sites. Four regions showing a high concentration of these sites were identified. Transfection assays with fragments of regulatory sequences driving the expression of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene showed that a region of 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site contains positive and negative elements responsible for controlling gene expression. Interestingly, a fragment of 130 bp seems to contain the minimal elements necessary for gene expression, as its removal completely abolishes gene expression in cultured cells. These results are reinforced by comparison of this region with the human Msx1 gene promoter, which shows extensive conservation, including many consensus binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role for them.

  17. The functional interactome of GSTP: A regulatory biomolecular network at the interface with the Nrf2 adaption response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Desirée; Galli, Francesco

    2016-04-15

    Glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), and possibly other members of the subfamily of cytosolic GSTs, are increasingly proposed to have roles far beyond the classical GSH-dependent enzymatic detoxification of electrophilic metabolites and xenobiotics. Emerging evidence suggests that these are essential components of the redox sensing and signaling platform of cells. GSTP monomers physically interact with cellular proteins, such as other cytosolic GSTs, signaling kinases and the membrane peroxidase peroxiredoxin 6. Other interactions reported in literature include that with regulatory proteins such as Fanconi anemia complementation group C protein, transglutaminase 2 and several members of the keratin family of genes. Transcription factors downstream of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways, namely STAT3 and Nrf2, were recently identified to be further components of this interactome. Together these pieces of evidence suggest the existence of a regulatory biomolecular network in which GSTP represents a node of functional convergence and coordination of signaling and transcription proteins, namely the "GSTP interactome", associated with key cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and the stress response. These aspects and the methodological approach to explore the cellular interactome(s) are discussed in this review paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional characterization of rpn3 uncovers a distinct 19S proteasomal subunit requirement for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Bailly, E; Reed, S I

    1999-10-01

    By selectively eliminating ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, the 26S proteasome plays a pivotal role in a large variety of cellular regulatory processes, particularly in the control of cell cycle transitions. Access of ubiquitinated substrates to the inner catalytic chamber within the 20S core particle is mediated by the 19S regulatory particle (RP), whose subunit composition in budding yeast has been recently elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the cell cycle defects resulting from conditional inactivation of one of these RP components, the essential non-ATPase Rpn3/Sun2 subunit. Using temperature-sensitive mutant alleles, we show that rpn3 mutations do not prevent the G(1)/S transition but cause a metaphase arrest, indicating that the essential Rpn3 function is limiting for mitosis. rpn3 mutants appear severely compromised in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several physiologically important proteasome substrates. Thus, RPN3 function is required for the degradation of the G(1)-phase cyclin Cln2 targeted by SCF; the S-phase cyclin Clb5, whose ubiquitination is likely to involve a combination of E3 (ubiquitin protein ligase) enzymes; and anaphase-promoting complex targets, such as the B-type cyclin Clb2 and the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Our results indicate that the Pds1 degradation defect of the rpn3 mutants most likely accounts for the metaphase arrest phenotype observed. Surprisingly, but consistent with the lack of a G(1) arrest phenotype in thermosensitive rpn3 strains, the Cdk inhibitor Sic1 exhibits a short half-life regardless of the RPN3 genotype. In striking contrast, Sic1 turnover is severely impaired by a temperature-sensitive mutation in RPN12/NIN1, encoding another essential RP subunit. While other interpretations are possible, these data strongly argue for the requirement of distinct RP subunits for efficient proteolysis of specific cell cycle regulators. The potential implications of these data are discussed in the context of possible

  19. [Regulatory T cells].

    PubMed

    Marinić, Igor; Gagro, Alenka; Rabatić, Sabina

    2006-12-01

    Regulatory T-cells are a subset of T cells that have beene extensively studied in modern immunology. They are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, and have an important role in various clinical conditions such as allergy, autoimmune disorders, tumors, infections, and in transplant medicine. Basically, this population has a suppressive effect on the neighboring immune cells, thus contributing to the local modulation and control of immune response. There are two main populations of regulatory T cells - natural regulatory T cells, which form a distinct cellular lineage, develop in thymus and perform their modulatory action through direct intercellular contact, along with the secreted cytokines; and inducible regulatory T cells, which develop in the periphery after contact with the antigen that is presented on the antigen presenting cell, and their primary mode of action is through the interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-alpha) cytokines. Natural regulatory T cells are activated through T cell receptor after contact with specific antigen and inhibit proliferation of other T cells in an antigen independent manner. One of the major difficulties in the research of regulatory T cells is the lack of specific molecular markers that would identify these cells. Natural regulatory T cells constitutively express surface molecule CD25, but many other surface and intracellular molecules (HLA-DR, CD122, CD45RO, CD62, CTLA-4, GITR, PD-1, Notch, FOXP3, etc.) are being investigated for further phenotypic characterization of these cells. Because regulatory T cells have an important role in establishing peripheral tolerance, their importance is manifested in a number of clinical conditions. In the IPEX syndrome (immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy and enteropathy, X-linked), which is caused by mutation in Foxp3 gene that influences the development and function of regulatory T cells, patients develop severe autoimmune reactions that

  20. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome-FAS Patients Have an Abnormal Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Phenotype but Display Normal Natural Treg-Suppressive Function on T Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazerolles, Fabienne; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Pelle, Olivier; Picard, Capucine; Neven, Benedicte; Fischer, Alain; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) with FAS mutation (ALPS-FAS) is a nonmalignant, noninfectious, lymphoproliferative disease with autoimmunity. Given the central role of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) in the control of lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, we assessed nTreg-suppressive function in 16 patients with ALPS-FAS. The proportion of CD25 high CD127 low Tregs was lower in ALPS-FAS patients than in healthy controls. This subset was correlated with a reduced CD25 expression in CD3 + CD4 + T cells from ALPS patients and thus an abnormally low proportion of CD25 high FOXP3 + Helios + T cells. The ALPS patients also displayed a high proportion of naïve Treg (FOXP3 low CD45RA + ) and an unusual subpopulation (CD4 + CD127 low CD15s + CD45RA + ). Despite this abnormal phenotype, the CD25 high CD127 low Tregs' suppressive function was unaffected. Furthermore, conventional T cells from FAS -mutated patients showed normal levels of sensitivity to Treg suppression. An abnormal Treg phenotype is observed in circulating lymphocytes of ALPS patients. However, these Tregs displayed a normal suppressive function on T effector proliferation in vitro . This is suggesting that lymphoproliferation observed in ALPS patients does not result from Tregs functional defect or T effector cells insensitivity to Tregs suppression.

  1. Influence of functionally graded pores on bone ingrowth in cementless hip prosthesis: a finite element study using mechano-regulatory algorithm.

    PubMed

    Tarlochan, Faris; Mehboob, Hassan; Mehboob, Ali; Chang, Seung-Hwan

    2018-06-01

    Cementless hip prostheses with porous outer coating are commonly used to repair the proximally damaged femurs. It has been demonstrated that stability of prosthesis is also highly dependent on the bone ingrowth into the porous texture. Bone ingrowth is influenced by the mechanical environment produced in the callus. In this study, bone ingrowth into the porous structure was predicted by using a mechano-regulatory model. Homogenously distributed pores (200 and 800 [Formula: see text]m in diameter) and functionally graded pores along the length of the prosthesis were introduced as a porous coating. Bone ingrowth was simulated using 25 and 12 [Formula: see text]m micromovements. Load control simulations were carried out instead of traditionally used displacement control. Spatial and temporal distributions of tissues were predicted in all cases. Functionally graded pore decreasing models gave the most homogenous bone distribution, the highest bone ingrowth (98%) with highest average Young's modulus of all tissue phenotypes approximately 4.1 GPa. Besides this, the volume of the initial callus increased to 8.33% in functionally graded pores as compared to the 200 [Formula: see text]m pore size models which increased the bone volume. These findings indicate that functionally graded porous surface promote bone ingrowth efficiently which can be considered to design of surface texture of hip prosthesis.

  2. Prefrontal and Striatal Glutamate Differently Relate to Striatal Dopamine: Potential Regulatory Mechanisms of Striatal Presynaptic Dopamine Function?

    PubMed

    Gleich, Tobias; Deserno, Lorenz; Lorenz, Robert Christian; Boehme, Rebecca; Pankow, Anne; Buchert, Ralph; Kühn, Simone; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Theoretical and animal work has proposed that prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamate inhibits dopaminergic inputs to the ventral striatum (VS) indirectly, whereas direct VS glutamatergic afferents have been suggested to enhance dopaminergic inputs to the VS. In the present study, we aimed to investigate relationships of glutamate and dopamine measures in prefrontostriatal circuitries of healthy humans. We hypothesized that PFC and VS glutamate, as well as their balance, are differently associated with VS dopamine. Glutamate concentrations in the left lateral PFC and left striatum were assessed using 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity was measured by fluorine-18-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (F-18-FDOPA) positron emission tomography. First, a negative relationship was observed between glutamate concentrations in lateral PFC and VS dopamine synthesis capacity (n = 28). Second, a positive relationship was revealed between striatal glutamate and VS dopamine synthesis capacity (n = 26). Additionally, the intraindividual difference between PFC and striatal glutamate concentrations correlated negatively with VS dopamine synthesis capacity (n = 24). The present results indicate an involvement of a balance in PFC and striatal glutamate in the regulation of VS dopamine synthesis capacity. This notion points toward a potential mechanism how VS presynaptic dopamine levels are kept in a fine-tuned range. A disruption of this mechanism may account for alterations in striatal dopamine turnover as observed in mental diseases (e.g., in schizophrenia). The present work demonstrates complementary relationships between prefrontal and striatal glutamate and ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine using human imaging measures: a negative correlation between prefrontal glutamate and presynaptic dopamine and a positive relationship between striatal glutamate and presynaptic dopamine are revealed. The results may reflect a regulatory role

  3. Regulatory function of cytomegalovirus-specific CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tovar-Salazar, Adriana; Patterson-Bartlett, Julie; Jesser, Renee

    2010-03-15

    CMV infection is characterized by high of frequencies of CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T cells. Here we demonstrate that CMV-specific CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} cells are regulatory T cells (T{sub R}). CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} cells sorted from CMV-stimulated PBMC of CMV-seropositive donors inhibited de novo CMV-specific proliferation of autologous PBMC in a dose-dependent fashion. Compared with the entire CMV-stimulated CD4{sup +} T-cell population, higher proportions of CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} expressed FoxP3, TGFbeta, granzyme B, perforin, GITR and PD-1, lower proportions expressed CD127 and PD1-L and similar proportions expressed CD25, CTLA4, Fas-L and GITR-L. CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -}more » T{sub R} expanded in response to IL-2, but not to CMV antigenic restimulation. The anti-proliferative effect of CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} significantly decreased after granzyme B or TGFbeta inhibition. The CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} of HIV-infected and uninfected donors had similar phenotypes and anti-proliferative potency, but HIV-infected individuals had higher proportions of CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R}. The CMV-CD4{sup +}CD27{sup -}CD28{sup -} T{sub R} may contribute to the downregulation of CMV-specific and nonspecific immune responses of CMV-infected individuals.« less

  4. The length of glycine-rich linker in DNA-binding domain is critical for optimal functioning of quorum-sensing master regulatory protein HapR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naorem Santa; Kachhap, Sangita; Singh, Richa; Mishra, Rahul Chandra; Singh, Balvinder; Raychaudhuri, Saumya

    2014-12-01

    HapR is a quorum-sensing master regulatory protein in Vibrio cholerae. Though many facts are known regarding its structural and functional aspects, much still can be learnt from natural variants of this wild-type protein. While unraveling the underlying cause of functional inertness of a natural variant (HapRV2), the significance of a conserved glycine residue at position 39 in a glycine-rich linker in DNA-binding domain comes into light. This work aims at investigating how the length of glycine-rich linker (R(33)GIGRGG(39)) bridging helices α1 and α2 modulates the functionality of HapR. In pursuit of our interest, glycine residues were inserted after terminal glycine (G39) of the linker in a sequential manner. To evaluate functionality, all the glycine linker variants were subjected to a battery of performance tests under various conditions. Combined in vitro and in vivo results clearly demonstrated a gradual functional impairment of HapR linker variants coupled with increasing length of glycine-rich linker and finally, linker variant harboring four glycine residues resulted in a functionally compromised protein with significant loss of communication with cognate DNAs. Molecular dynamics studies of modeled HapR linker variants in complex with cognate promoter region show that residues namely Ser50, Thr53 and Asn56 are involved in varying degree of interactions with different nucleotides of HapR-DNA complex. The diminished functionality between variants and DNA appears to result from reduced or no interactions between Phe55 and nucleotides of cognate DNA as observed during simulations.

  5. Involvement of atrial natriuretic peptide in abrogated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in ovariectomized rat heart.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, V K; Goyal, A; Gupta, J K; Upadhyay, P K; Yadav, H N

    2018-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an effective mediator of ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-induced cardioprotection. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is downregulated after ovariectomy, which results in reduction in the level of NO. The present study deals with the investigation of the role of ANP in abrogated cardioprotective effect of IPC in the ovariectomized rat heart. Heart was isolated from ovariectomized rat and mounted on Langendorff's apparatus, subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. IPC was given by four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The myocardial infract size was estimated employing triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain, and coronary effluent was analyzed for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release to consider the degree of myocardial injury. The cardiac release of NO was estimated by measuring the level of nitrite in coronary effluent. IPC-mediated cardioprotection was significantly attenuated in ovariectomized rat as compared to normal rat, which was restored by perfusion with ANP. However, this observed cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by perfusion with L-NAME, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and Glibenclamide, a K ATP channel blocker, alone or in combination noted in terms of increase in myocardial infract size, release of CK-MB and LDH, and also decrease in release of NO. Thus, it is suggested that ANP restores the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in the ovariectomized rat heart which may be due to increase in the availability of NO and consequent increase activation of mitochondrial K ATP channels.

  6. Intracerebral CpG Immunotherapy with Carbon Nanotubes Abrogates Growth of Subcutaneous Melanomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Haitao; Zhang, Ian; Chen, Xuebo; Zhang, Leying; Wang, Huaqing; Fonseca, Anna Da; Manuel, Edwin R.; Diamond, Don J.; Raubitschek, Andrew; Badie, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recently, we showed that intratumoral delivery of low-dose, immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated with carbon nanotubes (CNT-CpG) was more effective than free CpG and not only eradicated intracranial (i.c.) gliomas, but also induced antitumor immunity that protected mice from subsequent i.c. or systemic tumor rechallenge. Here, we examined if the same “intracerebral immunotherapy” strategy could be applied to the treatment of metastatic brain tumors. Experimental Design Mice with both i.c. and subcutaneous (s.c.) melanomas were injected intratumorally with CNT-CpG into either location. Antitumor responses were assessed by flow cytometry, bioluminescent imaging, and animal survival. Results When given s.c., CNT-CpG response was mostly local, and it only modestly inhibited the growth of i.c. melanomas. However, i.c. CNT-CpG abrogated the growth of not only brain, but also s.c. tumors. Furthermore, compared to s.c. injections, i.c. CNT-CpG elicited a stronger inflammatory response that resulted in more potent antitumor cytotoxicity and improved in vivo trafficking of effector cells into both i.c. and s.c. tumors. To investigate factors that accounted for these observations, CNT-CpG biodistribution and cellular inflammatory responses were examined in both tumor locations. Intracranial melanomas retained the CNT-CpG particles longer and were infiltrated by TLR-9-positive microglia. In contrast, myeloid-derived suppressive cells were more abundant in s.c. tumors. Although depletion of these cells prior to s.c. CNT-CpG therapy enhanced its cytotoxic responses, antitumor responses to brain melanomas were unchanged. Conclusions These findings suggest that intracerebral CNT-CpG immunotherapy is more effective than systemic therapy in generating antitumor responses that target both brain and systemic melanomas. PMID:22904105

  7. Intracerebral CpG immunotherapy with carbon nanotubes abrogates growth of subcutaneous melanomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Haitao; Zhang, Ian; Chen, Xuebo; Zhang, Leying; Wang, Huaqing; Da Fonseca, Anna; Manuel, Edwin R; Diamond, Don J; Raubitschek, Andrew; Badie, Behnam

    2012-10-15

    Recently, we showed that intratumoral delivery of low-dose, immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides conjugated with carbon nanotubes (CNT-CpG) was more effective than free CpG and not only eradicated intracranial (i.c.) gliomas but also induced antitumor immunity that protected mice from subsequent i.c. or systemic tumor rechallenge. Here, we examined whether the same "intracerebral immunotherapy" strategy could be applied to the treatment of metastatic brain tumors. Mice with both i.c. and s.c. melanomas were injected intratumorally with CNT-CpG into either location. Antitumor responses were assessed by flow cytometry, bioluminescent imaging, and animal survival. When given s.c., CNT-CpG response was mostly local, and it only modestly inhibited the growth of i.c. melanomas. However, i.c. CNT-CpG abrogated the growth of not only brain but also s.c. tumors. Furthermore, compared with s.c. injections, i.c. CNT-CpG elicited a stronger inflammatory response that resulted in more potent antitumor cytotoxicity and improved in vivo trafficking of effector cells into both i.c. and s.c. tumors. To investigate factors that accounted for these observations, CNT-CpG biodistribution and cellular inflammatory responses were examined in both tumor locations. Intracranial melanomas retained the CNT-CpG particles longer and were infiltrated by Toll-like receptor (TLR-9)-positive microglia. In contrast, myeloid-derived suppressive cells were more abundant in s.c. tumors. Although depletion of these cells before s.c. CNT-CpG therapy enhanced its cytotoxic responses, antitumor responses to brain melanomas were unchanged. These findings suggest that intracerebral CNT-CpG immunotherapy is more effective than systemic therapy in generating antitumor responses that target both brain and systemic melanomas. ©2012 AACR

  8. Chrysin, an anti-inflammatory molecule, abrogates renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahad, Amjid; Ganai, Ajaz Ahmad; Mujeeb, Mohd

    Diabetic nepropathy (DN) is considered as the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide, but the current available treatments are limited. Recent experimental evidences support the role of chronic microinflammation in the development of DN. Therefore, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of DN. We investigated the nephroprotective effects of chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone) in a high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar albino rat model. Chrysin is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that is abundantly found in plant extracts, honey and bee propolis. The treatment with chrysin for 16more » weeks post induction of diabetes significantly abrogated renal dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chrysin treatment considerably reduced renal TNF-α expression and inhibited the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Furthermore, chrysin treatment improved renal pathology and suppressed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), fibronectin and collagen-IV protein expressions in renal tissues. Chrysin also significantly reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and IL-6. Moreover, there were no appreciable differences in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin levels between the chrysin treated groups compared to the HFD/STZ-treated group. Hence, our results suggest that chrysin prevents the development of DN in HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats through anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney by specifically targeting the TNF-α pathway. - Highlights: • Chrysin reduced renal oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic rats. • Chrysin reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory in diabetic rats. • Chrysin exhibited renal protective effect by suppressing the TNF-α pathway.« less

  9. Abrogation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness but not Inflammation by Rho kinase Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, David I.; Ninin, Fernanda M.C.; Wurmbrand, Allison P.; Liao, James K.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Major features of allergic asthma include airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic inflammation, and goblet cell metaplasia. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. By doing so, it can modulate airway smooth muscle cell contraction and leukocyte migration and proliferation. This study was designed to determine the contributions of the two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, to AHR, inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in a mast-cell dependent model of allergic airways disease. Methods and Results Repeated intranasal challenges with OVA caused AHR, eosinophilic inflammation, and goblet cell hyperplasia in wildtype (WT) mice. OVA-induced AHR was partially or completely abrogated in mice haploinsufficient for ROCK2 (ROCK2+/−) or ROCK1 (ROCK1+/−), respectively. In contrast, there was no effect of ROCK insufficiency on allergic airways inflammation, although both ROCK1 and ROCK2 insufficiency attenuated mast cell degranulation. Goblet cell hyperplasia, as indicated by PAS staining, was not different in ROCK1+/− versus WT mice. However, in ROCK2+/− mice, goblet cell hyperplasia was reduced in medium but not large airways. Maximal acetylcholine-induced force generation was reduced in tracheal rings from ROCK1+/− and ROCK2+/− versus WT mice. The ROCK inhibitor, fasudil, also reduced airway responsiveness in OVA-challenged mice, without affecting inflammatory responses. Conclusion In a mast cell model of allergic airways disease, ROCK1 and ROCK2 both contribute to AHR, likely through direct effects on smooth muscle cell and effects on mast-cell degranulation. In addition, ROCK2 but not ROCK1 plays a role in allergen-induced goblet cell hyperplasia. PMID:25323425

  10. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaonan; Han, Chuyang; Jiang, Yuanjun; Han, Ning; Zhang, Miao; Li, Guang; Qiao, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    The EGFR-specific mAb cetuximab is one of the most effective treatments for oropharyngeal carcinoma, while patient responses to EGFR inhibitors given alone are modest. Combination treatment with radiation can improve the efficacy of treatment through increasing radiosensitivity, while resistance to radiation after administration of cetuximab limits its efficiency. Radiation and drugs can damage the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostatic state and result in ER stress (ERS), subsequently causing resistance to radiation and drugs. Whether the ERS pathway is involved in radioresistance after administration of cetuximab has not been reported. Herein, we show that cetuximab could increase the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells but not Detroit562 cells. In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells. Silencing GRP78 increased the radiosensitivity of oropharyngeal carcinoma cells and inhibited radiation-induced DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair and autophagy. More interestingly, silencing GRP78 abrogated resistance to cetuximab and radiation in Detroit562 cells and had a synergistic effect with cetuximab in increasing the radiosensitivity of FaDu cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that overexpression of both GRP78 and EGFR was associated with a poor prognosis in oropharyngeal carcinoma patients (P<0.05). Overall, the results of this study show that radioresistance after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab is mediated by the ERS signalling pathway IRE1α/ATF6-GRP78. This suppression was consequently unable to inhibit radiation-induced DSB repair and autophagy in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells, which conferred resistance to radiotherapy and cetuximab. These results suggest that the cooperative effects of radiotherapy and cetuximab could be further improved by inhibiting GRP78 in non-responsive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  11. Carbidopa abrogates L-dopa decarboxylase coactivation of the androgen receptor and delays prostate tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Latif A; Cheng, Helen; Plaa, Nathan; Ghaidi, Fariba; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin E; Cox, Michael E; Rennie, Paul S

    2012-06-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer progression to the castration-resistant (CR) lethal state. L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) is an AR coactivator that increases in expression with disease progression and is coexpressed with the receptor in prostate adenocarcinoma cells, where it may enhance AR activity. Here, we hypothesize that the DDC enzymatic inhibitor, carbidopa, can suppress DDC-coactivation of AR and retard prostate tumor growth. Treating LNCaP prostate cancer cells with carbidopa in transcriptional assays suppressed the enhanced AR transactivation seen with DDC overexpression and decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels. Carbidopa dose-dependently inhibited cell growth and decreased survival in LNCaP cell proliferation and apoptosis assays. The inhibitory effect of carbidopa on DDC-coactivation of AR and cell growth/survival was also observed in PC3 prostate cancer cells (stably expressing AR). In vivo studies demonstrated that serum PSA velocity and tumor growth rates elevated ∼2-fold in LNCaP xenografts, inducibly overexpressing DDC, were reverted to control levels with carbidopa administration. In castrated mice, treating LNCaP tumors, expressing endogenous DDC, with carbidopa delayed progression to the CR state from 6 to 10 weeks, while serum PSA and tumor growth decreased 4.3-fold and 5.4-fold, respectively. Our study is a first time demonstration that carbidopa can abrogate DDC-coactivation of AR in prostate cancer cells and tumors, decrease serum PSA, reduce tumor growth and delay CR progression. Since carbidopa is clinically approved, it may be readily used as a novel therapeutic strategy to suppress aberrant AR activity and delay prostate cancer progression. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  12. WNT activation by lithium abrogates TP53 mutation associated radiation resistance in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Nataliya; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Martin, Dianna C; Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Zhang, Cindy H; Fraser, Michael; Tse, Ken; Poon, Raymond; Shih, David J H; Baskin, Berivan; Ray, Peter N; Bouffet, Eric; Dirks, Peter; von Bueren, Andre O; Pfaff, Elke; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Northcott, Paul A; Kool, Marcel; Pugh, Trevor J; Pomeroy, Scott L; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Pietsch, Torsten; Gessi, Marco; Rutkowski, Stefan; Bognár, Laszlo; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Eberhart, Charles G; Conter, Cecile Faure; Fouladi, Maryam; French, Pim J; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Gupta, Nalin; Hauser, Peter; Jabado, Nada; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jung, Shin; Kim, Seung-Ki; Klekner, Almos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Lach, Boleslaw; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Liau, Linda M; Massimi, Luca; Pollack, Ian F; Ra, Young Shin; Rubin, Joshua B; Van Meir, Erwin G; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Weiss, William A; Zitterbart, Karel; Bristow, Robert G; Alman, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Clifford, Steven C; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Tabori, Uri

    2014-12-24

    TP53 mutations confer subgroup specific poor survival for children with medulloblastoma. We hypothesized that WNT activation which is associated with improved survival for such children abrogates TP53 related radioresistance and can be used to sensitize TP53 mutant tumors for radiation. We examined the subgroup-specific role of TP53 mutations in a cohort of 314 patients treated with radiation. TP53 wild-type or mutant human medulloblastoma cell-lines and normal neural stem cells were used to test radioresistance of TP53 mutations and the radiosensitizing effect of WNT activation on tumors and the developing brain. Children with WNT/TP53 mutant medulloblastoma had higher 5-year survival than those with SHH/TP53 mutant tumours (100% and 36.6%±8.7%, respectively (p<0.001)). Introduction of TP53 mutation into medulloblastoma cells induced radioresistance (survival fractions at 2Gy (SF2) of 89%±2% vs. 57.4%±1.8% (p<0.01)). In contrast, β-catenin mutation sensitized TP53 mutant cells to radiation (p<0.05). Lithium, an activator of the WNT pathway, sensitized TP53 mutant medulloblastoma to radiation (SF2 of 43.5%±1.5% in lithium treated cells vs. 56.6±3% (p<0.01)) accompanied by increased number of γH2AX foci. Normal neural stem cells were protected from lithium induced radiation damage (SF2 of 33%±8% for lithium treated cells vs. 27%±3% for untreated controls (p=0.05). Poor survival of patients with TP53 mutant medulloblastoma may be related to radiation resistance. Since constitutive activation of the WNT pathway by lithium sensitizes TP53 mutant medulloblastoma cells and protect normal neural stem cells from radiation, this oral drug may represent an attractive novel therapy for high-risk medulloblastomas.

  13. Enforced IL-10 Expression Confers Type 1 Regulatory T Cell (Tr1) Phenotype and Function to Human CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Andolfi, Grazia; Fousteri, Georgia; Rossetti, Maura; Magnani, Chiara F; Jofra, Tatiana; Locafaro, Grazia; Bondanza, Attilio; Gregori, Silvia; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are an inducible subset of CD4+ Tr cells characterized by high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 production and regulatory properties. Several protocols to generate human Tr1 cells have been developed in vitro. However, the resulting population includes a significant fraction of contaminating non-Tr1 cells, representing a major bottleneck for clinical application of Tr1 cell therapy. We generated an homogeneous IL-10–producing Tr1 cell population by transducing human CD4+ T cells with a bidirectional lentiviral vector (LV) encoding for human IL-10 and the marker gene, green fluorescent protein (GFP), which are independently coexpressed. The resulting GFP+ LV-IL-10–transduced human CD4+ T (CD4LV-IL-10) cells expressed, upon T-cell receptor (TCR) activation, high levels of IL-10 and concomitant low levels of IL-4, and markers associated with IL-10. Moreover, CD4LV-IL-10 T cells displayed typical Tr1 features: the anergic phenotype, the IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β dependent suppression of allogeneic T-cell responses, and the ability to suppress in a cell-to-cell contact independent manner in vitro. CD4LV-IL-10 T cells were able to control xeno graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), demonstrating their suppressive function in vivo. These results show that constitutive over-expression of IL-10 in human CD4+ T cells leads to a stable cell population that recapitulates the phenotype and function of Tr1 cells. PMID:22692497

  14. CD4+  CD25+  GARP+ regulatory T cells display a compromised suppressive function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuzhen; Yu, Kunwu; Wei, Hui; Su, Xin; Zhu, Ruirui; Shi, Huairui; Sun, Haitao; Luo, Quan; Xu, Wenbin; Xiao, Junhui; Zhong, Yucheng; Zeng, Qiutang

    2017-07-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a lethal inflammatory heart disease and closely connected with dysfunction of the immune system. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) expressed on activated CD4 + T cells with suppressive activity has been established. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and function of circulating CD4 +  CD25 +  GARP + regulatory T (Treg) cells in DCM. Forty-five DCM patients and 46 controls were enrolled in this study. There was a significant increase in peripheral T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 number and their related cytokines [interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL-17)], and an obvious decrease in Treg number, transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels and the expression of forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and GARP in patients with DCM compared with controls. In addition, the suppressive function of CD4 +  CD25 +  GARP + Treg cells was impaired in DCM patients upon T-cell receptor stimulation detected using CFSE dye. Lower level of TGF-β 1 and higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 detected using ELISA were found in supernatants of the cultured CD4 +  CD25 +  GARP + Treg cells in DCM patients compared with controls. Together, our results indicate that CD4 +  CD25 +  GARP + Treg cells are defective in DCM patients and GARP seems to be a better molecular definition of the regulatory phenotype. Therefore, it might be an attractive stategy to pay more attention to GARP in DCM patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genome-wide identification of Hfq-regulated small RNAs in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora discovered small RNAs with virulence regulatory function.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Quan; Sundin, George W

    2014-05-31

    Erwinia amylovora is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causal agent of fire blight disease in apples and pears. Although many virulence factors have been characterized, the coordination of expression of these virulence factors in E. amylovora is still not clear. Regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulatory components in bacteria. A large number of sRNAs require the RNA chaperone Hfq for both stability and functional activation. In E. amylovora, Hfq was identified as a major regulator of virulence and various virulence traits. However, information is still lacking about Hfq-dependent sRNAs on a genome scale, including the virulence regulatory functions of these sRNAs in E. amylovora. Using both an RNA-seq analysis and a Rho-independent terminator search, 40 candidate Hfq-dependent sRNAs were identified in E. amylovora. The expression and sizes of 12 sRNAs and the sequence boundaries of seven sRNAs were confirmed by Northern blot and 5' RACE assay respectively. Sequence conservation analysis identified sRNAs conserved only in the Erwinia genus as well as E. amylovora species-specific sRNAs. In addition, a dynamic re-patterning of expression of Hfq-dependent sRNAs was observed at 6 and 12 hours after induction in Hrp-inducing minimal medium. Furthermore, sRNAs that control virulence traits were characterized, among which ArcZ positively controls the type III secretion system (T3SS), amylovoran exopolysaccahride production, biofilm formation, and motility, and negatively modulates attachment while RmaA (Hrs6) and OmrAB both negatively regulate amylovoran production and positively regulate motility. This study has significantly enhanced our understanding of the Hfq-dependent sRNAs in E. amylovora at the genome level. The identification of multiple virulence-regulating sRNAs also suggests that post-transcriptional regulation by sRNAs may play a role in the deployment of virulence factors needed during varying stages of pathogenesis during

  16. Identification of functional interactome of a key cell division regulatory protein CedA of E.coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is compromised in DnaAcos mutant Escherichia coli cells that results in filamentous cell morphology. This is countered by over-expression of CedA protein that induces cytokinesis and thus, regular cell morphology is regained; however via an unknown mechanism. To understand the process systematically, exact role of CedA should be deciphered. Protein interactions are crucial for functional organization of a cell and their identification helps in revealing exact function(s) of a protein and its binding partners. Thus, this study was intended to identify CedA binding proteins (CBPs) to gain more clues of CedA function. We isolated CBPs by pull down assay using purified recombinant CedA and identified nine CBPs by mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS), viz. PDHA1, RL2, DNAK, LPP, RPOB, G6PD, GLMS, RL3 and YBCJ. Based on CBPs identified, we hypothesize that CedA plays a crucial and multifaceted role in cell cycle regulation and specific pathways in which CedA participates may include transcription and energy metabolism. However, further validation through in-vitro and in-vivo experiments is necessary. In conclusion, identification of CBPs may help us in deciphering mechanism of CedA mediated cell division during chromosomal DNA over-replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IL-25 promotes the function of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells and prolongs skin-graft survival in murine models.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiayou; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Jie; Meng, Qingshu; Han, Yang; Wang, Zhulin; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-25, also known as IL-17E, belongs to the IL-17 family of cytokines. Unlike other IL-17 family members, IL-25 promotes Th2-type immune responses, stimulating IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 production. Here, we employed murine models of skin graft to explore the role of IL-25 in suppression of graft rejection. We found that IL-25 expression is increased during allograft rejection, and allograft rejection was enhanced in IL-25 KO mice. IL-25 KO was associated with down-regulation of Foxp3 expression in CD4+ T cells. Further, while adoptive transfer of WT regulatory T cells (Tregs) protected against allograft rejection, adoptive transfer of IL-25 deficient Tregs failed to protect against allograft rejection. Exogenous IL-25 restored Foxp3 expression and Treg function in vitro. Moreover, IL-25 promoted phosphorylation of NFAT2. Thus, IL-25 may enhance Treg function by up-regulating NFAT2 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that IL-25 can sustain Foxp3 expression, enhance the suppressive function of Tregs, and prolong skin-graft survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Eos is redundant for T regulatory cell function, but plays an important role in IL-2 and Th17 production by CD4+ T conventional cells

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Metidji, Amina; Glass, Deborah Dacek; Thornton, Angela M.; Ikeda, Tohru; Morgan, Bruce A.; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2015-01-01

    Eos is a transcription factor that belongs to the Ikaros family of transcription factors. Eos has been reported to be a T regulatory cell (Treg) signature gene, to play a critical role in Treg suppressor functions, and to maintain Treg stability. We have utilized mice with a global deficiency of Eos to re-examine the role of Eos expression in both Treg and T conventional (Tconv) cells. Treg from Eos deficient (Eos−/−) mice developed normally, displayed a normal Treg phenotype, and exhibited normal suppressor function in vitro. Eos−/− Treg were as effective as Treg from wild type (WT) mice in suppression of inflammation in a model of inflammatory bowel disease. Bone marrow (BM) from Eos−/− mice was as effective as BM from WT mice in controlling T cell activation when used to reconstitute immunodeficient mice in the presence of Scurfy fetal liver cells. Surprisingly, Eos was expressed in activated Tconv cells and was required for IL-2 production, CD25 expression and proliferation in vitro by CD4+ Tconv cells. Eos−/− mice developed more severe Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis than WT mice, displayed increased numbers of effector T cells in the periphery and CNS, and amplified IL-17 production. In conclusion, our studies are not consistent with a role for Eos in Treg development and function, but demonstrate that Eos plays an important role in the activation and differentiation of Tconv cells. PMID:26062998

  19. The Twin-Arginine Translocation Pathway in α-Proteobacteria Is Functionally Preserved Irrespective of Genomic and Regulatory Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Pablo A.; Soria, Marcelo; Farber, Marisa D.

    2012-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway exports fully folded proteins out of the cytoplasm of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Although much progress has been made in unraveling the molecular mechanism and biochemical characterization of the Tat system, little is known concerning its functionality and biological role to confer adaptive skills, symbiosis or pathogenesis in the α-proteobacteria class. A comparative genomic analysis in the α-proteobacteria class confirmed the presence of tatA, tatB, and tatC genes in almost all genomes, but significant variations in gene synteny and rearrangements were found in the order Rickettsiales with respect to the typically described operon organization. Transcription of tat genes was confirmed for Anaplasma marginale str. St. Maries and Brucella abortus 2308, two α-proteobacteria with full and partial intracellular lifestyles, respectively. The tat genes of A. marginale are scattered throughout the genome, in contrast to the more generalized operon organization. Particularly, tatA showed an approximately 20-fold increase in mRNA levels relative to tatB and tatC. We showed Tat functionality in B. abortus 2308 for the first time, and confirmed conservation of functionality in A. marginale. We present the first experimental description of the Tat system in the Anaplasmataceae and Brucellaceae families. In particular, in A. marginale Tat functionality is conserved despite operon splitting as a consequence of genome rearrangements. Further studies will be required to understand how the proper stoichiometry of the Tat protein complex and its biological role are achieved. In addition, the predicted substrates might be the evidence of role of the Tat translocation system in the transition process from a free-living to a parasitic lifestyle in these α-proteobacteria. PMID:22438962

  20. Acute administration of vitamin C abrogates protection from ischemic preconditioning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tsovolas, Konstantinos; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Andreadou, Ioanna; Zoga, Anastasia; Demopoulou, Maritina; Iliodromitis, Konstantinos E; Manolaki, Theodora; Markantonis, Sophia L; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th

    2008-04-01

    Vitamin C is considered to be an antioxidant agent that is broadly used. Free radicals are involved in the protective mechanism of preconditioning (PC), but some antioxidant compounds abolish this benefit. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on the protective effect of PC with respect to infarct size and oxidative stress in anesthetized rabbits. Male rabbits were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia and 3h of reperfusion with the following interventions per group: (1) Control (no intervention), (2) Vit C 150 group (i.v. vitamin C at a total dose of 150 mg/kg for 75 min, starting 40 min before the onset of long ischemia and lasting up to the 5th min of reperfusion), (3) Vit C 300 group (i.v. vitamin C at a total dose of 300 mg/kg as previously described), (4) PC group (two cycles of 5 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion), (5) combined PC-Vit C 150 group and (6) combined PC-Vit C 300 group. Blood samples were taken at different time points for malondialdehyde (MDA) assessment as a lipid peroxidation marker and for superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. At the end of the experiment the infarct size was determined. Vitamin C, at both doses, did not reduce the infarct size (35.5+/-4.1%, 38.3+/-7.0% vs. 44.9+/-3.3% in the control group) and diminished the protection afforded by PC (32.0+/-2.7%, 43.8+/-3.3% vs. 15.7+/-2.9% in the PC group, P<0.05). At reperfusion there was an elevation of circulating MDA levels in the control and PC groups while in both vitamin C groups the levels were decreased. SOD activity was enhanced in the PC group compared to the controls; vitamin C did not change SOD activity during ischemia-reperfusion. Vitamin C abrogates the beneficial effect of ischemic PC on infarct size and elicits antioxidant properties during ischemia-reperfusion.

  1. Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  2. Natural antisense RNAs as mRNA regulatory elements in bacteria: a review on function and applications.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Fatemeh; Kamali, Mehdi; Najafi, Ali; Yazdanparast, Alavieh; Moghaddam, Mehrdad Moosazadeh

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring antisense RNAs are small, diffusible, untranslated transcripts that pair to target RNAs at specific regions of complementarity to control their biological function by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. This review focuses on known cases of antisense RNA control in prokaryotes and provides an overview of some natural RNA-based mechanisms that bacteria use to modulate gene expression, such as mRNA sensors, riboswitches and antisense RNAs. We also highlight recent advances in RNA-based technology. The review shows that studies on both natural and synthetic systems are reciprocally beneficial.

  3. The Functional SNPs in the 5’ Regulatory Region of the Porcine PPARD Gene Have Significant Association with Fat Deposition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shanyao; Lin, Bin; Yan, Dechao; Xu, Zaiyan; Zhang, Zijun; Mao, Yuanliang; Mao, Huimin; Wang, Litong; Wang, Guoshui; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is a key regulator of lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we identified two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs, g.1015 A>G and g.1018 T>C) constituting four haplotypes (GT, GC, AC and AT) in the 5’ regulatory region of porcine PPARD gene. Functional analysis of the four haplotypes showed that the transcriptional activity of the PPARD promoter fragment carrying haplotype AC was significantly lower than that of the other haplotypes in 3T3-L1, C2C12 and PK-15 cells, and haplotype AC had the lowest binding capacities to the nuclear extracts. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) enhanced the transcription activities of promoter fragments of PPARD gene carrying haplotypes GT, GC and AT in C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, and increased the protein expression of PPARD gene in C2C12 myoblasts. TCF7L2 differentially bound to the four haplotypes, and the binding capacity of TCF7L2 to haplotype AC was the lowest. There were significant associations between -655A/G and fat deposition traits in three pig populations including the Large White × Meishan F2 pigs, France and American Large White pigs. Pigs with genotype GG had significantly higher expression of PPARD at both mRNA and protein level than those with genotype AG. These results strongly suggested that the SNPs in 5’ regulatory region of PPARD genes had significant impact on pig fat deposition traits. PMID:26599230

  4. Peanut oral immunotherapy results in increased antigen-induced regulatory T-cell function and hypomethylation of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3).

    PubMed

    Syed, Aleena; Garcia, Marco A; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Bucayu, Robert; Kohli, Arunima; Ishida, Satoru; Berglund, Jelena P; Tsai, Mindy; Maecker, Holden; O'Riordan, Gerri; Galli, Stephen J; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-02-01

    The mechanisms contributing to clinical immune tolerance remain incompletely understood. This study provides evidence for specific immune mechanisms that are associated with a model of operationally defined clinical tolerance. Our overall objective was to study laboratory changes associated with clinical immune tolerance in antigen-induced T cells, basophils, and antibodies in subjects undergoing oral immunotherapy (OIT) for peanut allergy. In a phase 1 single-site study, we studied participants (n = 23) undergoing peanut OIT and compared them with age-matched allergic control subjects (n = 20) undergoing standard of care (abstaining from peanut) for 24 months. Participants were operationally defined as clinically immune tolerant (IT) if they had no detectable allergic reactions to a peanut oral food challenge after 3 months of therapy withdrawal (IT, n = 7), whereas those who had an allergic reaction were categorized as nontolerant (NT; n = 13). Antibody and basophil activation measurements did not statistically differentiate between NT versus IT participants. However, T-cell function and demethylation of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) CpG sites in antigen-induced regulatory T cells were significantly different between IT versus NT participants. When IT participants were withdrawn from peanut therapy for an additional 3 months (total of 6 months), only 3 participants remained classified as IT participants, and 4 participants regained sensitivity along with increased methylation of FOXP3 CpG sites in antigen-induced regulatory T cells. In summary, modifications at the DNA level of antigen-induced T-cell subsets might be predictive of a state of operationally defined clinical immune tolerance during peanut OIT. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tol2 transposon-mediated transgenesis in the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) - towards understanding gene function and regulatory evolution in an ecological model system for rapid phenotypic diversification.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Claudius F; Sefton, Maggie M; Liang, Yipeng; Meyer, Axel

    2017-11-23

    The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) is widely known among evolutionary biologists as a model system for sympatric speciation and adaptive phenotypic divergence within extremely short periods of time (a few hundred generations). The repeated parallel evolution of adaptive phenotypes in this radiation, combined with their near genetic identity, makes them an excellent model for studying phenotypic diversification. While many ecological and evolutionary studies have been performed on Midas cichlids, the molecular basis of specific phenotypes, particularly adaptations, and their underlying coding and cis-regulatory changes have not yet been studied thoroughly. For the first time in any New World cichlid, we use Tol2 transposon-mediated transgenesis in the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus). By adapting existing microinjection protocols, we established an effective protocol for transgenesis in Midas cichlids. Embryos were injected with a Tol2 plasmid construct that drives enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. The transgene was successfully integrated into the germline, driving strong ubiquitous expression of eGFP in the first transgenic Midas cichlid line. Additionally, we show transient expression of two further transgenic constructs, ubiquitin::tdTomato and mitfa::eGFP. Transgenesis in Midas cichlids will facilitate further investigation of the genetic basis of species-specific traits, many of which are adaptations. Transgenesis is a versatile tool not only for studying regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, but also for testing gene function through overexpression of allelic gene variants. As such, it is an important first step in establishing the Midas cichlid as a powerful model for studying adaptive coding and non-coding changes in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  6. Stallion sperm transcriptome comprises functionally coherent coding and regulatory RNAs as revealed by microarray analysis and RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Das, Pranab J; McCarthy, Fiona; Vishnoi, Monika; Paria, Nandina; Gresham, Cathy; Li, Gang; Kachroo, Priyanka; Sudderth, A Kendrick; Teague, Sheila; Love, Charles C; Varner, Dickson D; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2013-01-01

    Mature mammalian sperm contain a complex population of RNAs some of which might regulate spermatogenesis while others probably play a role in fertilization and early development. Due to this limited knowledge, the biological functions of sperm RNAs remain enigmatic. Here we report the first characterization of the global transcriptome of the sperm of fertile stallions. The findings improved understanding of the biological significance of sperm RNAs which in turn will allow the discovery of sperm-based biomarkers for stallion fertility. The stallion sperm transcriptome was interrogated by analyzing sperm and testes RNA on a 21,000-element equine whole-genome oligoarray and by RNA-seq. Microarray analysis revealed 6,761 transcripts in the sperm, of which 165 were sperm-enriched, and 155 were differentially expressed between the sperm and testes. Next, 70 million raw reads were generated by RNA-seq of which 50% could be aligned with the horse reference genome. A total of 19,257 sequence tags were mapped to all horse chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. The highest density of mapped transcripts was in gene-rich ECA11, 12 and 13, and the lowest in gene-poor ECA9 and X; 7 gene transcripts originated from ECAY. Structural annotation aligned sperm transcripts with 4,504 known horse and/or human genes, rRNAs and 82 miRNAs, whereas 13,354 sequence tags remained anonymous. The data were aligned with selected equine gene models to identify additional exons and splice variants. Gene Ontology annotations showed that sperm transcripts were associated with molecular processes (chemoattractant-activated signal transduction, ion transport) and cellular components (membranes and vesicles) related to known sperm functions at fertilization, while some messenger and micro RNAs might be critical for early development. The findings suggest that the rich repertoire of coding and non-coding RNAs in stallion sperm is not a random remnant from spermatogenesis in testes but a selectively

  7. Stallion Sperm Transcriptome Comprises Functionally Coherent Coding and Regulatory RNAs as Revealed by Microarray Analysis and RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pranab J.; McCarthy, Fiona; Vishnoi, Monika; Paria, Nandina; Gresham, Cathy; Li, Gang; Kachroo, Priyanka; Sudderth, A. Kendrick; Teague, Sheila; Love, Charles C.; Varner, Dickson D.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2013-01-01

    Mature mammalian sperm contain a complex population of RNAs some of which might regulate spermatogenesis while others probably play a role in fertilization and early development. Due to this limited knowledge, the biological functions of sperm RNAs remain enigmatic. Here we report the first characterization of the global transcriptome of the sperm of fertile stallions. The findings improved understanding of the biological significance of sperm RNAs which in turn will allow the discovery of sperm-based biomarkers for stallion fertility. The stallion sperm transcriptome was interrogated by analyzing sperm and testes RNA on a 21,000-element equine whole-genome oligoarray and by RNA-seq. Microarray analysis revealed 6,761 transcripts in the sperm, of which 165 were sperm-enriched, and 155 were differentially expressed between the sperm and testes. Next, 70 million raw reads were generated by RNA-seq of which 50% could be aligned with the horse reference genome. A total of 19,257 sequence tags were mapped to all horse chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. The highest density of mapped transcripts was in gene-rich ECA11, 12 and 13, and the lowest in gene-poor ECA9 and X; 7 gene transcripts originated from ECAY. Structural annotation aligned sperm transcripts with 4,504 known horse and/or human genes, rRNAs and 82 miRNAs, whereas 13,354 sequence tags remained anonymous. The data were aligned with selected equine gene models to identify additional exons and splice variants. Gene Ontology annotations showed that sperm transcripts were associated with molecular processes (chemoattractant-activated signal transduction, ion transport) and cellular components (membranes and vesicles) related to known sperm functions at fertilization, while some messenger and micro RNAs might be critical for early development. The findings suggest that the rich repertoire of coding and non-coding RNAs in stallion sperm is not a random remnant from spermatogenesis in testes but a selectively

  8. Arginine methylation of translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) inhibits its binding to long noncoding RNA, abrogating TLS-mediated repression of CBP/p300 activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Yoneda, Ryoma; Ueda, Naomi; Kurokawa, Riki

    2018-05-21

    Translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) is an RNA-binding protein and a transcription-regulatory sensor of DNA damage. TLS binds promoter-associated noncoding RNA (pncRNA) and inhibits histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of CREB-binding protein (CBP)/E1A-binding protein P300 (p300) on the cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene. Although post-translational modifications of TLS, such as arginine methylation, are known to regulate TLS's nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and assembly in stress granules, its interactions with RNAs remain poorly characterized. Herein, using various biochemical assays, we confirmed the earlier observations that TLS is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in vitro. The arginine methylation of TLS disrupted binding to pncRNA and also prevented binding of TLS to and inhibition of CBP/p300. This result indicated that arginine methylation of TLS abrogates both binding to pncRNA and TLS-mediated inhibition of CBP/p300 HAT activities. We also report that an arginine residue within the Arg-Gly-Gly domain of TLS, Arg-476, serves as the major determinant for binding to pncRNA. Either methylation or mutation of Arg-476 of TLS significantly decreased pncRNA binding and thereby prevented a pncRNA-induced allosteric alteration in TLS that is required for its interaction with CBP/p300. Moreover, unlike wildtype TLS, an R476A TLS mutant did not inhibit CCND1 promoter activity in luciferase reporter assays. Taken together, we propose the hypothesis that arginine methylation of TLS regulates both TLS-nucleic acid and TLS-protein interactions and thereby participates in transcriptional regulation. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. PD-1 and Tim-3 pathways are associated with regulatory CD8+ T-cell function in decidua and maintenance of normal pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S-C; Li, Y-H; Piao, H-L; Hong, X-W; Zhang, D; Xu, Y-Y; Tao, Y; Wang, Y; Yuan, M-M; Li, D-J; Du, M-R

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are critical in the balance between fetal tolerance and antiviral immunity. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are important negative immune regulatory molecules involved in viral persistence and tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells from decidua greatly outnumbered those from peripheral blood during human early pregnancy. Co-culture of trophoblasts with CD8+ T cells upregulated PD-1+ and/or Tim-3+ immune cells. Furthermore, the population of CD8+ T cells co-expressing PD-1 and Tim-3 was enriched within the intermediate memory subset in decidua. This population exhibited high proliferative activity and Th2-type cytokine producing capacity. Blockade of Tim-3 and PD-1 resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation and Th2-type cytokine production while increased trophoblast killing and IFN-γ producing capacities of CD8+ T cells. Pregnant CBA/J females challenged with Tim-3 and/or PD-1 blocking antibodies were more susceptible to fetal loss, which was associated with CD8+ T-cell dysfunction. Importantly, the number and function of Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells in decidua were significantly impaired in miscarriage. These findings underline the important roles of Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways in regulating decidual CD8+ T-cell function and maintaining normal pregnancy. PMID:25950468

  10. Functional diversification of grapevine MYB5a and MYB5b in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in a petunia anthocyanin regulatory mutant.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Erika; Zenoni, Sara; Finezzo, Laura; Guzzo, Flavia; Zamboni, Anita; Avesani, Linda; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids play a key role in grapevine physiology and also contribute substantially to the quality of berries and wines. VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b are R2R3-MYB transcription factors previously proposed to control the spatiotemporal expression of flavonoid structural genes during berry development. We investigated the functions of these two proteins in detail by heterologous expression in a petunia an2 mutant, which has negligible anthocyanin levels in the petals because it lacks the MYB protein PhAN2. We also expressed VvMYBA1, the grapevine ortholog of petunia PhAN2, in the same genetic background. The anthocyanin profiles induced by expressing these transgenes in the petals revealed that VvMYBA1 is the functional ortholog of PhAN2 and that, unlike VvMYB5a, VvMYB5b can partially complement the an2 mutation. Transcriptomic analysis of petals by microarray hybridization and quantitative PCR confirmed that VvMYB5b up-regulates a subset of anthocyanin structural genes, whereas VvMYB5a has a more limited impact on the expression of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, we identified additional specific and common targets of these two regulators, related to vacuolar acidification and membrane remodeling. Taken together, these data provide insight into the role of VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b in flavonoid biosynthesis and provide evidence for additional regulatory roles in distinct pathways.

  11. Effects of exercise training and detraining on cutaneous microvascular function in man: the regulatory role of endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated how exercise training and detraining affect the cutaneous microvascular function and the regulatory role of endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature. Ten healthy sedentary subjects cycled on an ergometer at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) for 30 min daily, 5 days a week, for 8 weeks, and then detrained for 8 weeks. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrite plus nitrate) were measured by a microplate fluorometer. The cutaneous microvascular perfusion responses to six graded levels of iontophoretically applied 1% acetylcholine (ACh) and 1% sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in the forearm skin were determined by laser Doppler. After training, (1) resting heart rate and blood pressure were reduced, whereas VO(2max), skin blood flow and cutaneous vascular conductance to acute exercise were enhanced; (2) plasma NO metabolite levels and ACh-induced cutaneous perfusion were increased; (3) skin vascular responses to SNP did not change significantly. However, detraining reversed these effects on cutaneous microvascular function and plasma NO metabolite levels. The results suggest that endothelium-dependent dilation in skin vasculature is enhanced by moderate exercise training and reversed to the pretraining state with detraining.

  12. Ancient duplications and functional divergence in the interferon regulatory factors of vertebrates provide insights into the evolution of vertebrate immune systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Kang; Zhong, Zaixuan; Fang, Chengchi; Dai, Wei; Shen, Yanjun; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2018-04-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) were first discovered as transcription factors that regulate the transcription of human interferon (IFN)-β. Increasing evidence shows that they might be important players involved in Adaptive immune system (AIS) evolution. Although numbers of IRFs have been identified in chordates, the evolutionary history and functional diversity of this gene family during the early evolution of vertebrates have remained obscure. Using IRF HMM profile and HMMER searches, we identified 148 IRFs in 11 vertebrates and 4 protochordates. For them, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships, determined the synteny conservation, investigated the profile of natural selection, and analyzed the expression patterns in four "living fossil" vertebrates: lamprey, elephant shark, coelacanth and bichir. The results from phylogeny and synteny analysis imply that vertebrate IRFs evolved from three predecessors, instead of four as suggested in a previous study, as results from an ancient duplication followed by special expansions and lost during the vertebrate evolution. The profile of natural selection and expression reveals functional dynamics during the process. Together, they suggest that the 2nd whole-genome duplication (2WGD) provided raw materials for innovation in the IRF family, and that the birth of type-I IFN might be an important factor inducing the establishment of IRF-mediated immune networks. As a member involved in the AIS evolution, IRF provide insights into the process and mechanism involved in the complexity and novelties of vertebrate immune systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Profiling Identifies Genes Involved in Organ-Specific Branches of the PIF3 Regulatory Network in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sentandreu, Maria; Martín, Guiomar; González-Schain, Nahuel; Leivar, Pablo; Soy, Judit; Tepperman, James M.; Quail, Peter H.; Monte, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The phytochrome (phy)-interacting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (PIFs) constitutively sustain the etiolated state of dark-germinated seedlings by actively repressing deetiolation in darkness. This action is rapidly reversed upon light exposure by phy-induced proteolytic degradation of the PIFs. Here, we combined a microarray-based approach with a functional profiling strategy and identified four PIF3-regulated genes misexpressed in the dark (MIDAs) that are novel regulators of seedling deetiolation. We provide evidence that each one of these four MIDA genes regulates a specific facet of etiolation (hook maintenance, cotyledon appression, or hypocotyl elongation), indicating that there is branching in the signaling that PIF3 relays. Furthermore, combining inferred MIDA gene function from mutant analyses with their expression profiles in response to light-induced degradation of PIF3 provides evidence consistent with a model where the action of the PIF3/MIDA regulatory network enables an initial fast response to the light and subsequently prevents an overresponse to the initial light trigger, thus optimizing the seedling deetiolation process. Collectively, the data suggest that at least part of the phy/PIF system acts through these four MIDAs to initiate and optimize seedling deetiolation, and that this mechanism might allow the implementation of spatial (i.e., organ-specific) and temporal responses during the photomorphogenic program. PMID:22108407

  14. Prokaryotic regulatory systems biology: Common principles governing the functional architectures of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli unveiled by the natural decomposition approach.

    PubMed

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Alonso-Pavón, José A

    2012-10-31

    Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the κ-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification, characterization and functional analysis of regulatory region of nanos gene from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinqiang; Li, Yongjuan; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2017-06-20

    The nanos gene encodes an RNA-binding zinc finger protein, which is required in the development and maintenance of germ cells. However, there is very limited information about nanos in flatfish, which impedes its application in fish breeding. In this study, we report the molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of the 3'-untranslated region of the nanos gene (Csnanos) from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), which is an economically important flatfish in China. The 1233-bp cDNA sequence, 1709-bp genomic sequence and flanking sequences (2.8-kb 5'- and 1.6-kb 3'-flanking regions) of Csnanos were cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that CsNanos shares low homology with Nanos in other species, but the zinc finger domain of CsNanos is highly similar. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsNanos belongs to the Nanos2 subfamily. Csnanos expression was widely detected in various tissues, but the expression level was higher in testis and ovary. During early development and sex differentiation, Csnanos expression exhibited a clear sexually dimorphic pattern, suggesting its different roles in the migration and differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Higher expression levels of Csnanos mRNA in normal females and males than in neomales indicated that the nanos gene may play key roles in maintaining the differentiation of gonad. Moreover, medaka PGCs were successfully labeled by the microinjection of synthesized mRNA consisting of green fluorescence protein and the 3'-untranslated region of Csnanos. These findings provide new insights into nanos gene expression and function, and lay the foundation for further study of PGC development and applications in tongue sole breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Regulatory Function of Sweet Taste-Sensing Receptor in Adipogenic Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Masubuchi, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ma, Jinhui; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Kurose, Hitoshi; Kojima, Itaru; Shibata, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed not only in taste buds but also in nongustatory organs such as enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic beta-cells, and may play more extensive physiological roles in energy metabolism. Here we examined the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in 3T3-L1 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings In undifferentiated preadipocytes, both T1R2 and T1R3 were expressed very weakly, whereas the expression of T1R3 but not T1R2 was markedly up-regulated upon induction of differentiation (by 83.0 and 3.8-fold, respectively at Day 6). The α subunits of Gs (Gαs) and G14 (Gα14) but not gustducin were expressed throughout the differentiation process. The addition of sucralose or saccharin during the first 48 hours of differentiation considerably reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα at Day 2, the expression of aP2 at Day 4 and triglyceride accumulation at Day 6. These anti-adipogenic effects were attenuated by short hairpin RNA-mediated gene-silencing of T1R3. In addition, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs but not YM-254890, an inhibitor of Gα14, impeded the effects of sweeteners, suggesting a possible coupling of Gs with the putative sweet taste-sensing receptor. In agreement, sucralose and saccharin increased the cyclic AMP concentration in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and also in HEK293 cells heterologously expressing T1R3. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effects of sweeteners were mimicked by Gs activation with cholera toxin but not by adenylate cyclase activation with forskolin, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Gαs had the opposite effects. Conclusions 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste-sensing receptor presumably as a T1R3 homomer, which mediates the anti-adipogenic signal by a Gs-dependent but cAMP-independent mechanism. PMID:23336004

  17. The LSD1 Family of Histone Demethylases and the Pumilio Posttranscriptional Repressor Function in a Complex Regulatory Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Wayne O.; Lepesant, Julie M. J.; Bourdeaux, Jessie; Texier, Manuela; Kerenyi, Marc A.; Nakakido, Makoto; Hamamoto, Ryuji; Orkin, Stuart H.; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The lysine (K)-specific demethylase (LSD1) family of histone demethylases regulates chromatin structure and the transcriptional potential of genes. LSD1 is frequently deregulated in tumors, and depletion of LSD1 family members causes developmental defects. Here, we report that reductions in the expression of the Pumilio (PUM) translational repressor complex enhanced phenotypes due to dLsd1 depletion in Drosophila. We show that the PUM complex is a target of LSD1 regulation in fly and mammalian cells and that its expression is inversely correlated with LSD1 levels in human bladder carcinoma. Unexpectedly, we find that PUM posttranscriptionally regulates LSD1 family protein levels in flies and human cells, indicating the existence of feedback loops between the LSD1 family and the PUM complex. Our results highlight a new posttranscriptional mechanism regulating LSD1 activity and suggest that the feedback loop between the LSD1 family and the PUM complex may be functionally important during development and in human malignancies. PMID:26438601

  18. Regulatory actions of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on osteoclast function: possible roles of Epac-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeevaratnam, Kamalan; Salvage, Samantha C; Li, Mengye; Huang, Christopher L-H

    2018-05-30

    Alterations in cellular levels of the second messenger 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate ([cAMP] i ) regulate a wide range of physiologically important cellular signaling processes in numerous cell types. Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated, multinucleated cells specialized for bone resorption. Their systemic regulator, calcitonin, triggers morphometrically and pharmacologically distinct retraction (R) and quiescence (Q) effects on cell-spread area and protrusion-retraction motility, respectively, paralleling its inhibition of bone resorption. Q effects were reproduced by cholera toxin-mediated G s -protein activation known to increase [cAMP] i , unaccompanied by the [Ca 2+ ] i changes contrastingly associated with R effects. We explore a hypothesis implicating cAMP signaling involving guanine nucleotide-exchange activation of the small GTPase Ras-proximate-1 (Rap1) by exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Rap1 activates integrin clustering, cell adhesion to bone matrix, associated cytoskeletal modifications and signaling processes, and transmembrane transduction functions. Epac activation enhanced, whereas Epac inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown compromised, the appearance of markers for osteoclast differentiation and motility following stimulation by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL). Deficiencies in talin and Rap1 compromised in vivo bone resorption, producing osteopetrotic phenotypes in genetically modified murine models. Translational implications of an Epac-Rap1 signaling hypothesis in relationship to N-bisphosphonate actions on prenylation and membrane localization of small GTPases are discussed. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Structural and functional analysis of the human HDAC4 catalytic domain reveals a regulatory structural zinc-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Matthew J; Lo Surdo, Paola; Di Giovine, Paolo; Cirillo, Agostino; Scarpelli, Rita; Ferrigno, Federica; Jones, Philip; Neddermann, Petra; De Francesco, Raffaele; Steinkühler, Christian; Gallinari, Paola; Carfí, Andrea

    2008-09-26

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate chromatin status and gene expression, and their inhibition is of significant therapeutic interest. To date, no biological substrate for class IIa HDACs has been identified, and only low activity on acetylated lysines has been demonstrated. Here, we describe inhibitor-bound and inhibitor-free structures of the histone deacetylase-4 catalytic domain (HDAC4cd) and of an HDAC4cd active site mutant with enhanced enzymatic activity toward acetylated lysines. The structures presented, coupled with activity data, provide the molecular basis for the intrinsically low enzymatic activity of class IIa HDACs toward acetylated lysines and reveal active site features that may guide the design of class-specific inhibitors. In addition, these structures reveal a conformationally flexible structural zinc-binding domain conserved in all class IIa enzymes. Importantly, either the mutation of residues coordinating the structural zinc ion or the binding of a class IIa selective inhibitor prevented the association of HDAC4 with the N-CoR.HDAC3 repressor complex. Together, these data suggest a key role of the structural zinc-binding domain in the regulation of class IIa HDAC functions.

  20. Blueberry and malvidin inhibit cell cycle progression and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by abrogating the JAK/STAT-3 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Baba, Abdul Basit; Nivetha, Ramesh; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-11-01

    Blueberries, a rich source of anthocyanins have attracted considerable attention as functional foods that confer immense health benefits including anticancer properties. Herein, we assessed the potential of blueberry and its major constituent malvidin to target STAT-3, a potentially druggable oncogenic transcription factor with high therapeutic index. We demonstrate that blueberry abrogates the JAK/STAT-3 pathway and modulates downstream targets that influence cell proliferation and apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis. Further, we provide mechanistic evidence that blueberry and malvidin function as STAT-3 inhibitors in the oral cancer cell line SCC131. Blueberry and malvidin suppressed STAT-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation thereby inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. However, the combination of blueberry and malvidin with the STAT-3 inhibitor S3I-201 was more efficacious in STAT-3 inhibition relative to single agents. The present study has provided leads for the development of novel combinations of compounds that can serve as inhibitors of STAT-mediated oncogenic signalling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diverse RNA-binding proteins interact with functionally related sets of RNAs, suggesting an extensive regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Daniel J; Riordan, Daniel P; Gerber, André P; Herschlag, Daniel; Brown, Patrick O

    2008-10-28

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have roles in the regulation of many post-transcriptional steps in gene expression, but relatively few RBPs have been systematically studied. We searched for the RNA targets of 40 proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a selective sample of the approximately 600 annotated and predicted RBPs, as well as several proteins not annotated as RBPs. At least 33 of these 40 proteins, including three of the four proteins that were not previously known or predicted to be RBPs, were reproducibly associated with specific sets of a few to several hundred RNAs. Remarkably, many of the RBPs we studied bound mRNAs whose protein products share identifiable functional or cytotopic features. We identified specific sequences or predicted structures significantly enriched in target mRNAs of 16 RBPs. These potential RNA-recognition elements were diverse in sequence, structure, and location: some were found predominantly in 3'-untranslated regions, others in 5'-untranslated regions, some in coding sequences, and many in two or more of these features. Although this study only examined a small fraction of the universe of yeast RBPs, 70% of the mRNA transcriptome had significant associations with at least one of these RBPs, and on average, each distinct yeast mRNA interacted with three of the RBPs, suggesting the potential for a rich, multidimensional network of regulation. These results strongly suggest that combinatorial binding of RBPs to specific recognition elements in mRNAs is a pervasive mechanism for multi-dimensional regulation of their post-transcriptional fate.

  2. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    PubMed

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves exert complex regulatory functions in the serum-transfer mouse model of autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Éva; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kenyér, Tibor; Kereskai, László; Kiss, Tamás; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-03-01

    The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis is a widely-used translational mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immunological components have thoroughly been investigated. In contrast, little is known about the role of sensory neural factors and the complexity of neuro-immune interactions. Therefore, we analyzed the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in autoantibody-induced arthritis with integrative methodology. Arthritogenic K/BxN or control serum was injected to non-pretreated mice or resiniferatoxin (RTX)-pretreated animals where capsaicin-sensitive nerves were inactivated. Edema, touch sensitivity, noxious heat threshold, joint function, body weight and clinical arthritis severity scores were determined repeatedly throughout two weeks. Micro-CT and in vivo optical imaging to determine matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, semiquantitative histopathological scoring and radioimmunoassay to measure somatostatin in the joint homogenates were also performed. In RTX-pretreated mice, the autoantibody-induced joint swelling, arthritis severity score, MMP and MPO activities, as well as histopathological alterations were significantly greater compared to non-pretreated animals. Self-control quantification of the bone mass revealed decreased values in intact female mice, but significantly greater arthritis-induced pathological bone formation after RTX-pretreatment. In contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia from day 10 was smaller after inactivating capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Although thermal hyperalgesia did not develop, noxious heat threshold was significantly higher following RTX pretreatment. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity elevated in the tibiotarsal joints in non-pretreated, which was significantly less in RTX-pretreated mice. Although capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the later phase of autoantibody-induced chronic arthritis, they play important

  4. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves exert complex regulatory functions in the serum-transfer mouse model of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Borbély, Éva; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Kenyér, Tibor; Kereskai, László; Kiss, Tamás; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika; Csepregi, Janka Zsófia; Mócsai, Attila; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis is a widely-used translational mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immunological components have thoroughly been investigated. In contrast, little is known about the role of sensory neural factors and the complexity of neuro–immune interactions. Therefore, we analyzed the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in autoantibody-induced arthritis with integrative methodology. Methods Arthritogenic K/BxN or control serum was injected to non-pretreated mice or resiniferatoxin (RTX)-pretreated animals where capsaicin-sensitive nerves were inactivated. Edema, touch sensitivity, noxious heat threshold, joint function, body weight and clinical arthritis severity scores were determined repeatedly throughout two weeks. Micro-CT and in vivo optical imaging to determine matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) and neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, semiquantitative histopathological scoring and radioimmunoassay to measure somatostatin in the joint homogenates were also performed. Results In RTX-pretreated mice, the autoantibody-induced joint swelling, arthritis severity score, MMP and MPO activities, as well as histopathological alterations were significantly greater compared to non-pretreated animals. Self-control quantification of the bone mass revealed decreased values in intact female mice, but significantly greater arthritis-induced pathological bone formation after RTX-pretreatment. In contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia from day 10 was smaller after inactivating capsaicin-sensitive afferents. Although thermal hyperalgesia did not develop, noxious heat threshold was significantly higher following RTX pretreatment. Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity elevated in the tibiotarsal joints in non-pretreated, which was significantly less in RTX-pretreated mice. Conclusions Although capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves mediate mechanical hyperalgesia in the later phase of autoantibody

  5. Emotion regulatory function of parent attention to child pain and associated implications for parental pain control behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Tine; Trost, Zina; Sütterlin, Stefan; Caes, Line; Moors, Agnes

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the function of parental attention to child pain in regulating parental distress and pain control behaviour when observing their child performing a painful (cold pressor) task (CPT); we also studied the moderating role of parental state anxiety. Participants were 62 schoolchildren and one of their parents. Parental attention towards or away from child pain (ie, attend to pain vs avoid pain) was experimentally manipulated during a viewing task pairing unfamiliar children's neutral and pain faces. Before and after the viewing task, parental distress regulation was assessed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a subsequent phase, parents observed their own child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behaviour (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress, which was assessed via self-report before and after observation of child CPT performance. Eye tracking during the viewing task and self-reported attention to own child's pain confirmed successful attention manipulation. Further, findings indicated that the effect of attentional strategy on parental emotion regulation (indexed by HR, self-report) and pain control behaviour depended on parents' state anxiety. Specifically, whereas low anxious parents reported more distress and demonstrated more pain control behaviour in the Attend to Pain condition, high anxious parents reported more distress and showed more pain control behaviour in the Avoid Pain condition. This inverse pattern was likewise apparent in physiological distress indices (HR) in response to the initial viewing task. Theoretical/clinical implications and further research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Virulence Associated Gene 8 of Bordetella pertussis Enhances Contact System Activity by Inhibiting the Regulatory Function of Complement Regulator C1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hovingh, Elise S.; de Maat, Steven; Cloherty, Alexandra P. M.; Johnson, Steven; Pinelli, Elena; Maas, Coen; Jongerius, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Whooping cough is currently re-emerging worldwide and, therefore, still poses a continuous global health threat. B. pertussis expresses several virulence factors that play a role in evading the human immune response. One of these virulence factors is virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8). Vag8 is a complement evasion molecule that mediates its effects by binding to the complement regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). This regulatory protein is a fluid phase serine protease that controls proenzyme activation and enzyme activity of not only the complement system but also the contact system. Activation of the contact system results in the generation of bradykinin, a pro-inflammatory peptide. Here, the activation of the contact system by B. pertussis was explored. We demonstrate that recombinant as well as endogenous Vag8 enhanced contact system activity by binding C1-INH and attenuating its inhibitory function. Moreover, we show that B. pertussis itself is able to activate the contact system. This activation was dependent on Vag8 production as a Vag8 knockout B. pertussis strain was unable to activate the contact system. These findings show a previously overlooked interaction between the contact system and the respiratory pathogen B. pertussis. Activation of the contact system by B. pertussis may contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:29915576

  7. Virulence Associated Gene 8 of Bordetella pertussis Enhances Contact System Activity by Inhibiting the Regulatory Function of Complement Regulator C1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hovingh, Elise S; de Maat, Steven; Cloherty, Alexandra P M; Johnson, Steven; Pinelli, Elena; Maas, Coen; Jongerius, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Whooping cough is currently re-emerging worldwide and, therefore, still poses a continuous global health threat. B. pertussis expresses several virulence factors that play a role in evading the human immune response. One of these virulence factors is virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8). Vag8 is a complement evasion molecule that mediates its effects by binding to the complement regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). This regulatory protein is a fluid phase serine protease that controls proenzyme activation and enzyme activity of not only the complement system but also the contact system. Activation of the contact system results in the generation of bradykinin, a pro-inflammatory peptide. Here, the activation of the contact system by B. pertussis was explored. We demonstrate that recombinant as well as endogenous Vag8 enhanced contact system activity by binding C1-INH and attenuating its inhibitory function. Moreover, we show that B. pertussis itself is able to activate the contact system. This activation was dependent on Vag8 production as a Vag8 knockout B. pertussis strain was unable to activate the contact system. These findings show a previously overlooked interaction between the contact system and the respiratory pathogen B. pertussis . Activation of the contact system by B. pertussis may contribute to its pathogenicity and virulence.

  8. Regulatory and effector functions of gamma-delta (γδ) T cells and their therapeutic potential in adoptive cellular therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sourav; Lal, Girdhari

    2016-09-01

    γδ T cells are an important innate immune component of the tumor microenvironment and are known to affect the immune response in a wide variety of tumors. Unlike αβ T cells, γδ T cells are capable of spontaneous secretion of IL-17A and IFN-γ without undergoing clonal expansion. Although γδ T cells do not require self-MHC-restricted priming, they can distinguish "foreign" or transformed cells from healthy self-cells by using activating and inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors. γδ T cells were used in several clinical trials to treat cancer patient due to their MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity, ability to distinguish transformed cells from normal cells, the capacity to secrete inflammatory cytokines and also their ability to enhance the generation of antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell response. In this review, we discuss the effector and regulatory function of γδ T cells in the tumor microenvironment with special emphasis on the potential for their use in adoptive cellular immunotherapy. © 2016 UICC.

  9. Lower omental t-regulatory cell count is associated with higher fasting glucose and lower β-cell function in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E; Lam, Jonathan; Alderete, Tanya L; Allayee, Hooman; Akbari, Omid; Katkhouda, Namir; Goran, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    T-lymphocytes are potential initiators and regulators of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, but there is limited human data on omental AT. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T cells, particularly Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, in human subcutaneous (subQ) and omental AT and type 2 diabetes risk. SubQ and deep subQ (DsubQ) abdominal and omental AT biopsies were collected from 44 patients (body mass index, BMI ≥25) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Flow cytometry was used to quantify CD4+ T cell (T effector and Treg) and macrophages (M1 and M2), and systemic inflammation was measured in fasting blood. Tregs were significantly lower in omental versus subQ and DsubQ AT, and M1 cell counts were significantly higher in the omental and DsubQ depot relative to the subQ. Only omental AT Tregs were negatively associated with fasting glucose and MCP-1 and positively associated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-β. M1 and M2 cell counts across multiple depots had significant relationships with HOMA-insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin, and HOMA-β. All relationships were consistent across ethnicities. Tregs were significantly lower in omental versus both subQ adipose depots. Fewer omental Tregs may have metabolic implications based on depot-specific relationships with higher fasting glucose and lower β-cell function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. Zoledronic acid inhibits NFAT and IL-2 signaling pathways in regulatory T cells and diminishes their suppressive function in patients with metastatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Shannon; Witt, Kristina; Seitz, Christina; Wallerius, Majken; Xie, Hanjing; Ullén, Anders; Harmenberg, Ulrika; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Rolny, Charlotte; Andersson, John

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulatory T cells (Treg) suppress anti-tumor immune responses and their infiltration in the tumor microenvironment is associated with inferior prognosis in cancer patients. Thus, in order to enhance anti-tumor immune responses, selective depletion of Treg is highly desired. We found that treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) resulted in a selective decrease in the frequency of Treg that was associated with a significant increase in proliferation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood of patients with metastatic cancer. In vitro, genome-wide transcriptomic analysis revealed alterations in calcium signaling pathways in Treg following treatment with ZA. Furthermore, co-localization of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) was significantly reduced in Treg upon ZA-treatment. Consequently, reduced expression levels of CD25, STAT5 and TGFβ were observed. Functionally, ZA-treated Treg had reduced capacity to suppress T and NK cell proliferation and anti-tumor responses compared with untreated Treg in vitro. Treatment with ZA to selectively inhibit essential signaling pathways in Treg resulting in reduced capacity to suppress effector T and NK cell responses represents a novel approach to inhibit Treg activity in patients with cancer. PMID:28920001

  11. Dynamics and functions of CD4⁺CD25 (high) regulatory T lymphocytes in Chinese rhesus macaques during the early stage of infection with SIVmac239.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-You; Xia, Hou-Jun; Dai, Zheng-Xi; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Fan, Bo; Li, Ming-Hua; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2012-05-01

    CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells (Treg), which are a specialized subset of T cells, play an important role in the prevention of autoimmune diseases, maintenance of immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens. Chinese rhesus macaques (CRMs) are widely used in preclinical research on potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. However, the basic immunological characterization of Treg cells of CRMs has not been well established. To characterize Treg cells, peripheral blood of 43 adult CRMs was analyzed for CD4+ T lymphocytes by flow cytometry. It was found that Treg cells ranged from 1.52% to 11.1% of CD4+ T cells, and the average value was 5.7%. With our SIV-infected CRM model, through further studies, it was found that Treg cells in peripheral blood increased both in relative and absolute quantities. Moreover, Treg cells maintained their functions by suppressing Th1 cytokine secretion of their target cells. The results show that Treg cells might render cellular immunity against SIV viruses dysfunctional during the early stage after infection.

  12. Experiential avoidance as an emotion regulatory function: an empirical analysis of experiential avoidance in relation to behavioral avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and response suppression.

    PubMed

    Wolgast, Martin; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Viborg, Gardar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to empirically test the suggestion that experiential avoidance in an emotion regulation context is best understood as an emotion regulatory function of topographically distinct strategies. To do this we examined whether a measure of experiential avoidance could statistically account for the effects of emotion regulation strategies intervening at different points of the emotion-generative process as conceptualized by Gross' (1998) process model of emotion regulation. The strategies under examination were behavioral avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and response suppression. The specific hypotheses to be tested were (1) that behavioral avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and response suppression would statistically mediate the differences in measures of psychological well-being between a clinical and nonclinical sample, but that (2) these indirect effects would be reduced to nonsignificant levels when controlling for differences in experiential avoidance. The results provide clear support for the first hypothesis with regard to all the studied strategies. In contrast to the second hypothesis, the results showed the predicted outcome pattern only for the response-focused strategy "response suppression" and not for cognitive reappraisal or behavioral avoidance. The results are interpreted and discussed in relation to theories on experiential avoidance and emotion regulation.

  13. A Simple Screening Approach To Prioritize Genes for Functional Analysis Identifies a Role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 in the Control of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Kaforou, Myrsini; Clare, Simon; Hale, Christine; Ivanova, Maria; Huntley, Derek; Dorner, Marcus; Wright, Victoria J.; Levin, Michael; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Herberg, Jethro A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Greater understanding of the functions of host gene products in response to infection is required. While many of these genes enable pathogen clearance, some enhance pathogen growth or contribute to disease symptoms. Many studies have profiled transcriptomic and proteomic responses to infection, generating large data sets, but selecting targets for further study is challenging. Here we propose a novel data-mining approach combining multiple heterogeneous data sets to prioritize genes for further study by using respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection as a model pathogen with a significant health care impact. The assumption was that the more frequently a gene is detected across multiple studies, the more important its role is. A literature search was performed to find data sets of genes and proteins that change after RSV infection. The data sets were standardized, collated into a single database, and then panned to determine which genes occurred in multiple data sets, generating a candidate gene list. This candidate gene list was validated by using both a clinical cohort and in vitro screening. We identified several genes that were frequently expressed following RSV infection with no assigned function in RSV control, including IFI27, IFIT3, IFI44L, GBP1, OAS3, IFI44, and IRF7. Drilling down into the function of these genes, we demonstrate a role in disease for the gene for interferon regulatory factor 7, which was highly ranked on the list, but not for IRF1, which was not. Thus, we have developed and validated an approach for collating published data sets into a manageable list of candidates, identifying novel targets for future analysis. IMPORTANCE Making the most of “big data” is one of the core challenges of current biology. There is a large array of heterogeneous data sets of host gene responses to infection, but these data sets do not inform us about gene function and require specialized skill sets and training for their utilization. Here we

  14. Phenotypic and functional characterization of a CD4+ CD25high FOXP3high regulatory T-cell population in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Dammy; Singh, Yogesh; Grant, Charlotte R; Appleton, Richard C; Sacchini, Flavio; Walker, Kate R L; Chadbourne, Alden H; Palmer, Charlotte A; Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Ian; Williamson, Lina; Cunningham, Fiona; Garden, Oliver A

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little is known about regulatory T (Treg) cells and their functional responses in dogs. We have used the cross-reactive anti-mouse/rat Foxp3 antibody clone FJK-16s to identify a population of canine CD4+ FOXP3high T cells in both the peripheral blood (PB) and popliteal lymph node (LN). FOXP3+ cells in both PB and LN yielded positive staining with the newly developed anti-murine/human Helios antibody clone 22F6, consistent with the notion that they were naturally occurring Treg cells. Stimulation of mononuclear cells of LN origin with concanavalin A (Con A) in vitro yielded increased proportions and median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 expression by both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Removal of the Con A and continued culture disclosed a CD4+ FOXP3high population, distinct from the CD4+ FOXP3intermediate T cells; very few CD8+ FOXP3high T cells were observed, though CD8+ FOXP3intermediate cells were present in equal abundance to CD4+ FOXP3intermediate cells. The CD4+ FOXP3high T cells were thought to represent activated Treg cells, in contrast to the FOXP3intermediate cells, which were thought to be a more heterogeneous population comprising predominantly activated conventional T cells. Co-staining with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) supported this notion, because the FOXP3high T cells were almost exclusively IFN-γ−, whereas the FOXP3intermediate cells expressed a more heterogeneous IFN-γ phenotype. Following activation of mononuclear cells with Con A and interleukin-2, the 5% of CD4+ T cells showing the highest CD25 expression (CD4+ CD25high) were enriched in cells expressing FOXP3. These cells were anergic in vitro, in contrast to the 20% of CD4+ T cells with the lowest CD25 expression (CD4+ CD25−), which proliferated readily. The CD4+ CD25high FOXP3high T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of responder CD4+ T cells in vitro, in contrast to the CD4+ CD25− cells, which showed no regulatory properties. PMID:20880379

  15. Rab27a negatively regulates CFTR chloride channel function in colonic epithelia: Involvement of the effector proteins in the regulatory mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K.; Kaur, Simarna

    Cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or function of CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include channel transport to plasma membrane and protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in vesicle transport, docking, and fusion. The colorectal epithelial HT-29 cells natively express CFTR and respond to cAMP with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. DPC-inhibited currents could be completely eliminated with CFTR-specific SiRNA. Over-expression of Rab27a inhibited, while isoform specific SiRNA and Rab27a antibody stimulated CFTR-mediated currents in HT-29 cells. CFTR activity is inhibited both by Rab27a (Q78L) (constitutive active GTP-bound form of Rab27a) andmore » Rab27a (T23N) (constitutive negative form that mimics the GDP-bound form). Rab27a mediated effects could be reversed by Rab27a-binding proteins, the synaptotagmin-like protein (SLP-5) and Munc13-4 accessory protein (a putative priming factor for exocytosis). The SLP reversal of Rab27a effect was restricted to C2A/C2B domains while the SHD motif imparted little more inhibition. The CFTR-mediated currents remain unaffected by Rab3 though SLP-5 appears to weakly bind it. The immunoprecipitation experiments suggest protein-protein interactions between Rab27a and CFTR. Rab27a appears to impair CFTR appearance at the cell surface by trapping CFTR in the intracellular compartments. Munc13-4 and SLP-5, on the other hand, limit Rab27a availability to CFTR, thus minimizing its effect on channel function. These observations decisively prove that Rab27a is involved in CFTR channel regulation through protein-protein interactions involving Munc13-4 and SLP-5 effector proteins, and thus could be a potential target for cystic fibrosis therapy.« less

  16. Enhanced ethylene responsiveness in the Arabidopsis eer1 mutant results from a loss-of-function mutation in the protein phosphatase 2A A regulatory subunit, RCN1.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Paul Brian; Cancel, Jesse Daniel

    2003-06-01

    Ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis begins with a family of five ethylene receptors that regulate the activity of the Raf-like kinase, CTR1. Recent work to identify novel factors required for modulating ethylene signaling resulted in the isolation of enhanced ethylene response 1 (eer1), a mutant that displays both increased sensitivity and increased amplitude of response to ethylene. Molecular cloning of eer1 reveals that its mutant phenotype results from a loss-of-function mutation in the previously characterized RCN1, one of three PP2A A regulatory subunits in Arabidopsis. Our analysis shows that neither RCN1 expression nor PP2A activity is regulated by ethylene. Instead, we found that Arabidopsis PP2A-1C, a PP2A catalytic subunit previously characterized as interacting with RCN1, associates strongly with the kinase domain of CTR1 in vitro. This likely represents a role for PP2A in modulation of CTR1 activity because an in vitro kinase assay did not reveal phosphorylation of either RCN1 or PP2A-1C by CTR1, indicating that neither of them is a substrate for CTR1. PP2A activity is required for Ras-dependent activation of mammalian Raf, with reductions in PP2A activity significantly compromising the effectiveness of this mechanism. Our genetic and biochemical results suggest that a similar requirement for PP2A activity exists for ethylene signaling, with loss-of-function mutations affecting PP2A activity possibly reducing the effectiveness of CTR1 activation, thus lowering the threshold required for manifestation of ethylene response.

  17. The Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti Contains a Functional High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Protein with a Unique Regulatory C-Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Fabio Schneider; de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Belgrano, Fabrício dos Santos; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; de Andrade Rosa, Ivone; Benchimol, Marlene; Souza, Nathalia Rocha Quintino; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Vicentino, Amanda Roberta Revoredo; Wu, Wenjie; de Moraes Maciel, Renata; da Silva-Neto, Mario Alberto Cardoso; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2012-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti can spread the dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. Thus, the search for key molecules involved in the mosquito survival represents today a promising vector control strategy. High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins are essential nuclear factors that maintain the high-order structure of chromatin, keeping eukaryotic cells viable. Outside the nucleus, secreted HMGB proteins could alert the innate immune system to foreign antigens and trigger the initiation of host defenses. In this work, we cloned and functionally characterized the HMGB1 protein from Aedes aegypti (AaHMGB1). The AaHMGB1 protein typically consists of two HMG-box DNA binding domains and an acidic C-terminus. Interestingly, AaHMGB1 contains a unique alanine/glutamine-rich (AQ-rich) C-terminal region that seems to be exclusive of dipteran HMGB proteins. AaHMGB1 is localized to the cell nucleus, mainly associated with heterochromatin. Circular dichroism analyses of AaHMGB1 or the C-terminal truncated proteins revealed α-helical structures. We showed that AaHMGB1 can effectively bind and change the topology of DNA, and that the AQ-rich and the C-terminal acidic regions can modulate its ability to promote DNA supercoiling, as well as its preference to bind supercoiled DNA. AaHMGB1 is phosphorylated by PKA and PKC, but not by CK2. Importantly, phosphorylation of AaHMGB1 by PKA or PKC completely abolishes its DNA bending activity. Thus, our study shows that a functional HMGB1 protein occurs in Aedes aegypt and we provide the first description of a HMGB1 protein containing an AQ-rich regulatory C-terminus. PMID:22802955

  18. The effects of HIV-1 regulatory TAT protein expression on brain reward function, response to psychostimulants and delay-dependent memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Markou, Athina; Semenova, Svetlana

    2016-10-01

    Depression and psychostimulant abuse are common comorbidities among humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The HIV regulatory protein TAT is one of multiple HIV-related proteins associated with HIV-induced neurotoxicity. TAT-induced dysfunction of dopamine and serotonin systems in corticolimbic brain areas may result in impaired reward function, thus, contributing to depressive symptoms and psychostimulant abuse. Transgenic mice with doxycycline-induced TAT protein expression in the brain (TAT+, TAT- control) show neuropathology resembling brain abnormalities in HIV+ humans. We evaluated brain reward function in response to TAT expression, nicotine and methamphetamine administration in TAT+ and TAT- mice using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. We evaluated the brain dopamine and serotonin systems with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of TAT expression on delay-dependent working memory in TAT+ and TAT- mice using the operant delayed nonmatch-to-position task were also assessed. During doxycycline administration, reward thresholds were elevated by 20% in TAT+ mice compared with TAT- mice. After the termination of doxycycline treatment, thresholds of TAT+ mice remained significantly higher than those of TAT- mice and this was associated with changes in mesolimbic serotonin and dopamine levels. TAT+ mice showed a greater methamphetamine-induced threshold lowering compared with TAT- mice. TAT expression did not alter delay-dependent working memory. These results indicate that TAT expression in mice leads to reward deficits, a core symptom of depression, and a greater sensitivity to methamphetamine-induced reward enhancement. Our findings suggest that the TAT protein may contribute to increased depressive-like symptoms and continued methamphetamine use in HIV-positive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EGRINs (Environmental Gene Regulatory Influence Networks) in Rice That Function in the Response to Water Deficit, High Temperature, and Agricultural Environments[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hafemeister, Christoph; Nicotra, Adrienne B.; Jagadish, S.V. Krishna; Bonneau, Richard; Purugganan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Environmental gene regulatory influence networks (EGRINs) coordinate the timing and rate of gene expression in response to environmental signals. EGRINs encompass many layers of regulation, which culminate in changes in accumulated transcript levels. Here, we inferred EGRINs for the response of five tropical Asian rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars to high temperatures, water deficit, and agricultural field conditions by systematically integrating time-series transcriptome data, patterns of nucleosome-free chromatin, and the occurrence of known cis-regulatory elements. First, we identified 5447 putative target genes for 445 transcription factors (TFs) by connecting TFs with genes harboring known cis-regulatory motifs in nucleosome-free regions proximal to their transcriptional start sites. We then used network component analysis to estimate the regulatory activity for each TF based on the expression of its putative target genes. Finally, we inferred an EGRIN using the estimated transcription factor activity (TFA) as the regulator. The EGRINs include regulatory interactions between 4052 target genes regulated by 113 TFs. We resolved distinct regulatory roles for members of the heat shock factor family, including a putative regulatory connection between abiotic stress and the circadian clock. TFA estimation using network component analysis is an effective way of incorporating multiple genome-scale measurements into network inference. PMID:27655842

  20. Fox smell abrogates the effect of herbal odor to prolong mouse cardiac allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangyuan; Uchiyama, Masateru; Zhang, Qi; Niimi, Masanori

    2014-05-09

    Herbal medicines have unique odors, and the act of smelling may have modulatory effects on the immune system. We investigated the effect of olfactory exposure to Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese herbal medicine, on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. Naïve or olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 heart and were exposed to the odor of TJ-23 until rejection. Some naïve CBA recipients of an allograft were given olfactory exposure to Sairei-to (TJ-114), trimethylthiazoline (TMT), individual components of TJ-23, or a TJ-23 preparation lacking one component. Adoptive transfer studies were performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Untreated CBA mice rejected their C57BL/6 allografts acutely, as did olfactory-dysfunctional CBA mice exposed to the odor of TJ-23. CBA recipients of a C57BL/6 heart given olfactory exposure to TJ-23 had significantly prolonged allograft survival, whereas those exposed to the odor of TJ-114, TMT, one component of TJ-23, or TJ-23 lacking a component did not. Secondary allograft recipients that were given, at 30 days after transplantation, either whole splenocytes, CD4+ cells, or CD4+CD25+ cells from primary recipients exposed to the odor of TJ-23 had indefinitely prolonged allograft survival. Prolonged survival of cardiac allografts and generation of regulatory cells was associated with exposure to the odor of TJ-23 in our model. The olfactory area of the brain may have a role in the modulation of immune responses.

  1. Dietary chlorophyllin abrogates TGFβ signaling to modulate the hallmark capabilities of cancer in an animal model of forestomach carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kavitha, Krishnamurthy; Thautam, Avaneesh; Dixit, Madhulika; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-07-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of a wide range of cellular processes involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of chlorophyllin, a semisynthetic derivative of chlorophyll on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)--induced rat forestomach carcinogenesis based on the modulation of TGFβ signaling and the downstream target genes associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We determined the effect of dietary chlorophyllin on TGFβ signaling and the downstream events-cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. We further validated the inhibition of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin by performing molecular docking studies. We found that dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin at 4-mg/kg bw inhibits the development of MNNG-induced forestomach carcinomas by downregulating the expression of TGFβ RI, TGFβ RII, and Smad 2 and 4 and upregulating Smad 7, thereby abrogating canonical TGFβ signaling. Docking interactions also confirmed the inhibition of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin via inactivating TGFβ RI. Furthermore, attenuation of TGFβ signaling by chlorophyllin also blocked cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and induced mitochondria-mediated cell death. Dietary chlorophyllin that simultaneously abrogates TGFβ signaling pathway and the key hallmark events of cancer appear to be an ideal candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

  2. Abrogation of BRAFV600E-induced senescence by PI3K pathway activation contributes to melanomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vredeveld, Liesbeth C.W.; Possik, Patricia A.; Smit, Marjon A.; Meissl, Katrin; Michaloglou, Chrysiis; Horlings, Hugo M.; Ajouaou, Abderrahim; Kortman, Pim C.; Dankort, David; McMahon, Martin; Mooi, Wolter J.; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Human melanocytic nevi (moles) are benign lesions harboring activated oncogenes, including BRAF. Although this oncogene initially acts mitogenically, eventually, oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) ensues. Nevi can infrequently progress to melanomas, but the mechanistic relationship with OIS is unclear. We show here that PTEN depletion abrogates BRAFV600E-induced senescence in human fibroblasts and melanocytes. Correspondingly, in established murine BRAFV600E-driven nevi, acute shRNA-mediated depletion of PTEN prompted tumor progression. Furthermore, genetic analysis of laser-guided microdissected human contiguous nevus–melanoma specimens recurrently revealed identical mutations in BRAF or NRAS in adjacent benign and malignant melanocytes. The PI3K pathway was often activated through either decreased PTEN or increased AKT3 expression in melanomas relative to their adjacent nevi. Pharmacologic PI3K inhibition in melanoma cells suppressed proliferation and induced the senescence-associated tumor suppressor p15INK4B. This treatment also eliminated subpopulations resistant to targeted BRAFV600E inhibition. Our findings suggest that a significant proportion of melanomas arise from nevi. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that PI3K pathway activation serves as a rate-limiting event in this setting, acting at least in part by abrogating OIS. The reactivation of senescence features and elimination of cells refractory to BRAFV600E inhibition by PI3K inhibition warrants further investigation into the therapeutic potential of simultaneously targeting these pathways in melanoma. PMID:22549727

  3. Gene regulatory networks and the underlying biology of developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic cells are specified by large-scale networks of functionally linked regulatory genes. Knowledge of the relevant gene regulatory networks is essential for understanding phenotypic heterogeneity that emerges from disruption of molecular functions, cellular processes or sig...

  4. Ovarian function in mice results in abrogated skeletal muscle PPARdelta and FoxO1-mediated gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Menopause, the age-related loss of ovarian hormone production, promotes increased adiposity and associated metabolic pathology, but molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We previously reported that estrogen increases skeletal muscle PPARDelta expression in vivo, and transgenic mice overexpressing mus...

  5. siRNA-based Analysis of the Abrogation of the Protective Function of Membrane-associated Catalase of Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2017-02-01

    Tumor cells, in contrast to non-malignant cells, show sustained expression of membrane-associated NADPH oxidase-1 and therefore generate extracellular superoxide anions and their dismutation product H 2 O 2 In order to prevent intercellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling, tumor cells need to express membrane-associated catalase that interferes with HOCl and nitric oxide/peroxynitrite signaling. Catalase is attached to tumor cells through the activity of transglutaminase-2 and is prevented from superoxide anion-dependent inhibition through coexpression of membrane-associated superoxide dismutase. Therefore, specific inhibition of membrane-associated catalase should reactivate intercellular ROS/RNS-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling. These processes are analyzed here through small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of essential signaling compounds. This allows to establish a rather comprehensive picture of intercellular ROS/RNS signaling that may be instrumental for future therapeutic approaches. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Tyrosine kinase oncogenes abrogate interleukin-3 dependence of murine myeloid cells through signaling pathways involving c-myc: conditional regulation of c-myc transcription by temperature-sensitive v-abl.

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, J L; Dean, M; Rosenberg, N; Wang, J Y; Rapp, U R

    1989-01-01

    Retroviral expression vectors carrying the tyrosine kinase oncogenes abl, fms, src, and trk abrogate the requirements of murine myeloid FDC-P1 cells for interleukin-3 (IL-3). Factor-independent clones constitutively express c-myc in the absence of IL-3, whereas in parental cultures c-myc transcription requires the presence of the ligand. To directly test the effect of a tyrosine kinase oncogene on c-myc expression, retroviral constructs containing three different temperature-sensitive mutants of v-abl were introduced into myeloid IL-3-dependent FDC-P1 and 32D cells. At the permissive temperature, clones expressing temperature-sensitive abl behaved like wild-type abl-containing cells in their growth properties and expressed c-myc constitutively. Temperature shift experiments demonstrated that both IL-3 abrogation and the regulation of c-myc expression correlated with the presence of functional v-abl. Induction of c-myc expression by reactivation of temperature-sensitive v-abl mimicked c-myc induction by IL-3 in that it did not require protein synthesis and occurred at the level of transcription, with effects on both initiation and a transcription elongation block. However, v-abl-regulated FDC-P1 cell growth differed from IL-3-regulated growth in that c-fos and junB, which are normally induced by IL-3, were not induced by activation of v-abl. Images PMID:2555703

  7. Galectin-9 Signaling through TIM-3 Is Involved in Neutrophil-Mediated Gram-Negative Bacterial Killing: An Effect Abrogated within the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Carrascal, Isabel; Bergin, David A.; McElvaney, Oliver J.; McCarthy, Cormac; Banville, Nessa; Pohl, Kerstin; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Reeves, Emer P.; McElvaney, Noel G.

    2016-01-01

    The T cell Ig and mucin domain–containing molecule (TIM) family of receptors have emerged as potential therapeutic targets to correct abnormal immune function in chronic inflammatory conditions. TIM-3 serves as a functional receptor in structural cells of the airways and via the ligand galectin-9 (Gal-9) can modulate the inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate TIM-3 expression and function in neutrophils, focusing on its potential role in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Results revealed that TIM-3 mRNA and protein expression values of circulating neutrophils were equal between healthy controls (n = 20) and people with CF (n = 26). TIM-3 was detected on resting neutrophil membranes by FACS analysis, and expression levels significantly increased post IL-8 or TNF-α exposure (p < 0.05). Our data suggest a novel role for TIM-3/Gal-9 signaling involving modulation of cytosolic calcium levels. Via TIM-3 interaction, Gal-9 induced neutrophil degranulation and primed the cell for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity. Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was significantly increased upon bacterial opsonization with Gal-9 (p < 0.05), an effect abrogated by blockade of TIM-3 receptors. This mechanism appeared to be Gram-negative bacteria specific and mediated via Gal-9/ LPS binding. Additionally, we have demonstrated that neutrophil TIM-3/Gal-9 signaling is perturbed in the CF airways due to proteolytic degradation of the receptor. In conclusion, results suggest a novel neutrophil defect potentially contributing to the defective bacterial clearance observed in the CF airways and suggest that manipulation of the TIM-3 signaling pathway may be of therapeutic value in CF, preferably in conjunction with antiprotease treatment. PMID:24477913

  8. Central role of a bacterial two-component gene regulatory system of previously unknown function in pathogen persistence in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Shelburne, Samuel A; Sumby, Paul; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Granville, Chanel; DeLeo, Frank R; Musser, James M

    2005-11-01

    The molecular genetic mechanisms used by bacteria to persist in humans are poorly understood. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes the majority of bacterial pharyngitis cases in humans and is prone to persistently inhabit the upper respiratory tract. To gain information about how GAS survives in and infects the oropharynx, we analyzed the transcriptome of a serotype M1 strain grown in saliva. The dynamic pattern of changes in transcripts of genes [spy0874/0875, herein named sptR and sptS (sptR/S), for saliva persistence] encoding a two-component gene regulatory system of unknown function suggested that SptR/S contributed to persistence of GAS in saliva. Consistent with this idea, an isogenic nonpolar mutant strain (DeltasptR) was dramatically less able to survive in saliva compared with the parental strain. Iterative expression microarray analysis of bacteria grown in saliva revealed that transcripts of several known and putative GAS virulence factor genes were decreased significantly in the DeltasptR mutant strain. Compared with the parental strain, the isogenic mutant strain also had altered transcripts of multiple genes encoding proteins involved in complex carbohydrate acquisition and utilization pathways. Western immunoblot analysis and real-time PCR analysis of GAS in throat swabs taken from humans with pharyngitis confirmed the findings. We conclude that SptR/S optimizes persistence of GAS in human saliva, apparently by strategically influencing metabolic pathways and virulence factor production. The discovery of a genetic program that significantly increased persistence of a major human pathogen in saliva enhances understanding of how bacteria survive in the host and suggests new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells by coupling allergoids to nonoxidized mannan enhance allergen uptake and induce functional regulatory T cells through programmed death ligand 1.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Sofía; Soria, Irene; Cirauqui, Cristina; Cases, Bárbara; Manzano, Ana I; Diez-Rivero, Carmen M; Reche, Pedro A; López-Relaño, Juan; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Subiza, Javier; Casanovas, Miguel; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Subiza, José Luis; Palomares, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative treatment for allergy. AIT faces pitfalls related to efficacy, security, duration, and patient compliance. Novel vaccines overcoming such inconveniences are in demand. We sought to study the immunologic mechanisms of action for novel vaccines targeting dendritic cells (DCs) generated by coupling glutaraldehyde-polymerized grass pollen allergoids to nonoxidized mannan (PM) compared with glutaraldehyde-polymerized allergoids (P) or native grass pollen extracts (N). Skin prick tests and basophil activation tests with N, P, or PM were performed in patients with grass pollen allergy. IgE-blocking experiments, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, cocultures, suppression assays, real-time quantitative PCR, ELISAs, and ELISpot assays were performed to assess allergen capture by human DCs and T-cell responses. BALB/c mice were immunized with PM, N, or P. Antibody levels, cytokine production by splenocytes, and splenic forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells were quantified. Experiments with oxidized PM were also performed. PM displays in vivo hypoallergenicity, induces potent blocking antibodies, and is captured by human DCs much more efficiently than N or P by mechanisms depending on mannose receptor- and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin-mediated internalization. PM endorses human DCs to generate functional FOXP3(+) Treg cells through programmed death ligand 1. Immunization of mice with PM induces a shift to nonallergic responses and increases the frequency of splenic FOXP3(+) Treg cells. Mild oxidation impairs these effects in human subjects and mice, demonstrating the essential role of preserving the carbohydrate structure of mannan. Allergoids conjugated to nonoxidized mannan represent suitable vaccines for AIT. Our findings might also be of the utmost relevance to development of therapeutic interventions in other immune tolerance-related diseases. Copyright

  10. SND1 Transcription Factor–Directed Quantitative Functional Hierarchical Genetic Regulatory Network in Wood Formation in Populus trichocarpa[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chung; Li, Wei; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Kumari, Sapna; Wei, Hairong; Li, Quanzi; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2013-01-01

    Wood is an essential renewable raw material for industrial products and energy. However, knowledge of the genetic regulation of wood formation is limited. We developed a genome-wide high-throughput system for the discovery and validation of specific transcription factor (TF)–directed hierarchical gene regulatory networks (hGRNs) in wood formation. This system depends on a new robust procedure for isolation and transfection of Populus trichocarpa stem differentiating xylem protoplasts. We overexpressed Secondary Wall-Associated NAC Domain 1s (Ptr-SND1-B1), a TF gene affecting wood formation, in these protoplasts and identified differentially expressed genes by RNA sequencing. Direct Ptr-SND1-B1–DNA interactions were then inferred by integration of time-course RNA sequencing data and top-down Graphical Gaussian Modeling–based algorithms. These Ptr-SND1-B1-DNA interactions were verified to function in differentiating xylem by anti-PtrSND1-B1 antibody-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (97% accuracy) and in stable transgenic P. trichocarpa (90% accuracy). In this way, we established a Ptr-SND1-B1–directed quantitative hGRN involving 76 direct targets, including eight TF and 61 enzyme-coding genes previously unidentified as targets. The network can be extended to the third layer from the second-layer TFs by computation or by overexpression of a second-layer TF to identify a new group of direct targets (third layer). This approach would allow the sequential establishment, one two-layered hGRN at a time, of all layers involved in a more comprehensive hGRN. Our approach may be particularly useful to study hGRNs in complex processes in plant species resistant to stable genetic transformation and where mutants are unavailable. PMID:24280390

  11. Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes – Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

  12. Trametes versicolor protein YZP activates regulatory B lymphocytes - gene identification through de novo assembly and function analysis in a murine acute colitis model.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d(+) B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d(+) Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models.

  13. In vivo genome-wide analysis of multiple tissues identifies gene regulatory networks, novel functions and downstream regulatory genes for Bapx1 and its co-regulation with Sox9 in the mammalian vertebral column.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Sivakamasundari, V; Yap, Sook Peng; Kraus, Petra; Kumar, Vibhor; Xing, Xing; Lim, Siew Lan; Sng, Joel; Prabhakar, Shyam; Lufkin, Thomas

    2014-12-05

    Vertebrate organogenesis is a highly complex process involving sequential cascades of transcription factor activation or repression. Interestingly a single developmental control gene can occasionally be essential for the morphogenesis and differentiation of tissues and organs arising from vastly disparate embryological lineages. Here we elucidated the role of the mammalian homeobox gene Bapx1 during the embryogenesis of five distinct organs at E12.5 - vertebral column, spleen, gut, forelimb and hindlimb - using expression profiling of sorted wildtype and mutant cells combined with genome wide binding site analysis. Furthermore we analyzed the development of the vertebral column at the molecular level by combining transcriptional profiling and genome wide binding data for Bapx1 with similarly generated data sets for Sox9 to assemble a detailed gene regulatory network revealing genes previously not reported to be controlled by either of these two transcription factors. The gene regulatory network appears to control cell fate decisions and morphogenesis in the vertebral column along with the prevention of premature chondrocyte differentiation thus providing a detailed molecular view of vertebral column development.

  14. IRF4 Deficiency Abrogates Lupus Nephritis Despite Enhancing Systemic Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Maciej; Weidenbusch, Marc; Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Ryu, Mi; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Susanti, Heni Eka; Mittruecker, Hans-Willi; Mak, Tak W.

    2011-01-01

    The IFN-regulatory factors IRF1, IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7 modulate processes involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus and lupus nephritis, but the contribution of IRF4, which has multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity, is unknown. To determine a putative pathogenic role of IRF4 in lupus, we crossed Irf4-deficient mice with autoimmune C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice. IRF4 deficiency associated with increased activation of antigen-presenting cells in C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice, resulting in a massive increase in plasma levels of TNF and IL-12p40, suggesting that IRF4 suppresses cytokine release in these mice. Nevertheless, IRF4 deficiency completely protected these mice from glomerulonephritis and lung disease. The mice were hypogammaglobulinemic and lacked antinuclear and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, revealing the requirement of IRF4 for the maturation of plasma cells. As a consequence, Irf4-deficient C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice neither developed immune complex disease nor glomerular activation of complement. In addition, lack of IRF4 impaired the maturation of Th17 effector T cells and reduced plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-21, which are cytokines known to contribute to autoimmune tissue injury. In summary, IRF4 deficiency enhances systemic inflammation and the activation of antigen-presenting cells but also prevents the maturation of plasma cells and effector T cells. Because these adaptive immune effectors are essential for the evolution of lupus nephritis, we conclude that IRF4 promotes the development of lupus nephritis despite suppressing antigen-presenting cells. PMID:21742731

  15. Regulatory Snapshots: Integrative Mining of Regulatory Modules from Expression Time Series and Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Joana P.; Aires, Ricardo S.; Francisco, Alexandre P.; Madeira, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules) under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1) apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2) ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3) neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4) limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots). Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in functionally enriched

  16. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana P; Aires, Ricardo S; Francisco, Alexandre P; Madeira, Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules) under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1) apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2) ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3) neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4) limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots). Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in functionally enriched

  17. Increase of CTGF mRNA expression by respiratory syncytial virus infection is abrogated by caffeine in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kunzmann, Steffen; Krempl, Christine; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Fehrholz, Markus

    2018-04-16

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA. RSV may be involved in airway remodeling processes by increasing CTGF mRNA expression. Caffeine might abrogate these negative effects and thereby help to restore lung homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Betaine supplementation mitigates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by abrogation of oxidative/nitrosative stress and suppression of inflammation and apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hagar, Hanan; Medany, Azza El; Salam, Reem; Medany, Gamila El; Nayal, Omina A

    2015-02-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs used in the treatment of a wide range of solid tumors. Its primary dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity. This study aims to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. A single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5mg/kg) deteriorated the kidney functions as reflected by elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was evident in cisplatin group by increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, reduced renal total antioxidant status and increased renal nitrite concentration. Cisplatin resulted in a decline in the concentrations of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in renal tissues. Renal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was also elevated. Expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and caspase-3 were up-regulated in renal tissues as indicated by immunohistochemical analysis. Histopathological changes were observed in cisplatin group. Betaine supplementation (250 mg/kg/day) orally via gavage for 21 days prior to cisplatin injection was able to protect against deterioration in kidney function, abrogate the decline in antioxidants enzymes and suppressed the increase in TBARS, nitrite and TNF-α concentrations. Moreover, betaine inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation and improved the histological changes induced by cisplatin. Thus, the present study demonstrated the renoprotective nature of betaine by attenuating the pro-inflammatory and apoptotic mediators and improving antioxidant competence in kidney tissues of cisplatin treated rats. Betaine could be a beneficial dietary supplement to attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Endothelial microparticle-mediated transfer of MicroRNA-126 promotes vascular endothelial cell repair via SPRED1 and is abrogated in glucose-damaged endothelial microparticles.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoelscher, Marion; Cattelan, Arianna; Schmitz, Theresa; Proebsting, Sebastian; Wenzel, Daniela; Vosen, Sarah; Franklin, Bernardo S; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2013-10-29

    Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence EC repair. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after electric denudation of the endothelium accelerated reendothelialization in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that EMP uptake in ECs promotes EC migration and proliferation, both critical steps in endothelial repair. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed, and microRNA (miR)-126 was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. The following experiments demonstrated that miR-126 was transported into recipient human coronary artery endothelial cells by EMPs and functionally regulated the target protein sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1). Knockdown of miR-126 in EMPs abrogated EMP-mediated effects on human coronary artery endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and reendothelialization in vivo. Interestingly, after simulating diabetic conditions, EMPs derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-126 and showed reduced endothelial repair capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression analysis of miR-126 in circulating microparticles from 176 patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus revealed a significantly reduced miR-126 expression in circulating microparticles from diabetic patients. Endothelial microparticles promote vascular endothelial repair by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-126-induced EC repair is altered.

  20. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Abrogates Conjugate-Induced Germinal Center Reaction and Depletes Antibody Secreting Cell Pool, Causing Hyporesponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnarson, Stefania P.; Benonisson, Hreinn; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Jonsdottir, Ingileif

    2013-01-01

    Background Plain pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) booster administered during second year of life has been shown to cause hyporesponsiveness. We assessed the effects of PPS booster on splenic memory B cell responses and persistence of PPS-specific long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Methods Neonatal mice were primed subcutanously (s.c.) or intranasally (i.n.) with pneumococcal conjugate (Pnc1-TT) and the adjuvant LT-K63, and boosted with PPS+LT-K63 or saline 1, 2 or 3 times with 16 day intervals. Seven days after each booster, spleens were removed, germinal centers (GC), IgM+, IgG+ follicles and PPS-specific antibody secreting cells (AbSC) in spleen and BM enumerated. Results PPS booster s.c., but not i.n., compromised the Pnc1-TT-induced PPS-specific Abs by abrogating the Pnc1-TT-induced GC reaction and depleting PPS-specific AbSCs in spleen and limiting their homing to the BM. There was no difference in the frequency of PPS-specific AbSCs in spleen and BM between mice that received 1, 2 or 3 PPS boosters s.c.. Repeated PPS+LT-K63 booster i.n. reduced the frequency of PPS-specific IgG+ AbSCs in BM. Conclusions PPS booster-induced hyporesponsiveness is caused by abrogation of conjugate-induced GC reaction and depletion of PPS-specific IgG+ AbSCs resulting in no homing of new PPS-specific long-lived plasma cells to the BM or survival. These results should be taken into account in design of vaccination schedules where polysaccharides are being considered. PMID:24069152

  1. Site-directed Nanotherapeutics to Abrogate RRMS and Promote Remyelination Repair (Rev)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    in the labs additionally delayed the onset of the practical work.  Long lasting defect in freeze / dryer prevented a more in depth investigation of...drug content and reduced functionality of the peptides. Freezing of the NP without cryoprotection leads to disassembly; freezing with a cryoprotectant

  2. Interleukin 2 and interleukin 10 function synergistically to promote CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, which is suppressed by regulatory T cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaogang; Lu, Ping; Li, Bo; Zhang, Wanfu; Yang, Rong; Chu, Yan; Luo, Kaiyuan

    2017-06-01

    The precise role of interleukin (IL)-10 in breast cancer is not clear. Previous studies suggested a tumor-promoting role of IL-10 in breast cancer, whereas recent discoveries that IL-10 activated and expanded tumor-resident CD8 + T cells challenged the traditional view. Here, we investigated the role of IL-10 in HLA-A2-positive breast cancer patients with Grade III, Stage IIA or IIB in-situ and invasive ductal carcinoma, and compared it with that of IL-2, the canonical CD8 + T cell growth factor. We first observed that breast cancer patients presented higher serum levels of IL-2 and IL-10 than healthy controls. Upon prolonged TCR stimulation, peripheral blood CD8 + T cells from breast cancer patients tended to undergo apoptosis, which could be prevented by the addition of IL-2 and/or IL-10. The cytotoxicity of TCR-activated CD8 + T cells was also enhanced by exogenous IL-2 and/or IL-10. Interestingly, IL-2 and IL-10 demonstrated synergistic effects, since the enhancement in CD8 + T cell function when both cytokines were added was greater than the sum of the improvements mediated by each individual cytokine. IL-10 by itself could not promote the proliferation of CD8 + T cells but could significantly enhance IL-2-mediated promotion of CD8 + T cell proliferation. In addition, the cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating CD8 + T cells in breast tumor was elevated when both IL-2 and IL-10 were present but not when either one was absent. This synergistic effect was stopped by CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells (Treg), which depleted IL-2 in a cell number-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-2 and IL-10 could work synergistically to improve the survival, proliferation, and cytotoxicity of activated CD8 + T cells, an effect suppressible by CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NsrR from Streptomyces coelicolor Is a Nitric Oxide-sensing [4Fe-4S] Cluster Protein with a Specialized Regulatory Function*

    PubMed Central

    Crack, Jason C.; Munnoch, John; Dodd, Erin L.; Knowles, Felicity; Al Bassam, Mahmoud M.; Kamali, Saeed; Holland, Ashley A.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Chris J.; Johnson, Michael K.; Thomson, Andrew J.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Le Brun, Nick E.

    2015-01-01

    The Rrf2 family transcription factor NsrR controls expression of genes in a wide range of bacteria in response to nitric oxide (NO). The precise form of the NO-sensing module of NsrR is the subject of controversy because NsrR proteins containing either [2Fe-2S] or [4Fe-4S] clusters have been observed previously. Optical, Mössbauer, resonance Raman spectroscopies and native mass spectrometry demonstrate that Streptomyces coelicolor NsrR (ScNsrR), previously reported to contain a [2Fe-2S] cluster, can be isolated containing a [4Fe-4S] cluster. ChIP-seq experiments indicated that the ScNsrR regulon is small, consisting of only hmpA1, hmpA2, and nsrR itself. The hmpA genes encode NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobins, indicating that ScNsrR has a specialized regulatory function focused on NO detoxification and is not a global regulator like some NsrR orthologues. EMSAs and DNase I footprinting showed that the [4Fe-4S] form of ScNsrR binds specifically and tightly to an 11-bp inverted repeat sequence in the promoter regions of the identified target genes and that DNA binding is abolished following reaction with NO. Resonance Raman data were consistent with cluster coordination by three Cys residues and one oxygen-containing residue, and analysis of ScNsrR variants suggested that highly conserved Glu-85 may be the fourth ligand. Finally, we demonstrate that some low molecular weight thiols, but importantly not physiologically relevant thiols, such as cysteine and an analogue of mycothiol, bind weakly to the [4Fe-4S] cluster, and exposure of this bound form to O2 results in cluster conversion to the [2Fe-2S] form, which does not bind to DNA. These data help to account for the observation of [2Fe-2S] forms of NsrR. PMID:25771538

  4. Positive Regulatory Control Loop between Gut Leptin and Intestinal GLUT2/GLUT5 Transporters Links to Hepatic Metabolic Functions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Sakar, Yassine; Nazaret, Corinne; Lettéron, Philippe; Ait Omar, Amal; Avenati, Mathilde; Viollet, Benoît; Ducroc, Robert; Bado, André

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The small intestine is the major site of absorption of dietary sugars. The rate at which they enter and exit the intestine has a major effect on blood glucose homeostasis. In this study, we determine the effects of luminal leptin on activity/expression of GLUT2 and GLUT5 transporters in response to sugars intake and analyse their physiological consequences. Methodology Wistar rats, wild type and AMPKα2 −/− mice were used. In vitro and in vivo isolated jejunal loops were used to quantify transport of fructose and galactose in the absence and the presence of leptin. The effects of fructose and galactose on gastric leptin release were determined. The effects of leptin given orally without or with fructose were determined on the expression of GLUT2/5, on some gluconeogenesis and lipogenic enzymes in the intestine and the liver. Principal Findings First, in vitro luminal leptin activating its receptors coupled to PKCβII and AMPKα, increased insertion of GLUT2/5 into the brush-border membrane leading to enhanced galactose and fructose transport. Second in vivo, oral fructose but not galactose induced in mice a rapid and potent release of gastric leptin in gastric juice without significant changes in plasma leptin levels. Moreover, leptin given orally at a dose reproducing comparable levels to those induced by fructose, stimulated GLUT5-fructose transport, and potentiated fructose-induced: i) increase in blood glucose and mRNA levels of key gluconeogenesis enzymes; ii) increase in blood triglycerides and reduction of mRNA levels of intestinal and hepatic Fasting-induced adipocyte factor (Fiaf) and iii) increase in SREBP-1c, ACC-1, FAS mRNA levels and dephosphorylation/activation of ACC-1 in liver. Conclusion/Significance These data identify for the first time a positive regulatory control loop between gut leptin and fructose in which fructose triggers release of gastric leptin which, in turn, up-regulates GLUT5 and concurrently modulates

  5. Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying Oil Palm Fruit Mesocarp Maturation, Ripening, and Functional Specialization in Lipid and Carotenoid Metabolism1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tranbarger, Timothy J.; Dussert, Stéphane; Joët, Thierry; Argout, Xavier; Summo, Marilyne; Champion, Antony; Cros, David; Omore, Alphonse; Nouy, Bruno; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Fruit provide essential nutrients and vitamins for the human diet. Not only is the lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit the main source of edible oil for the world, but it is also the richest dietary source of provitamin A. This study examines the transcriptional basis of these two outstanding metabolic characters in the oil palm mesocarp. Morphological, cellular, biochemical, and hormonal features defined key phases of mesocarp development. A 454 pyrosequencing-derived transcriptome was then assembled for the developmental phases preceding and during maturation and ripening, when high rates of lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis occur. A total of 2,629 contigs with differential representation revealed coordination of metabolic and regulatory components. Further analysis focused on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol assembly pathways and during carotenogenesis. Notably, a contig similar to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed oil transcription factor WRINKLED1 was identified with a transcript profile coordinated with those of several fatty acid biosynthetic genes and the high rates of lipid accumulation, suggesting some common regulatory features between seeds and fruits. We also focused on transcriptional regulatory networks of the fruit, in particular those related to ethylene transcriptional and GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like proteins in the mesocarp and a central role for ethylene-coordinated transcriptional regulation of type VII ethylene response factors during ripening. Our results suggest that divergence has occurred in the regulatory components in this monocot fruit compared with those identified in the dicot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fleshy fruit model. PMID:21487046

  6. Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.

    PubMed

    Chae, Wook-Jin; Park, Jong-Hyun; Henegariu, Octavian; Yilmaz, Saliha; Hao, Liming; Bothwell, Alfred L M

    2017-10-01

    Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4 + T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3 + Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3 + Treg cells expressed DKK-1 in the cell membrane and the functional inhibition of DKK-1 using DKK-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated the suppressor function of Foxp3 + Treg cells. DKK-1 expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not by the canonical Wnt pathway. Taken together, our results highlight membrane-bound DKK-1 as a novel Treg-derived mediator to maintain immunological tolerance in T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. © 2017 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Stat3 inhibition activates tumor macrophages and abrogates glioma growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leying; Alizadeh, Darya; Van Handel, Michelle; Kortylewski, Marcin; Yu, Hua; Badie, Behnam

    2009-10-01

    As the main effector-cell population of the central nervous system, microglia (MG) are considered to play an important immunoregulatory function in a number of pathological conditions such as inflammation, trauma, degenerative disease, and brain tumors. Recent studies, however, have suggested that the anti-neoplastic function of MG may be suppressed in malignant brain tumors. Considering the proposed suppressive role of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) in antitumor immunity, we evaluated the role of Stat3 inhibition on MG and macrophage (MP) activation and tumor growth in a murine glioma model. N9 MG cells were exposed to GL261 glioma conditioned medium (GL261-CM) and evaluated for Stat3 activity and cytokine expression. Furthermore, the role of Stat3 inhibition on MG and MP activation was studied both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the effect of Stat3 inhibition on tumor growth was assessed in intracranial GL261 gliomas. GL261-CM increased Stat3 activity in N9 cells in vitro and resulted in overexpression of IL-10 and IL-6, and downregulation of IL1-beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Inhibition of Stat3 by CPA-7 or siRNA reversed glioma-induced cytokine expression profile in N9 cells. Furthermore, inactivation of Stat3 in intracranial GL261 tumors by siRNA resulted in MG/MP activation and tumor growth inhibition. Glioma-induced MG and MP suppression may be mediated thorough Stat3. Inhibition of Stat3 function in tumor MG/MP may result in their activation and can potentially be used as an adjunct immunotherapy approach for gliomas.

  8. Amino Acid Substitutions of Coiled-Coil Protein Tpr Abrogate Anchorage to the Nuclear Pore Complex but Not Parallel, In-Register Homodimerization

    PubMed Central

    Hase, Manuela E.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai V.; Cordes, Volker C.

    2001-01-01

    Tpr is a protein component of nuclear pore complex (NPC)-attached intranuclear filaments. Secondary structure predictions suggest a bipartite structure, with a large N-terminal domain dominated by heptad repeats (HRs) typical for coiled-coil–forming proteins. Proposed functions for Tpr have included roles as a homo- or heteropolymeric architectural element of the nuclear interior. To gain insight into Tpr's ultrastructural properties, we have studied recombinant Tpr segments by circular dichroism spectroscopy, chemical cross-linking, and rotary shadowing electron microscopy. We show that polypeptides of the N-terminal domain homodimerize in vitro and represent α-helical molecules of extended rod-like shape. With the use of a yeast two-hybrid approach, arrangement of the coiled-coil is found to be in parallel and in register. To clarify whether Tpr can self-assemble further into homopolymeric filaments, the full-length protein and deletion mutants were overexpressed in human cells and then analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, cell fractionation, and immuno-electron microscopy. Surplus Tpr, which does not bind to the NPC, remains in a soluble state of ∼7.5 S and occasionally forms aggregates of entangled molecules but neither self-assembles into extended linear filaments nor stably binds to other intranuclear structures. Binding to the NPC is shown to depend on the integrity of individual HRs; amino acid substitutions within these HRs abrogate NPC binding and render the protein soluble but do not abolish Tpr's general ability to homodimerize. Possible contributions of Tpr to the structural organization of the nuclear periphery in somatic cells are discussed. PMID:11514627

  9. Conditional abrogation of Atm in osteoclasts extends osteoclast lifespan and results in reduced bone mass.

    PubMed

    Hirozane, Toru; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2016-09-28

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a central component involved in the signal transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) and thus plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although the primary functions of ATM are associated with the DDR, emerging data suggest that ATM has many additional roles that are not directly related to the DDR, including the regulation of oxidative stress signaling, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and lymphocyte development. Patients and mice lacking ATM exhibit growth retardation and lower bone mass; however, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal defects are not fully understood. In the present study, we generated mutant mice in which ATM is specifically inactivated in osteoclasts. The mutant mice did not exhibit apparent developmental defects but showed reduced bone mass due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts lacking ATM were more resistant to apoptosis and showed a prolonged lifespan compared to the controls. Notably, the inactivation of ATM in osteoclasts resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling and an increase in the expression of NF-κB-targeted genes. The present study reveals a novel function for ATM in regulating bone metabolism by suppressing the lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  10. Sodium Benzoate, a Food Additive and a Metabolite of Cinnamon, Enriches Regulatory T Cells via STAT6-Mediated Upregulation of TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Madhuchhanda; Mondal, Susanta; Roy, Avik; Martinson, Jeffrey L; Pahan, Kalipada

    2016-10-15

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during autoimmune insults may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Earlier we have reported that sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug against urea cycle disorders, upregulates Tregs and protects mice from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, mechanisms by which NaB increases Tregs are poorly understood. Because TGF-β is an important inducer of Tregs, we examined the effect of NaB on the status of TGF-β. In this study, we demonstrated that NaB induced the expression of TGF-β mRNA and protein in normal as well as proteolipid protein-primed splenocytes. The presence of a consensus STAT6 binding site in the promoter of the TGF-β gene, activation of STAT6 in splenocytes by NaB, recruitment of STAT6 to the TGF-β promoter by NaB, and abrogation of NaB-induced expression of TGF-β in splenocytes by small interfering RNA knockdown of STAT6 suggest that NaB induces the expression of TGF-β via activation of STAT6. Furthermore, we demonstrated that blocking of TGF-β by neutralizing Abs abrogated NaB-mediated protection of Tregs and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. These studies identify a new function of NaB in upregulating TGF-β via activation of STAT6, which may be beneficial in MS patients. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Potentiator Ivacaftor Abrogates Pharmacological Correction of ΔF508 CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cholon, Deborah M.; Quinney, Nancy L.; Fulcher, M. Leslie; Esther, Charles R.; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Randell, Scott H.; Boucher, Richard C.; Gentzsch, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Newly developed “correctors” such as lumacaftor (VX-809) that improve CFTR maturation and trafficking and “potentiators” such as ivacaftor (VX-770) that enhance channel activity may provide important advances in CF therapy. Although VX-770 has demonstrated substantial clinical efficacy in the small subset of patients with a mutation (G551D) that affects only channel activity, a single compound is not sufficient to treat patients with the more common CFTR mutation, ΔF508. Thus, patients with ΔF508 will likely require treatment with both correctors and potentiators to achieve clinical benefit. However, whereas the effectiveness of acute treatment with this drug combination has been demonstrated in vitro, the impact of chronic therapy has not been established. In studies of human primary airway epithelial cells, we found that both acute and chronic treatment with VX-770 improved CFTR function in cells with the G551D mutation, consistent with clinical studies. In contrast, chronic VX-770 administration caused a dose-dependent reversal of VX-809-mediated CFTR correction in ΔF508 homozygous cultures. This result reflected the destabilization of corrected ΔF508 CFTR by VX-770, dramatically increasing its turnover rate. Chronic VX-770 treatment also reduced mature wild-type CFTR levels and function. These findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with CFTR potentiators and correctors may have unexpected effects that cannot be predicted from short-term studies. Combining of these drugs to maximize rescue of ΔF508 CFTR may require changes in dosing and/or development of new potentiator compounds that do not interfere with CFTR stability. PMID:25101886

  12. Emerging principles of regulatory evolution.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Benjamin; Gompel, Nicolas; Carroll, Sean B

    2007-05-15

    Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms governing the evolution of morphology is a major challenge in biology. Because most animals share a conserved repertoire of body-building and -patterning genes, morphological diversity appears to evolve primarily through changes in the deployment of these genes during development. The complex expression patterns of developmentally regulated genes are typically controlled by numerous independent cis-regulatory elements (CREs). It has been proposed that morphological evolution relies predominantly on changes in the architecture of gene regulatory networks and in particular on functional changes within CREs. Here, we discuss recent experimental studies that support this hypothesis and reveal some unanticipated features of how regulatory evolution occurs. From this growing body of evidence, we identify three key operating principles underlying regulatory evolution, that is, how regulatory evolution: (i) uses available genetic components in the form of preexisting and active transcription factors and CREs to generate novelty; (ii) minimizes the penalty to overall fitness by introducing discrete changes in gene expression; and (iii) allows interactions to arise among any transcription factor and downstream CRE. These principles endow regulatory evolution with a vast creative potential that accounts for both relatively modest morphological differences among closely related species and more profound anatomical divergences among groups at higher taxonomical levels.

  13. Arsenic abrogates the estrogen-signaling pathway in the rat uterus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arsenic, a major pollutant of water as well as soil, is a known endocrine disruptor, and shows adverse effects on the female reproductive physiology. However, the exact molecular events leading to reproductive dysfunctions as a result of arsenic exposure are yet to be ascertained. This report evaluates the effect and mode of action of chronic oral arsenic exposure on the uterine physiology of mature female albino rats. Methods The effect of chronic oral exposure to arsenic at the dose of 4 microg/ml for 28 days was evaluated on adult female albino rats. Hematoxylin-eosin double staining method evaluated the changes in the histological architecture of the uterus. Circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of the estrogen receptor and estrogen-induced genes was studied at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results Sodium arsenite treatment decreased circulating levels of estradiol in a dose and time-dependent manner, along with decrease in the levels of both LH and FSH. Histological evaluation revealed degeneration of luminal epithelial cells and endometrial glands in response to arsenic treatment, along with reduction in thickness of the longitudinal muscle layer. Concomitantly, downregulation of estrogen receptor (ER alpha), the estrogen-responsive gene - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and G1 cell cycle proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, was also observed. Conclusion Together, the results indicate that arsenic disrupted the circulating levels of gonadotropins and estradiol, led to degeneration of luminal epithelial, stromal and myometrial cells of the rat uterus and downregulated the downstream components of the estrogen signaling pathway. Since development and functional maintenance of the uterus is under the influence of estradiol, arsenic-induced structural degeneration may be attributed to the reduction in

  14. CD22 expression mediates the regulatory functions of peritoneal B-1a cells during the remission phase of contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroko; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Watanabe, Rei; Ishiura, Nobuko; Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Okochi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Sato, Shinichi; Tedder, Thomas F; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2010-05-01

    Although contact hypersensitivity (CHS) has been considered a prototype of T cell-mediated immune reactions, recently a significant contribution of regulatory B cell subsets in the suppression of CHS has been demonstrated. CD22, one of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins, is a B cell-specific molecule that negatively regulates BCR signaling. To clarify the roles of B cells in CHS, CHS in CD22(-/-) mice was investigated. CD22(-/-) mice showed delayed recovery from CHS reactions compared with that of wild-type mice. Transfer of wild-type peritoneal B-1a cells reversed the prolonged CHS reaction seen in CD22(-/-) mice, and this was blocked by the simultaneous injection with IL-10 receptor Ab. Although CD22(-/-) peritoneal B-1a cells were capable of producing IL-10 at wild-type levels, i.p. injection of differentially labeled wild-type/CD22(-/-) B cells demonstrated that a smaller number of CD22(-/-) B cells resided in lymphoid organs 5 d after CHS elicitation, suggesting a defect in survival or retention in activated CD22(-/-) peritoneal B-1 cells. Thus, our study reveals a regulatory role for peritoneal B-1a cells in CHS. Two distinct regulatory B cell subsets cooperatively inhibit CHS responses. Although splenic CD1d(hi)CD5(+) B cells have a crucial role in suppressing the acute exacerbating phase of CHS, peritoneal B-1a cells are likely to suppress the late remission phase as "regulatory B cells." CD22 deficiency results in disturbed CHS remission by impaired retention or survival of peritoneal B-1a cells that migrate into lymphoid organs.

  15. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonists abrogate airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yarova, Polina L.; Stewart, Alecia L.; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Britt, Rodney D; Thompson, Michael A.; Lowe, Alexander P. P.; Freeman, Michelle; Aravamudan, Bharathi; Kita, Hirohito; Brennan, Sarah C.; Schepelmann, Martin; Davies, Thomas; Yung, Sun; Cholisoh, Zakky; Kidd, Emma J.; Ford, William R.; Broadley, Kenneth J.; Rietdorf, Katja; Chang, Wenhan; Khayat, Mohd E. Bin; Ward, Donald T.; Corrigan, Christopher J.; Ward, Jeremy P. T.; Kemp, Paul J.; Pabelick, Christina M.; Prakash, Y. S.; Riccardi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are fundamental hallmarks of allergic asthma that are accompanied by increases in certain polycations, such as eosinophil cationic protein. Levels of these cations in body fluids correlate with asthma severity. We show that polycations and elevated extracellular calcium activate the human recombinant and native calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), leading to intracellular calcium mobilization, cyclic adenosine monophosphate breakdown, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. These effects can be prevented by CaSR antagonists, termed calcilytics. Moreover, asthmatic patients and allergen-sensitized mice expressed more CaSR in ASMs than did their healthy counterparts. Indeed, polycations induced hyper-reactivity in mouse bronchi, and this effect was prevented by calcilytics and absent in mice with CaSR ablation from ASM. Calcilytics also reduced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in allergen-sensitized mice in vivo. These data show that a functional CaSR is up-regulated in asthmatic ASM and targeted by locally produced polycations to induce hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Thus, calcilytics may represent effective asthma therapeutics. PMID:25904744

  16. Functional analysis of a large set of BRCA2 exon 7 variants highlights the predictive value of hexamer scores in detecting alterations of exonic splicing regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Daniela; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Abuli, Anna; Abdat, Julie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2013-11-01

    Exonic variants can alter pre-mRNA splicing either by changing splice sites or by modifying splicing regulatory elements. Often these effects are difficult to predict and are only detected by performing RNA analyses. Here, we analyzed, in a minigene assay, 26 variants identified in the exon 7 of BRCA2, a cancer predisposition gene. Our results revealed eight new exon skipping mutations in this exon: one directly altering the 5' splice site and seven affecting potential regulatory elements. This brings the number of splicing regulatory mutations detected in BRCA2 exon 7 to a total of 11, a remarkably high number considering the total number of variants reported in this exon (n = 36), all tested in our minigene assay. We then exploited this large set of splicing data to test the predictive value of splicing regulator hexamers' scores recently established by Ke et al. (). Comparisons of hexamer-based predictions with our experimental data revealed high sensitivity in detecting variants that increased exon skipping, an important feature for prescreening variants before RNA analysis. In conclusion, hexamer scores represent a promising tool for predicting the biological consequences of exonic variants and may have important applications for the interpretation of variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. Regulatory Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsuaki; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets, functionally classified into conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). DCs are considered to be essential antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles in activation and fine-tuning of innate and adaptive immunity under inflammatory conditions, as well as induction of immune tolerance to maintain immune homeostasis under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, DC functions can be modified and influenced by stimulation with various extrinsic factors, such as ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines. On the other hand, treatment of DCs with certain immunosuppressive drugs and molecules leads to the generation of tolerogenic DCs that show downregulation of both the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and costimulatory molecules, and not only show defective T-cell activation, but also possess tolerogenic properties including the induction of anergic T-cells and regulatory T (T reg ) cells. To develop an effective strategy for Ag-specific intervention of T-cell-mediated immune disorders, we have previously established the modified DCs with moderately high levels of MHC molecules that are defective in the expression of costimulatory molecules that had a greater immunoregulatory property than classical tolerogenic DCs, which we therefore designated as regulatory DCs (DC reg ). Herein, we integrate the current understanding of the role of DCs in the control of immune responses, and further provide new information of the characteristics of tolerogenic DCs and DC reg , as well as their regulation of immune responses and disorders.

  18. Edaravone abrogates LPS-induced behavioral anomalies, neuroinflammation and PARP-1.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Jangra, Ashok; Gurjar, Satendra Singh; Mohan, Pritam; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a DNA nick-sensor enzyme that functions at the center of cellular stress response and affects the immune system at several key points, and thus modulates inflammatory diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressive-like behavior in mice can be ameliorated by 3-aminobenzamide, which is a PARP-1 inhibitor. In the present study we've examined the effect of a free radical scavenger, edaravone pretreatment against LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as well as various hippocampal biochemical parameters including PARP-1. Male Swiss albino mice were treated with edaravone (3 & 10mg/kgi.p.) once daily for 14days. On the 14th day 30min after edaravone treatment mice were challenged with LPS (1mg/kgi.p.). After 3h and 24h of LPS administration we've tested mice for anxiety and depressive-like behaviors respectively. Western blotting analysis of PARP-1 in hippocampus was carried out after 12h of LPS administration. Moreover, after 24h of LPS administration serum corticosterone, hippocampal BDNF, oxido-nitrosative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines were estimated by ELISA. Results showed that pretreatment of edaravone (10mg/kg) ameliorates LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior. Western blotting analysis showed that LPS-induced anomalous expression of PARP-1 significantly reverses by the pretreatment of edaravone (10mg/kg). Biochemical analyses revealed that LPS significantly diminishes BDNF, increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxido-nitrosative stress in the hippocampus. However, pretreatment with edaravone (10mg/kg) prominently reversed all these biochemical alterations. Our study emphasized that edaravone pretreatment prevents LPS-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior, mainly by impeding the inflammation, oxido-nitrosative stress and PARP-1 overexpression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we showmore » that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.« less

  20. Augmenting kidney mass at transplantation abrogates chronic renal allograft injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, H S; Azuma, H; Troy, J L; Rennke, H G; Tilney, N L; Brenner, B M

    1996-03-01

    Conventional renal transplantation, which substitutes a single allograft for two native kidneys, imposes an imbalance between nephron supply and the metabolic and excretory demands of the recipient. This discrepancy, which stimulates hyperfunction and hypertrophy of viable allograft nephrons, may be intensified by nephron loss through ischemia-reperfusion injury or acute rejection episodes occurring soon after transplantation. In other settings where less than 50% of the total renal mass remains, progressive glomerular injury develops through mechanisms associated with compensatory nephron hyperfiltration and hypertrophy. To determine whether responses to nephron loss contribute to chronic injury in renal allografts, nephron supply was restored to near-normal levels by transplanting Lewis recipients with two Fisher 344 kidneys (group 2A) compared with the standard single allograft F344 --> LEW rat model of late renal allograft failure (group 1A). At 20 weeks, indices of injury were observed in 1A but not 2A rats. These indices included proteinuria (1A: 45 +/- 13; 2A: 4.0 +/- 0.29 mg/day) and glomerulosclerosis (1A: 23 +/- 4.9%, 2A: 0.7 +/- 0.3%) (p < .05). Double-allograft recipients maintained near normal renal structure and function, whereas 1A rats showed evidence of compensatory hyperfiltration (single-nephron glomerular filtration rate of 63 +/- 10 versus 44 +/- 2.0 nl/min in 2A rats) and hypertrophy (mean glomerular volume of 2.64 +/- 0.15 versus 1.52 +/- 0.05 microns3 x 10(6) in 2A rats) (p < .05). Thus, we conclude that a major component of late allograft injury is attributable to processes associated with inadequate transplanted renal mass, a finding that has major implications for kidney transplantation biology and policy.

  1. Agaricus blazei Murill extract abrogates CCl4-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Fang; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chu; Chen, Hsueh-Chin; Chung, Jing-Gung; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Lin, Jing-Pin; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yeh, Chun; Yeh, Ming-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) is enriched with polysaccharides, lipids, vitamins, fibers and minerals. Many studies have shown that ABM possesses immune-enhancing and anti-tumor effects. However, little is known about its protective effects on liver function. We employed carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) to induce hepatic fibrosis in a rat model to examine the protective effects of ABM on the liver in this study. The experiments included non-treatment control, CCl(4)-only control, and treatment with 200 mg and 2,000 mg of ABM extracts (per kilogram rat weight). All groups other than the non-treatment control were treated with intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice a week. Experimental and control rats were tube-fed with experimental ABM extracts or double-distilled water, respectively, on the remaining four days each week. The whole experimental protocol lasted 8 weeks; blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical and tissue histochemical analysis. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver were measured. We found that high-dose ABM treatment reduced hepatic necrosis and fibrosis caused by CCl(4) in comparison with the CCl(4) control group. ALT and AST activities in the sera collected from ABM-treated rats were lower than those in the CCl(4) control rats. These results suggested that ABM extract was capable of either enhancing liver recovering from CCl(4) damage or attenuating CCl(4) toxicity. Results of anti-oxidative enzyme activity analysis showed no apparent differences among ABM-treated groups and CCl(4) control groups, indicating that removal of free radicals does not explain the protective/recovery effects observed in this study.

  2. Troxerutin abrogates mitochondrial oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in mice fed calorie-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Sathiya Priya, Chandrasekaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-12-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) for the next 45 days. At the end of the study, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress markers, levels of intracellular calcium, cardiolipin content, cytochrome c release and apoptotic markers were examined in the myocardium. HFFD-feeding resulted in diminution of antioxidants and increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified adducts of 8-OHG, 4-HNE and 3-NT. Further increase in Ca 2+ levels, low levels of calcium transporters and decrease in cardiolipin content were noted. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytochrome c release, increase in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and decrease in antiapoptotic protein (BCL-2) in HFFD-fed mice suggest myocardial apoptosis. These changes were significantly restored by TX supplementation. TX administration effectively attenuated cardiac apoptosis and exerted a protective role by increasing antioxidant potential and by improving mitochondrial function. Thus, TX could be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating cardiac disease in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted Induction of Interferon-λ in Humanized Chimeric Mouse Liver Abrogates Hepatotropic Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Yuko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Hirabayashi, Kazuko; Yano, Junichi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tateno, Chise; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Inoue, Kazuaki; Yoshiba, Makoto; Takaoka, Akinori; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims The interferon (IFN) system plays a critical role in innate antiviral response. We presume that targeted induction of IFN in human liver shows robust antiviral effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods This study used chimeric mice harboring humanized livers and infected with HCV or HBV. This mouse model permitted simultaneous analysis of immune responses by human and mouse hepatocytes in the same liver and exploration of the mechanism of antiviral effect against these viruses. Targeted expression of IFN was induced by treating the animals with a complex comprising a hepatotropic cationic liposome and a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog, pIC (LIC-pIC). Viral replication, IFN gene expression, IFN protein production, and IFN antiviral activity were analyzed (for type I, II and III IFNs) in the livers and sera of these humanized chimeric mice. Results Following treatment with LIC-pIC, the humanized livers of chimeric mice exhibited increased expression (at the mRNA and protein level) of human IFN-λs, resulting in strong antiviral effect on HBV and HCV. Similar increases were not seen for human IFN-α or IFN-β in these animals. Strong induction of IFN-λs by LIC-pIC occurred only in human hepatocytes, and not in mouse hepatocytes nor in human cell lines derived from other (non-hepatic) tissues. LIC-pIC-induced IFN-λ production was mediated by the immune sensor adaptor molecules mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1), suggesting dual recognition of LIC-pIC by both sensor adaptor pathways. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the expression and function of various IFNs differ depending on the animal species and tissues under investigation. Chimeric mice harboring humanized livers demonstrate that IFN-λs play an important role in the defense against human hepatic virus infection. PMID:23555725

  4. Cigarette Smoking Impairs Adipose Stromal Cell Vasculogenic Activity and Abrogates Potency to Ameliorate Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Barwinska, Daria; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; Cook, Todd G; Lu, Hongyan; Petrache, Irina; March, Keith L

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) adversely affects the physiologic function of endothelial progenitor, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the effect of CS on the ability of adipose stem/stromal cells (ASC) to promote vasculogenesis and rescue perfusion in the context of ischemia is unknown. To evaluate this, ASC from nonsmokers (nCS-ASC) and smokers (CS-ASC), and their activity to promote perfusion in hindlimb ischemia models, as well as endothelial cell (EC) survival and vascular morphogenesis in vitro were assessed. While nCS-ASC improved perfusion in ischemic limbs, CS-ASC completely lost this therapeutic effect. In vitro vasculogenesis assays revealed that human CS-ASC and ASC from CS-exposed mice showed compromised support of EC morphogenesis into vascular tubes, and the CS-ASC secretome was less potent in supporting EC survival/proliferation. Comparative secretome analysis revealed that CS-ASC produced lower amounts of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1). Conversely, CS-ASC secreted the angiostatic/pro-inflammatory factor Activin A, which was not detected in nCS-ASC conditioned media (CM). Furthermore, higher Activin A levels were measured in EC/CS-ASC cocultures than in EC/nCS-ASC cocultures. CS-ASC also responded to inflammatory cytokines with 5.2-fold increase in Activin A secretion, whereas nCS-ASC showed minimal Activin A induction. Supplementation of EC/CS-ASC cocultures with nCS-ASC CM or with recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor, HGF, or SDF-1 did not rescue vasculogenesis, whereas inhibition of Activin A expression or activity improved network formation up to the level found in EC/nCS-ASC cocultures. In conclusion, ASC of CS individuals manifest compromised in vitro vasculogenic activity as well as in vivo therapeutic activity. Stem Cells 2018;36:856-867. © 2018 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Carotid Body Ablation Abrogates Hypertension and Autonomic Alterations Induced by Intermittent Hypoxia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Lucero, Claudia; Arias, Paulina; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2016-08-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea, enhances carotid body (CB) chemosensory responses to hypoxia and produces autonomic dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension. We tested whether autonomic alterations, arrhythmogenesis, and the progression of hypertension induced by CIH depend on the enhanced CB chemosensory drive, by ablation of the CB chemoreceptors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to control (Sham) conditions for 7 days and then to CIH (5% O2, 12/h 8 h/d) for a total of 28 days. At 21 days of CIH exposure, rats underwent bilateral CB ablation and then exposed to CIH for 7 additional days. Arterial blood pressure and ventilatory chemoreflex response to hypoxia were measured in conscious rats. In addition, cardiac autonomic imbalance, cardiac baroreflex gain, and arrhythmia score were assessed during the length of the experiments. In separate experimental series, we measured extracellular matrix remodeling content in cardiac atrial tissue and systemic oxidative stress. CIH induced hypertension, enhanced ventilatory response to hypoxia, induced autonomic imbalance toward sympathetic preponderance, reduced baroreflex gain, and increased arrhythmias and atrial fibrosis. CB ablation normalized blood pressure, reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia, and restored cardiac autonomic and baroreflex function. In addition, CB ablation reduced the number of arrhythmias, but not extracellular matrix remodeling or systemic oxidative stress, suggesting that reductions in arrhythmia incidence during CIH were related to normalization of cardiac autonomic balance. Present results show that autonomic alterations induced by CIH are critically dependent on the CB and support a main role for the CB in the CIH-induced hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Targeted induction of interferon-λ in humanized chimeric mouse liver abrogates hepatotropic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shin-ichiro; Hirata, Yuichi; Kameyama, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Yuko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Hirabayashi, Kazuko; Yano, Junichi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Tateno, Chise; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Inoue, Kazuaki; Yoshiba, Makoto; Takaoka, Akinori; Kohara, Michinori

    2013-01-01

    The interferon (IFN) system plays a critical role in innate antiviral response. We presume that targeted induction of IFN in human liver shows robust antiviral effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study used chimeric mice harboring humanized livers and infected with HCV or HBV. This mouse model permitted simultaneous analysis of immune responses by human and mouse hepatocytes in the same liver and exploration of the mechanism of antiviral effect against these viruses. Targeted expression of IFN was induced by treating the animals with a complex comprising a hepatotropic cationic liposome and a synthetic double-stranded RNA analog, pIC (LIC-pIC). Viral replication, IFN gene expression, IFN protein production, and IFN antiviral activity were analyzed (for type I, II and III IFNs) in the livers and sera of these humanized chimeric mice. Following treatment with LIC-pIC, the humanized livers of chimeric mice exhibited increased expression (at the mRNA and protein level) of human IFN-λs, resulting in strong antiviral effect on HBV and HCV. Similar increases were not seen for human IFN-α or IFN-β in these animals. Strong induction of IFN-λs by LIC-pIC occurred only in human hepatocytes, and not in mouse hepatocytes nor in human cell lines derived from other (non-hepatic) tissues. LIC-pIC-induced IFN-λ production was mediated by the immune sensor adaptor molecules mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1), suggesting dual recognition of LIC-pIC by both sensor adaptor pathways. These findings demonstrate that the expression and function of various IFNs differ depending on the animal species and tissues under investigation. Chimeric mice harboring humanized livers demonstrate that IFN-λs play an important role in the defense against human hepatic virus infection.

  7. Hesperidin protects against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity by upregulation of PPARγ and abrogation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2014-09-01

    The most important reason for the non-approval and withdrawal of drugs by the Food and Drug Administration is hepatotoxicity. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin against cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The rats received a single intraperitoneal dose of CYP of 200 mg/kg body mass, followed by treatment with hesperidin, orally, at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 11 consecutive days. CYP induced hepatic damage, as evidenced by the significantly elevated levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, serum transaminases, liver lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide. As a consequence, there was reduced glutathione content, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were markedly reduced. In addition, CYP administration induced a considerable downregulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and upregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. Hesperidin, in a dose-dependent manner, rejuvenated the altered markers to an almost normal state. In conclusion, hesperidin showed a potent protective effect against CYP-induced oxidative stress and inflammation leading to hepatotoxicity. The study suggests that hesperidin exerts its protective effect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity through upregulation of hepatic PPARγ expression and abrogation of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  8. Disruption of IL-21 Signaling Affects T Cell-B Cell Interactions and Abrogates Protective Humoral Immunity to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mazliah, Damián; Ng, Dorothy Hui Lin; Freitas do Rosário, Ana Paula; McLaughlin, Sarah; Mastelic-Gavillet, Béatris; Sodenkamp, Jan; Kushinga, Garikai; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-21 signaling is important for germinal center B-cell responses, isotype switching and generation of memory B cells. However, a role for IL-21 in antibody-mediated protection against pathogens has not been demonstrated. Here we show that IL-21 is produced by T follicular helper cells and co-expressed with IFN-γ during an erythrocytic-stage malaria infection of Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Mice deficient either in IL-21 or the IL-21 receptor fail to resolve the chronic phase of P. chabaudi infection and P. yoelii infection resulting in sustained high parasitemias, and are not immune to re-infection. This is associated with abrogated P. chabaudi-specific IgG responses, including memory B cells. Mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, with T cells carrying a targeted disruption of the Il21 gene, or B cells with a targeted disruption of the Il21r gene, demonstrate that IL-21 from T cells signaling through the IL-21 receptor on B cells is necessary to control chronic P. chabaudi infection. Our data uncover a mechanism by which CD4+ T cells and B cells control parasitemia during chronic erythrocytic-stage malaria through a single gene, Il21, and demonstrate the importance of this cytokine in the control of pathogens by humoral immune responses. These data are highly pertinent for designing malaria vaccines requiring long-lasting protective B-cell responses. PMID:25763578

  9. Indinavir and nelfinavir inhibit proximal insulin receptor signaling and salicylate abrogates inhibition: potential role of the NFkappa B pathway.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Wan Iryani W; King, Judy A; Anwar, Khawar; Pillay, Tahir S

    2013-08-01

    The molecular basis of insulin resistance induced by HIV protease inhibitors (HPIs) remains unclear. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with high levels of human insulin receptor (CHO-IR) and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to elucidate the mechanism of this side effect. Indinavir and nelfinavir induced a significant decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β-subunit. Indinavir caused a significant increase in the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) on serine 307 (S307) in both CHO-IR cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nelfinavir also inhibited phosphorylation of Map/ERK kinase without affecting insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Concomitantly, levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), suppressor of cytokines signaling-1 and -3 (SOCS-1 and -3), Src homology 2B (SH2B) and adapter protein with a pleckstrin homology domain and an SH2 domain (APS) were not altered significantly. When CHO-IR cells were pre-treated with sodium salicylate (NaSal), the effects of indinavir on tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR β-subunit and phosphorylation of IRS-1 at S307 were abrogated. These data suggest a potential role for the NFκB pathway in insulin resistance induced by HPIs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. T regulatory cells in contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    The review summarizes the recent investigations focused on T regulatory cells in hapten diseases. Multiple mechanisms ensure tolerance to small chemicals penetrating the skin. Among these, specific T regulatory cells play a major role in controlling harmful immune responses to environmental antigens. Most of the T regulatory cells involved in this process belongs to the CD4 subset and suppress hapten-specific immune response through the release of IL-10 and through direct interaction with effector T cells, blocking their function. Methods for in-vitro and in-vivo expansion of specific T regulatory cells may represent an innovative approach for the cure of contact hypersensitivity.

  11. Regulatory T cells inhibit acute IFN-γ synthesis without blocking T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) differentiation via a compartmentalized requirement for IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Dorothy K.; Fowell, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses to self and foreign antigens in secondary lymphoid organs and at tissue sites of inflammation. Tregs can modify the function of many immune cells and have been proposed to block early proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Acute ablation of Tregs has revealed rapid cytokine production immediately after Treg removal, suggesting that Tregs may regulate effector function acutely rather than regulating the programming for immune function. We developed in vitro and in vivo models that enabled the direct test of Treg regulation of T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) differentiation. CD28 signaling is known to abrogate Treg suppression of IL-2 secretion and proliferation, but our studies show that Treg suppression of IFN-γ during Th1 priming proceeds despite enhanced CD28 signaling. Importantly, during Th1 differentiation, Tregs inhibited early IFN-γ transcription without disrupting expression of Th1-specific T-box transcription factor (Tbet) and Th1 programming. Acute shutoff of effector cytokine production by Tregs was selective for IFN-γ but not TNF-α and was independent of TGF-β and Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3. In vivo, Tregs potently controlled CD4 IFN-γ and CD4 effector cell expansion in the lymph node (four- to fivefold reduction) but not Th1 programming, independent of IL-10. Tregs additionally reduced CD4 IFN-γ in the inflamed dermis (twofold reduction) dependent on their production of IL-10. We propose a model for Treg inhibition of effector function based on acute cytokine regulation. Interestingly, Tregs used different regulatory mechanisms to regulate IFN-γ (IL-10–dependent or –independent) subject to the target T-cell stage of activation and its tissue location. PMID:22025707

  12. Deciphering the transcriptional cis-regulatory code.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Cuna, J Omar; Kvon, Evgeny Z; Stark, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Information about developmental gene expression resides in defined regulatory elements, called enhancers, in the non-coding part of the genome. Although cells reliably utilize enhancers to orchestrate gene expression, a cis-regulatory code that would allow their interpretation has remained one of the greatest challenges of modern biology. In this review, we summarize studies from the past three decades that describe progress towards revealing the properties of enhancers and discuss how recent approaches are providing unprecedented insights into regulatory elements in animal genomes. Over the next years, we believe that the functional characterization of regulatory sequences in entire genomes, combined with recent computational methods, will provide a comprehensive view of genomic regulatory elements and their building blocks and will enable researchers to begin to understand the sequence basis of the cis-regulatory code. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sea water acidification affects osmotic swelling, regulatory volume decrease and discharge in nematocytes of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2013-01-01

    Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP), regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy), was assessed. Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW) with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. At normal pH (7.65), nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Donor CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are necessary for posttransplantation cyclophosphamide-mediated protection against GVHD in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Ross, Duncan B.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Kanakry, Christopher G.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Levy, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, it is unknown whether PTCy works singularly by eliminating alloreactive T cells via DNA alkylation or also by restoring the conventional (Tcon)/regulatory (Treg) T-cell balance. We studied the role of Tregs in PTCy-mediated GVHD prophylaxis in murine models of allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT). In 2 distinct MHC-matched alloBMT models, infusing Treg-depleted allografts abrogated the GVHD-prophylactic activity of PTCy. Using allografts in which Foxp3+ Tregs could be selectively depleted in vivo, either pre- or post-PTCy ablation of donor thymus–derived Tregs (tTregs) abolished PTCy protection against GVHD. PTCy treatment was associated with relative preservation of donor Tregs. Experiments using combinations of Foxp3– Tcons and Foxp3+ Tregs sorted from different Foxp3 reporter mice indicated that donor Treg persistence after PTCy treatment was predominantly caused by survival of functional tTregs that retained Treg-specific demethylation and also induction of peripherally derived Tregs. Finally, adoptive transfer of tTregs retrieved from PTCy-treated chimeras rescued PTCy-treated, Treg-depleted recipients from lethal GVHD. Our findings indicate that PTCy-mediated protection against GVHD is not singularly dependent on depletion of donor alloreactive T cells but also requires rapidly recovering donor Tregs to initiate and maintain alloimmune regulation. PMID:25139358

  15. Hha has a defined regulatory role that is not dependent upon H-NS or StpA

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, Carla; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Canals, Rocío; Juárez, Antonio; Paytubi, Sonia; Madrid, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Hha family of proteins is involved in the regulation of gene expression in enterobacteria by forming complexes with H-NS-like proteins. Whereas several amino acid residues of both proteins participate in the interaction, some of them play a key role. Residue D48 of Hha protein is essential for the interaction with H-NS, thus the D48N substitution in Hha protein abrogates H-NS/Hha interaction. Despite being a paralog of H-NS protein, StpA interacts with HhaD48N with higher affinity than with the wild type Hha protein. To analyze whether Hha is capable of acting independently of H-NS and StpA, we conducted transcriptomic analysis on the hha and stpA deletion strains and the hhaD48N substitution strain of Salmonella Typhimurium using a custom microarray. The results obtained allowed the identification of 120 genes regulated by Hha in an H-NS/StpA-independent manner, 38% of which are horizontally acquired genes. A significant number of the identified genes are involved in functions related to cell motility, iron uptake, and pathogenicity. Thus, motility assays, siderophore detection and intra-macrophage replication assays were performed to confirm the transcriptomic data. Our findings point out the importance of Hha protein as an independent regulator in S. Typhimurium, highlighting a regulatory role on virulence. PMID:26284052

  16. Genome expression analysis in yeast reveals novel transcriptional regulation by inositol and choline and new regulatory functions for Opi1p, Ino2p, and Ino4p.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Teresa C; Mamoun, Choukri Ben

    2003-10-03

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes encoding phospholipid-synthesizing enzymes are regulated by inositol and choline (IC). The current model suggests that when these precursors become limiting, the transcriptional complex Ino2p-Ino4p activates the expression of these genes, whereas repression requires Opi1p and occurs when IC are available. In this study, microarray-based expression analysis was performed to assess the global transcriptional response to IC in a wild-type strain and in the opi1delta, ino2delta, and ino4delta null mutant strains. Fifty genes were either activated or repressed by IC in the wild-type strain, including three already known IC-repressed genes. We demonstrated that the IC response was not limited to genes involved in membrane biogenesis, but encompassed various metabolic pathways such as biotin synthesis, one-carbon compound metabolism, nitrogen-containing compound transport and degradation, cell wall organization and biogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism. The expression of a large number of IC-regulated genes did not change in the opi1delta, ino2delta, and ino4delta strains, thus implicating new regulatory elements in the IC response. Our studies revealed that Opi1p, Ino2p, and Ino4p have dual regulatory activities, acting in both positive and negative transcriptional regulation of a large number of genes, most of which are not regulated by IC and only a subset of which is involved in membrane biogenesis. These data provide the first global response profile of yeast to IC and reveal novel regulatory mechanisms by these precursors.

  17. DNA methylation affects the lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers - Evidence for a regulatory module that involves vitellogenin expression but is independent of juvenile hormone function.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina R; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers. Pharmacological genome demethylation by RG108 treatment caused an increase in worker lifespan. Next, we showed that the genomic DNA methylation status indirectly affects vitellogenin gene expression both in vitro and in vivo in young workers, and that this occurs independent of caloric restriction or JH levels, suggesting that a non-canonical circuitry may be acting in parallel with the JH/Vg module to regulate the adult life cycle of honey bee workers. Our data provide evidence that epigenetic factors play a role in regulatory networks associated with complex life history traits of a social insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  19. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG Overlapping Regulatory Region Reveals LD Structure and Functional Variants in Association with Leprosy in Unrelated Indian Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K.; Bhattacharya, Sambit N.; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations. PMID:23861666

  20. Professional and Regulatory Search

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  1. Team structure and regulatory focus: the impact of regulatory fit on team dynamic.

    PubMed

    Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Davison, Robert B; Hollenbeck, John R

    2012-03-01

    We report a within-teams experiment testing the effects of fit between team structure and regulatory task demands on task performance and satisfaction through average team member positive affect and helping behaviors. We used a completely crossed repeated-observations design in which 21 teams enacted 2 tasks with different regulatory focus characteristics (prevention and promotion) in 2 organizational structures (functional and divisional), resulting in 84 observations. Results suggested that salient regulatory demands inherent in the task interacted with structure to determine objective and subjective team-level outcomes, such that functional structures were best suited to (i.e., had best fit with) tasks with a prevention regulatory focus and divisional structures were best suited to tasks with a promotion regulatory focus. This contingency finding integrates regulatory focus and structural contingency theories, and extends them to the team level with implications for models of performance, satisfaction, and team dynamics.

  2. Pulmonary CCR2+CD4+ T cells are immune regulatory and attenuate lung fibrosis development.

    PubMed

    Milger, Katrin; Yu, Yingyan; Brudy, Eva; Irmler, Martin; Skapenko, Alla; Mayinger, Michael; Lehmann, Mareike; Beckers, Johannes; Reichenberger, Frank; Behr, Jürgen; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Animal models have suggested that CCR2-dependent signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but global blockade of CCL2 failed to improve the clinical course of patients with lung fibrosis. However, as levels of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in paediatric lung fibrosis had previously been found to be increased, correlating with clinical symptoms, we hypothesised that distinct CCR2 + cell populations might either increase or decrease disease pathogenesis depending on their subtype. To investigate the role of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells in experimental lung fibrosis and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrosis. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were analysed using flow cytometry and mRNA profiling, followed by in silico pathway analysis, in vitro assays and adoptive transfer experiments. Frequencies of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells were increased in experimental fibrosis-specifically the CD62L - CD44 + effector memory T cell phenotype, displaying a distinct chemokine receptor profile. mRNA profiling of isolated CCR2 + CD4 + T cells from fibrotic lungs suggested immune regulatory functions, a finding that was confirmed in vitro using suppressor assays. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CCR2 + CD4 + T cells attenuated fibrosis development. The results were partly corroborated in patients with lung fibrosis, by showing higher percentages of Foxp3 + CD25 + cells within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CCR2 + CD4 + T cells as compared with CCR2 - CD4 + T cells. Pulmonary CCR2 + CD4 + T cells are immunosuppressive, and could attenuate lung inflammation and fibrosis. Therapeutic strategies completely abrogating CCR2-dependent signalling will therefore also eliminate cell populations with protective roles in fibrotic lung disease. This emphasises the need for a detailed understanding of the functions of immune cell subsets in fibrotic lung disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  3. Conserved Asp-137 is important for both structure and regulatory functions of cardiac α-tropomyosin (α-TM) in a novel transgenic mouse model expressing α-TM-D137L.

    PubMed

    Yar, Sumeyye; Chowdhury, Shamim A K; Davis, Robert T; Kobayashi, Minae; Monasky, Michelle M; Rajan, Sudarsan; Wolska, Beata M; Gaponenko, Vadim; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi; Wieczorek, David F; Solaro, R John

    2013-06-07

    α-Tropomyosin (α-TM) has a conserved, charged Asp-137 residue located in the hydrophobic core of its coiled-coil structure, which is unusual in that the residue is found at a position typically occupied by a hydrophobic residue. Asp-137 is thought to destabilize the coiled-coil and so impart structural flexibility to the molecule, which is believed to be crucial for its function in the heart. A previous in vitro study indicated that the conversion of Asp-137 to a more typical canonical Leu alters flexibility of TM and affects its in vitro regulatory functions. However, the physiological importance of the residue Asp-137 and altered TM flexibility is unknown. In this study, we further analyzed structural properties of the α-TM-D137L variant and addressed the physiological importance of TM flexibility in cardiac function in studies with a novel transgenic mouse model expressing α-TM-D137L in the heart. Our NMR spectroscopy data indicated that the presence of D137L introduced long range rearrangements in TM structure. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements demonstrated that α-TM-D137L has higher thermal stability compared with α-TM, which correlated with decreased flexibility. Hearts of transgenic mice expressing α-TM-D137L showed systolic and diastolic dysfunction with decreased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and cardiomyocyte contractility without changes in intracellular Ca(2+) transients or post-translational modifications of major myofilament proteins. We conclude that conversion of the highly conserved Asp-137 to Leu results in loss of flexibility of TM that is important for its regulatory functions in mouse hearts. Thus, our results provide insight into the link between flexibility of TM and its function in ejecting hearts.

  4. Conserved Asp-137 Is Important for both Structure and Regulatory Functions of Cardiac α-Tropomyosin (α-TM) in a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model Expressing α-TM-D137L*

    PubMed Central

    Yar, Sumeyye; Chowdhury, Shamim A. K.; Davis, Robert T.; Kobayashi, Minae; Monasky, Michelle M.; Rajan, Sudarsan; Wolska, Beata M.; Gaponenko, Vadim; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi; Wieczorek, David F.; Solaro, R. John

    2013-01-01

    α-Tropomyosin (α-TM) has a conserved, charged Asp-137 residue located in the hydrophobic core of its coiled-coil structure, which is unusual in that the residue is found at a position typically occupied by a hydrophobic residue. Asp-137 is thought to destabilize the coiled-coil and so impart structural flexibility to the molecule, which is believed to be crucial for its function in the heart. A previous in vitro study indicated that the conversion of Asp-137 to a more typical canonical Leu alters flexibility of TM and affects its in vitro regulatory functions. However, the physiological importance of the residue Asp-137 and altered TM flexibility is unknown. In this study, we further analyzed structural properties of the α-TM-D137L variant and addressed the physiological importance of TM flexibility in cardiac function in studies with a novel transgenic mouse model expressing α-TM-D137L in the heart. Our NMR spectroscopy data indicated that the presence of D137L introduced long range rearrangements in TM structure. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements demonstrated that α-TM-D137L has higher thermal stability compared with α-TM, which correlated with decreased flexibility. Hearts of transgenic mice expressing α-TM-D137L showed systolic and diastolic dysfunction with decreased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and cardiomyocyte contractility without changes in intracellular Ca2+ transients or post-translational modifications of major myofilament proteins. We conclude that conversion of the highly conserved Asp-137 to Leu results in loss of flexibility of TM that is important for its regulatory functions in mouse hearts. Thus, our results provide insight into the link between flexibility of TM and its function in ejecting hearts. PMID:23609439

  5. Dithiothreitol abrogates the effect of arsenic trioxide on normal rat liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Manash K.; Kumar, Rajinder; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K.

    2008-01-15

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a known environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. Significant correlation has been reported between consumption of arsenic-contaminated water and occurrence of liver cancer; moreover, ATO-treated leukemia patients also suffers from liver toxicity. Hence, modulation of ATO action may help to prevent populations suffering from arsenic toxicity as well as help reduce the drug-related side effects. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a well-known dithiol agent reported to modulate the action of ATO. Controversial reports exist regarding the effect of DTT on ATO-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. To the best of our knowledge, no report illustrates the modulatory effectmore » of DTT on ATO-induced liver toxicity, the prime target for arsenic. Mitochondria serve as the doorway to apoptosis and have been implicated in ATO-induced cell death. Hence, we attempted to study the modulatory effect of DTT on ATO-induced dysfunction of mammalian liver mitochondria and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep3B). We, for the first time, report that ATO produces complex I-mediated electron transfer inhibition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, respiration inhibition, and ATO-induced ROS-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) opening. DTT at low concentration (100 {mu}M and less) prevents the effect of ATO-induced complex I-malfunctions. DTT protects mitochondria from ATO-mediated opening of MPT and membrane potential depolarization. DTT also prevented ATO-induced Hep3B cell death. Thus, at low concentrations DTT abrogates the effect of ATO on rat liver mitochondria and Hep3B cell line. Therefore, the present result suggests, that use of low concentration of dithiols as food supplement may prevent arsenic toxicity in affected population.« less

  6. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first remission abrogates poor outcomes associated with high-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J; Wagner, John E; Cao, Qing; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Despite remission rates of approximately 85% for children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), greater than 40% will die from relapsed disease. Patients with poor-risk molecular/cytogenetics and/or inadequate response to up-front therapy are typically considered high-risk (HR) and historically have poor outcomes with chemotherapy alone. We investigated whether allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with best available donor in first remission (CR1) would abrogate the poor outcomes associated with HR AML in children and young adults treated with chemotherapy. We reviewed the outcomes of 50 consecutive children and young adults (ages 0 to 30 years) with AML who received a myeloablative allo-HCT between 2001 and 2010. Thirty-six patients (72%) were HR, defined as having FLT3-ITD mutations, 11q23 MLL rearrangements, chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities, induction failure, and/or having persistent disease. The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning, and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine based. Transplantation outcomes for HR patients were compared to standard-risk patients, with no significant differences observed in overall survival (72% versus 78%, P = .72), leukemia-free survival (69% versus 79%, P = .62), relapse (11% versus 7%, P = .71), or treatment-related mortality (17% versus 14%, P = .89). Children and young adults with HR-AML have comparable outcomes to standard-risk patients following allo-HCT in CR1. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalase abrogates β-lapachone-induced PARP1 hyperactivation-directed programmed necrosis in NQO1-positive breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Erik A.; Reinicke, Kathryn E.; Srougi, Melissa C.; Varnes, Marie; Anderson, Vernon; Pink, John J.; Li, Long Shan; Patel, Malina; Cao, Lifen; Moore, Zachary; Rommel, Amy; Boatman, Michael; Lewis, Cheryl; Euhus, David M.; Bornmann, William G.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Gao, Jinming; Boothman, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Improving patient outcome by personalized therapy involves a thorough understanding of an agent’s mechanism of action. β-Lapachone (clinical forms, Arq501/Arq761) has been developed to exploit dramatic cancer-specific elevations in the phase II detoxifying enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). NQO1 is dramatically elevated in solid cancers, including primary and metastatic (e.g., triple-negative (ER-, PR-, Her2/Neu-)) breast cancers. To define cellular factors that influence the efficacy of β-lapachone using knowledge of its mechanism of action, we confirmed that NQO1 was required for lethality and mediated a futile redox cycle where ~120 moles of superoxide were formed per mole of β-lapachone in 5 min. β-Lapachone induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), stimulated DNA single strand break-dependent PARP1 hyperactivation, caused dramatic loss of essential nucleotides (NAD+/ATP) and elicited programmed necrosis in breast cancer cells. While PARP1 hyperactivation and NQO1 expression were major determinants of β-lapachone-induced lethality, alterations in catalase expression, including treatment with exogenous enzyme, caused marked cytoprotection. Thus, catalase is an important resistance factor, and highlights H2O2 as an obligate ROS for cell death from this agent. Exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) enhanced catalase-induced cytoprotection. β-Lapachone-induced cell death included AIF translocation from mitochondria to nuclei, TUNEL+ staining, atypical PARP1 cleavage, and GAPDH S-nitrosylation, which were abrogated by catalase. We predict that the ratio of NQO1:catalase activities in breast cancer versus associated normal tissue are likely to be the major determinants affecting the therapeutic window of β-lapachone and other NQO1 bioactivatable drugs. PMID:23883585

  8. Plasma membrane Toll-like receptor activation increases bacterial uptake but abrogates endosomal Lactobacillus acidophilus induction of interferon-β.

    PubMed

    Boye, Louise; Welsby, Iain; Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Goriely, Stanislas; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2016-11-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a potent interferon-β (IFN-β) response in dendritic cells (DCs) by a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -dependent mechanism, in turn leading to strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) production. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of different types of endocytosis in the L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β and IL-12 responses and how TLR2 or TLR4 ligation by lipopolysaccharide and Pam3/4CSK4 influenced endocytosis of L. acidophilus and the induced IFN-β and IL-12 production. Lactobacillus acidophilus was endocytosed by constitutive macropinocytosis taking place in the immature cells as well as by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) -dependent phagocytosis but without involvement of plasma membrane TLR2. Stimulation with TLR2 or TLR4 ligands increased macropinocytosis in a Syk-independent manner. As a consequence, incubation of DCs with TLR ligands before incubation with L. acidophilus enhanced the uptake of the bacteria. However, in these experimental conditions, induction of IFN-β and IL-12 was strongly inhibited. As L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β depends on endocytosis and endosomal degradation before signalling and as TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane leading to increased macropinocytosis abrogates IFN-β induction we conclude that plasma membrane TLR stimulation leading to increased macropinocytosis decreases endosomal induction of IFN-β and speculate that this is due to competition between compartments for molecules involved in the signal pathways. In summary, endosomal signalling by L. acidophilus that leads to IFN-β and IL-12 production is inhibited by TLR stimulation from the plasma membrane. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. TARGETING THE MUC1-C ONCOPROTEIN DOWNREGULATES HER2 ACTIVATION AND ABROGATES TRASTUZUMAB RESISTANCE IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak; Uchida, Yasumitsu; Kharbanda, Akriti; Rajabi, Hasan; Panchamoorthy, Govind; Jin, Caining; Kharbanda, Surender; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Baselga, Jose; Kufe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Patients with HER2 positive breast cancer often exhibit intrinsic or acquired resistance to trastuzumab treatment. The transmembrane MUC1-C oncoprotein is aberrantly overexpressed in breast cancer cells and associates with HER2. The present studies demonstrate that silencing MUC1-C in HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 and BT474 breast cancer cells results in downregulation of constitutive HER2 activation. Moreover, treatment with the MUC1-C inhibitor, GO-203, was associated with disruption of MUC1-C/HER2 complexes and decreases in tyrosine phosphorylated HER2 (p-HER2) levels. In studies of trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3R and BT474R cells, we found that the association between MUC1-C and HER2 is markedly increased (~20-fold) as compared to that in sensitive cells. Additionally, silencing MUC1-C in the trastuzumab-resistant cells or treatment with GO-203 decreased p-HER2 and AKT activation. Moreover, targeting MUC1-C was associated with downregulation of phospho-p27 and cyclin E, which confer trastuzumab resistance. Consistent with these results, targeting MUC1-C inhibited the growth and clonogenic survival of both trastuzumab-resistant cells. Our results further demonstrate that silencing MUC1-C reverses resistance to trastuzumab and that the combination of GO-203 and trastuzumab is highly synergistic. These findings indicate that MUC1-C contributes to constitutive activation of the HER2 pathway and that targeting MUC1-C represents a potential approach to abrogate trastuzumab resistance. PMID:23912457

  10. Losartan Slows Pancreatic Tumor Progression and Extends Survival of SPARC-Null Mice by Abrogating Aberrant TGFβ Activation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Shanna A.; Rivera, Lee B.; Carbon, Juliet G.; Toombs, Jason E.; Chang, Chi-Lun; Bradshaw, Amy D.; Brekken, Rolf A.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a desmoplastic disease, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world due, in large part, to locally invasive primary tumor growth and ensuing metastasis. SPARC is a matricellular protein that governs extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and maturation during tissue remodeling, particularly, during wound healing and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which lack of host SPARC alters the tumor microenvironment and enhances invasion and metastasis of an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. We identified that levels of active TGFβ1 were increased significantly in tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. TGFβ1 contributes to many aspects of tumor development including metastasis, endothelial cell permeability, inflammation and fibrosis, all of which are altered in the absence of stromal-derived SPARC. Given these results, we performed a survival study to assess the contribution of increased TGFβ1 activity to tumor progression in SPARC-null mice using losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist that diminishes TGFβ1 expression and activation in vivo. Tumors grown in SPARC-null mice progressed more quickly than those grown in wild-type littermates leading to a significant reduction in median survival. However, median survival of SPARC-null animals treated with losartan was extended to that of losartan-treated wild-type controls. In addition, losartan abrogated TGFβ induced gene expression, reduced local invasion and metastasis, decreased vascular permeability and altered the immune profile of tumors grown in SPARC-null mice. These data support the concept that aberrant TGFβ1-activation in the absence of host SPARC contributes significantly to tumor progression and suggests that SPARC, by controlling ECM deposition and maturation, can regulate TGFβ availability and activation. PMID:22348081

  11. Oral delivery of Brucella spp. recombinant protein U-Omp16 abrogates the IgE-mediated milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Ibañez, Andrés Esteban; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Cassataro, Juliana; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies are increasingly common disorders and no therapeutic strategies are yet approved. The unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) is the outer membrane protein of 16 kDa from B. abortus and possesses a mucosal adjuvant property. In this study, we aimed to examine the U-Omp16 capacity to abrogate an allergen-specific Th2 immune response when it is administered as an oral adjuvant in a mouse model of food allergy.   Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and cow's milk proteins (CMP) by gavage and simultaneously treated with U-Omp16 and CMP. Oral challenge with CMP was performed to evaluate the allergic status of mice. Symptoms, local (small bowel cytokine and transcription factor gene expression) and systemic (specific isotypes and spleen cell-secreted cytokines) parameters, and skin tests were done to evaluate the immune response. We found that the oral administration of U-Omp16 with CMP during sensitization dampened the allergic symptoms, with negativization of immediate skin test and increased skin DTH response. Serum specific IgE and IL-5 were inhibited and a Th1 response was promoted (specific IgG2a antibodies and CMP-induced IFN-γ secretion). We found at the mucosal site an inhibition of the gene expression corresponding to IL-13 and Gata-3, with an induction of IFN-γ and T-bet. These results indicated that the oral administration of U-Omp16 significantly controlled the allergic response in sensitized mice with a shift of the balance of Th1- and Th2-T cells toward Th1 predominance. These findings suggest that U-Omp16 may be useful as a Th1-directing adjuvant in an oral vaccine.

  12. Oral delivery of Brucella spp. recombinant protein U-Omp16 abrogates the IgE-mediated milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Smaldini, Paola Lorena; Ibañez, Andrés Esteban; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Cassataro, Juliana; Docena, Guillermo Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies are increasingly common disorders and no therapeutic strategies are yet approved. The unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) is the outer membrane protein of 16 kDa from B. abortus and possesses a mucosal adjuvant property. In this study, we aimed to examine the U-Omp16 capacity to abrogate an allergen-specific Th2 immune response when it is administered as an oral adjuvant in a mouse model of food allergy.   Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and cow’s milk proteins (CMP) by gavage and simultaneously treated with U-Omp16 and CMP. Oral challenge with CMP was performed to evaluate the allergic status of mice. Symptoms, local (small bowel cytokine and transcription factor gene expression) and systemic (specific isotypes and spleen cell-secreted cytokines) parameters, and skin tests were done to evaluate the immune response. We found that the oral administration of U-Omp16 with CMP during sensitization dampened the allergic symptoms, with negativization of immediate skin test and increased skin DTH response. Serum specific IgE and IL-5 were inhibited and a Th1 response was promoted (specific IgG2a antibodies and CMP-induced IFN-γ secretion). We found at the mucosal site an inhibition of the gene expression corresponding to IL-13 and Gata-3, with an induction of IFN-γ and T-bet. These results indicated that the oral administration of U-Omp16 significantly controlled the allergic response in sensitized mice with a shift of the balance of Th1- and Th2-T cells toward Th1 predominance. These findings suggest that U-Omp16 may be useful as a Th1-directing adjuvant in an oral vaccine. PMID:25424811

  13. Further characterization of loss of heterozygosity enhanced by p53 abrogation in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells: disappearance of endpoint hotspots.

    PubMed

    Yatagai, Fumio; Morimoto, Shigeko; Kato, Takesi; Honma, Masamitsu

    2004-06-13

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is the predominant mechanism of spontaneous mutagenesis at the heterozygous thymindine kinase locus (tk) in TK6 cells. LOH events detected in spontaneous TK(-) mutants (110 clones from p53 wild-type cells TK6-20C and 117 clones from p53-abrogated cells TK6-E6) were analyzed using 13 microsatellite markers spanning the whole of chromosome 17. Our analysis indicated an approximately 60-fold higher frequency of terminal deletions in p53-abrogated cells TK6-E6 compared to p53 wild-type cells TK6-20C whereas frequencies of point mutations (non-LOH events), interstitial deletions, and crossing over events were found to increase only less than twofold by such p53 abrogation. We then made use of an additional 17 microsatellite markers which provided an average map-interval of 1.6Mb to map various LOH endpoints on the 45Mb portion of chromosome 17q corresponding to the maximum length of LOH tracts (i.e. from the distal marker D17S932 to the terminal end). There appeared to be four prominent peaks (I-IV) in the distribution of LOH endpoints/Mb of Tk6-20C cells that were not evident in p53-abrogated cells TK6-E6, where they appeared to be rather broadly distributed along the 15-20Mb length (D17S1807 to D17S1607) surrounding two of the peaks that we detected in TK6-20C cells (peaks II and III). We suggest that the chromosomal instability that is so evident in TK6-E6 cells may be due to DNA double-strand break repair occurring through non homologous end-joining rather than allelic recombination.

  14. 7 CFR 1700.32 - Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis. 1700.32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.32 Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis. RUS, through Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis, monitors and...

  15. 7 CFR 1700.32 - Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis. 1700.32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.32 Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis. RUS, through Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis, monitors and...

  16. Demethoxycurcumin, a Natural Derivative of Curcumin Abrogates Rotenone-induced Dopamine Depletion and Motor Deficits by Its Antioxidative and Anti-inflammatory Properties in Parkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Muthu; Rajasankar, Srinivasagam; Gobi, Veerapan Venkatesh; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Chidambaram, Ranganathan; Chidambaram, Saravana Babu; Guillemin, Giles J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder (NDD) associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and subsequently has an effect on motor function and coordination. The pathology of PD is multifactorial, in which neuroinflammation and oxidative damage are the two of the main protagonists. Objectives: The present study aims to assess the potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a natural derivative of curcumin, against rotenone-induced PD in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were randomized and divided into six groups: control, rotenone (0.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal in sunflower oil) treated for 7 days, rotenone and DMC (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg b.w) cotreated, and DMC (20 mg/kg b.w) alone treated groups. Results: Based on the dopamine concentration and biochemical estimations, the effective dose of DMC was selected and the chronic study was performed. At the end of the experimental period, behavioral studies and protein expression patterns of inflammatory markers were analyzed. Rotenone treatment led to motor dysfunctions, neurochemical deficits, and oxidative stress and enhanced expressions of inflammatory markers, whereas oral administration of DMC attenuated all the above. Conclusion: Even though further research is needed to prove its efficacy in clinical trial, the results of our study showed that DMC may offer a promising and new therapeutic lead for the treatment of NDDs including PD. SUMMARY Curcumin and their derivatives have been shown to be potent neuroprotective effectDemethoxycurcumin (DMC) amolerated the rotenone induced behavioural alterationsDMC abrogated the rotenone induced dopamine deficitsDMC attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stressDMC diminished the rotenone mediated inflammation. Abbreviations used: COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2; DA: Dopamine; DMC: Demethoxycurcumin; DMRT: Duncan's multiple range test; GSH: Reduced glutathione; GPx: Glutathione

  17. NS1-binding protein abrogates the elevation of cell viability by the influenza A virus NS1 protein in association with CRKL

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Masaya; Nishihara, Hiroshi, E-mail: hnishihara@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Hideki

    Highlights: •NS1 induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability. •NS1-BP expression and CRKL knockdown abolished survival effect of NS1. •NS1-BP and NS1 formed the complex through the interaction with CRKL-SH3(N). -- Abstract: The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional virulence factor consisting of an RNA binding domain and several Src-homology (SH) 2 and SH3 binding motifs, which promotes virus replication in the host cell and helps to evade antiviral immunity. NS1 modulates general host cell physiology in association with various cellular molecules including NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP) and signaling adapter protein CRK-like (CRKL), while themore » physiological role of NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection especially in association with NS1 remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular association of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL to elucidate the physiological roles of these molecules in the host cell. In HEK293T cells, enforced expression of NS1 of A/Beijing (H1N1) and A/Indonesia (H5N1) significantly induced excessive phosphorylation of ERK and elevated cell viability, while the over-expression of NS1-BP and the abrogation of CRKL using siRNA abolished such survival effect of NS1. The pull-down assay using GST-fusion CRKL revealed the formation of intracellular complexes of NS1-BP, NS1 and CRKL. In addition, we identified that the N-terminus SH3 domain of CRKL was essential for binding to NS1-BP using GST-fusion CRKL-truncate mutants. This is the first report to elucidate the novel function of NS1-BP collaborating with viral protein NS1 in modulation of host cell physiology. In addition, an alternative role of adaptor protein CRKL in association with NS1 and NS1-BP during influenza A virus infection is demonstrated.« less

  18. Differences in fat and muscle mass associated with a functional human polymorphism in a post-transcriptional BMP2 gene regulatory element.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Joseph M; Tosi, Laura L; Fritz, David T; Gordish-Dressman, Heather A; Jiang, Shan; Orkunoglu-Suer, Funda E; Gordon, Andrew H; Harmon, Brennan T; Thompson, Paul D; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hoffman, Eric P; Rogers, Melissa B

    2009-08-15

    A classic morphogen, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) regulates the differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells. High BMP2 levels promote osteogenesis or chondrogenesis and low levels promote adipogenesis. BMP2 inhibits myogenesis. Thus, BMP2 synthesis is tightly controlled. Several hundred nucleotides within the 3' untranslated regions of BMP2 genes are conserved from mammals to fishes indicating that the region is under stringent selective pressure. Our analyses indicate that this region controls BMP2 synthesis by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A common A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BMP2 gene (rs15705, +A1123C) disrupts a putative post-transcriptional regulatory motif within the human ultra-conserved sequence. In vitro studies indicate that RNAs bearing the A or C alleles have different protein binding characteristics in extracts from mesenchymal cells. Reporter genes with the C allele of the ultra-conserved sequence were differentially expressed in mesenchymal cells. Finally, we analyzed MRI data from the upper arm of 517 healthy individuals aged 18-41 years. Individuals with the C/C genotype were associated with lower baseline subcutaneous fat volumes (P = 0.0030) and an increased gain in skeletal muscle volume (P = 0.0060) following resistance training in a cohort of young males. The rs15705 SNP explained 2-4% of inter-individual variability in the measured parameters. The rs15705 variant is one of the first genetic markers that may be exploited to facilitate early diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of diseases associated with poor fitness. Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms by which regulatory polymorphisms influence BMP2 synthesis will reveal novel pharmaceutical targets for these disabling conditions. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Differences in Fat and Muscle Mass Associated With a Functional Human Polymorphism in a Post-Transcriptional BMP2 Gene Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, Joseph M.; Tosi, Laura L.; Fritz, David T.; Gordish-Dressman, Heather A.; Jiang, Shan; Orkunoglu-Suer, Funda E.; Gordon, Andrew H.; Harmon, Brennan T.; Thompson, Paul D.; Clarkson, Priscilla M.; Angelopoulos, Theodore J.; Gordon, Paul M.; Moyna, Niall M.; Pescatello, Linda S.; Visich, Paul S.; Zoeller, Robert F.; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hoffman, Eric P.; Rogers, Melissa B.

    2014-01-01

    A classic morphogen, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) regulates the differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal cells. High BMP2 levels promote osteogenesis or chondrogenesis and low levels promote adipogenesis. BMP2 inhibits myogenesis. Thus, BMP2 synthesis is tightly controlled. Several hundred nucleotides within the 3′ untranslated regions of BMP2 genes are conserved from mammals to fishes indicating that the region is under stringent selective pressure. Our analyses indicate that this region controls BMP2 synthesis by post-transcriptional mechanisms. A common A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BMP2 gene (rs15705, +A1123C) disrupts a putative post-transcriptional regulatory motif within the human ultra-conserved sequence. In vitro studies indicate that RNAs bearing the A or C alleles have different protein binding characteristics in extracts from mesenchymal cells. Reporter genes with the C allele of the ultra-conserved sequence were differentially expressed in mesenchymal cells. Finally, we analyzed MRI data from the upper arm of 517 healthy individuals aged 18–41 years. Individuals with the C/C genotype were associated with lower baseline subcutaneous fat volumes (P = 0.0030) and an increased gain in skeletal muscle volume (P = 0.0060) following resistance training in a cohort of young males. The rs15705 SNP explained 2–4% of inter-individual variability in the measured parameters. The rs15705 variant is one of the first genetic markers that maybe exploited to facilitate early diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of diseases associated with poor fitness. Furthermore, understanding the mechanisms by which regulatory polymorphisms influence BMP2 synthesis will reveal novel pharmaceutical targets for these disabling conditions. PMID:19492344

  20. Toward an Orofacial Gene Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Kousa, Youssef A.; Schutte, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial clefting is a common birth defect with significant morbidity. A panoply of candidate genes have been discovered through synergy of animal models and human genetics. Among these, variants in Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) cause syndromic orofacial clefting and contribute risk toward isolated cleft lip and palate (1/700 live births). Rare variants in IRF6 can lead to Van der Woude Syndrome (1/35,000 live births) and Popliteal Pterygium Syndrome (1/300,000 live births). Furthermore, IRF6 regulates GRHL3 and rare variants in this downstream target can also lead to Van der Woude Syndrome. In addition, a common variant (rs642961) in the IRF6 locus is found in 30% of the world’s population and contributes risk for isolated orofacial clefting. Biochemical studies revealed that rs642961 abrogates one of four AP-2alpha binding sites. Like IRF6 and GRHL3, rare variants in TFAP2A can also lead to syndromic orofacial clefting with lip pits (Branchio-oculo-facial Syndrome). The literature suggests that AP-2alpha, IRF6 and GRHL3 are part of a pathway that is essential for lip and palate development. In addition to updating the pathways, players and pursuits, this review will highlight some of the current questions in the study of orofacial clefting. PMID:26332872

  1. Linking network topology to function. Comment on "Drivers of structural features in gene regulatory networks: From biophysical constraints to biological function" by O.C. Martin, A. Krzywicki and M. Zagorski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The review by Martin et al. deals with a long standing problem at the interface of complex systems and molecular biology, that is the relationship between the topology of a complex network and its function. In biological terms the problem translates to relating the topology of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) to specific cellular functions. GRNs control the spatial and temporal activity of the genes encoded in the cell's genome by means of specialised proteins called Transcription Factors (TFs). A TF is able to recognise and bind specifically to a sequence (TF biding site) of variable length (order of magnitude of 10) found upstream of the sequence encoding one or more genes (at least in prokaryotes) and thus activating or repressing their transcription. TFs can thus be distinguished in activator and repressor. The picture can become more complex since some classes of TFs can form hetero-dimers consisting of a protein complex whose subunits are the individual TFs. Heterodimers can have completely different binding sites and activity compared to their individual parts. In this review the authors limit their attention to prokaryotes where the complexity of GRNs is somewhat reduced. Moreover they exploit a unique feature of living systems, i.e. evolution, to understand whether function can shape network topology. Indeed, prokaryotes such as bacteria are among the oldest living systems that have become perfectly adapted to their environment over geological scales and thus have reached an evolutionary steady-state where the fitness of the population has reached a plateau. By integrating in silico analysis and comparative evolution, the authors show that indeed function does tend to shape the structure of a GRN, however this trend is not always present and depends on the properties of the network being examined. Interestingly, the trend is more apparent for sparse networks, i.e. where the density of edges is very low. Sparsity is indeed one of the most prominent features

  2. Therapeutic Immunization with HIV-1 Tat Reduces Immune Activation and Loss of Regulatory T-Cells and Improves Immune Function in Subjects on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Ensoli, Barbara; Bellino, Stefania; Tripiciano, Antonella; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Marcotullio, Simone; Cafaro, Aurelio; Picconi, Orietta; Paniccia, Giovanni; Scoglio, Arianna; Arancio, Angela; Ariola, Cristina; Ruiz Alvarez, Maria J.; Campagna, Massimo; Scaramuzzi, Donato; Iori, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Ghinelli, Florio; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Angarano, Gioacchino; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Soscia, Fabrizio; Mercurio, Vito S.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Visintini, Raffaele; Mazzotta, Francesco; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano; Carosi, Giampiero; Torti, Carlo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4+ T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks) on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002). Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002), served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4+ T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite, absent or partial in the

  3. Therapeutic immunization with HIV-1 Tat reduces immune activation and loss of regulatory T-cells and improves immune function in subjects on HAART.

    PubMed

    Ensoli, Barbara; Bellino, Stefania; Tripiciano, Antonella; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Marcotullio, Simone; Cafaro, Aurelio; Picconi, Orietta; Paniccia, Giovanni; Scoglio, Arianna; Arancio, Angela; Ariola, Cristina; Ruiz Alvarez, Maria J; Campagna, Massimo; Scaramuzzi, Donato; Iori, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Ghinelli, Florio; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Angarano, Gioacchino; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Soscia, Fabrizio; Mercurio, Vito S; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Visintini, Raffaele; Mazzotta, Francesco; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano; Carosi, Giampiero; Torti, Carlo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-11-11

    Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4(+) T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks) on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002). Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002), served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4(+) T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite, absent

  4. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cellular aggregation allows proliferation of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in shake flask bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mohamet, Lisa; Lea, Michelle L; Ward, Christopher M

    2010-09-23

    A fundamental requirement for the exploitation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine is the ability to reproducibly derive sufficient numbers of cells of a consistent quality in a cost-effective manner. However, undifferentiated ES cells are not ideally suited to suspension culture due to the formation of cellular aggregates, ultimately limiting scalability. Significant advances have been made in recent years in the culture of ES cells, including automated adherent culture and suspension microcarrier or embryoid body bioreactor culture. However, each of these methods exhibits specific disadvantages, such as high cost, additional downstream processes or reduced cell doubling times. Here we show that abrogation of the cell surface protein E-cadherin, using either gene knockout (Ecad-/-) or the neutralising antibody DECMA-1 (EcadAb), allows culture of mouse ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in scalable shake flask culture over prolonged periods without additional media supplements. Both Ecad-/- and EcadAb ES cells exhibited adaptation phases in suspension culture, with optimal doubling times of 7.3 h±0.9 and 15.6 h±4.7 respectively and mean-fold increase in viable cell number of 95.1±2.0 and 16±0.9-fold over 48 h. EcadAb ES cells propagated as a dispersed cell suspension for 15 d maintained expression of pluripotent markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and high viability. Subsequent differentiation of EcadAb ES cells resulted in expression of transcripts and proteins associated with the three primary germ layers. This is the first demonstration of the culture of pluripotent ES cells as a near-single cell suspension in a manual fed-batch shake flask bioreactor and represents a significant improvement on current ES cell culture techniques. Whilst this proof-of-principle method would be useful for the culture of human ES and iPS cells, further steps are necessary to increase cell viability of hES cells in suspension.

  5. Hypermagnesemia disturbances in rats, NO-related: pentadecapeptide BPC 157 abrogates, L-NAME and L-arginine worsen.

    PubMed

    Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Stambolija, Vasilije; Kolenc, Danijela; Katancic, Jadranka; Murselovic, Tamara; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Strbe, Sanja; Drmic, Domagoj; Barisic, Ivan; Sindic, Aleksandra; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, administered before a high-dose magnesium injection in rats, might be a useful peptide therapy against magnesium toxicity and the magnesium-induced effect on cell depolarization. Moreover, this might be an NO-system-related effect. Previously, BPC 157 counteracts paralysis, arrhythmias and hyperkalaemia, extreme muscle weakness; parasympathetic and neuromuscular blockade; injured muscle healing and interacts with the NOS-blocker and NOS-substrate effects. Assessment included magnesium sulfate (560 mg/kg intraperitoneally)-induced muscle weakness, muscle and brain lesions, hypermagnesemia, hyperkalaemia, increased serum enzyme values assessed in rats during and at the end of a 30-min period and medication (given intraperitoneally/kg at 15 min before magnesium) [BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng), L-NAME (5 mg), L-arginine (100 mg), alone and/or together]. In HEK293 cells, the increasing magnesium concentration from 1 to 5 mM could depolarize the cells at 1.75 ± 0.44 mV. L-NAME + magnesium-rats and L-arginine + magnesium-rats exhibited worsened severe muscle weakness and lesions, brain lesions, hypermagnesemia and serum enzymes values, with emerging hyperkalaemia. However, L-NAME + L-arginine + magnesium-rats exhibited all control values and normokalaemia. BPC 157 abrogated hypermagnesemia and counteracted all of the magnesium-induced disturbances (including those aggravated by L-NAME or L-arginine). Thus, cell depolarization due to increasing magnesium concentration was inhibited in the presence of BPC 157 (1 µM) in vitro. BPC 157 likely counteracts the initial event leading to hypermagnesemia and the life-threatening actions after a magnesium overdose. In contrast, a worsened clinical course, higher hypermagnesemia, and emerging hyperkalaemia might cause both L-NAME and L-arginine to affect the same events adversely. These events were also opposed by BPC 157.

  6. Regulatory Myeloid Cells in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rosborough, Brian R.; Raïch-Regué, Dàlia; Turnquist, Heth R.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory myeloid cells (RMC) are emerging as novel targets for immunosuppressive (IS) agents and hold considerable promise as cellular therapeutic agents. Herein, we discuss the ability of regulatory macrophages (Mreg), regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to regulate alloimmunity, their potential as cellular therapeutic agents and the IS agents that target their function. We consider protocols for the generation of RMC and the selection of donor- or recipient-derived cells for adoptive cell therapy. Additionally, the issues of cell trafficking and antigen (Ag) specificity following RMC transfer are discussed. Improved understanding of the immunobiology of these cells has increased the possibility of moving RMC into the clinic to reduce the burden of current IS agents and promote Ag-specific tolerance. In the second half of this review, we discuss the influence of established and experimental IS agents on myeloid cell populations. IS agents believed historically to act primarily on T cell activation and proliferation are emerging as important regulators of RMC function. Better insights into the influence of IS agents on RMC will enhance our ability to develop cell therapy protocols to promote the function of these cells. Moreover, novel IS agents may be designed to target RMC in situ to promote Ag-specific immune regulation in transplantation and usher in a new era of immune modulation exploiting cells of myeloid origin. PMID:24092382

  7. cDNA cloning and functional characterization of the mouse Ca2+-gated K+ channel, mIK1. Roles in regulatory volume decrease and erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Vandorpe, D H; Shmukler, B E; Jiang, L; Lim, B; Maylie, J; Adelman, J P; de Franceschi, L; Cappellini, M D; Brugnara, C; Alper, S L

    1998-08-21

    We have cloned from murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells, thymus, and stomach the cDNA encoding the Ca2+-gated K+ (KCa) channel, mIK1, the mouse homolog of hIK1 (Ishii, T. M., Silvia, C., Hirschberg, B., Bond, C. T., Adelman, J. P., and Maylie, J. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.(U. S. A. 94, 11651-11656). mIK1 mRNA was detected at varied levels in many tissue types. mIK1 KCa channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes closely resembled the Kca of red cells (Gardos channel) and MEL cells in its single channel conductance, lack of voltage-sensitivity of activation, inward rectification, and Ca2+ concentration dependence. mIK1 also resembled the erythroid channel in its pharmacological properties, mediating whole cell and unitary currents sensitive to low nM concentrations of both clotrimazole (CLT) and its des-imidazolyl metabolite, 2-chlorophenyl-bisphenyl-methanol, and to low nM concentrations of iodocharybdotoxin. Whereas control oocytes subjected to hypotonic swelling remained swollen, mIK1 expression conferred on oocytes a novel, Ca2+-dependent, CLT-sensitive regulatory volume decrease response. Hypotonic swelling of voltage-clamped mIK1-expressing oocytes increased outward currents that were Ca2+-dependent, CLT-sensitive, and reversed near the K+ equilibrium potential. mIK1 mRNA levels in ES cells increased steadily during erythroid differentiation in culture, in contrast to other KCa mRNAs examined. Low nanomolar concentrations of CLT inhibited proliferation and erythroid differentiation of peripheral blood stem cells in liquid culture.

  8. Administration of CD4+CD25highCD127- regulatory T cells preserves β-cell function in type 1 diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Marek-Trzonkowska, Natalia; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Dobyszuk, Anita; Grabowska, Marcelina; Techmanska, Ilona; Juscinska, Jolanta; Wujtewicz, Magdalena A; Witkowski, Piotr; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Balcerska, Anna; Mysliwska, Jolanta; Trzonkowski, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which pancreatic islets are destroyed by self-reactive T cells. The process is facilitated by deficits in the number and suppressive activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, we show for the first time that the infusion of autologous Tregs prolongs remission in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes in children. We have administered Tregs in 10 type 1 diabetic children (aged 8-16 years) within 2 months since diagnosis. In total, 4 patients received 10 × 10(6) Tregs/kg body wt, and the remaining 6 patients received 20 × 10(6) Tregs/kg body wt. The preparation consisted of sorted autologous CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) Tregs expanded under good manufacturing practice conditions. No toxicity of the therapy was noted. A significant increase in the percentage of Tregs in the peripheral blood has been observed since the day of infusion. These patients were followed along with matched type 1 diabetic patients not treated with Tregs. Half a year after type 1 diabetes onset (4-5 months after Tregs infusion), 8 patients treated with Tregs still required <0.5 UI/kg body wt of insulin daily, with 2 patients out of insulin completely, whereas the remission was over in the nontreated group. In addition, plasma C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the treated group as compared with those not treated. This study shows that the administration of Tregs is safe and tolerable in children with recent-onset type 1 diabetes.

  9. Acquisition of T regulatory function in cathepsin L-inhibited T cells by eye-derived CTLA-2alpha during inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Sunao; Horie, Shintaro; Nakamura, Orie; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Takase, Hiroshi; Usui, Yoshihiko; Takeuchi, Masaru; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Peters, Christoph; Yamamoto, Yoshimi; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2009-10-15

    Pigment epithelium isolated from the eye possesses immunosuppressive properties such as regulatory T (Treg) cell induction; e.g., cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) converts CD4(+) T cells into Treg cells in vitro. RPE constitutively expresses a novel immunosuppressive factor, CTLA-2alpha, which is a cathepsin L (CathL) inhibitor, and this molecule acts via RPE to induce Treg cells. To clarify CTLA-2alpha's role in