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Sample records for abrolhos islands western

  1. Quaternary sedimentation and diagenesis in a high-latitude reef, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.R.; Collins, L.B. ); Wyrwoll, K.H.; Hatcher, B.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Houtman Abrolhos reefs are located 80 km off the west coast of Australia between latitudes 28 and 29{degree} south. The islands are situated on three Pleistocene carbonate reef platforms which rise above the surrounding shelf. The modern coral reefs are close to the geographic limit for coral growth in the southern hemisphere and survive due to the presence of the Leeuwin current (a poleward-flowing warm stream). Two major shallow-water benthic communities coexist in the Abrolhos: a macroalgal-dominated community on the windward platform margins and a coral-dominated community on the leeward margins. These communities overlap-particularly in the platform lagoons, where competition between macroalgae and corals is intense. This interaction has been suggested as a major factor controlling the growth of cord reefs at high latitudes. The Holocene carbonate sediments lack nonskeletal components and are dominated by coral and coralline algal fragments with subordinate molluskan and echinoderm debris. The accumulations can be grouped into the following major facies: (1) coral framestone and coralline algal/serpulid boundstone, (2) submarine sand sheets, (3) subaerial coral storm ridges, (4-) peritidal to subtidal shingle and rubble veneers composed of dominantly coral debris, and (5) eolian dunes and beach sand. The Holocene sediment is a thin (< 2 m) veneer on the Pleistocene reef platform, which is emergent as small islands. The Pleistocene platform is composed of reef facies that can be directly related to the Holocene sediments. The platform is composed of framestone and boundstone facies (corals and coralline algal/serpulid facies), rudstones (submarine coral rubble facies), planar-bedded skeletal grainstones dipping 12-13{degree} (submarine sand sheet and peritidal shingle facies), and large 15-m-high eolianite dunes (eolian dune facies).

  2. Turning up the Heat: Increasing Temperature and Coral Bleaching at the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, David A.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs face increasing pressures particularly when on the edge of their distributions. The Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos) are the southernmost coral reef system in the Indian Ocean, and one of the highest latitude reefs in the world. These reefs have a unique mix of tropical and temperate marine fauna and flora and support 184 species of coral, dominated by Acropora species. A significant La Niña event during 2011 produced anomalous conditions of increased temperature along the whole Western Australian coastline, producing the first-recorded widespread bleaching of corals at the Abrolhos. Methodology/ Principal Findings We examined long term trends in the marine climate at the Abrolhos using historical sea surface temperature data (HadISST data set) from 1900–2011. In addition in situ water temperature data for the Abrolhos (from data loggers installed in 2008, across four island groups) were used to determine temperature exposure profiles. Coupled with the results of coral cover surveys conducted annually since 2007; we calculated bleaching thresholds for monitoring sites across the four Abrolhos groups. Conclusions/ Significance In situ temperature data revealed maximum daily water temperatures reached 29.54°C in March 2011 which is 4.2°C above mean maximum daily temperatures (2008–2010). The level of bleaching varied across sites with an average of ∼12% of corals bleached. Mortality was high, with a mean ∼50% following the 2011 bleaching event. Prior to 2011, summer temperatures reached a mean (across all monitoring sites) of 25.1°C for 2.5 days. However, in 2011 temperatures reached a mean of 28.1°C for 3.3 days. Longer term trends (1900–2011) showed mean annual sea surface temperatures increase by 0.01°C per annum. Long-term temperature data along with short-term peaks in 2011, outline the potential for corals to be exposed to more frequent bleaching risk with consequences for this high latitude coral reef system at the

  3. The Last Interglacial sea level change: new evidence from the Abrolhos islands, West Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, A.; Zhu, Z. R.; Collins, L. B.; Wyrwoll, K. H.; Eichstätter, R.

    U-series ages measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) are reported for a Last Interglacial (LI) fossil coral core from the Turtle Bay, Houtman Abrolhos islands, western Australia. The core is 33.4m long the top of which is approximately 5ma.p.s.l. (above present sea level). From the 232Th concentrations and the reliability of the U-series ages, two sections in the core can be distinguished. Calculated U/Th ages in core sectionI (3.3ma.p.s.l to 11mb.p.s.l) vary between 124+/-1.7kaBP (3.3ma.p.s.l.) and 132.5+/-1.8ka (4mb.p.s.l., i.e. below present sea level), and those of sectionII (11-23mb.p.s.l.) between 140+/-3 and 214+/-5kaBP, respectively. The ages of core sectionI are in almost perfect chronological order, whereas for sectionII no clear age-depth relationship of the samples can be recognised. Further assessments based on the ∂234U(T) criteria reveal that none of the samples of core sectionII give reliable ages, whereas for core sectionI several samples can be considered to be moderately reliable within 2ka. The data of the Turtle Bay core complement and extend our previous work from the Houtman Abrolhos showing that the sea level reached a height of approximately 4mb.p.s.l at approximately 134kaBP and a sea level highstand of at least 3.3ma.p.s.l. at approximately 124kaBP. Sea level dropped below its present position at approximately 116kaBP. Although the new data are in general accord with the Milankovitch theory of climate change, a detailed comparison reveals considerable differences between the Holocenand LI sea level rise as monitored relative to the Houtman Abrolhos islands. These observation apparently add further evidence to the growing set of data that the LI sea level rise started earlier than recognised by SPECMAP chronology. A reconciliation of these contradictionary observations following the line of arguments presented by Crowley (1994) are discussed with respect to the Milankovitch theory.

  4. Targeted demersal fish species exhibit variable responses to long-term protection from fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornt, Katrina R.; McLean, Dianne L.; Langlois, Tim J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural fluctuations in the abundance and length of targeted fish are often disrupted by acute environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. Long-term assessments of targeted fish populations inside and outside areas closed to fishing are often necessary to elucidate these effects, yet few of these studies extend over long time periods. We assessed trends in the abundance and length of six targeted fish species in areas open and closed to fishing on seven occasions spanning a 9-year period (2005-2010 and 2013) at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Shallow (8-12 m) and deep (22-26 m) coral-dominated reef sites were sampled across four geographically separated island groups using baited remote underwater stereo-video (stereo-BRUV). Between 2005 and 2010, populations of Lethrinus miniatus, Lethrinus nebulosus, Plectropomus leopardus, and Chrysophrys auratus became increasingly dominated by larger individuals, potentially indicative of an ageing population. Between 2010 and 2013, however, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smaller L. miniatus, L. nebulosus, and P. leopardus in both open and closed areas, reflecting increased recruitment perhaps due to changing environmental conditions associated with a marine heat wave anomaly. This recruitment pulse was not observed for the other species in this study ( Chr. auratus, Choerodon rubescens, and Glaucosoma hebraicum). Lethrinus miniatus, L. nebulosus, Chr. auratus, and P. leopardus were larger in closed areas relative to open areas; however, they were not more abundant. These complex responses to protection also varied across sampling years for certain species (e.g., P. leopardus). Monitoring changes over the long-term in areas open and closed to fishing provides a sound basis for separating environmental variability from that associated with fishing mortality, which is crucial for optimising fisheries management.

  5. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

    PubMed

    Markey, Kathryn L; Abdo, Dave A; Evans, Scott N; Bosserelle, Cyprien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI) coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of 'heat tolerant' coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile) compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile). Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011) has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them.

  6. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Kathryn L.; Abdo, Dave A.; Evans, Scott N.; Bosserelle, Cyprien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI) coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of ‘heat tolerant’ coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile) compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile). Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011) has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them. PMID:26812259

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in seabirds from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds. Abrolhos is an archipelago of five islands, located in the Atlantic Ocean, 56 nautical kilometers from the south coast of the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Part of this archipelago is a Na...

  8. Mesophotic fishes of the Abrolhos Shelf, the largest reef ecosystem in the South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Simon, T; Pinheiro, H T; Moura, R L; Carvalho-Filho, A; Rocha, L A; Martins, A S; Mazzei, E; Francini-Filho, R B; Amado-Filho, G M; Joyeux, J-C

    2016-07-01

    Fishes inhabiting rhodolith beds and reefs at mesophotic depths on the Abrolhos Shelf, which encompasses the largest and richest coral reef formation in the South Atlantic Ocean, were assessed through technical diving and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). A total of 74 fish species were recorded, including at least one new species, one new record for the south-western Atlantic and six new records for the Abrolhos region. Overfishing, mining and port activities are already threatening many endangered and commercially important species recorded on the mesophotic reefs of Abrolhos Shelf, and the establishment of marine protected areas and off-reserve fisheries regulations are urgently needed.

  9. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John

    2011-08-16

    The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  10. Facies, Stratigraphic and Depositional Model of the Sediments in the Abrolhos Archipelago (Bahia, BRAZIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, R. R.; Zambonato, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the Mucuri Basin on the continental shelf of southern Bahia state, northeast Brazil, about 70 km from the city of Caravelas,the Abrolhos archipelago is made up of five islands; Santa Barbara, Redonda, Siriba, Guarita and Sueste. The exhumed sediments in the Abrolhos archipelago are a rare record of the turbidite systems which fill the Brazilian Atlantic Basin, and are probably an unprecedented example of a plataform turbidite system (Dr. Mutti, personal communication). Despite the limited area, the outcrops display a wide facies variation produced by different depositional processes, and also allow for the observation of the layer geometries. Associated with such sedimentary rocks, the Abrolhos Volcanic Complex belongs stratigraphically to the Abrolhos Formation. These igneous rocks were dated by the Ar / Ar method, with ages ranging from 60 to 40 My, placing such Volcanic Complex between the Paleocene and Eocene. The sedimentary section is best exposed in the Santa Barbara and Redonda islands and altogether it is 70 m thick. The measured vertical sections show a good stratigraphic correlation between the rocks of the western portion of the first island and those of Redonda Island. However, there is no correlation between the eastern and western portions of Santa Barbara Island, since they are very likely interrupted by the igneous intrusion and possibly by faulting. The sedimentary stack consists of deposits with alternated regressive and transgressive episodes interpreted as high frequency sequences. The coarse facies, sandstones and conglomerates, with abrupt or erosive bases record regressive phases. On the other hand, finer sandstones and siltstones facies, which are partly bioturbated, correspond to phases of a little sediment supply. In the central and eastern portions of Santa Barbara Island, there is a trend of progradational stacking, while both in the western portion of Santa Barbara and in Redonda islands an agradational trend is observed

  11. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  12. Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43899.

  13. Macrophytobenthic flora of the Abrolhos Archipelago and the Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N.; Oliveira, Eurico C.

    2013-11-01

    The Abrolhos Bank, located on the coast of Bahia, Brazil, harbors the largest coral reef system in the South Atlantic. This area has attracted the attention of biologists because of its peculiar mushroom-shaped structures, locally known as "chapeirões", and endemic species of corals and other organisms. The macrophytobenthos compartment plays an important ecological role in the functioning of the bank, and some reports on the presence of seaweeds and seagrasses have been published; however, the data are fragmentary, and a more detailed survey of the macrophytobenthos compartment is lacking. Here we consolidate the information available and add new data obtained from two expeditions focused on seaweed and seagrass diversity from two sectors of the bank: the islands of the Abrolhos archipelago (AA) and the Sebastião Gomes Reef (SG). These sites were selected for their contrasting characteristics. Specifically, SG (15 km off the mouth of the Caravelas River) is subjected to a broader range of anthropogenic impacts and to input of terrigenous sediments, while the AA (54 km offshore) is surrounded by calcareous biogenic sediments, has clearer water and is less affected by human activities. Macrophytobenthic species richness on both reference areas is larger than previously thought. Considering previous records, there are 164 species of macrophytes in AA and 111 species in SG, of which 59 and 74 species are first records for each respective location. The higher species richness at the AA may result from a higher habitat complexity and lower turbidity, but a potential negative effect of enhanced human impacts at SG cannot be ruled out. Considering that macroalgae are relevant components of the benthic community, as producers and structurer organisms, the data presented herein provide a reliable baseline for future environmental studies, and thus may contribute to improve management policies within the unique ecosystem of Abrolhos.

  14. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  15. The Fossil Fauna of the Islands Region of Western Lake Erie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Lulu M., Comp.

    The islands of western Lake Erie are rock-bound isles that abound in rocky outcrops and quarries. The rocks of these islands are of two distinct types, Silurian dolomites and Devonian limestones. The dolomites, exposed in the Bass Islands and Sister Islands are virtually devoid of fossils. Conversely, the limestones of Johnson Island, Marblehead,…

  16. Magmatic Evolution of the Western Azores Islands (Corvo and Flores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea, P.; Galé, C.; Ubide, T.; Widom, E.; Lago, M.; França, Z.; Tierz, P.

    2012-12-01

    Corvo and Flores islands belong to the western group of the Azores archipelago, to the west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Several studies have proposed a common magmatic evolution for both islands. However, most of these studies focus on other Azorean islands. In order to investigate the processes that control the evolution of Corvo and Flores we have studied representative samples of the whole volcanostratigraphical sequence in both islands, including lava flows and dikes. Similarly to other oceanic islands, Corvo and Flores are made up of an alternation of porphyritic rocks and microlitic rocks. The former are picrobasalts and basalts with 5 to 60 volume fraction of large (2-15 mm), primitive antecrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The latter are Mg-poor hawaites to trachytes. The Mg-rich composition of the porphyritic rocks is due to the accumulation of primitive antecrysts within a more evolved groundmass. In contrast, the composition of the microlitic rocks provides information on the differentiation processes that controlled the evolution of both islands. The microlitic rocks present holocrystalline to hypocrystalline textures with a mineral assemblage mainly composed of microcrysts of plagioclase, olivine, clinopyroxene opaque minerals and accessory amphibole and apatite. Their major element whole rock composition can be best modeled by a polybaric fractional crystallization process (MELTS software) starting at 500 MPa with cooling steps of 5 degrees Celsius and a water content of 1 %, starting from the most primitive analyzed microlitic rock (MgO: 9.04%; Cr: 630 ppm; Ni: 200 ppm). Hence, we confirm that both islands derived from a common primary magma. The crystallization of the antecrysts included in the porphyritic rocks was probably related to the initial stages of the differentiation process. On the other hand, the microlitic rocks and the groundmass of the porphyritic rocks are related to the residual melts of the polybaric fractional

  17. Macrofauna associated with the brown algae Dictyota spp. (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotaceae) in the Sebastião Gomes Reef and Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Tauana Junqueira; Güth, Arthur Ziggiatti; Bromberg, Sandra; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomic richness and distributional patterns of the macrofauna associated with the algae genus Dictyota from the Abrolhos Bank (Eastern Brazilian coast) are analyzed. Macrofauna comprised a total of 9586 specimens; a complete faunal list of the most abundant taxa (Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca, accounting for 95.6%) resulted in 64 families and 120 species. Forty six species are registered for the first time for the Abrolhos Bank, of which 3 are also new for the Brazilian coast. The most abundant families were Ampithoidae amphipods (with Ampithoe ramondi as the main faunal component), Janiridae isopods, Rissoellidae gastropods and Syllidae polychaetes. Comparisons were made between summer and winter periods and among sites from Sebastião Gomes Reef, near the coast, and from Siriba Island, in the Abrolhos Archipelago, away from the mainland. Algae size was lower in the summer, when faunal density was higher, suggesting a possible effect of grazing. Macrofaunal communities were significantly different among sites and periods. Coastal and external communities were markedly different and winter had the greatest effects on the fauna. Environmental conditions related to sediment type and origin and turbidity appear to be a good scenario for our macrofauna distribution results.

  18. High-Ti basalt from the Abrolhos platform, offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S: implications for mantle metasomatism and heterogeneity, South Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, R.V.; Ragland, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and core samples of the Abrolhos islands and platform (30,000 km/sup 2/), offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S, yields 35-65 Ma mafic flows and hypabyssal and cumulate rocks. (a) Basalt has very high TiO/sub 2/ attended by high FeO* but not proportionate amounts of incompatible elements; extreme Ti is shown by TiO/sub 2/ 5% at FeO*/MgOapprox. 2.5; LREE enrichment, La/sub (n)/ 80-110, La/Yb/sub (n)/approx. 8.5, Zr/Nbapprox. 6, Zr/Y approx. 7 are those of P-type MORB. (b) Cpx is transitional, Fs/sub 14-23/Wo/sub 42-36/, TiO/sub 2/ 1-2%, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2-5%. (c) Cumulates are clinopyroxenite and wehrlite, with cpx compositions like those of the basalts. The unusually high Ti, several trace elements, and mineral compositions correspond to certain high-TiO/sub 2/ flows and dikes in neighboring Serra Geral CFB province. Age differences and approx. 2 x higher P, Ba, and Sr in Serra Geral point to Abrolhos representing (re-)melting of an enriched CFB source-area similar to that for Serra Geral CFB but differing in metasomatic phases such as ap, amph, and mica. Extensive fractionation of enriched tholeiites with major-element compositions of certain S. Atlantic basin basalts accounts for Abrolhos compositions except for extreme Ti. Cumulates attest to the chamber environment necessary for fractionation, but high Ti must reflect the mantle source. Because Abrolhos rocks have compositional links to both continental and oceanic magmatism that occurred since Gondwanaland rifting, source-regions for each may have been similar throughout South Atlantic history, but with notable anomalies, due in part to localized Fe-Ti metasomatism.

  19. Three dimensional perspective view of portion of western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three dimensional perspective view of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperature Radar on the 40th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar image on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation map. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows dark. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43938.

  20. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display... fireworks display on the waters of western Long Island Sound, Mamaroneck, NY, no rain date is scheduled...

  1. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  2. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain PAB 2.2 Isolated from Abrolhos Bank (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno S. O.; Nobrega, Maria S.; Leomil, Luciana; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Garcia, Gizele D.; Dias, Graciela; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain PAB 2.2, isolated from water of Parcel de Abrolhos coral reef (17°57′32.7″; 38°30′20.3″), on Abrolhos Bank, at a depth of 12 m. The assembly consists of 4,434,635 bp and contains 40 contigs, with a G+C content of 41.60%. PMID:28280012

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain PAB 2.2 Isolated from Abrolhos Bank (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno S O; Nobrega, Maria S; Leomil, Luciana; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Garcia, Gizele D; Dias, Graciela; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2017-03-09

    We present here the draft genome sequence of Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain PAB 2.2, isolated from water of Parcel de Abrolhos coral reef (17°57'32.7″; 38°30'20.3″), on Abrolhos Bank, at a depth of 12 m. The assembly consists of 4,434,635 bp and contains 40 contigs, with a G+C content of 41.60%.

  5. Cetacean records along a coastal-offshore gradient in the Vitória-Trindade Chain, western South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wedekin, L L; Rossi-Santos, M R; Baracho, C; Cypriano-Souza, A L; Simões-Lopes, P C

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic waters are difficult to assess, and there are many gaps in knowledge regarding cetacean occurrence. To fill some of these gaps, this article provides important cetacean records obtained in the winter of 2010 during a dedicated expedition to collect visual and acoustic information in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts. We observed 19 groups of cetaceans along a 1300-km search trajectory, with six species being identified: the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae, N = 9 groups), the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, N = 1), the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N = 1), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis, N = 1), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, N = 2), and the killer whale (Orcinus orca, N = 1). Most humpback whale groups (N = 7; 78%) were observed in the Vitória-Trindade seamounts, especially the mounts close to the Abrolhos Bank. Only one lone humpback whale was observed near Trindade Island after a search effort encompassing more than 520 km. From a total of 28 acoustic stations, humpback whale songs were only detected near the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, where most groups of this species were visually detected (including a competitive group and groups with calves). The presence of humpback whales at the Trindade Island and surroundings is most likely occasional, with few sightings and low density. Finally, we observed a significant number of humpback whales along the seamounts close to the Abrolhos Bank, which may function as a breeding habitat for this species. We also added important records regarding the occurrence of cetaceans in these mounts and in the Western South Atlantic, including the endangered fin whale.

  6. A land-bridge island perspective on mammalian extinctions in western North American parks.

    PubMed

    Newmark, W D

    In recent years, a number of authors have suggested several geometric principles for the design of nature reserves based upon the hypothesis that nature reserves are analogous to land-bridge islands. Land-bridge islands are islands that were formerly connected to the mainland and were created by a rise in the level of the ocean. Land-bridge islands are considered supersaturated with species in that the ratio of island to mainland species numbers is higher than expected from the area of the island. As a result, the rate of extinction should exceed the rate of colonization on a land-bridge island, resulting in a loss of species that is suggested to be related to the size and degree of isolation of the island. If nature reserves are considered to be similar to land-bridge islands, because most are slowly becoming isolated from their surroundings by habitat disturbance outside the reserves, several predictions follow. First, the total number of extinctions should exceed the total number of colonizations within a reverse; second, the number of extinctions should be inversely related to reserve size; and third, the number of extinctions should be directly related to reserve age. I report here that the natural post-establishment loss of mammalian species in 14 western North American national parks is consistent with these predictions of the land-bridge island hypothesis and that all but the largest western North American national parks are too small to retain an intact mammalian fauna.

  7. Island groundwater resources, impacts of abstraction and a drying climate: Rottnest Island, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Post, Vincent E. A.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquifers provide a source of water for more than one billion people, with island freshwater lenses being some of the most vulnerable coastal groundwater systems due to their susceptibility to saltwater intrusion. Basic hydrogeological and hydrochemical knowledge regarding the recharge and salinisation processes of freshwater lenses is important to ensure sustainable utilisation, especially considering possible climate change effects. This paper makes an assessment of the fate of a freshwater lens in a drying climate through a comparison of current and historic hydrochemical data, which to the author's knowledge is unique to this study. Fresh groundwater stable isotope signatures (δ18O, δ2H) reflect local amount weighted rainfall signatures (δ18O: -3.8‰; δ2H: -15.1‰), and confirm rainfall as the origin of fresh groundwater (δ18O: -4.47 to -3.82‰; δ2H: -20.0 to -16.6‰). Mixing with seawater was identified through enriched groundwater δ18O and δ2H signatures (maximum values of -0.36‰ and -1.4‰ respectively) compared to local rainfall and higher salinity (maximum 29,267 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)) in a number of monitoring wells around the freshwater lens. Enhanced seawater intrusion detected in the northern section of the lens area was identified through significantly increased TDS values over the last 20-40 years, with increases of up to 3000% observed between 1990 and 2014. A reduction in the extent of freshwater by approximately 1 km2 was identified since 1977, which was found to be primarily caused by a reduction in recharge to the freshwater lens due to a ∼20% decline in winter rainfall in the south-west Western Australian region since the mid 1960s. Groundwater abstraction was found to equate to between 5% and 9% of the estimated recharge for the island, and is not a significant factor in the reduction of the lens extent compared to the observed decline in rainfall recharge. Interestingly, seawater intrusion into the fresh

  8. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  9. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale.

  10. Geophysical data from offshore of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Cat Island to Western Horn Island, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Baldwin, W.E.; Danforth, W.W.; DeWitt, N.T.; Forde, A.S.; Foster, D.S.; Kelso, K.W.; Pfeiffer, W.R.; Turecek, A.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Twichell, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    This report contains the geophysical and geospatial data that were collected along the western offshore side of the Gulf Islands of Mississippi on the research vessel Tommy Munro during two cruises in 2010. Geophysical data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and St. Petersburg, Forida, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Mobile District. Bathymetric-sonar, sidescan-sonar, and Chirp seismic-reflection data were acquired with the following equipment, respectively: Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SwathPlus interferometric sonars; Klein 3000 and 3900 dual-frequency sidescan sonars; and an EdgeTech 512i Chirp sub-bottom profiling system. The long-term goals of this mapping effort are to produce high-quality, high-resolution geologic maps and interpretations that can be utilized to identify sand resources within the region, to better understand the Holocene evolution, and to anticipate future changes in this coastal system. Processed geospatial data files and the geophysical data provided in this report help attain these goals.

  11. Soils of the Galindez Island, Argentine archipelago, Western Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abakumov, Evgeny; Parnikoza, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic Peninsula is a part of Antarctica which is characterized by increased soil diversity, caused by specific of parent materials and diversity of non-vascular and vascular plants. Soils of Galindez Island have been investigated during the 18-th Ukranian Antarctic Expedition 2013/14. This Island situated in Argentine archipelago (coastal part of Antarctic Peninsula). Soils of Galindez Island presented by following types: Leptosols, Lithosols, Histic Lithosols and Leptosols and some Gleyic soils, located in lowlands and coastal parts. An average solum profile thickness is 3-19 cm which result from the small depth of debris's, underplayed by massive crystallic rocks. The permafrost layer is located within the massive rock, but not in coarse friable parent material. The soils with bird influence are widely spread both in coastal and central part of Island. In the coastal parts we can find typical Ornithosols in the penguin rockeries areas. The main aim of our investigation was characterization of soils formed under vegetation, exactly under Deschampsia antarctica Desv. localities. Argentine Islands is the central part of D. antarctica spreading area in region of Antarctic peninsula. Probably, these islands colonized by hairgrass mainly due to ornitogenic activity. So, coastal population appearance related with Larus dominicanus nest areas and feeding activity. Thus, we found typical post ornithogenic soils here. This kind of soils we also observed in population of hairgrass of Galindez mainland where it was connected with the other Antarctic bird - Catharacta maccormicki activity. Thus, the soil diversity and soil geochemistry of the Galindez Island are closely related to the activity of birds. The spatial pattern of soils, their chemistry and organic matter quality is discussed in relation with distribution of bird nesting and feeding activity.

  12. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Vanessa Moura Dos; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013-2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future.

  13. Carbonate Production by Benthic Communities on Shallow Coralgal Reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Vanessa Moura; Karez, Cláudia Santiago; Mariath, Rodrigo; de Moraes, Fernando Coreixas; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Tomazetto; Brasileiro, Poliana Silva; Bahia, Ricardo da Gama; Lotufo, Tito Monteiro da Cruz; Ramalho, Laís Vieira; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of reef builders, non-builders and the calcium carbonate produced by communities established in Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) were determined in three Abrolhos Bank shallow reefs during the period from 2012 to 2014. In addition, the seawater temperature, the irradiance, and the amount and composition of the sediments were determined. The inner and outer reef arcs were compared. CAUs located on the inner reef shelf were under the influence of terrigenous sediments. On the outer reefs, the sediments were composed primarily of marine biogenic carbonates. The mean carbonate production in shallow reefs of Abrolhos was 579 ± 98 g m-2 y-1. The builder community was dominated by crustose coralline algae, while the non-builder community was dominated by turf. A marine heat wave was detected during the summer of 2013–2014, and the number of consecutive days with a temperature above or below the summer mean was positively correlated with the turf cover increase. The mean carbonate production of the shallow reefs of Abrolhos Bank was greater than the estimated carbonate production measured for artificial structures on several other shallow reefs of the world. The calcimass was higher than the non-calcareous mass, suggesting that the Abrolhos reefs are still in a positive carbonate production balance. Given that marine heat waves produce an increase of turf cover on the shallow reefs of the Abrolhos, a decrease in the cover represented by reef builders and shifting carbonate production are expected in the near future. PMID:27119151

  14. Physical forcing mechanisms controlling the variability of chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks-Eastern Brazilian Shelf.

    PubMed

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003-2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels

  15. The terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago: species list and ecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Dutra, G F; Vrcibradic, D; Menezes, V A

    2002-05-01

    We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the Abrolhos Archipelago (a group of five islands located ca. 70 km off the southern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil) and analyze here some of its ecological aspects such as diet, thermal ecology, activity, and some reproductive parameters. Three lizards comprise the archipelago's terrestrial reptile fauna: Tropidurus torquatus (Tropiduridae), Mabuya agilis (Scincidae), and Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae). The first two are diurnal and the latter is crepuscular/nocturnal (initiating activity at ca. 17:30). The activity period of T. torquatus extended from 5:30 to 18:30 h. Mean field body temperatures of active T. torquatus, M. agilis, and H. mabouia were, respectively, 34.0 +/- 3.7 degrees C (range 23.8-38.0 degrees C; N = 75), 34.5 +/- 2.2 degrees C (range 30.8-37.0 degrees C; N = 6), and 26.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C (range 24.8-28.0 degrees C; N = 8). The predominant prey items in the diet of T. torquatus were ants, coleopterans, and hemipterans. In the diet of M. agilis, coleopterans were the most frequent prey items. For H. mabouia, the most important dietary items were orthopterans. Clutch size of T. torquatus averaged 4.1 +/- 1.1 (range 2-6; N = 15) and was significantly related to female size (R2 = 0.618; p = 0.001; N = 15). Clutch size for H. mabouia was fixed (two) and mean litter size of the viviparous M. agilis was 3.3 +/- 0.6 (range 3-4; N = 3). Tropidurus torquatus and H. mabouia deposit their eggs under rocks in the study area, with the former burying them but not the latter; in both species, more than one female often oviposit under the same rock.

  16. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  17. Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?

    PubMed

    Desvars, Amélie; Michault, Alain; Bourhy, Pascale

    2013-09-09

    In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors.

  18. Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a major zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The western Indian Ocean includes more than one hundred tropical or subequatorial islands where leptospirosis constitutes a major public health problem. The clinical signs of the human disease are generally similar to an influenza-like syndrome, but acute forms of the disease are reported and mortality remains significant in this region. In animals, clinical forms are mainly asymptomatic but leptospirosis reduces the fertility of livestock, resulting in economic losses. The data available about human and animal leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands are diverse: human leptospirosis has been extensively studied in Reunion Island, Mayotte, and the Seychelles, whereas the human clinical disease has never been described in Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, or Rodrigues, mainly because of the deficiency in appropriate medical and diagnostic structures. The rat is recognized as the major reservoir host for the bacteria on all islands, but recent data from Reunion Island indicates that almost all mammals can be a source of contamination. The incidence of leptospirosis in humans is highly seasonal, and linked to the rainy season, which is favorable for the environmental maintenance and transmission of the bacteria. The epidemiology of leptospirosis is fully island-dependent, related to the number of mammalian species, the origins of the introduced mammalian species, the relationships between humans and fauna, and environmental as well as cultural and socio-economic factors. PMID:24016311

  19. Taxonomic and Functional Metagenomic Signature of Turfs in the Abrolhos Reef System (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Juline M.; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Meirelles, Pedro M.; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Tenório, Márcio; Valle, Rogério; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Turfs are widespread assemblages (consisting of microbes and algae) that inhabit reef systems. They are the most abundant benthic component in the Abrolhos reef system (Brazil), representing greater than half the coverage of the entire benthic community. Their presence is associated with a reduction in three-dimensional coral reef complexity and decreases the habitats available for reef biodiversity. Despite their importance, the taxonomic and functional diversity of turfs remain unclear. We performed a metagenomics and pigments profile characterization of turfs from the Abrolhos reefs. Turf microbiome primarily encompassed Proteobacteria (mean 40.57% ± s.d. 10.36, N = 1.548,192), Cyanobacteria (mean 35.04% ± s.d. 15.5, N = 1.337,196), and Bacteroidetes (mean 11.12% ± s.d. 4.25, N = 424,185). Oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, chemolithotrophs, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AANP) bacteria showed a conserved functional trait of the turf microbiomes. Genes associated with oxygenic photosynthesis, AANP, sulfur cycle (S oxidation, and DMSP consumption), and nitrogen metabolism (N2 fixation, ammonia assimilation, dissimilatory nitrate and nitrite ammonification) were found in the turf microbiomes. Principal component analyses of the most abundant taxa and functions showed that turf microbiomes differ from the other major Abrolhos benthic microbiomes (i.e., corals and rhodoliths) and seawater. Taken together, these features suggest that turfs have a homogeneous functional core across the Abrolhos Bank, which holds diverse microbial guilds when comparing with other benthic organisms. PMID:27548380

  20. Shallow seismic imaging of flank collapse structures in oceanic island volcanoes: Application to the Western Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.; González, P.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic flank collapse counts among the many hazards associated with volcanic activity. This type of event involves the mobilization of large volumes, producing debris avalanches. It affects mostly oceanic island volcanoes, involving the potential for tsunami occurrence. Geophysical imaging can illuminate subvolcanic features such as volcano-tectonic structures, magmatic plumbing systems or differences in rock type. The most commonly used geophysical methods are gravity, electromagnetics and seismics. In particular, seismic measurements quantify anomalies in seismic waves propagation velocities and can be used to obtain information on the subsurface arrangement of different materials. In the Western Canary Islands, the Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma (Canary Islands) has been proposed to be near the collapse stage. Previous geophysical studies that have been carried out on the flank of the volcano comprise gravity and electromagnetic methods. These types of surveys gather information on the deep structures of the volcano (1-2 km). In this project, we complement previous studies by using seismic methods to investigate the near-surface seismic structure of the Cumbre Vieja fault system (La Palma Island) and the structure of the well-developed San Andres fault system (El Hierro Island). We aim to compare the Cumbre Vieja and San Andres fault systems to infer the degree of maturity of collapse structures. We carried out reflection and refraction seismic surveys in order to image approximately the first 10 meters of the subsurface. We used 24 low frequency (4,5 Hz) geophones as receivers and a sledge hammer as the seismic source. The survey lines were located across visible parts of the fault systems at the Cumbre Vieja volcano and the San Andres fault in El Hierro. Here, we present the survey setup and results from the preliminary analysis of the data.

  1. High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Twichell, David C.; Foster, David S.; Worley, Charles R.; Irwin, Barry J.; Danforth, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in the nearshore area surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael during September 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts, Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes the results of the short-term goals of this collaborative effort, which were to map the geology of the inner shelf zone of the western Elizabeth Islands and study the geologic processes that have contributed to its evolution. Data collected during the survey include: Bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, chirp seismic-reflection data , sound velocity profiles, and navigation data. The long-term goals of this project are to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and inventory subtidal marine habitat type and distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

  2. Feeding of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Yazvenko, S B; McDonald, T L; Blokhin, S A; Johnson, S R; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Nielson, R; Wainwright, P W

    2007-11-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG) on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-9 September 2001. A portion of the primary feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located in the vicinity of the seismic survey. This paper presents data to assess whether western gray whale bottom feeding activity, as indicated by visible mud plumes, was affected by seismic operations. The mitigation and monitoring program associated with the seismic survey included aerial surveys during 19 July-19 November 2001. These aerial surveys documented the local and regional distribution, abundance, and bottom feeding activity of western gray whales. Data on gray whale feeding activity before, during and after the seismic survey were collected, with the whales assumed to be feeding on the benthos if mud plumes were observed on the surface. The data were used to assess the influence of seismic survey and other factors (including environmental) on feeding activity of western gray whales. A stepwise multiple regression analysis failed to find a statistically significant effect (alpha = 0.05) of the seismic survey on frequency of occurrence of mud plumes of western gray whales used as a proxy to evaluate bottom feeding activity in Piltun feeding area. The regression indicated that transect number (a proxy for water depth, related to distance from shore) and swell height (a proxy for sea state) were the only variables that had a significant effect on frequency of whale mud plumes. It is concluded that the 2001 seismic survey had no measurable effect (alpha = 0.05) on bottom feeding activity of western gray whales off Sakhalin Island.

  3. Molecular phylogeography reveals island colonization history and diversification of western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia: Nectariniidae).

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Bermingham, Eldredge; Bowie, Rauri C K; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Thébaud, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    We constructed a phylogenetic hypothesis for western Indian Ocean sunbirds (Nectarinia) and used this to investigate the geographic pattern of their diversification among the islands of the Indian Ocean. A total of 1309 bp of mitochondrial sequence data was collected from the island sunbird taxa of the western Indian Ocean region, combined with sequence data from a selection of continental (African and Asian) sunbirds. Topological and branch length information combined with estimated divergence times are used to present hypotheses for the direction and sequence of colonization events in relation to the geological history of the Indian Ocean region. Indian Ocean sunbirds fall into two well-supported clades, consistent with two independent colonizations from Africa within the last 3.9 million years. The first clade contains island populations representing the species Nectarinia notata, while the second includes Nectarinia souimanga, Nectarinia humbloti, Nectarinia dussumieri, and Nectarinia coquereli. With respect to the latter clade, application of Bremer's [Syst. Biol. 41 (1992) 436] ancestral areas method permits us to posit the Comoros archipelago as the point of initial colonization in the Indian Ocean. The subsequent expansion of the souimanga clade across its Indian Ocean range occurred rapidly, with descendants of this early expansion remaining on the Comoros and granitic Seychelles. The data suggest that a more recent expansion from Anjouan in the Comoros group led to the colonization of Madagascar by sunbirds representing the souimanga clade. In concordance with the very young geological age of the Aldabra group, the sunbirds of this archipelago have diverged little from the Madagascar population; this is attributed to colonization of the Aldabra archipelago in recent times, in one or possibly two or more waves originating from Madagascar. The overall pattern of sunbird radiation across Indian Ocean islands indicates that these birds disperse across ocean

  4. Newly discovered reefs in the southern Abrolhos Bank, Brazil: Anthropogenic impacts and urgent conservation needs.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, E F; Bertoncini, A A; Pinheiro, H T; Machado, L F; Vilar, C C; Guabiroba, H C; Costa, T J F; Bueno, L S; Santos, L N; Francini-Filho, R B; Hostim-Silva, M; Joyeux, J-C

    2017-01-15

    The Abrolhos Bank is an area of high ecological, socio-economic importance and harbour the richest and most-extensive coral reefs in the South Atlantic. Here we report the discovery of shallow (12-25m depth) reef complex with ten large biogenic structures, intermediate between the typical mushroom-shaped pinnacles of the northern Abrolhos Bank (17°-18° S) and the small patch reefs found on the central/southern coast of the Espírito Santo State (19°-20° S). The newly discovered reefs harbour a relatively rich and abundant reef community, with 73 fish and 14 benthic cnidarian species, including endangered and commercially important ones. We discuss on urgent needs of properly mapping and understanding the ecological functioning of this reef system. Information provided here is a baseline for future impact evaluations, particularly considering the recent worst environmental disaster of Brazil from a dam collapse in Doce river that affected the region.

  5. Digital seismic-reflection data from western Rhode Island Sound, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Soderberg, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    During 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a seismic-reflection survey in western Rhode Island Sound aboard the Research Vessel Neecho. Data from this survey were recorded in analog form and archived at the USGS Woods Hole Science Center's Data Library. Due to recent interest in the geology of Rhode Island Sound and in an effort to make the data more readily accessible while preserving the original paper records, the seismic data from this cruise were scanned and converted to Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) images and SEG-Y data files. Navigation data were converted from U.S. Coast Guard Long Range Aids to Navigation (LORAN-C) time delays to latitudes and longitudes, which are available in Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) shapefile format and as eastings and northings in space-delimited text format.

  6. History of Contamination and Coastal Hazards in Western Long Island Sound, N.Y.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Pant, H.; Varekamp, J.; Marchese, P.; Charles, T.; Bowman, A.; Vargas, W.; Balbas, A.; Boteju, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Long Island Sound, estuary borders metropolitan New York at its western end where it has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities and natural hazards such as storm surges and floods. The waters and sediments of western Long Island Sound (LIS) accumulate many pollutants including heavy metals and organic matter loadings. Seasonal hypoxic conditions are a major water quality problem, not only with regards to the damage to its ecosystems, but also for the important fishing industry that LIS sustains. On June 2006, we surveyed LIS from 73°30'W to 73°50'W from the R/V Hugh Sharp collecting high-resolution subbottom seismic (chirp) profiles, multibeam bathymetric data and 25 gravity cores (up to 3 m long). The total organic carbon (TOC) and mercury contents measured in the sediments confirm that their concentrations systematically increase from east to west towards New York City. Mercury concentrations increase westward from 700 to 1200 ppb with pre-industrial values of 50 ppb. In contrast, TOC concentrations indicate that eutrophied conditions did exist in western LIS prior to industrialization with pre-industrial concentrations of 3.8% in the west. These concentrations increased due to anthropogenic activities to values in excess of 10%. High-resolution chirp and sonar data reveal that bottom circulation in western LIS is constrained by bedrock some of which outcrops near 73°45'W. The LIS western outlet to the East River at 73°55'W is controlled by the narrow, shallow sill of Hell Gate. The funnel shape of LIS and these bedrock constrictions contribute to significantly decrease tidal and wind induced currents from east to west (60 to10 cm/s). We propose that this decrease in flow velocity leads to sediment deposition and to the concentration of pollutants. We further suggest that hypoxic conditions possibly existed prior to anthropogenic activities due to the basin morphology and decreased circulation. Previous studies based on stable O and C isotopes

  7. Characterization of nitrate contamination in groundwater in Gosan, western part of Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, E.; Kaown, D.; Kang, B.; Oh, S.; Moon, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Jeju Isalnd, composed of porous volcanic rocks, is located about 140 km south of the Korean peninsula. The annual mean rainfall of the island (1,975 mm) is about 600 mm higher than that of Korean mainland. Groundwater in Jeju Island is vulnerable to contamination sources in surface land because surface water easily percolates into groundwater when the rainfall event occurs. The western part of the island, where proportion of agricultural area is higher, nitrate contamination in groundwater has been observed. It is important to characterize nitrate contamination in the western part of the island to preserve the groundwater resources. In Gosan, located in the western part of Jeju Island, agricultural fields are broadly distributed resulting from readjustment of arable land in 1970s. Shallow perched groundwater is observed at the top soil layer with depth to water table range of 0.25 ~ 2.68. The nitrate-nitrogen concentration of the shallow groundwater is observed as 8.24 ~ 59.96 mg/l. The deep groundwater is distributed with depth to water table from 12.47 m to 29.11 m and the nitrate-nitrogen concentration is distributed between 0.10 ~ 29.16 mg/l. Such high concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the shallow groundwater might cause continuous nitrate contamination of deep groundwater in the study area. Analysis of stable isotope, δ 15N and δ18O of nitrate, in both shallow and deep groundwater was conducted to identify sources of nitrate and transformation processes of nitrogen. Shallow groundwater has broad ranges of δ 15N and δ18O values (δ 15N: 2.3 ~ 26.1‰, δ18O: 2.5 ~ 15.8‰) contrast to deep groundwater, which has limit ranges (δ 15N: 3.1 ~ 5.0‰, δ18O: 0.5 ~ 4.7‰). The source of nitrate in the deep groundwater was identified as the ammonium fertilizer and organic soil and in the shallow groundwater, complex source such as chemical fertilizer, organic soil and denitrification was consider to affect the nitrate contamination in the study area.

  8. The lofting of Western Pacific regional aerosol by island thermodynamics as observed around Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Trembath, J. A.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Allen, G.; Coe, H.

    2012-07-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol chemical composition, number concentration and size were measured throughout the lower troposphere of Borneo, a large tropical island in the western Pacific Ocean. Aerosol composition, size and number concentration measurements (using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe and Condensation Particle Counter, respectively) were made both upwind and downwind of Borneo, as well as over the island itself, on board the UK BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the OP3 project. Two meteorological regimes were identified - one dominated by isolated terrestrial convection (ITC) which peaked in the afternoon, and the other characterised by more regionally active mesoscale convective systems (MCS). Upwind profiles show aerosol to be confined to a shallow marine boundary layer below 930 ± 10 hPa (~760 m above sea level, a.s.l.). As this air mass advects over the island with the mean free troposphere synoptic flow during the ITC-dominated regime, it is convectively lofted above the terrestrial surface mixed layer to heights of between 945 ± 22 (~630 m a.s.l.) and 740 ± 44 hPa (~2740 m a.s.l.), consistent with a coupling between the synoptic steering level flow and island sea breeze circulations. Terrestrial aerosol was observed to be lofted into this higher layer through both moist convective uplift and transport through turbulent diurnal sea-breeze cells. At the peak of convective activity in the mid-afternoons, organic aerosol loadings in the lofted layer were observed to be substantially higher than in the morning (by a mean factor of three). This organic matter is dominated by secondary aerosol from processing of biogenic gas phase precursors. Aerosol number concentration profiles suggest formation of new particles aloft in the atmosphere. By the time the air mass reaches the west coast of the island, terrestrial aerosol is enhanced in the lofted layer. Such uplift of aerosol in Borneo is expected to

  9. Bartonella Species Identified in Rodent and Feline Hosts from Island and Mainland Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, Dave; Adams, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. Cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of Bartonella spp. This study aimed to identify Bartonella spp. in Western Australia, Dirk Hartog Island (DHI), and Christmas Island (CI) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. Feral cats were collected from CI (n = 35), DHI (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (swWA; n = 58), and black rats were collected from CI (n = 48). Individuals were necropsied, ectoparasites were collected by external examination of carcasses, and splenic tissue was collected for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect Bartonella DNA. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected from two cats and Bartonella koehlerae DNA from one cat in southwest WA, but Bartonella DNA was not identified in cats on DHI or CI. Bartonella phoceensis (28/48 = 58.3%) and a novel Bartonella genotype (8/48 = 16.7%) based on the internal transcribed space region were detected in the spleens of black rats on CI. Detection of Bartonella spp. in each location corresponded to the presence of ectoparasites. Cats from southwest WA harbored four species of fleas, including Ctenocephalides felis, and black rats on CI were infested with multiple species of ectoparasites, including mites, fleas, and lice. Conversely, cats on Dirk Hartog and CI were free of ectoparasites. This study has identified the DNA of Bartonella species from island and mainland swWA with some (B. henselae and B. koehlerae) of known zoonotic importance. This study further extends the geographical range for the pathogenic B. koehlerae. The association of Bartonella with ectoparasites is unsurprising, but little is known about the specific vector competence of the ectoparasites identified in this study.

  10. Paleo-earthquakes recorded on marine terrace in the Mumaung Island, western Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishikura, M.; Okamura, Y.; Fujino, S.; Win, N.; Soe, T. T.; Thura, A.

    2008-12-01

    We found geomorphological evidence of intermittent abrupt sea level changes associated with earthquakes that occurred along the Rakhine coast of western Myanmar, facing the plate-boundary north of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake source. Based on air-photo interpretation, we identified Holocene marine terraces divided into at least four (partly six) steps that named L1-4 in descending order along the coast of the Mumaung Island. To measure its height and age, we conducted field survey at 5 sites in the island. The height of each steps are measured to be L1: 15-18m, L2: 12-14 m, L3: 7-10 m and L4: 3-5 m above mean sea level. The lowest terrace, L4, can be correlated to the 1762 Bengal earthquake because samples collected from in-situ uplifted oyster reef and micro atoll are dated to AD1430-1860 by AMS measurement. Amount of uplift of the 1762 event is estimated to 3-5 m in minimum, which is consistent with previous reports of Halsted (1843) and Mallet (1878). Higher terraces are radiocarbon-dated to be L2: AD 680-980 and L3: 150 BC-AD 60. Although reliable sample could not be obtained from the L1 terrace, it is probably correlated with the highest terrace along the coast of Phayonkar Islands, further north of the Mumaung Island, which was dated to 1295-600 BC by Aung et al. (2008). We thus conclude that large earthquake as well as the 1762 event accompanied with uplift of 3-5 m has recurred with interval of about 900 years.

  11. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area. PMID:24016261

  12. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Stachurski, Frédéric; Tortosa, Pablo; Rahajarison, Patrick; Jacquet, Stéphanie; Yssouf, Amina; Huber, Karine

    2013-09-09

    Recent studies have produced new insight into the origin and distribution of some cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, introduced from Tanzania in 2002, is now well established on Grande Comore but has not yet reached the other islands of the archipelago (Mohéli, Anjouan and Mayotte). Only one of the two clades identified in Africa has settled so far. Amblyomma variegatum, which was not supposed to be able to persist in the Antananarivo region (1300 m) nor in other Malagasy regions of high altitude without regular introductions of ticks by infested cattle, is now endemic as a general rule up to 1600 m although other regions of lower altitude (1400 m) are still free of the tick. This species remains confined in a small area of the west coast on La Reunion Island. On the contrary, Hyalomma dromedarii could not settle on Madagascar where it was introduced in 2008 and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is not yet present in Grande Comore despite regular introductions by infested cattle from Tanzania. A phylogeographic approach has been carried out at an intra-specific level for A. variegatum. This study has led to the identification of two main lineages, one covering all species distribution and one restricted to East Africa and the Indian Ocean area. These two lineages are in sympatry in Madagascar where a high genetic diversity has been described, whereas a lower genetic diversity is observed on other islands. These results seem to agree with the historical data concerning the introduction of the tick in the Indian Ocean area.

  13. Phylogeography of the small Indian civet and origin of introductions to western Indian Ocean islands.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Patel, Riddhi; Veron, Géraldine; Goodman, Steven M; Willsch, Maraike; Vasconcelos, Raquel; Lourenço, André; Sigaud, Marie; Justy, Fabienne; Joshi, Bheem Dutt; Fickel, Jörns; Wilting, Andreas

    2016-12-11

    The biogeographic dynamics affecting the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia during the Plio-Pleistocene has generated complex biodiversity patterns. We assessed the molecular biogeography of the small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) through mitogenome and cytochrome b + control region sequencing of 89 historical and modern samples to (i) establish a time-calibrated phylogeography across the species' native range and (ii) test introduction scenarios to western Indian Ocean islands. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses identified three geographic lineages (East Asia, sister-group to Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent + northern Indochina) diverging 3.2 - 2.3 Mya, with no clear signature of past demographic expansion. Within Southeast Asia, Balinese populations separated from the rest 2.6 - 1.3 Mya. Western Indian Ocean populations were assigned to the Indian subcontinent + northern Indochina lineage and had the lowest mitochondrial diversity. Approximate Bayesian computation did not distinguish between single vs multiple introduction scenarios. The early diversification of the small Indian civet was likely shaped by humid periods in the Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene that created evergreen rainforest barriers, generating areas of intra-specific endemism in the Indian subcontinent, East and Southeast Asia. Later Pleistocene dispersals through drier conditions in South and Southeast Asia were likely, giving rise to the species' current natural distribution. Our molecular data supported the delineation of only four subspecies in V. indica, including an endemic Balinese lineage. Our study also highlighted the influence of pre-first millennium AD introductions to western Indian Ocean islands, with Indian and/or Arab traders probably introducing the species for its civet oil.

  14. Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (≤70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

  15. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Groundwater in the Western Coastal Area in Jeju Volcanic Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Koh, G.; Hwang, S.

    2008-12-01

    Residents in Jeju volcanic island use most part of water resources from groundwater. Actually, in the island, there exist no perennial streams or rivers due to extremely high infiltration rate of water into surface soils and rocks (basalt and trachyte). In the western part of Jeju Island, high pumping rate of wells caused great drawdown especially during drought period. By this current trend, great decline of groundwater level as well as seawater intrusion is predictable. According to drill data from 13 wells for monitoring seawater intrusion installed in the western part of the island by the authority of Jeju Special Governed Island, the geology of the western area is composed of five units: lava sequence (hyaloclastic breccia, acicular feldspar basalt, olivine basalt, aphanitic feldspar basalt, augite feldspar basalt, and porphyritic feldspar basalt), sedimentary layer (containing gravel and sand) intercalated in lava sequences, Seoguipo Formation (gravels, unconsolidated sands, shell fossils, and sandy mudstone), trachyandesite and tuff occurring in Seoguipo Formation, and U Formation. Geophysical well logging on the five monitoring wells (Panpo (PP), Kosan (KS), Shindo (SD), Ilgwa (IG), and Hamo (HM)), resulted in approximately 20~40 cps (counts per second) of natural gamma intensity in lava sequence. High gamma intensity of approximately 60 cps is noticeble in the sedimentary layer intercalated in lava sequence, and in Seoguipo Formation, especially clay minerals. Electric conductivity (EC) on PP, KS and IG wells showed 100~400 μS/cm with fresh water range. However, EC on SD and HM wells increased up to around 20,000~10,000 μS/cm with depth, which indicates variation from freshwater to salt water. Pumping tests were performed on nine monitoring wells in the range of 900~2,300m3/d and with an average discharge rate of 1,371m3/d. Among them, data from only five monitoring wells were used for pumping test analysis, since the other four wells were highly

  16. Pseudococcus saccharicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the British Virgin Islands: first Western Hemisphere records, with records of a co-occurring lady beetle, Hyperaspis Scutifera (Mulsant)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudococcus saccharicola Takahashi was collected on Guana Island, and nearby Beef Island and Tortola, in the British Virgin Islands (BVI). The records are the first in the Western Hemisphere for this potentially important Old World pest of sugarcane and certain other graminoid crops. Host plants on...

  17. The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

  18. Late Miocene/Early Pliocene vertebrate fauna from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): an update.

    PubMed

    Bover, Pere; Rofes, Juan; Bailon, Salvador; Agustí, Jordi; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Torres, Enric; Alcover, Josep Antoni

    2014-03-01

    The vertebrate fossil record from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) has improved considerably over the past decade, especially in Mallorca and Menorca. In Menorca, the Pliocene terrestrial fauna was updated by the discovery and description of the large-sized leporid Nuralagus, several reptiles and an amphibian. In Mallorca, paleontological exploration yielded 2 deposits with a Late Miocene/Early Pliocene chronology, Caló den Rafelino (CdR) and Na Burguesa-1 (NB-1). So far, 4 new mammalian taxa and 2 new reptiles have been identified for the CdR deposit, whereas the faunal assemblage from the recently discovered deposit (Apr 2012) of NB-1 is currently composed of, at least, 6 terrestrial mammals, 8 reptiles and an amphibian. Its faunal composition and some primitive characteristics of the obtained taxa suggest that the chronology of this deposit is slightly earlier than the CdR. The terrestrial vertebrates recorded in these 2 Mallorcan deposits are changing the view of the paleofaunal assemblage previously known for the Plio-Pleistocene of the island. Morphological characteristics displayed by some of the taxa suggest that these faunas would be at the beginning of an isolated evolution. In this paper we present a preliminary report on the fossils recovered from the NB-1 deposit, as well as some unpublished data from CdR, and we analyze the whole fauna from both Mallorcan deposits, focusing on taxonomical and paleobiogeographical aspects.

  19. 76 FR 54715 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA470 Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch...

  20. Influenza A Virus on Oceanic Islands: Host and Viral Diversity in Seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E.; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-01-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  1. Influenza A virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes.

  2. Haemoproteus iwa in Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor) in the Islands of the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Matthieu; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Corre, Matthieu; Tortosa, Pablo; Lebarbenchon, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Blood parasites of the sub-genus Haemoproteus have been reported in seabirds, in particular in species in the Suliformes order. These parasites are transmitted by hippoboscid flies of the genus Olfersia; strong specificity has been suggested between the vector and its vertebrate host. We investigated the prevalence of Haemoproteus infection in Suliformes and hippoboscid flies in two oceanic islands of the Western Indian Ocean: Europa and Tromelin. In total, 209 blood samples were collected from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), masked boobies (Sula dactylatra) and red-footed boobies (Sula sula). Forty-one hippoboscid flies were also collected from birds. Seventeen frigatebirds and one fly collected on Europa tested positive for the presence of Haemoproteus parasites by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the Cytochrome b gene showed that parasites were closely related to Haemoproteus iwa reported from frigatebirds in the Pacific Ocean and in the Caribbean. Plasmodium was also detected in a frigatebird on Europa; however, its placement on the phylogenetic tree could not be resolved. We provide strong support for transmission of blood parasites in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean and suggest that migrations between the Pacific and the Indian oceans could favor the large-scale distribution of Haemoproteus iwa in frigatebird populations.

  3. Three dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional image of Isla Isabela in the western Galapagos Islands off the western coast of Ecuador, South America. The view was constructed by overlaying a Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar image on a TOPSAR digital elevation map. The vertical scale in this image is exaggerated by a factor of 1.87. The SIR-C/X-SAR image was taken on the 40th orbit of the shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about .5 degrees south latitude and 91 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 75 km by 60 km. The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flowas as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth Pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43913.

  4. Geochemical Characteristics of Typhoon - and Tsunami - Induced Deposits from Western Kyushu Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamaru, K.; Woodruff, J. D.; Kundu, S.; Cook, T.

    2014-12-01

    Western Kyushu Island is a region of Japan frequently impacted by typhoon landfalls. This region is relatively tectonically stable with few active faults and therefore known for far fewer great earthquakes when compared to the Nankai Trough region. Only a few studies have examined the history of tsunamis impacting the region. Hence, studies from western Kyushu provide a unique opportunity to study tsunami deposits in a broader geographic context in order to delineate regional typhoon impacts. This study presents results from both modern analogue from Typhoon Neoguri in 2014 and legendary Kamikaze Typhoons from 13th century. The initial coring was conducted in 2010. Total of 9 sediment cores were collected from two natural freshwater lakes along the western coast of Kyushu: Lake Daija (32.248°N, 129.985°E) and Lake Kawahara (32.624°N, 129.831°E). In order to further understand the characteristics of typhoon deposits, we collected 4 additional sediment cores from Kawahara in July of 2014, approximately one week after landfall of Typhoon Neoguri. We use a multi-proxy approach to identify event deposits. These approaches include loss on ignition, X-Ray fluorescence, X-radiograph, grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and SEM/EDS analyses. Initial results yielded commonalities between the two lakes. Linear interpolation of the most prominent event deposits within multiple cores, presenting highs in Sr and Ca intensities, constrain the dates of deposits of interest to the late 13th century—consistent with the Mongol invasions. Here we present preliminary geochemical results from Lake Kawahara, which further constrain the typhoon deposits, and use this as a reference event for comparison to tsunami deposits found in other regions.

  5. Remotely Monitoring Change in Vegetation Cover on the Montebello Islands, Western Australia, in Response to Introduced Rodent Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Cheryl; Van Dongen, Ricky; Huntley, Bart; Gibson, Lesley; Morris, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The Montebello archipelago consists of 218 islands; 80 km from the north-west coast of Western Australia. Before 1912 the islands had a diverse terrestrial fauna. By 1952 several species were locally extinct. Between 1996 and 2011 rodents and cats were eradicated, and 5 mammal and 2 bird species were translocated to the islands. Monitoring of the broader terrestrial ecosystem over time has been limited. We used 20 dry-season Landsat images from 1988 to 2013 and estimation of green fraction cover in nadir photographs taken at 27 sites within the Montebello islands and six sites on Thevenard Island to assess change in vegetation density over time. Analysis of data averaged across the 26-year period suggests that 719 ha out of 2169 ha have increased in vegetation cover by up to 32%, 955 ha have remained stable and 0.6 ha have declined in vegetation cover. Over 492 ha (22%) had no vegetation cover at any time during the period analysed. Chronological clustering analysis identified two breakpoints in the average vegetation cover data occurring in 1997 and 2003, near the beginning and end of the rodent eradication activities. On many islands vegetation cover was declining prior to 1996 but increased after rodents were eradicated from the islands. Data for North West and Trimouille islands were analysed independently because of the potential confounding effect of native fauna being introduced to these islands. Mala (Lagorchestes hirsutus) and Shark Bay mice (Pseudomys fieldi) both appear to suppress native plant recruitment but not to the same degree as introduced rodents. Future research should assess whether the increase in vegetation cover on the Montebello islands is due to an increase in native or introduced plants. PMID:25436454

  6. Topographical and hydrographical impacts on the structure of microphytoplankton assemblages on the Abrolhos Bank region, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susini-Ribeiro, Sylvia M. M.; Pompeu, Mayza; Gaeta, Salvador A.; de Souza, Júlia S. D.; Masuda, Laura S. D.

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at the Abrolhos Bank (15°60‧-21°30‧S; 37°00‧-40°30‧W), Brazil, in July and August 2007, to evaluate the topographic and hydrographic influences on microphytoplankton composition and relative abundance. Net phytoplankton was collected from the top 200 m of the water column to assess diversity proxies (species richness, Shannon index, dominance and equitability) and compared with thermohaline, nutrient and chlorophyll profiles. A total of 326 taxa occurred in the area. Patterns in spatial distribution of microphytoplankton assemblages were two-fold: a north-south gradient linked to variations in temperature and nitrite, and a coast-offshore gradient associated with the depth of the mixed layer and the Brunt-Väisälä maximum frequency. Microphytoplankton assemblages were typical of tropical oligotrophic environments. However, the inshore community found on the Abrolhos Bank was enriched by bottom dwelling, large-sized cells ressuspended from local sediments as a result of the highly dynamic coastal circulation. Species diversity was high in oceanic sites where water column stability as measured by the Brunt-Väisälä frequency achieved its maxima, but high values of ecological indexes were also found in the southern part of the study area influenced by bottom intrusions of nutrient-rich oceanic waters, giving support to the notion that phytoplankton diversity increases at intermediate levels of environmental disturbance.

  7. Role of Subducted Basalt in the Genesis Island Arc Magmas: Evidence from Western Aleutian Seafloor Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Brown, S. T.; Kelemen, P. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Hoernle, K.; Portnyagin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Western Aleutian seafloor lavas define a highly calc-alkaline series, with Mg numbers (Mg#, Mg/Mg+Fe) greater than 0.65 in dacitic lavas with 2-4% MgO at 63-70% SiO2. These lavas have uniformly radiogenic Hf and Nd and variable, but relatively unradiogenic, Sr and Pb, at the MORB-like end of the spectrum of island-arc lavas. Andesites and dacites have high Sr >1000 ppm, fractionated trace element patterns (Sr/Y=50-350, La/Yb=8-35, Dy/Yb=2-3.5), and low relative abundances of Nb and Ta (La/Ta=100-300), consistent with an enhanced role for residual or cumulate garnet + rutile. MORB-like isotope compositions and high MgO and Mg# relative to silica, rule out an origin for the andesites and dacites by fractional crystallization from basalt, except perhaps, by a process of melt-rock reaction with peridotite. The most fractionated trace element patterns are in western seafloor rhyodacites (69-70% SiO2), which were dredged from volcanic cones built on Bering Sea oceanic lithosphere, where the crust is probably no more than 10 km thick, and so unlikely to produce garnet during crustal melting. We interpret the western seafloor andesites and dacites to have been produced by melting of subducted MORB-like basalt in the eclogite facies, followed by interaction of the resulting high-silica melt with mantle peridotite. This interpretation is consistent with the tectonic setting in the western Aleutians, which is dominated by oblique convergence, capable of producing a relatively hot subducting plate. Western seafloor lavas define an end-member composition with MORB-like isotope compositions and fractionated trace element ratios, which falls at the end of the continuum of compositions for all Aleutian lavas. The end-member character of western seafloor lavas is clearest in plots highlighting their radiogenic Hf, Nd and strong relative depletions in Ta and Yb. The western seafloor lavas also define an end-member composition for Pb isotopes and Ce/Pb (Miller et al., Nature, 1994

  8. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  9. Implications of urbanization for artisanal parrotfish fisheries in the Western Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Sabetian, Armagan

    2010-04-01

    Increasing migration into urbanized centers in the Solomon Islands poses a great threat to adjacent coral reef fisheries because of negative effects on the fisheries and because it further erodes customary management systems. Parrotfish fisheries are of particular importance because the feeding habits of parrotfish (scrape and excavate coral) are thought to be critical to the resilience of coral reefs and to maintaining coral reef health within marine protected areas. We investigated the ecological impact of localized subsistence and artisanal fishing pressure on parrotfish fisheries in Gizo Town, Western Solomon Islands, by analyzing the density and size distribution of parrotfish with an underwater visual census (UVC), recall diary (i.e., interviews with fishers), and creel surveys to independently assess changes in abundance and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) over 2 years. We then compared parrotfish data from Gizo Town with equivalent data from sites open to and closed to fishing in Kida and Nusa Hope villages, which have different customary management regimes. Results indicated a gradient of customary management effectiveness. Parrotfish abundance was greater in customary management areas closed to fishing, especially with regard to larger fish sizes, than in areas open to fishing. The decline in parrotfish abundance from 2004 to 2005 in Gizo was roughly the same magnitude as the difference in abundance decline between inside and outside customary management marine reserves. Our results highlight how weak forms of customary management can result in the rapid decline of vulnerable fisheries around urbanized regions, and we present examples in which working customary management systems (Kinda and Nusa Hope) can positively affect the conservation of parrotfish--and reef fisheries in general--in the highly biodiverse Coral Triangle region.

  10. The Channel Islands Thrust Fault, Southern California: Structure at the Juncture Between the Western Transverse Ranges and the Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Langenheim, V. E.

    2004-12-01

    Potential-field data over the northern Channel Islands and Santa Barbara basin and seismic reflection data collected near these islands show the crustal structure near the tip of the Channel Island thrust fault. This fault dips north to underlie the Santa Barbara basin and is part of the regional fault system that separates the western Transverse Ranges from the California Continental Borderland. Our investigation focuses on Santa Cruz Island, where a local exposure of mainly Jurassic ophiolitic basement rocks includes the Willows Plutonic Complex. These mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks produce strong magnetic and gravity anomalies, showing that fragments of the Willows Plutonic Complex have been carried northwestward into or below the basin by sinistral translation of hanging-wall blocks in the thrust system. The potential-field anomalies indicate a cumulative left-lateral offset of about 20 km along what is probably the Santa Cruz Island fault. This fault is known from onshore trenching to be primarily a left-lateral strike-slip fault that was active during late Quaternary time. Seismic-reflection data show that where the Santa Cruz Island fault projects into the offshore a fault-bend fold deforms stratified rock in the Santa Barbara basin. Slip along this fault is partitioned into strike-slip and southwest-vergent reverse components. The Santa Cruz Island fault formed where structures of the California Borderland terminate to the northwest against the rocks that make up the northern Channel Islands. Structures developed at this termination may be similar to ones that formed where the Newport-Inglewood and the San Pedro Basin faults end to the northwest against the Santa Monica Mountains. These terminating faults pose a considerable earthquake hazard, and findings from the area of Santa Cruz Island may help elucidate this hazard.

  11. Late Quaternary Depositional History and Anthropogenic Impacts of Western Long Island Sound, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, C. M.; Cormier, M.; Marchese, P.; Zheng, Y.; Stewart, G.; Acosta, V.; Bowman, A.; Cortes, A.; Leon, L.; Rosa, M.; Semple, D.; Thaker, N.; Vargas, W.; Williams, L.

    2006-12-01

    In June 2006, we surveyed the seafloor of western Long Island Sound with the R/V HUGH SHARP and collected multibeam bathymetry, chirp subbottom profiling, side-scan sonar imagery, and sediment samples (25 gravity cores, 11 multicores, and 10 grabs). In addition, 36 CTD hydrocast stations measured O, pH, alkalinity, trace metals, nutrients, Polonium-210, Lead-210, Thorium-234, organic carbon, and pigments. Continuous weather measurements, and water column properties using both CTD casts and a towed Scanfish were also carried out. Biological sampling included benthic grabs and plankton nets. The National Science Foundation under the "Opportunities to Enhance Diversity in the Geosciences" Program funded this one-week survey. Nine students from underrepresented groups in the geosciences and five P.I.'s participated in the field program. The major scientific objectives were to study the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and Holocene transgression of sea level to document age, sedimentation processes, and climate, and the impact of anthropogenic activities in the sediments, biota, and waters of the estuary. A deep (35 m) and narrow (< 1km) channel incised into bedrock characterizes the East River section of western Long Island Sound. In contrast, thick sedimentary deposits characterize the eastern part of the study area, 20 to 45 km east of New York City. Subbottom penetration reached in some instances 40 m, but is limited to less than 5 m where sediments are gas-charged. Four seismic sequences are imaged in the chirp records that we interpret to span the Last Glacial Maximum to Present: strong irregular erosional surfaces beneath parallel seismic reflectors are interpreted as glacial erosional surface and/or moraines, and as Glacial lake Connecticut sediments ~25 m thick, respectively. A thin veneer (<1 m) of acoustically transparent sediment is interpreted as recent deposits. It overlays a roughly 15 m thick unit interpreted as Holocene transgressive marine

  12. Seismic Stratigraphy Of The Ross Island Flexural Moat Under Western Mcmurdo-Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, H.; Naish, T.; Bannister, S.; Balfour, N.; Wilson, G.; Finnemore, F.

    2003-04-01

    Ross Island is a volcanic complex that began forming with the emplacement Mount Bird around 5 million years ago, though it has developed most significantly within the last 1 million years with the emplacement of the c. 4km high Mount Erebus. Throughout this time, loading of the lithosphere by this volcanic complex has warped the underlying crust into a subcircular submarine depression that has been accumulating sediment in series of flexural moat basins around the periphery of the island. Due to the depth of the floor of the depression (800-1000 m below sea level today), the sediment fill has largely escaped subsequent erosion by grounded ice of the McMurdo and Ross Ice Shelves (MRIS) and Ross Ice Sheet. Our interest is in the 1.5 km-thick sedimentary record that now lies beneath the deepest part of the depression and is covered by the MRIS. The sediments here have the potential to provide a continuous and high resolution (10^2-10^3 year) record back to 5 million years of the past behaviour of the MRIS and its influence on bottom water production in Ross Sea. The flexural moat basin-fill between the volcanic complexes of Ross and White Islands, which because of its remoteness is only now being investigated for the first time, is in a key location beneath the north western corner of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) where it flows into the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS). This site forms one of the 4 objectives of the ANDRILL Programme and is scheduled for drilling in 2005. Here we present new multi-channel seismic reflection data from over-ice shelf surveys conducted between 2001-2003, that elucidate the geometry and stratigraphy of the flexural-moat basin-fill and its relationship to the adjacent volcanics. We illustrate the proposed drill sites and make an initial prognosis of the sedimentary fill. The uppermost c. 500 m of the sedimentary succession is expected to be fine-grained muds with occasional glacigene sediment and layers of volcanic ash. Underlying strata may become

  13. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results from Alikes lagoon in Zakynthos island, an area that is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental changes, we based on data derived from a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis was carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the studied sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP while 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times is on the order of 1.03 mm/yr. These sedimentation rates results are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  15. Holocene climate and vegetation change on Victoria Island, western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, Matthew C.; Gajewski, Konrad

    2008-02-01

    A detailed pollen record from Victoria Island provides the first quantitative Holocene climate reconstruction from the western Canadian Arctic. The pollen percentage data indicate that Arctic herbs increased over the Holocene in response to long-term cooling. The influx of locally and regionally derived pollen grains varies throughout the core and tracks several major changes observed in the biogenic silica record from Arolik Lake, Alaska, and the GISP2 ice-core, suggesting that climate change closely controlled Arctic plant productivity. Using modern analogue and transfer function techniques, we generated quantitative reconstructions of mean July temperature and total annual precipitation for the past 10 000 years, to place recent climate changes within the context of Holocene climate variability. The quantitative reconstructions indicate that July temperature cooled by 1-1.5 °C during the Holocene. The pollen-based reconstructions record an increase in temperature of ˜0.5 °C over the last 100 years, and the pollen percentage and influx data indicate impacts of recent warming on the regional vegetation.

  16. Distribution and abundance of western gray whales during a seismic survey near Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Yazvenko, S B; McDonald, T L; Blokhin, S A; Johnson, S R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Nielson, R M; Vladimirov, V L; Wainwright, P W

    2007-11-01

    Exxon Neftegas Limited, operator of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, is developing oil and gas reserves on the continental shelf off northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia. DalMorNefteGeofizika (DMNG), on behalf of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, conducted a 3-D seismic survey of the Odoptu license area during 17 August-9 September 2001. A portion of the primary known feeding area of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is located adjacent to the seismic block. The data presented here were collected as part of daily monitoring to determine if there was any measurable effect of the seismic survey on the distribution and abundance of western gray whales. Mitigation and monitoring program included aerial surveys conducted between 19 July and 19 November using the methodology outlined by the Southern California High Energy Seismic Survey team (HESS). These surveys provided documentation of the distribution, abundance and bottom feeding activity of western gray whales in relation to seismic survey sounds. From an operations perspective, the aerial surveys provided near real-time data on the location of whales in and outside the feeding area, and documented whether whales were displaced out of an area normally used as feeding habitat. The objectives of this study were to assess (a) temporal changes in the distribution and abundance of gray whales in relation to seismic survey, and (b) the influence of seismic survey, environmental factors, and other variables on the distribution and abundance of gray whales within their preferred feeding area adjacent to Piltun Bay. Multiple regression analysis revealed a limited redistribution of gray whales southward within the Piltun feeding area when the seismic survey was fully operational. A total of five environmental and other variables unrelated to seismic survey (date and proxies of depth, sea state and visibility) and one seismic survey-related variable (seg3d, i.e., received sound energy accumulated over 3 days) had

  17. Spatial patterns of benthic megahabitats and conservation planning in the Abrolhos Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Secchin, Nélio Augusto; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos; Freitas, Matheus Oliveira; Minte-Vera, Carolina Viviana; Teixeira, João Batista; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Dutra, Guilherme Fraga; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Guth, Arthur Zigliatti; Lopes, Rubens Mendes; Bastos, Alex Cardoso

    2013-11-01

    Application of sidescan sonar at the regional scale of the Abrolhos Bank, with ground-truthing by remotely operated vehicles and mixed-gas diving operations, revealed a much more complex habitat mosaic than previously recognized. The regional benthic habitat map indicates 8844 km2 of reefs (earlier estimates from remote sensing were around 500 km2) and 20,904 km² of rhodolith habitat—the world's largest continuous bed. Integration of the regional megahabitat map with spatially explicit data on the distribution of marine protected areas (<0.2% of each benthic megahabitat area) and economic activities with the highest potential of environmental impact (fishing, mining, oil and gas exploitation and dredging) reveals the need of a regional scale spatial planning process engaging conflicting sectors.

  18. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  19. Geochemical evidence of Saharan dust parent material for soils developed on Quaternary limestones of Caribbean and western Atlantic islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bush, C.A.; Stewart, K.C.; Rowland, T.R.; Crittenden, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous workers have regarded the insoluble residues of high-purity Quaternary limestones (coral reefs and oolites) as the most important parent material for well-developed, clay-rich soils on Caribbean and western Atlantic islands, but this genetic mechanism requires unreasonable amounts of limestone solution in Quaternary time. Other possible parent materials from external sources are volcanic ash from the Lesser Antilles island arc and Saharan dust carried across the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast trade winds. Soils on Quaternary coral terraces and carbonate eolianites on Barbados, Jamaica, the Florida Keys (United States), and New Providence Island (Bahamas) were studied to determine which, if either, external source was important. Caribbean volcanic ashes and Saharan dust can be clearly distinguished using ratios of relatively immobile elements ( Al2O3 TiO2, Ti Y, Ti Zr, and Ti Th). Comparison of these ratios in 25 soils, where estimated ages range from 125,000 to about 870,000 yr, shows that Saharan dust is the most important parent material for soils on all islands. These results indicate that the northeast trade winds have been an important component of the regional climatology for much of the Quaterary. Saharan dust may also be an important parent material for Caribbean island bauxites of much greater age. ?? 1990.

  20. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A.; Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  1. Internal tides and tidal cycles of vertical mixing in western Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCardell, Grant; O'Donnell, James; Souza, Alejandro J.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2016-02-01

    In estuaries, tidal period variations in the rate of vertical mixing have been observed to result from various causes: in Liverpool Bay and the York River, they have been attributed to tidal straining of the along-channel density gradient modulating stratification; in the Hudson River they arise from tidal modulation of the height of the tidal current bottom boundary layer (BBL). Along continental shelves, tidal period fluctuations in mixing have been observed to result from the dissipation of internal waves (IWs). Western Long Island Sound (WLIS) moored instrument records indicate that large near-bottom increases in dissolved oxygen (DO) and heat and a decrease in salt occur during the middle of the flood tide: an analysis of water mass signatures indicates that the transport involved is vertical and not horizontal. Temperature data from a vertical thermistor array deployed in the WLIS for 16 days in August 2009 clearly show a tidal cycle of IW activity creating a mean thermocline depression at midflood of approximately 25% of the water depth with individual IW thermocline depressions of as much as 50% of the water depth. Contemporaneous ADCP measurements show increases in shear due to IWs during the flood. Near-bottom internal wave activity is maximal at and after midflood and is correlated with near-bottom temperature and DO tendencies at both tidal and subtidal scales. We conclude that internal tides are an important vertical mixing mechanism in the WLIS through both increased shear from IWs and displacement of the pycnocline into the region of high shear in the BBL.

  2. Abrolhos Bank Reef Health Evaluated by Means of Water Quality, Microbial Diversity, Benthic Cover, and Fish Biomass Data

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M.; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E.; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O. C.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the “paper park” of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial

  3. Abrolhos bank reef health evaluated by means of water quality, microbial diversity, benthic cover, and fish biomass data.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Meirelles, Pedro M; Garcia, Gizele; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rezende, Carlos E; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Filho, Ronaldo-Francini; Coni, Ericka O C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Amado Filho, Gilberto; Hatay, Mark; Schmieder, Robert; Edwards, Robert; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-01-01

    The health of the coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank (Southwestern Atlantic) was characterized with a holistic approach using measurements of four ecosystem components: (i) inorganic and organic nutrient concentrations, [1] fish biomass, [1] macroalgal and coral cover and (iv) microbial community composition and abundance. The possible benefits of protection from fishing were particularly evaluated by comparing sites with varying levels of protection. Two reefs within the well-enforced no-take area of the National Marine Park of Abrolhos (Parcel dos Abrolhos and California) were compared with two unprotected coastal reefs (Sebastião Gomes and Pedra de Leste) and one legally protected but poorly enforced coastal reef (the "paper park" of Timbebas Reef). The fish biomass was lower and the fleshy macroalgal cover was higher in the unprotected reefs compared with the protected areas. The unprotected and protected reefs had similar seawater chemistry. Lower vibrio CFU counts were observed in the fully protected area of California Reef. Metagenome analysis showed that the unprotected reefs had a higher abundance of archaeal and viral sequences and more bacterial pathogens, while the protected reefs had a higher abundance of genes related to photosynthesis. Similar to other reef systems in the world, there was evidence that reductions in the biomass of herbivorous fishes and the consequent increase in macroalgal cover in the Abrolhos Bank may be affecting microbial diversity and abundance. Through the integration of different types of ecological data, the present study showed that protection from fishing may lead to greater reef health. The data presented herein suggest that protected coral reefs have higher microbial diversity, with the most degraded reef (Sebastião Gomes) showing a marked reduction in microbial species richness. It is concluded that ecological conditions in unprotected reefs may promote the growth and rapid evolution of opportunistic microbial pathogens.

  4. A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF GOUANIA (RHAMNACEAE) IN MADAGASCAR AND THE OTHER ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN (THE COMORO AND MASCARENE ISLANDS, AND THE SEYCHELLES)1

    PubMed Central

    Buerki, Sven; Phillipson, Peter B.; Callmander, Martin W.

    2011-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genus Gouania Jacq. (Rhamnaceae) is presented for Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands. Seventeen species are recognized, of which nine are described and published as new (all endemic to Madagascar): G. ambrensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. callmanderi Buerki, G. cupreifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. cupuliflora Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. gautieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. perrieri Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., G. phillipsonii Buerki, G. taolagnarensis Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., and G. zebrifolia Buerki, Phillipson & Callm. Sixteen species occur in Madagascar, of which 13 are endemic and three are common to Madagascar and one or more of the smaller Indian Ocean islands. The latter include G. laxiflora Tul., a species which is also present on mainland Africa. One species, G. mauritiana Lam., is endemic to Réunion Island. We recognize two subspecies within G. scandens (Gaertn.) R. B. Drumm.: G. scandens subsp. scandens and G. scandens subsp. glandulosa (Boivin ex Tul.) Buerki, Phillipson & Callm., the latter transferred from G. glandulosa Boivin ex Tul. Past confusion about the identity of this species is discussed. Five names are lectotypified: G. aphrodes Tul., G. glandulosa [= G. scandens subsp. glandulosa], G. laxiflora, G. lineata Tul., and G. tiliifolia Lam. Both lectotype and epitype are designated for G. mauritiana. Conservation assessments are provided for all species within their primary areas of occurrence. PMID:22053117

  5. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde).

    PubMed

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio

    2015-05-29

    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  6. Crustal deformation in the Western Solomon Islands revealed by GPS observation and D_InSAR during 2009 - 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y. T.; Ku, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Lin, Y. N. N. N.; Chen, Y. G.; Lin, K. C.; Huang, B. S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Taylor, F. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Solomon Islands are located in the southwestern Pacific, where the Australian Plate underthrusts the Solomon Plate towards ~N70 E at a rate of ~100 mm/yr. The Coleman seamount on the Australian plate is impinging on the forearc at Rendova Island and may cause both the seismicity and tectonic behavior to be more complicated than usual. Hence, an understanding o f the ongoing crustal deformation is essential to reconstructing the structural framework that controls the entire subduction system, particularly earthquake generation on the megathrust fault and possible subsidiary faults. Based on the results from GPS and D_InSAR, the horizontal velocity profiles across the trench for areas of the forearc to the west and to the east of the impinging Coleman seamount show different characteristics. The eastern profile shows convergence rates of ~100 mm/yr only 10 km from the trench at the western end of the Tetepare Island, and the western profile reaches 70 mm/yr at 30 km from the trench. This difference might be caused by the shallow locked depth consistent with co-seismic slip located extremely close to the trench during the Mw 7.1 Solomon Earthquake on 3rd January, 2010. We have a hypothesis to argue that the behavior of the fault geometry should be very different on the two sides of the seamount. However, the coupling ratio could be realized by further detailed analysis.

  7. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  8. Neotectonics and basin development at a continental/island arc transition in the Western Alaska Peninsula shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A transition in shelf structure occurs between the eastern Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutians. In the east, compressive structures striking parallel to the margin characterize the outer shelf off of Kodiak, Chirikov, and Semidi Islands. Further to the west, multichannel seismic (MSC) data exhibit a systematic transition in style of deformation and orientation of recently active structures in the shelf region of the Shumagin and Sanak Islands. In this area, deformation near the trench slope break is manifested by drapelike folds and normal faults striking parallel to the margin. In contrast, further west between the Shumagin and Sanak Island, MCS profiles for the shelf region reveal basement-involved extensional structures transverse to the margin that have controlled the development of the Sanak and East Sanak Basis. These fault bounded basins have hanging wall sequences with syndepositional rotational displacements over normal faults, indicating a protracted history of extensional faulting and basin subsidence. Present displacement is indicated by the effects of many of the faults upon the uppermost basin and shelf strata, which in some cases offset the sea floor. The aforementioned systematic change in shelf structure of the Alaska Peninsula is coincident with an arcward shift in bathymetric contours of the trench and slope. This transition zone, from margin-parallel compressive structures in the east, to margin-transverse extensional structures in the west, coincides with the continental to island arc transition in the North American plate that reflects the ancient Beringian margin of western Alaska.

  9. Impact of Westernized Diet on Gut Microbiota in Children on Leyte Island

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jiro; Yamamoto, Azusa; Palermo-Conde, Ladie A.; Higashi, Kanako; Sonomoto, Kenji; Tan, Julie; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization has changed life styles of the children in some towns and cities on Leyte island in the Philippines. To evaluate the impact of modernization in dietary habits on gut microbiota, we compared fecal microbiota of 7 to 9-year-old children from rural Baybay city (n = 24) and urban Ormoc city (n = 19), and assessed the correlation between bacterial composition and diet. A dietary survey indicated that Ormoc children consumed fast food frequently and more meat and confectionary than Baybay children, suggesting modernization/westernization of dietary habits. Fat intake accounted for 27.2% of the total energy intake in Ormoc children; this was remarkably higher than in their Baybay counterparts (18.1%) and close to the upper limit (30%) recommended by the World Health Organization. Their fecal microbiota were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing in conjunction with a dataset from five other Asian countries. Their microbiota were classified into two enterotype-like clusters with the other countries’ children, each defined by high abundance of either Prevotellaceae (P-type) or Bacteroidaceae (BB-type), respectively. Baybay and Ormoc children mainly harbored P-type and BB-type, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that P-type favored carbohydrates whereas BB-type preferred fats. Fat intake correlated positively with the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and negatively with the relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae/genus Prevotella. A species-level analysis suggested that dietary fat positively correlated with an Oscillibacter species as well as a series of Bacteroides/Parabacteroides species, whereas dietary carbohydrate positively correlated with Dialister succinatiphilus known as succinate-utilizing bacteria and some succinate-producing species of family Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae. We also found that a Succinivibrio species was overrepresented in the P-type community, suggesting the syntroph via

  10. Seismic Constraints on Water and Melt Pathways and Fluxes Through Western Pacific Island Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiens, Douglas; Wei, S. Shawn; Cai, Chen; Eimer, Melody; Webb, Spahr; Zha, Yang

    2016-04-01

    We use arrays of ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) as well as land seismographs on islands to image velocity anomalies resulting from the presence of melt, fluids, and hydrated minerals in the Tonga/Lau and Mariana arc systems. Studies in the Lau basin use data from 50 OBSs and 17 land seismic stations deployed for one year during 2009-2010, and focus on the interaction of the arc and backarc melt production system with water given off from the slab. Rayleigh wave tomography reveals that the slow velocity anomaly beneath the spreading center is displaced westward with greater depths, suggesting that partial melting occurs along an upwelling limb of mantle flow originating west of the backarc [Wei et al., 2015]. Variations in basalt chemistry along the spreading center result from interplay between this western source and mantle near the slab containing more water. The observed Lau backarc anomalies vary inversely with the inferred mantle water content, suggesting that water reduces the melt porosity. Water may increase the efficiency of melt transport and reduce porosity by lowering the melt viscosity, increasing grain size through faster grain growth, or by causing a different topology of melt within the mantle rock. The goal of the Mariana experiment is to better constrain the water cycle in subduction zones by determining the degree of mantle hydration in the downgoing slab and the overriding mantle forearc. 20 broadband OBSs were deployed around the Northern Mariana trench, and in addition 5 hydrophones were suspended in the water column in the deepest part of the trench to partially overcome limitations on OBS locations due to water depth greater than 6 km. Initial results show plate bending earthquakes in the incoming plate, thought to be associated with water flow into the mantle and serpentinization, occur in the upper 15 km of the subducting mantle and are most numerous within 20-30 km laterally from the trench axis. Analysis of Rayleigh wave phase and group

  11. Impact of Westernized Diet on Gut Microbiota in Children on Leyte Island.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Jiro; Yamamoto, Azusa; Palermo-Conde, Ladie A; Higashi, Kanako; Sonomoto, Kenji; Tan, Julie; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization has changed life styles of the children in some towns and cities on Leyte island in the Philippines. To evaluate the impact of modernization in dietary habits on gut microbiota, we compared fecal microbiota of 7 to 9-year-old children from rural Baybay city (n = 24) and urban Ormoc city (n = 19), and assessed the correlation between bacterial composition and diet. A dietary survey indicated that Ormoc children consumed fast food frequently and more meat and confectionary than Baybay children, suggesting modernization/westernization of dietary habits. Fat intake accounted for 27.2% of the total energy intake in Ormoc children; this was remarkably higher than in their Baybay counterparts (18.1%) and close to the upper limit (30%) recommended by the World Health Organization. Their fecal microbiota were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing in conjunction with a dataset from five other Asian countries. Their microbiota were classified into two enterotype-like clusters with the other countries' children, each defined by high abundance of either Prevotellaceae (P-type) or Bacteroidaceae (BB-type), respectively. Baybay and Ormoc children mainly harbored P-type and BB-type, respectively. Redundancy analysis showed that P-type favored carbohydrates whereas BB-type preferred fats. Fat intake correlated positively with the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and negatively with the relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae/genus Prevotella. A species-level analysis suggested that dietary fat positively correlated with an Oscillibacter species as well as a series of Bacteroides/Parabacteroides species, whereas dietary carbohydrate positively correlated with Dialister succinatiphilus known as succinate-utilizing bacteria and some succinate-producing species of family Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae. We also found that a Succinivibrio species was overrepresented in the P-type community, suggesting the syntroph via

  12. Geologic evolution of Western Mindoro Island and the Mindoro Suture Zone, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R.; Karig, Daniel E.

    On Mindoro Island, Philippines, two tectonostratigraphic terranes—the North Palawan and Mindoro blocks—are separated by a steeply-dipping lithospheric boundary, here called the Mindoro Suture Zone. The North Palawan block, which constitutes much of the southern end of the South China Sea, is a continental fragment that was rifted off Eurasia when the South China Basin opened in the mid Tertiary. In the region of western Mindoro and the Mindoro Straits, rocks show evidence of crustal stretching starting in upper Eocene time or earlier. Steep dips displayed by Jurassic strata in southwest Mindoro were acquired prior to the onset of extension, but unconformably overlying upper Eocene through lower Miocene rocks were deposited in an environment of active extension and basin formation, probably associated with major transcurrent faulting. Large volumes of basalt were extruded in the mid Oligocene, at about the time that sea-floor spreading began in the South China Basin. Basalts were differentially uplifted and eroded by upper Oligocene time. Detritus derived from mafic and other source terrains was shed into actively extending grabens and half-grabens, some of which were floored by basalts. Grabens in this area trend NW, oblique to regional N-S extension indicated by magnetic anomalies in the adjacent South China Basin. Field relations on southwest Mindoro indicate that basin genesis was punctuated by local pulses of compression. Timing and patterns of extension and basin evolution suggest that the North Palawan block was bounded on the east by an extensional strike-slip (transtensional) plate boundary. The Mindoro block records a history of shortening that bears no similarity to the structural evolution of the North Palawan block. The pre-upper Cretaceous Mindoro Metamorphics, which constitute the basement of the Mindoro block, underwent intense deformation prior to upper Eocene time that led to at least one transposition of layering, and was accompanied by

  13. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  14. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  15. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Hrishikesh; Pundalik, Ashwin; D'souza, Joseph; Sheth, Hetu; Lobo, Keegan Carmo; D'souza, Kyle; Patel, Vanit

    2017-02-01

    The Panvel flexure is a 150-km long tectonic structure, comprising prominently seaward-dipping Deccan flood basalts, on the western Indian rifted margin. Given the active tectonic faulting beneath the Panvel flexure zone inferred from microseismicity, better structural understanding of the region is needed. The geology of Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbour, famous for the ca. mid-6th century A.D. Hindu rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt (a UNESCO World Heritage site) is poorly known. We describe a previously unreported but well-exposed fault zone on Elephanta Island, consisting of two large faults dipping steeply east-southeast and producing easterly downthrows. Well-developed slickensides and structural measurements indicate oblique slip on both faults. The Elephanta Island fault zone may be the northern extension of the Alibag-Uran fault zone previously described. This and two other known regional faults (Nhava-Sheva and Belpada faults) indicate a progressively eastward step-faulted structure of the Panvel flexure, with the important result that the individual movements were not simply downdip but also oblique-slip and locally even rotational (as at Uran). An interesting problem is the normal faulting, block tectonics and rifting of this region of the crust for which seismological data indicate a normal thickness (up to 41.3 km). A model of asymmetric rifting by simple shear may explain this observation and the consistently landward dips of the rifted margin faults.

  16. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Vinicius J; Luiz, Osmar J; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  17. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  18. Geology of a cretaceous subduction complex, Western Chicagoof Island, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The geology of the Chugach terrane on Chichagof and Baranof Islands in southeastern Alaska is described and mapped in detail. The Goon Dip Greenstone and the Whitestripe Marble are pre-Late Jurassic in age and possibly correlate with Triassic rocks in the Wrangell Mountains. The Kelp Bay Group is a chaotic metasedimentary and metavolcanic terrane correlative with Lower Cretaceous complexes in the Chugach Mountains and adjacent islands. The Ford Arm Formation consists mainly of flyschoid rocks continuous with Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Valdez Group in the Chugach Mountains and correlative with the Kodiak and Shumagin Formations in southwest Alaska. The Sitka Graywacke consists mainly of massive sandstone petrographically similar to the Ford Arm Formation. The occurrence, geochemistry, and petrology of metavolcanic rocks from Chichagof Island indicate that basaltic ocean floor volcanism was contemporaneous with deposition of continental sediment.

  19. Characterization of submarine glacial landforms and lowstand fluvial systems from western Campbell Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, H. L.; Gorman, A. R.; Wilson, G. S.; Preskett, S.

    2009-12-01

    Campbell Island is the southernmost of New Zealand’s subantarctic islands, located about 600 km south of the South Island at 52.33°S, 169.09°E. The volcanic strata of this remote, unpopulated ~113 km2 island are eroded by a series of steep-sided valleys that are assumed to be glacial in origin. This is evidenced by their U-shapes, ground moraine, and rocky hills along the sides of the valleys with roches-moutonées geometries. At least two of these valleys, Perseverance Harbour and Northeast Harbour, have basal levels that are beneath current sea level. This enables the investigation of the floors of these fiords with high-frequency marine seismic imaging techniques. Perseverance Harbour is ~9 km long with water depths of 35 to 45 m in the center. Northeast Harbour is ~3.5 km long with water depths of 15 to 25 m in the center. Sea level during the last glacial maximum is expected to have been ~120 m below the current level. The shoreline east of Campbell Island therefore would have been 6 - 10 km east of the present day coast. Water depths on this coast rapidly fall to 60 to 70 m and then follow a gentler gradient outward and beyond the inferred lowstand shoreline. Detailed investigations of seafloor features around Campbell Island are lacking. The relatively-shallow water depths on the leeward (east) side of Campbell Island provide an opportunity to examine the floors of the fiords and the adjacent shelf for evidence of glacial processes and associated sedimentation. Of particular interest are (1) determining the extent of past glacial cover on and around the island, and (2) observing glacial and periglacial erosional processes on the seafloor. In March 2009, a detailed high-frequency seismic survey was undertaken in Perseverance and Northeast Harbours and on the eastern shelf of the island. Data recorded included single-channel Chirp and electro-acoustic (boomer) sub-bottom imaging, and interferometric side scanning sonar (C3D). A network of ~42 lines was

  20. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  1. Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from western Indian Ocean islands, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  2. Reef fish structure and distribution in a south-western Atlantic Ocean tropical island.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, H T; Ferreira, C E L; Joyeux, J-C; Santos, R G; Horta, P A

    2011-12-01

    The community structure of the reef fish fauna of Trindade Island, a volcanic oceanic island located 1160 km off the coast of Brazil, is described based on intensive visual censuses. Seventy-six species were encountered in 252 censuses, with mean ± S.E. of 99 ± 3 individuals and 15.7 ± 0.3 species 40 m(-2) transect. The average fish biomass, calculated from length-class estimation, was 22.1 kg 40 m(-2) transect. The species contributing most to biomass were, in decreasing order, Melichthys niger, Cephalopholis fulva, Kyphosus spp., Holocentrus adscensionis, Sparisoma amplum, Sparisoma axillare, Acanthurus bahianus and Epinephelus adscensionis. Carnivorous fishes were the largest trophic group in terms of biomass, followed by omnivores and roving herbivores. The two predominant types of reef habitat, fringing reefs built by coralline algae and rocky reefs made of volcanic boulders, showed significant differences in the biomass and the abundance of the trophic guilds. Within each habitat type, significant differences in species richness, density and biomass were detected among crest, slope and interface zones. Although similar in overall species composition to coastal reefs in Brazil, the fish fauna of Trindade Island shares certain characteristics, such as a high abundance of planktivores, with other Brazilian oceanic islands. Despite comparatively high fish biomass, including the macro-carnivorous species habitually targeted by fisheries, signs of overfishing were evident. These findings highlight the urgency for a conservation initiative for this isolated, unique and vulnerable reef system.

  3. Significant Groundwater Discharge of Nutrients to Western Long Island Sound Inferred From Radioisotope, Nutrient and Organic Geochemical Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, S.; Bratton, J. F.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Coffey, R.; Green, A.; Baldwin, S.; Erban, L.; Casso, M.

    2008-12-01

    Western Long Island Sound suffers from seasonal oxygen depletion due to both nutrient loading in this heavily populated region as well as restricted circulation of the Sound. The role played by groundwater in delivering nutrients to the Sound is not well understood, which served as motivation for the sampling we initiated in May, 2008. Work was carried out in both Manhasset Bay, a portion of which is sewered, and Northport Harbor, which is largely unsewered. There is clear evidence of discharge of groundwater to each embayment, as reflected in surface-water Rn-222 time series, seepage meter and high-resolution piezometer transects installed perpendicular to shore). Seepage rates were as high as 32 cm/day and modulated by the tide. Initial data reveal variable groundwater total DIN concentrations, spanning similar concentration ranges (as high as 500 uM), in the sewered and unsewered locations. Concentrations of organic geochemical tracers of sewage (including caffeine and imidacloprid) are high in samples with high nutrient concentrations and also span comparable ranges in sewered and unsewered locations. A preliminary interpretation of these results would suggest that most of the nutrient flux from groundwater is from wastewater in both the sewered and unsewered settings (rather than from fertilizer application, atmospheric deposition, etc.), implying that the sewering is not very effective. If this result is verified with additional sampling this fall, it would suggest that wastewater-influenced groundwater discharge is indeed a prominent source of nutrients to western Long Island Sound which in turn contributes to eutrophication and oxygen depletion.

  4. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ???30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (???30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and minor dwarf birch (Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ???30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca. 11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs (Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce (Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2003-07-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ≥30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (≥30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ≥30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.

  6. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT33 Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010... INFORMATION: The NWHI commercial lobster fishery is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for...

  7. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. (Draconematidae: Nematoda) from a seagrass bed ( Zostera spp.) in Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, Central Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Wongi; Kim, Dongsung; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Rho, Hyun Soo

    2016-09-01

    A new species of free-living marine draconematid nematode, Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov., is described based on the specimens collected from the sediments of a intertidal seagrass bed from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: the presence of numerous minute spiny ornamented body cuticular annules in both sexes, eight cephalic adhesion tubes inserted on the head capsule in both sexes, the presence of stiff posteriorly directed setae anterior to posterior adhesion tubes in both sexes, the shape (large, elongated, open loop-shaped in male and large, elongated, closed loop-shaped in female) and position (longer ventral arm extending to the first body annule in male) of amphideal fovea, shorter spicule length (34-42 μm), the presence of sexual dimorphism in shape and length of the non-annulated tail terminus, and number of posterior sublateral adhesion tubes (10 in male and 13-15 in female) and posterior subventral adhesion tubes (8-10 in male and 9-11 in female). A comparative table on the biogeographical and ecological characteristics of the species of Dracograllus is presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the genus Dracograllus from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, central western Pacific Ocean.

  8. Paleoparasitological analysis of the extinct Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Borba Nunes, Victor Hugo; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Cruz, Paula Borba; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; de Araújo, Adauto José Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This study provides new paleoparasitological data from an extinct animal species of the Holocene period. The microscopy revealed one sample containing uninucleated-cyst of Entamoeba sp., whereas ELISA detected nine positive samples for Cryptosporidium sp. The finding of these protozoans can help in the discussion of its extinction cause and demonstrates the antiquity and the evolutionary history of host-parasite relationships between protozoa and caprines since the Messinian.

  9. Sidescan-Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretations of the Sea Floor in Western Rhode Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Haupt, T.A.; Crocker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working together to interpret sea-floor geology along the northeastern coast of the United States. In 2004, the NOAA Ship RUDE completed survey H11322, a sidescan-sonar and bathymetric survey that covers about 60 square kilometers of the sea floor in western Rhode Island Sound. This report interprets sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA survey H11322 to delineate sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in the study area. Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments in Rhode Island Sound underlie Pleistocene glacial drift that affects the distribution of surficial Holocene marine and transgressional sediments. The study area has three bathymetric highs separated by a channel system. Features and patterns in the sidescan-sonar imagery include low, moderate, and high backscatter; sand waves; scarps; erosional outliers; boulders; trawl marks; and dredge spoils. Four sedimentary environments in the study area, based on backscatter and bathymetric features, include those characterized by erosion or nondeposition, coarse-grained bedload transport, sorting and reworking, and deposition. Environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition and coarse-grained bedload transport are located in shallower areas and environments characterized by deposition are located in deeper areas; environments characterized by sorting and reworking processes are generally located at moderate depths.

  10. Interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and slow slip event deformation above a shallow subduction thrust in the western Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, L. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Bevis, M. G.; Phillips, D. A.; Walter, J. I.; Kendrick, E. C.; Papabatu, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The western Solomon Islands are a remarkable natural laboratory to investigate processes occurring on the shallowest (<10 km depth) portions of the subduction interface. Islands within the New Georgia Group are located <15 km from the San Cristobal Trench, with the subduction thrust located only a few km beneath the southwest coast of islands like Rannonga and Rendova. This offers a globally unique opportunity to use GPS and other land-based methods to monitor deformation processes very close to the trench at a subduction zone. We present results from a campaign GPS network in the western Solomons that has been operated from 1996-present. The data from 1996-2002 indicate interseismic coupling on the shallow portion of the interface, at a rate of nearly 100% of the relative plate motion. Coupling does not appear to extend deeper than ~20 km depth, and the relatively shallow down-dip limit of coupling is consistent with subduction of young (<6 Ma) oceanic crust of the Woodlark Basin. We also show evidence for a slow slip event in late 2000, observed at a GPS site near Gizo that was running continuously from 1999-2002. In April 2007, an Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred on the subduction thrust beneath the network, resulting in large coseismic displacements at nearby campaign GPS sites. The earthquake caused widespread coastal uplift and subsidence in the region, as revealed by studies of coral microatolls following the earthquake (Taylor et al., 2008). We invert displacements of the GPS sites jointly with vertical displacements of coral microatolls to evaluate the coseismic slip during the earthquake. The area of the interface that underwent slip in the earthquake matches well with the region that was interseismically coupled just prior to the 2007 earthquake. The data also require large coseismic slip on the shallow interface near the trench, which likely contributed to the generation of a large, damaging tsunami following the earthquake. We also show results from a recent

  11. Reprint of “Deep epibenthic communities in two contrasting areas of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramón, Montserrat; Abelló, Pere; Ordines, Francesc; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Epibenthic communities were studied in two areas, off western and southern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean), which differ in the oceanographic conditions and show different degrees of oligotrophy. Sampling was performed with beam trawl at two seasons (December 2009 and July 2010) and at depths between 228 and 900 m. A total of 199 taxa were identified, of which the most diverse were decapod crustaceans and fishes. Depth was the main factor structuring megafaunal assemblages. In the shelf break the shrimps Plesionika heterocarpus, P. antigai, Processa nouveli and P. canaliculata were dominant. In the upper slope, P. acanthonotus, Boreomysis arctica, Gaidropsarus biscayensis and Aristeus antennatus were the species that most contributed to the group formation, whereas in the middle slope the crustaceans P. acanthonotus and Munida tenuimana dominated. Specific abundances were relatively low everywhere. Diversity H‧ values ranged from 2.19 to 3.17, being higher in Sóller. Using species abundance data, significant differences were identified concerning both area and season in both shelf break and upper slope strata, while no significant differences were found in the middle slope stratum. The analysis of functional groups showed that both depth and area had a significant effect on their differential distribution.

  12. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  13. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  14. Petrochemistry, age and isotopic composition of alkali basalts from Ponape Island, Western Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, T.H.; Batiza, Rodey; Futa, K.; Martin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven analyzed lava samples from Ponape Island are alkali olivine basalt, basanite and basanitoid. Most lavas are aphyric or sparsely phyric (< 10% phenocrysts) and have phenocrysts of olivine (Fo77-80), clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite, and microphenocrysts of plagioclase (An53-68) in a fine-grained groundmass of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, opaques, potassic oligoclase, ?? nepheline and accessary phases. Oxygen isotope and Fe2O3 FeO data suggest that most samples are fresh, although H2O contents are high. Xenoliths of chromite-bearing harzburgites and dunites, both with cumulate textures occur in one locality. Major- and trace-element concentrations are similar to other oceanic volcanic islands. Most major elements and compatible trace elements vary systematically with respect to the Mg number [ 100Mg (Mg + Fe2+)]. In contrast, the incompatible trace elements do not correlate with the Mg number, but do covary with other incompatible elements. Simple closed-system shallow fractionation cannot be invoked to explain the observed chemical variation in the lavas. Derivation of the fractionated lavas (Mg number = 66-48) probably involved polybaric crystal fractionation from a high-Mg-number parental liquid. In addition, variable-source concentration of a trace-element-rich minor phase is postulated. However, the mantle was homogeneous with respect to the ratio of 87Sr 86Sr. New KAr age data are not consistent with the hypothesis that Ponape and the Caroline Ridge represent a simple "hot spot". ?? 1984.

  15. Accommodation of compressional inversion in north-western South Island (New Zealand): Old faults versus new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisetti, F. C.; Sibson, R. H.

    2006-11-01

    In the NW South Island, New Zealand, high-angle faults inherited from episodes of Late Cretaceous-Paleocene and Eocene extension have, since the early Miocene, undergone compressional inversion in association with right-lateral shearing and transpression on the Alpine Fault. Active reverse faulting and large historical earthquakes occur along N-S to NNE-SSW trending faults which at the surface dip 45-75° to both the east and west. The faults truncate subparallel folds that deform the Tertiary sequence overlying a composite Paleozoic-Mesozoic crystalline basement. However, the deep geometry of these faults, their penetration into the middle-to-lower crust and their relationship to the Alpine Fault are poorly understood. The tectonic architecture of this compressional inversion province is analysed by reconstructing structural contours at the base of the Oligocene carbonate sequence in the north-west of the South Island. Deformation of the Oligocene carbonate sequence, structural analyses in the field and subsurface data indicate a mixed style of inversion with (1) reactivation of some high-angle normal faults and (2) thrusting on new, moderate-dipping cross-cutting faults that detach slivers of basement and cause flexural folding in the sedimentary cover. These faults may remain blind or concealed beneath cover sequences but are likely to control seismic rupturing in the basement at depths of ˜10-15 km.

  16. Genetic and morphometric evidence on a Galápagos Island exposes founder effects and diversification in the first-known (truly) feral western dog population.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Sini E M; Brown, Sarah K; Barnett, Bruce D; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-02-01

    Domesticated animals that revert to a wild state can become invasive and significantly impact native biodiversity. Although dogs can be problematic locally, only the Australasian dingo is known to occur in isolation from humans. Western dogs have experienced more intense artificial selection, which potentially limits their invasiveness. However, feral dogs eradicated from Isabela Island, Galápagos in the 1980s could be the first-known exception. We used DNA and morphometric data from 92 of these dogs to test the hypotheses that (i) these dogs persisted independently of humans for up to a century and a half since descending from a handful of dogs introduced in the early 1800s, vs. (ii) similarly to other western feral dog populations, they reflected continuous recruitment of strays from human settlements on a portion of the Island. We detected one dominant maternal lineage and one dominant paternal lineage shared by the three subpopulations, along with low autosomal genetic diversity, consistent with the hypothesized common origins from a small founder population. Genetic diversity patterns among the three island subpopulations were consistent with stepping-stone founder effects, while morphometric differentiation suggested rapid phenotypic divergence, possibly due to drift and reinforced by selection corresponding to distinct microclimates and habitats on Isabela. Despite the continued presence of free-ranging dogs in the vicinity of settlements on Isabela and other Galápagos Islands, feral populations have not reestablished in remote areas since the 1980s, emphasizing the rarity of conditions necessary for feralization of modern western dogs.

  17. Late Pleistocene eolian-alluvial interference in the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, Francisco; Del Valle, Laura; Fornós, Joan J.; Gómez-Pujol, Lluís; Anechitei-Deacu, Valentina; Timar-Gabor, Alida

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with alluvial fan and aeolian sediments interference. Although initially they are two different environments, with different processes and resulting forms, very often their interaction produces deposits that share characteristics and features from both environments, as well as, maintain inherited elements from one to each other. In this sense, the aeolian-alluvial interference is the geomorphological expression of the coincidence, disruption and/or overlapping of aeolian and alluvial environments. Climate appears to be one of the most important controls on the role and magnitude of each environment in terms of sediment supply, precipitation, runoff or aeolian transport. In this study, eight major sedimentary facies have been described involving the succession of coastal, aeolian, colluvial and alluvial environments. Carbonate sandstones, breccias, conglomerates and fine-grained deposits are the main component of these sequences. OSL dating of aeolian levels indicate that their deposition took place during the Late Pleistocene, establishing a paleoclimatic evolution of Balearic coastal areas during the last 125 ka. The sedimentological and chronological analysis of these deposits allows reconstructing the coastal environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene at the Balearic archipelago. Keywords: Alluvial sedimentation, eolian sedimentation, alluvial-eolian interference, sea level, Late Pleistocene, Balearic Islands.

  18. Modelling of wave propagation and attenuation in the Osaka sedimentary basin, western Japan, during the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Kimiyuki; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tomotaka; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Hayashida, Takumi; Saomoto, Hidetaka; Horikawa, Haruo

    2016-03-01

    On 2013 April 13, an inland earthquake of Mw 5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which forms the western boundary of the Osaka sedimentary basin in western Japan. The strong ground motion data were collected from more than 100 stations within the basin and it was found that in the Osaka Plain, the pseudo velocity response spectra at a period of around 6.5 s were significantly larger than at other stations of similar epicentral distance outside the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than 3 min in the Osaka Plain where its bedrock depth spatially varies from approximately 1 to 2 km. We modelled long-period (higher than 2 s) ground motions excited by this earthquake, using the finite difference method assuming a point source, to validate the present velocity structure model and to obtain better constraint of the attenuation factor of the sedimentary part of the basin. The effect of attenuation in the simulation was included in the form of Q(f) = Q0(f/f0), where Q0 at a reference frequency f0 was given by a function of the S-wave velocity, Q0 = αVS. We searched for appropriate Q0 values by changing α for a fixed value of f0 = 0.2 Hz. It was found that values of α from 0.2 to 0.5 fitted the observations reasonably well, but that the value of α = 0.3 performed best. Good agreement between the observed and simulated velocity waveforms was obtained for most stations within the Osaka Basin in terms of both amplitude and ground motion duration. However, underestimation of the pseudo velocity response spectra in the period range of 5-7 s was recognized in the central part of the Osaka Plain, which was caused by the inadequate modelling of later phases or wave packets in this period range observed approximately 2 min after the direct S-wave arrival. We analysed this observed later phase and concluded that it was a Love wave originating from the direction of the east coast of Awaji Island.

  19. A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Volcanic activity recorded in deep-sea sediments and the geodynamic evolution of western Pacific island arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambray, Hervé; Pubellier, Manuel; Jolivet, Laurent; Pouclet, André

    A compilation of volcanic ashes interbedded in deep-sea sediments was carried out from DSDP-IPOD and ODP data collected along the western Pacific margin. Using a tephrochronological method, we attempted to reconstruct the Cenozoic and Quaternary volcanic activity of major western Pacific arcs. For every arc, established volcanic episodes and volcanic-tectonic evolution recorded on land were compared. This study reveals close connections between tectonic events and volcanic activity of arcs, as well a temporal relationship between the opening of marginal basins and arc volcanism. In the Tohoku (NE Japan) and Bonin arcs (SE Japan), arc volcanic activity clearly vanishes during backarc spreading. In contrast, intense volcanism occurs during both arc rifting and intervals of no spreading. Detailed comparisons show that the maximum volcanic output is closely connected with the stress field evolution recorded on land. The case of Seinan arc (SW Japan) shows a good fit between volcanic episodes and periods of release of the compressional stress field after major orogenic events. Furthermore, in the marine sediments off Japan, a systematic late Miocene volcanic hiatus interpreted as a quiescence of volcanic activity corresponds to a changing stress field on the Tohoku and Bonin arcs. These correlations between volcanic episodicity and tectonic evolution of island arcs allow us to discuss the influence of subduction process on arc volcanism. In the Philippines, the volcanic signal in marine sediments is compromised by rapid alteration and diagenesis of ashes. Nonetheless, only the main events of arc volcanic activity are preserved. A comparison with on land volcanism shows that this filtered volcanic signal in different places corresponds to incipient subduction (transition from passive to active margins) or to the final stages of basin closure.

  1. Crustal deformation in the Western Solomon Islands revealed by GPS observation during 2009 - 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Y.; Lin, K.; Ku, C.; Taylor, F. W.; Chen, Y.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    The plate boundary along the southern margin of the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific, is characterized by convergent tectonic processes between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. The horizontal convergence rate between two plates is 135 mm/yr in the direction of N45°E. In terms of the structure, this subduction zone is relatively complicated because large seamounts are involved in subduction of extremely young lithosphere generated by the Woodlark spreading system. Hence, the crustal deformation is essential to reconstructing the structural model that constitutes and operates the entire subduction system. For the purpose of monitoring crustal motion, we began to deploy continuous mode GPS stations in September 2009. All of them have been working for 1-3 yr. The total horizontal rates are 95±1, 52±3, 78±7, 120±14, 114±7, and 114±7 mm/yr for Sibo, Nusu, Lale, Husu, Tepa, and Sege respectively. However, the moving directions are N23°E, N63°W, N10°W, N65°W, N63°W, and N69°W. During 2009, the uplift rates are -31±8 and 50±17 mm/yr for Sibo and Nusu, but during 2010, the rate are 2±2 and 13±9 mm/yr. The larger slips may cause of the postseismic deformation of 2007 Mw8.1 Solomon Earthquake. It also shows the large uplift rates on Husu (98±36 mm/yr), Tepa (60±11 mm/yr) and Sege (33±10 mm/yr) after the 2010 Mw7.1 Solomon Earthquake; however, it still needs longer measuring time to confirm the tectonic behavior.

  2. Holocene evolution and sedimentation rate of Alikes Lagoon, Zakynthos island, Western Greece - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, P.; Kontopoulos, N.

    2009-03-01

    In the present study we present preliminary results of Zakynthos Alikes lagoon, which is one of the most seismically active regions of Greece. In order to estimate - interpret the Holocene evolution of the area and to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental changes, we based on the data of a 21 m sediment core. Sediment types, structure, colour, as well as contact depths and bed characteristics, were recorded in the field. Standarised sedimentological analysis were carried out, on 46 samples including grain size analysis, calculation of moment measures, and micro- and molluscan fossils of 17 selected samples. Moreover, radiocarbon age determinations have been made on individual Cardium shells from two horizons and whole - core Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were taken. The interpretation of depositional environments suggests a coastal environment (restricted-shallow) with reduced salinity such as a lagoon margin and in a tidal flat and/or marsh particularly. The maximum age of the study sediments is about 8500 BP. The rate of sedimentation between 8280 BP and 5590 BP was 5.3 mm/yr and between 5590 BP and modern times 1.03 mm/yr. The rate of sedimentation was higher until mid-Holocene while decrease after to 1.03 mm/yr, results which are similar to other coastal areas of western Greece.

  3. Imaging rapidly deforming ocean island volcanoes in the western Galápagos archipelago, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepp, Gabrielle; Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Ruiz, Mario; Belachew, Manahloh

    2014-01-01

    Using local body wave arrival-time tomography methods to determine 3-D seismic velocity structure, we imaged the plumbing system of Sierra Negra Volcano, Galápagos. This hot spot volcanic chain includes some of the fastest deforming volcanoes in the world, making this an ideal location to study shield volcano plumbing systems. We inverted P and S wave arrivals recorded on a 15-station temporary array between July 2009 and June 2011 using an a priori 1-D velocity model constrained by offshore refraction studies. With local seismicity from nearby volcanoes as well as the ring fault system, the model resolution is good between depths of 3 and 15.5 km. The propagation of S waves throughout this volume argues against any large high-melt accumulations, although a shallow melt sill may exist above 5 km. We image a broad low-velocity region (>25 km laterally) below Sierra Negra at depths ~8-15 km. No large, regional velocity increase is found within the limits of good resolution, suggesting that crust is thicker than 15 km beneath the western Galápagos archipelago. Our results are consistent with crustal accretion of mafic cumulates from a large-volume magma chamber that may span the boundary between preplume and accreted crust. The similarity between our results and those of Hawaii leave open the possibility that the crust has also been thickened by under-plating.

  4. The northward tectonic transport in the southern Apennines: examples from the Capri Island and western Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; Tramparulo, Francesco D'Assisi; Ciarcia, Sabatino; Amore, Filomena Ornella; Prinzi, Ernesto Paolo; Laiena, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a thrust fault system located in the western Sorrento Peninsula and Capri Island (southern Italy) where several mesoscale structures related to the main thrusts, such as Riedel shear planes, overturned folds, minor thrust and back-thrust faults, suggest a dominant northward tectonic transport. Major and minor thrust faults, generally characterized by a ramp-flat geometry, involved the Mesozoic Apennine carbonates, the Middle Miocene foredeep, and the unconformable thrust-top basin deposits. The biostratigraphic analysis of calcareous nannoplankton assemblages on the thrust-top basin sediments indicates an age not older than late Tortonian. We propose that this out-of-sequence thrusting stage was related to a regional tectonic event widespread in the entire southern Apennines, probably occurred in the Pliocene time simultaneously with the activity of deep-seated thrust faults that involved the buried carbonates of the Apulian platform. These out-of-sequence thrust faults, here referred to as "envelopment thrusts," were enucleated in a lower structural level with respect to the allochthonous wedge, representing the W-E segments of large regional arcuate structures.

  5. 78 FR 39583 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Pacific; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments... reports to fish in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National...

  6. Increased population sampling confirms low genetic divergence among Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats of Madagascar and other western Indian Ocean islands

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lauren M.; Goodman, Steven M.; Nowak, Michael D.; Weisrock, David W.; Yoder, Anne D.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus occur throughout the Austral-Asian region west to islands off the eastern coast of Africa. Recent phylogenetic analyses of Pteropus from the western Indian Ocean found low sequence divergence and poor phylogenetic resolution among several morphologically defined species. We reexamine the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa by using multiple individuals per species. In addition, we estimate population genetic structure in two well-sampled taxa occurring on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands (P. rufus and P. seychellensis comorensis). Despite finding a similar pattern of low sequence divergence among species, increased sampling provides insight into the phylogeographic history of western Indian Ocean Pteropus, uncovering high levels of gene flow within species. PMID:21479256

  7. Island shadow effects and the wave climate of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) inferred from altimetry and numerical model data.

    PubMed

    Andréfouët, Serge; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Queffeulou, Pierre; Le Gendre, Romain

    2012-01-01

    To implement a numerical model of atoll lagoon circulation, we characterized first the significant wave height (Hs) regime of the Western Tuamotu Archipelago and the local attenuation due to the protection offered by large atolls in the south Tuamotu. Altimetry satellite data and a WAVEWATCH III two-way nested wave model at 5 km resolution from 2000 to 2010 were used. Correlation between altimetry and model was high (0.88) over the period. According to the wave model, the archipelago inner seas experienced attenuated Hs year-long with a yearly average Hs around 1.3m vs a minimum of 1.6m elsewhere. The island shadow effect is especially significant in the austral winter. In contrast with southern atolls, Western Tuamotu experienced only few days per year of Hs larger than 2.5m generated by very high Hs southern swell, transient western local storms, strong easterly winds, and during the passage of distant hurricanes.

  8. 78 FR 7385 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY... Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. DATES: NMFS must receive..., ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR 1577, January 12, 2009). The...

  9. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments AGENCY... fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll Marine National Monuments. The...). Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009, ``Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument'' (74 FR...

  10. A western gray whale mitigation and monitoring program for a 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Richardson, W J; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Gailey, G; Jenkerson, M R; Meier, S K; Melton, H R; Newcomer, M W; Perlov, A S; Rutenko, S A; Würsig, B; Martin, C R; Egging, D E

    2007-11-01

    The introduction of anthropogenic sounds into the marine environment can impact some marine mammals. Impacts can be greatly reduced if appropriate mitigation measures and monitoring are implemented. This paper concerns such measures undertaken by Exxon Neftegas Limited, as operator of the Sakhalin-1 Consortium, during the Odoptu 3-D seismic survey conducted during 17 August-9 September 2001. The key environmental issue was protection of the critically endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), which feeds in summer and fall primarily in the Piltun feeding area off northeast Sakhalin Island. Existing mitigation and monitoring practices for seismic surveys in other jurisdictions were evaluated to identify best practices for reducing impacts on feeding activity by western gray whales. Two buffer zones were established to protect whales from physical injury or undue disturbance during feeding. A 1 km buffer protected all whales from exposure to levels of sound energy potentially capable of producing physical injury. A 4-5 km buffer was established to avoid displacing western gray whales from feeding areas. Trained Marine Mammal Observers (MMOs) on the seismic ship Nordic Explorer had the authority to shut down the air guns if whales were sighted within these buffers. Additional mitigation measures were also incorporated: Temporal mitigation was provided by rescheduling the program from June-August to August-September to avoid interference with spring arrival of migrating gray whales. The survey area was reduced by 19% to avoid certain waters <20 m deep where feeding whales concentrated and where seismic acquisition was a lower priority. The number of air guns and total volume of the air guns were reduced by about half (from 28 to 14 air guns and from 3,390 in(3) to 1,640 in(3)) relative to initial plans. "Ramp-up" (="soft-start") procedures were implemented. Monitoring activities were conducted as needed to implement some mitigation measures, and to assess

  11. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie A.

    2016-06-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976-2005), mid-century, and end-century time periods for the December-February and June-August seasons. The December-February regional wave climate is dominated by strong winds and large swell from extratropical cyclones in the north Pacific while the June-August season brings smaller waves generated by the trade winds and swell from Southern Hemisphere extratropical storms. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~ 10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing RCP 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing RCP 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-century June-August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December-February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June-August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds' influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell. The results of this study underscore that December-February large wave events will become smaller and less frequent in most regions, reducing the likelihood and magnitude of wave

  12. Deep-sea suprabenthos assemblages (Crustacea) off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Mesoscale variability in diversity and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Mamouridis, V.; Fanelli, E.

    2011-04-01

    The composition of suprabenthic crustacean assemblages, their diversity, production (P) and production/biomass (P/B) ratios, were analyzed at species level along two transects situated to the north (N) and south (S) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths between 134 m and 760 m, based on a ca. bi-monthly sampling performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Differences with depth and season in assemblage composition and diversity were analyzed as a function of the contrasting environmental features (e.g. water mass dynamics) of the two areas. We identified 187 species (18 decapods, 5 euphausiids, 16 mysids, 76 gammaridean amphipods, 13 hyperiids, 1 caprellid, 21 isopods and 37 cumaceans). Substantial mesoscale variability in the deep-sea suprabenthic assemblages coupled with diversity trends between the N and S transects were found. Seasonality was the most important gradient influencing the dynamics of suprabenthos over the upper (350 m) and middle (650-750 m) slope in the N area. Conversely, the S area appeared to be more stable temporally with depth as the main gradient inducing assemblage differences. Different depth-related patterns were observed both for diversity and P/B. To the north diversity was very low at the shelf-break, increasing on the upper-slope ( H' > 3.00) and then decreasing again on the middle-slope. To the south diversity increased smoothly downward, reaching the highest values on the middle-slope. Regarding productivity, P/B was highest at intermediate depths to the north (over ca. 450-500 m), while to the south highest P/Bs were found deeper (over ca. 600-650 m). The higher P/B at intermediate depths found along N are likely due to higher % of organic matter (OM) in sediments, a product of oceanographic frontal systems. In particular, P/B was higher along N among omnivores and detritus feeders (e.g. Andaniexis mimonectes, Lepechinella manco and combined cumaceans), coupled to enriched OM in sediments, while along S

  13. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands.

  14. A new species of the blind cave gudgeon Milyeringa (Pisces: Gobioidei, Eleotridae) from Barrow Island, Western Australia, with a redescription of M. veritas Whitley.

    PubMed

    Larson, Helen K; Foster, Ralph; Humphreys, William F; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-02-19

    A new species of the eyeless eleotrid genus Milyeringa is described from wells sunk on Barrow Island, Western Australia. Milyeringa justitia n. sp. is the third species of the genus to be named. Morphological data and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA sequence data from a wide sample of localities at which the genus occurs was used to evaluate relationships and species limits. Milyeringa veritas is redescribed, and M. brooksi is synonymised with M. veritas. The unique form and ecology of these fishes, plus the threats to their survival, warrants immediate and continuing attention in management.

  15. Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with γ-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

  16. American Dissertations on Foreign Education: A Bibliography with Abstracts. Volume XVII. Pacific: American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Micronesia), Tubuai (French Polynesia), Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin, Ed.; Parker, Betty June, Ed.

    The editors attempt to examine and abstract all locatable doctoral dissertations completed in the United States, Canada, and some European countries that pertain to the Pacific area. Specifically, these dissertations deal with American Samoa, Fiji, Guam, Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Trust Territory of the Pacific…

  17. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde).

    PubMed

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; Del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio

    2015-05-29

    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  18. Generic delimitations, biogeography and evolution in the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), endemic to Madagascar and the smaller islands of the western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Plunkett, Gregory M; Edwards, Molly B; Buerki, Sven

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the most complete generic phylogenetic framework to date for the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which is endemic to Madagascar and the other smaller islands in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The study is based on plastid and nuclear DNA regions and includes 47 species representing the five currently recognized genera (including all the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean region). Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses supported (i) the monophyly of the tribe, (ii) the monophyly of Phylloctenium, Phyllarthron and Rhodocolea and (iii) the paraphyly of Colea due to the inclusion of species of Ophiocolea. The latter genus was also recovered paraphyletic due to the inclusion of two species of Colea (C. decora and C. labatii). The taxonomic implications of the mutual paraphyly of these two genera are discussed in light of morphological evidence, and it is concluded that the two genera should be merged, and the necessary new nomenclatural combinations are provided. The phylogenetic framework shows Phylloctenium, which is endemic to Madagascar and restricted to dry ecosystems, as basal and sister to the rest of the tribe, suggesting Madagascar to be the centre of origin of this clade. The remaining genera are diversified mostly in humid ecosystems, with evidence of multiple dispersals to the neighboring islands, including at least two to the Comoros, one to Mauritius and one to the Seychelles. Finally, we hypothesize that the ecological success of this tribe might have been triggered by a shift of fruit-dispersal mode from wind to lemur.

  19. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

  20. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa.

  1. Changes to extreme wave climates of islands within the Western Tropical Pacific throughout the 21st century under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with implications for island vulnerability and sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Erikson, Li; Hegermiller, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Waves are the dominant influence on coastal morphology and ecosystem structure of tropical Pacific islands. Wave heights, periods, and directions for the 21st century were projected using near-surface wind fields from four atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (GCM) under representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5. GCM-derived wind fields forced the global WAVEWATCH-III wave model to generate hourly time-series of bulk wave parameters around 25 islands in the mid to western tropical Pacific Ocean for historical (1976–2005), mid-, and end-of-century time periods. Extreme significant wave heights decreased (~10.0%) throughout the 21st century under both climate scenarios compared to historical wave conditions and the higher radiative forcing 8.5 scenario displayed a greater and more widespread decrease in extreme significant wave heights compared to the lower forcing 4.5 scenario. An exception was for the end-of-century June–August season. Offshore of islands in the central equatorial Pacific, extreme significant wave heights displayed the largest changes from historical values. The frequency of extreme events during December–February decreased under RCP 8.5, whereas the frequency increased under RCP 4.5. Mean wave directions often rotated more than 30° clockwise at several locations during June–August, which could indicate a weakening of the trade winds’ influence on extreme wave directions and increasing dominance of Southern Ocean swell or eastern shift of storm tracks. The projected changes in extreme wave heights, directions of extreme events, and frequencies at which extreme events occur will likely result in changes to the morphology and sustainability of island nations.

  2. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae) in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands.

    PubMed

    Shiposha, Valeriia; Catalán, Pilar; Olonova, Marina; Marques, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89%) suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary Islands

  3. Genetic structure and diversity of the selfing model grass Brachypodium stacei (Poaceae) in Western Mediterranean: out of the Iberian Peninsula and into the islands

    PubMed Central

    Shiposha, Valeriia; Catalán, Pilar; Olonova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Annual Mediterranean species of the genus Brachypodium are promising model plants for energy crops since their selfing nature and short-life cycles are an advantage in breeding programs. The false brome, B. distachyon, has already been sequenced and new genomic initiatives have triggered the de-novo genome sequencing of its close relatives such as B. stacei, a species that was until recently mistaken for B. distachyon. However, the success of these initiatives hinges on detailed knowledge about the distribution of genetic variation within and among populations for the effective use of germplasm in a breeding program. Understanding population genetic diversity and genetic structure is also an important prerequisite for designing effective experimental populations for genomic wide studies. However, population genetic data are still limited in B. stacei. We therefore selected and amplified 10 nuclear microsatellite markers to depict patterns of population structure and genetic variation among 181 individuals from 19 populations of B. stacei occurring in its predominant range, the western Mediterranean area: mainland Iberian Peninsula, continental Balearic Islands and oceanic Canary Islands. Our genetic results support the occurrence of a predominant selfing system with extremely high levels of homozygosity across the analyzed populations. Despite the low level of genetic variation found, two different genetic clusters were retrieved, one clustering all SE Iberian mainland populations and the island of Minorca and another one grouping all S Iberian mainland populations, the Canary Islands and all Majorcan populations except one that clustered with the former group. These results, together with a high sharing of alleles (89%) suggest different colonization routes from the mainland Iberian Peninsula into the islands. A recent colonization scenario could explain the relatively low levels of genetic diversity and low number of alleles found in the Canary Islands

  4. Circulation around La Réunion and Mauritius islands in the south-western Indian Ocean: A modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pous, Stéphane; Lazure, Pascal; André, Gaël.; Dumas, Franck; Halo, Issufo; Penven, Pierrick

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to document the circulation in the vicinity of La Réunion and Mauritius islands, i.e., within 500 km offshore, on the intraseasonal time scale, using a high-resolution realistic modeling strategy. The simulated sea level anomalies, water mass properties, and large-scale circulation compare favorably with satellite and in situ observations. Our high-resolution simulation suggests that the currents around the islands are maximal locally, oriented southwestward, to the southeast of both islands which is not visible in low-resolution satellite observations. It also highlights the high degree of variability of the circulation, which is dominated by westward propagating features. The predominant time scale of variability is 60 days. This coincides with the period of a barotropic mode of variability confined to the Mascarene Basin. The characteristics of the westward propagating anomalies are related to baroclinic Rossby waves crossing the Indian Ocean but only in the long-wave resting ocean limit. Tracking those anomalies as eddies shows that they also have a meridional tendency in their trajectory, northward for cyclones and southward for anticyclones, which is consistent with previous studies. Sensitivity experiments suggest that they are predominantly advected from the east, but there is also local generation in the lee of the islands, due to interaction between the circulation and topography.

  5. Dynamics of coral reef benthic assemblages of the Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil: inferences on natural and anthropogenic drivers.

    PubMed

    Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Coni, Ericka O C; Meirelles, Pedro M; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H; Bastos, Alex C; Abrantes, Douglas P; Ferreira, Camilo M; Gibran, Fernando Z; Güth, Arthur Z; Sumida, Paulo Y G; Oliveira, Nara L; Kaufman, Les; Minte-Vera, Carolina V; Moura, Rodrigo L

    2013-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank (eastern Brazil) encompasses the largest and richest coral reefs of the South Atlantic. Coral reef benthic assemblages of the region were monitored from 2003 to 2008. Two habitats (pinnacles' tops and walls) were sampled per site with 3-10 sites sampled within different reef areas. Different methodologies were applied in two distinct sampling periods: 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. Spatial coverage and taxonomic resolution were lower in the former than in the latter period. Benthic assemblages differed markedly in the smallest spatial scale, with greater differences recorded between habitats. Management regimes and biomass of fish functional groups (roving and territorial herbivores) had minor influences on benthic assemblages. These results suggest that local environmental factors such as light, depth and substrate inclination exert a stronger influence on the structure of benthic assemblages than protection from fishing. Reef walls of unprotected coastal reefs showed highest coral cover values, with a major contribution of Montastraea cavernosa (a sediment resistant species that may benefit from low light levels). An overall negative relationship between fleshy macroalgae and slow-growing reef-building organisms (i.e. scleractinians and crustose calcareous algae) was recorded, suggesting competition between these organisms. The opposite trend (i.e. positive relationships) was recorded for turf algae and the two reef-building organisms, suggesting beneficial interactions and/or co-occurrence mediated by unexplored factors. Turf algae cover increased across the region between 2006 and 2008, while scleractinian cover showed no change. The need of a continued and standardized monitoring program, aimed at understanding drivers of change in community patterns, as well as to subsidize sound adaptive conservation and management measures, is highlighted.

  6. Holocene History of the Bering Sea Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) in Its Beaufort Sea Summer Grounds off Southwestern Victoria Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2001-05-01

    The fossil remains of 43 bowhead whales were mapped on the raised beaches of western Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic, near the historic summer range limit of the Bering Sea stock in the Beaufort Sea. The elevations and radiocarbon ages of the remains demonstrate that the bowhead ranged commonly into the region following the submergence of Bering Strait at ca. 10,000 14C yr B.P. until ca. 8500 14C yr B.P. During the same interval, bowheads ranged widely from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay. Subsequently, no whales reached Wollaston Peninsula until ca. 1500 14C yr B.P. Late Holocene populations evidently were small, or occupations were brief, in comparison to those of the early Holocene. Although the late Holocene recurrence may relate to the expansion of pioneering Thule whalers eastward from Alaska, there are few Thule sites and limited evidence of Thule whaling in the area surveyed to support this suggestion.

  7. Ground deformation effects from the M6 earthquakes (2014-2015) on Cephalonia-Ithaca Islands (Western Greece) deduced by GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-03-01

    The implications of the earthquakes that took place in the central Ionian Islands in 2014 (Cephalonia, M w6.1, M w5.9) and 2015 (Lefkas, M w6.4) are described based on repeat measurements of the local GPS networks in Cephalonia and Ithaca, and the available continuous GPS stations in the broader area. The Lefkas earthquake occurred on a branch of the Cephalonia Transform Fault, affecting Cephalonia with SE displacements gradually decreasing from north ( 100 mm) to south ( 10 mm). This earthquake revealed a near N-S dislocation boundary separating Paliki Peninsula in western Cephalonia from the rest of the island, as well as another NW-SE trending fault that separates kinematically the northern and southern parts of Paliki. Strain field calculations during the interseismic period (2014-2015) indicate compression between Ithaca and Cephalonia, while extension appears during the following co-seismic period (2015-2016) including the 2015 Lefkas earthquake. Additional tectonically active zones with differential kinematic characteristics were also identified locally.

  8. What Do Pneumocystis Organisms Tell Us about the Phylogeography of Their Hosts? The Case of the Woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in Continental Europe and Western Mediterranean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Michaux, Johan; Barriel, Véronique; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cécile Marie; Pottier, Muriel; Noël, Christophe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Morand, Serge; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals. PMID:25830289

  9. Methane-cycling communities in a permafrost-affected soil on Herschel Island, Western Canadian Arctic: active layer profiling of mcrA and pmoA genes.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Béatrice A; Dziduch, Isabel; Liebner, Susanne; Ganzert, Lars; Lantuit, Hugues; Pollard, Wayne; Wagner, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    In Arctic wet tundra, microbial controls on organic matter decomposition are likely to be altered as a result of climatic disruption. Here, we present a study on the activity, diversity and vertical distribution of methane-cycling microbial communities in the active layer of wet polygonal tundra on Herschel Island. We recorded potential methane production rates from 5 to 40 nmol h(-1) g(-1) wet soil at 10 °C and significantly higher methane oxidation rates reaching values of 6-10 μmol h(-1) g(-1) wet soil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning analyses of mcrA and pmoA genes demonstrated that both communities were stratified along the active layer vertical profile. Similar to other wet Arctic tundra, the methanogenic community hosted hydrogenotrophic (Methanobacterium) as well as acetoclastic (Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta) members. A pronounced shift toward a dominance of acetoclastic methanogens was observed in deeper soil layers. In contrast to related circum-Arctic studies, the methane-oxidizing (methanotrophic) community on Herschel Island was dominated by members of the type II group (Methylocystis, Methylosinus, and a cluster related to Methylocapsa). The present study represents the first on methane-cycling communities in the Canadian Western Arctic, thus advancing our understanding of these communities in a changing Arctic.

  10. Thirteen years of observations on biomass burning organic tracers over Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific: An outflow region of Asian aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing; Zhu, Chunmao

    2015-05-01

    East Asia is the world's greatest source region for the emission of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors due to the rapid industrialization and intensive biomass burning (BB) activities. BB emits specific organic tracers such as levoglucosan, mannosan, and galactosan, which are produced by pyrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose and then transported downwind to the western North Pacific by westerly winds. Here we present long-term observations of BB tracers over the remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific (WNP) from 2001 to 2013. Elevated concentrations of BB tracers by an order of magnitude were found in midautumn to midspring with winter maxima, which are strongly involved with the atmospheric transport by westerly winds from the Asian continent to the WNP, as supported by backward trajectory analyses. Throughout the observations, we found an increase in the averaged concentrations of BB tracers from 2006 to 2013, which is mainly caused by enhanced BB events in Asian urban and rural areas, as supported by enhanced fire/hot spots in East Asia via satellite images. We also found that the period of the high concentrations was prolonged from 2006 to 2013. Comparison between monthly averaged concentrations of BB tracers and backward air mass trajectories clearly demonstrates that the winter/spring maxima over Chichijima are involved with the seasonal shifting of atmospheric circulation followed by downwind transport of BB aerosols to the WNP. High abundances of BB tracers over the WNP indicate that BB-laden air masses can be transported to remote marine environments.

  11. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments.

  12. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems as archive of climate variations (South Shetland Islands / Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona; Betzler, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The architecture of polar gravel beach-ridge systems is presented and their potential as archive of past wave-climate conditions is evaluated. Raised beaches are common on paraglacial coasts which experienced a net uplift during the Holocene as the result of postglacial isostatic rebound. Ground-penetrating radar data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie seaward-dipping strata of the strand plain. Whereas strand-plain progradation is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach face under enduring calm conditions, ridge construction reflects enhanced wave action at the beach as the result of increased storminess or reduced nearshore sea ice. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: Sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The sedimentary architecture of individual beach ridges is interpreted to reflect maximum wave-runup height during the time of ridge construction. Ridges at sheltered parts of the coast exhibit either seaward-dipping beds, interpreted to result from swash deposition, or an aggradational stacking pattern being the result of wave overtopping. At exposed beaches, larger ridges develop composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping beds. Radiocarbon data indicate that the frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in low-energy settings to more than 1500 years under high-energy conditions. In the study area, beach ridges group into four distinct levels: up to 4 m, 5.5 m, 7.5 m, and 10 m above the present day storm beach. Hence, these levels are interpreted to reflect periods of increased wave activity in the area of the South Shetland Islands at about 4.3, 3.1, 1.9, and 0.35 ka cal BP.

  13. Seismic reflection and vibracoring studies of the continental shelf offshore central and western Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, W.M.; Albanese, J.R.; Coch, N.K.; Harsch, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ridge-and-swale topography on the continental shelf south of Fire Island, New York, is characterized by northeast-trending linear shoals that are shore attached and shore oblique on the inner shelf and isolated and shore parallel on the middle shelf. High-resolution seismic reflection profiles show that the ridges and swales occur independent of, and are not controlled by, the presence of internal structures (for example, filled tidal inlet channels, paleobarrier strata) or underlying structure (for example, high-relief Cretaceous unconformity). Grab samples of surficial sediments on the shelf south of Fire Island average 98% sand. Locally, benthic fauna increase silt and clay content through fecal pellet production or increase the content of gravel-size material by contribution of their fragmented shell remains. Surficial sand on the ridges is unimodal at 0.33 mm (medium sand, about 50 mesh), and surficial sand in troughs is bimodal at 0.33 mm and 0.15 mm (fine sand, about 100 mesh). In addition to seismic studies, 26 vibracores were recovered from the continental shelf in state and federal waters from south of Rockaway and Long Beaches, Long Island, New York. Stratigraphic and sedimentological data gleaned from these cores were used to outline the geologic framework in the study area. A variety of sedimentary features were noted in the cores, including burrow-mottled sections of sand in a finer silty-sand, rhythmic lamination of sand and silty-sand that reflect cyclic changes in sediment transport, layers of shell hash and shells that probably represent tempestites, and changes from dark color to light color in the sediments that probably represent changes in the oxidation-reduction conditions in the area with time. The stratigraphic units identified are an upper, generally oxidized, nearshore facies, an underlying fine- to medium-sand and silty-clay unit considered to be an estuarine facies, and a lower, coarse-grained deeply oxidized, cross-laminated pre

  14. Toward a three-century reconstruction of climate variability from a slow-growing coral in the Western Province, Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability in the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), a major heat and moisture source to the atmosphere, is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Modeling work has suggested that multi-century scale reconstructions of ENSO variability from the tropical west Pacific may be necessary to fully characterize the nature of the ENSO system. Much of the previous coral-based climate studies have used the fast-growing coral genus Porites, although a few studies have used the long-lived, slow-growing coral genus Diploastrea. Here we present an oxygen isotope time series from a three century long D. heliopora coral from near Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (WPSI, 8°07.92' S, 156°54.50' E), a location in the WPWP that experiences significant temperature and salinity anomalies during ENSO events. We first used a forward model to generate a pseudoproxy time series for the Olasana region, utilizing available gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) data spanning 1970-2007. There are strong correlations between predicted and measured coral δ18O, between both monthly (r = 0.84) and monthly anomaly (r = 0.69) records. These results demonstrate that the Olasana D. heliopora coral δ18O record is a robust proxy of local surface ocean conditions. There is also a robust relationship between the Olasana δ18O record and NINO3.4 index of ENSO activity during 1938-2007, which provides confidence that the Olasana δ18O record can be used to characterize the ENSO state in this region back in time. Finally, we present results from near the core bottom (~1700 CE), which provide a first window into a gap of coral-based ENSO reconstructions in the immediate preindustrial (~1700-1850 CE).

  15. Improved Socio-Economic Status of a Community Population Following Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Control Interventions on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Research on micro-level assessment of the changes of socio-economic status following health interventions is very scarce. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in resource poor settings. In such settings information about income is usually lacking, and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 213 households in a community population in an island in the north-western Tanzania before and 3 year after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based housing construction features (e.g., type of roof, walls, and floor) and durable assets ownership (e.g., bicycle, radio, etc.). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor, and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.4376677 to 0.5001073, and the mean from -0.2605787 (SD; 2.005688) to 0.2605787 (SD; 1.831199). The difference in socio-economic status of the people between the 2 phases was highly statistically significant (P<0.001). We argue that finding of this study should be treated with caution as there were other interventions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections which were running concurrently on Kome Island apart from PHAST intervention.

  16. Reprint of “Zooplankton biomass and electron transport system activity around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, A.; Gómez, M.; Packard, T. T.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.

    2014-10-01

    Measuring electron transport system (ETS) activity in zooplankton provides an index of respiration, theoretically, the potential respiration rate. We apply the ETS technique to estimate potential respiration and carbon demand from the zooplankton community in the upper 200 m of the water column near the Balearic Islands. The investigation was focused on two areas with different oceanographic conditions: the Balearic and Algerian subbasins. It compared the biomass, potential respiration and specific potential respiration of different size fractions (53-200, 200-500, > 500 μm) in both areas. In these regions the largest contribution to respiration was found in the larger sizes. The specific respiration (per unit biomass) was greater in smaller fractions, indicating that they have a more active metabolism. Both biomass and potential respiration increased in the Algerian subbasin and for both regions biomass and potential respiration were greater in shallow waters over the continental shelf (< 200 m). Using Kleiber's law as a tool to investigate the relationships between these two variables, we found that the exponential relation coefficient (b) was less than 0.75, indicating that the respiration was depressed (shifted down). In cultures and in eutrophic ocean waters (upwelling areas) b normally is greater than 0.75, consequently we intuit that the low value of b over the Balearic and Algerian subbasins indicates that the zooplankton is not well fed and that they are living under oligotrophic stress.

  17. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  18. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests.

  19. Radiocarbon variability in the western equatorial Pacific inferred from a high-resolution coral record from Nauru Island

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T.P.; Schrag, D.P.; Kashgarian, M.; Southon, J.

    1998-10-01

    We have generated a high resolution coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record spanning the last 50 years to document the seasonal and interannual redistribution of surface waters in the western tropical Pacific. Prebomb (1947{endash}1956) {Delta}{sup 14}C values average {minus}63{per_thousand} and have a total range of 30{per_thousand}. Values begin to increase in 1957, reaching a maximum of 137{per_thousand} in mid-1983. Large interannual variability of up to 80{per_thousand} closely follows the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During each ENSO warm phase, {Delta}{sup 14}C values begin to increase, reflecting the reduction of low-{sup 14}C water upwelling in the east and the invasion of subtropical water into the western equatorial tropical Pacific. Maximum {Delta}{sup 14}C values are in phase or lag the corresponding sea surface temperature maxima in the eastern tropical Pacific, whereas the rapid return to more negative {Delta}{sup 14}C is in phase with eastern Pacific ENSO indices. The highest-amplitude excursions occur during the 1965/1966 and 1972/1973 events, when the {sup 14}C contrast is highest between the eastern Pacific and subtropics. The 1982/1983 El Ni{tilde n}o, although a larger ENSO event, has a lower {Delta}{sup 14}C amplitude, reflecting the penetration of bomb radiocarbon into the equatorial undercurrent and the reduced contrast in {Delta}{sup 14}C between thermocline and subtropical surface waters at that time. This coral record demonstrates the potential for using similar radiocarbon time series for documenting variability in Pacific shallow circulation over interannual and decadal timescales. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  20. Causes of seasonal and decadal variability in a tropical seagrass seascape (Reunion Island, south western Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvillier, A.; Villeneuve, N.; Cordier, E.; Kolasinski, J.; Maurel, L.; Farnier, N.; Frouin, P.

    2017-01-01

    While seagrass meadows are considered as vulnerable or declining habitats worldwide, facing many natural and anthropogenic pressures, the opposite trend is suggested by this study in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Located at the benthos-pelagos interface, seagrass beds are critical coastal habitats and can be used as relevant health indicators for larger marine ecosystems or land-sea continuum. In order to determine which are the factors driving seagrass ecosystems health it is essential to quantify their seascape pattern fluctuations. The long-term (over 65 years) and seasonal scale variability was assessed in the monospecific Syringodium isoetifolium seagrass bed seascape at the Ermitage/La Saline fringing reef using aerial photographs and field measurements. Both long-term and short-term scales have been informative and both types of monitoring appear as useful tools for seagrass ecosystem management. Strong variations in seagrass coverage were observed in the 16 rasters analyzed from years 1950-2015, the magnitude order was however similar to the one observed at the recent seasonal scale (up to 2016 m2 gained or 4863 m2 lost over few months at site scale). Seascape pattern analysis revealed that physical factors (swell events, cyclones) had a major impact on the ocean-exposed site with varying impact degree depending on frequency, duration and intensity. Biotic (herbivory) or anthropogenic (grubbing, nutrient inputs) factors were also identified to influence the structural shape, fragmentation, or disappearance of seagrass beds. Further work is required to better quantify the effect of each single factor, a difficult task due to their combined expression. At the reef scale, these results showed a positive correlation between seagrass beds and inner reef flat coverage suggesting that common factors drive these highly resilient ecosystems.

  1. Discovery of a recent, natural whale fall on the continental slope off Anvers Island, western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Singh, Hanumant; Amsler, Margaret O.; Vos, Stephanie C.; McClintock, James B.; Brothers, Cecilia J.; Brown, Alastair; Ellis, Daniel; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Aronson, Richard B.

    2014-08-01

    Whale falls provide a substantial, nutrient-rich resource for species in areas of the ocean that may otherwise be largely devoid of food. We report the discovery of a natural whale fall at 1430 m depth in the cold waters of the continental slope off the western Antarctic Peninsula. This is the highest-latitude whale fall reported to date. The section of the carcass we observed-the tail fluke-was more complete than any previously reported natural whale fall from the deep sea and in the early stages of decomposition. We estimate the entire cetacean to measure 5-8 m in length. The flesh remained almost intact on the carcass but the skin was missing from the entire section except for the end of the fluke, clearly exposing blubber and soft tissue. The absence of skin indicates rapid and Homogeneous loss. The dominant macrofauna present were crustaceans, including most prominently the lithodid crab Paralomis birsteini, and zoarcid fish typical of the ‘mobile-scavenger' successional stage. The density of mobile macrofauna was greatest on the carcass and declined to background levels within 100 m, indicating that they were attracted to the whale fall. This whale fall offers an important opportunity to examine the decomposition of a carcass under deep-sea conditions at polar latitudes.

  2. Phylogeography of Arenaria balearica L. (Caryophyllaceae): evolutionary history of a disjunct endemic from the Western Mediterranean continental islands

    PubMed Central

    Barrios de León, Sara B.; Seguí Colomar, Jaume; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Peñas de Giles, Julio; Martínez-Ortega, María Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally accepted that Arenaria balearica (Caryophyllaceae) could be a relict Tertiary plant species, this has never been experimentally tested. Nor have the palaeohistorical reasons underlying the highly fragmented distribution of the species in the Western Mediterranean region been investigated. We have analysed AFLP data (213) and plastid DNA sequences (226) from a total of 250 plants from 29 populations sampled throughout the entire distribution range of the species in Majorca, Corsica, Sardinia, and the Tuscan Archipelago. The AFLP data analyses indicate very low geographic structure and population differentiation. Based on plastid DNA data, six alternative phylogeographic hypotheses were tested using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). These analyses revealed ancient area fragmentation as the most probable scenario, which is in accordance with the star-like topology of the parsimony network that suggests a pattern of long term survival and subsequent in situ differentiation. Overall low levels of genetic diversity and plastid DNA variation were found, reflecting evolutionary stasis of a species preserved in locally long-term stable habitats. PMID:27833802

  3. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwanga, Joseph R.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Siza, Julius E.; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M.; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents’ knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents’ knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. PMID:26537035

  4. Improved Perceptions and Practices Related to Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Worm Infections Following PHAST Intervention on Kome Island, North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwanga, Joseph R; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Siza, Julius E; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Kullaya, Cyril M; Nsabo, Jackson; Eom, Keeseon S; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are widespread diseases of public health importance in Tanzania. A study on perceptions and practices related to schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections was undertaken among a community population of Kome Island in Sengerema District, north-western Tanzania, where intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections are endemic. Schistosomiasis and intestinal worm-related perceptions and practices were assessed before and 3 years after implementation of a participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention as a control measure. Data were obtained from baseline and post-intervention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire surveys conducted twice in 2009 and 2012 among 82 individuals aged ≥15 years. We found significant increases in respondents' knowledge of the cause, transmission, symptoms, health consequences, and prevention of schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections after PHAST intervention. The increase in respondents' knowledge on almost all aspects of the said infections was translated into actions to control schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections. This has not been achieved by chance, but due to well-designed and locally-adapted PHAST intervention. We conclude that despite criticisms, PHAST approach is still useful in empowering communities to control water, sanitation, and hygiene related infectious diseases such as schistosomiasis and intestinal worm infections.

  5. Diel-depth distributions of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) under two environmental scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivar, M. Pilar; Sabatés, Ana; Alemany, Francisco; Balbín, Rosa; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz; Torres, Asvin Pérez

    2014-10-01

    The diel vertical distribution of fish larvae off the Balearic Islands during late autumn and summer was analysed in relation to the environmental conditions. Four fixed sampling stations, located in the outer shelf and slope zones, were sampled during both the day and night by means of oblique hauls at different water depths. In autumn the first 60 m were characterised by vertical mixing and relatively higher fluorescence values, while summer was characterised by strong near-surface stratification and the presence of a Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM). The fish larval community was dominated by mesopelagic species, myctophiforms and stomiiforms, with some differences in species composition and their relative contribution between periods. A higher number of species was observed to reproduce in summer. The diel vertical distribution patterns differed among species and, within species, some differences were detected between the day and night. Although their relative depth preferences were similar between surveys, seasonal comparisons for the most abundant species showed that in autumn larvae presented both a shallower distribution during the day and a deeper distribution during the night than in the summer period. The larvae of all species, except for Argyropelecus hemigymnus, were absent from layers below 200 m. In these deeper layers, only A. hemigymnus larvae and juvenile stages of myctophiforms and stomiiforms were found. Another group of species, including Hygophum benoiti, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Cyclothone braueri and Lampanyctus crocodilus, characterised the surface assemblage, mainly appearing in the first 50 m during the day, while at night their distribution was wider, extending to deeper layers. Benthosema glaciale, Symbolophorus veranyi and Myctophum punctatum were located at intermediate levels (mostly 50-100 m). Larval size stratification was evident for the most abundant species, with younger stages being found at shallower depths in the water

  6. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  7. Cholorphyll Bloom in the Western Equatorial Pacific During the 1998 El Niño/La Niña Transition: The Role of Kiribati Islands as Seen from Satellite, In-Situ Data, and a High-Resolution Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messié, M.; Radenac, M.-H.; Lefèvre, J.

    2006-07-01

    An uncommon bloom occurred in the western equatorial Pacific near 170°E, during the transition between El Niño and La Niña conditions in 1998. Previous studies attributed this bloom to large-scale wind-driven upwelling and vertical mixing, but they do not explain its particular location that coincided with the presence of small coral atolls: Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. In this study combining satellite and in-situ data with a regional physical model, we assess the impact of Kiribati Islands on the different bloom phases. We show how the islands disrupted the dynamics and the nutrient fields in this region, in such a way that bloom-favorable conditions could be created [1].

  8. A multi‐isotope investigation of diet and subsistence amongst island and mainland populations from early medieval western Britain

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Angela L.; Chenery, Carolyn A.; Evans, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This is the first investigation of dietary practices amongst multiple early medieval populations (AD 500–1000) from Wales and the Isle of Man using carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis. The analysis will illuminate similarities or differences between the diets and subsistence strategies of populations occupying different geographical regions, specifically those living in marginal coastal regions in comparison to inland populations well‐connected to ecclesiastical centres and high‐status settlements. Materials and Methods One hundred and two human skeletons were sampled for carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis, and 69 human skeletons were sampled for sulphur isotope analysis from nine cemetery sites from western Britain (Isle of Man = 3, southwest Wales = 4, southeast Wales = 2). Thirteen faunal skeletons from St Patrick's Chapel (southwest Wales) were sampled for carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis. Results Human δ13C values range from −19.4‰ to −21.2‰ (δ13C mean=−20.4 ±0.4‰, 1σ, n = 86), and δ15N values range from 9.1‰ to 13.8‰ (δ15N mean = 10.8 ± 0.9‰, 1σ, n = 86). δ34S values range from 1.2‰ to 18.4‰ (δ34S mean = 11.6 ± 4.5‰, 1σ, n = 66). Significant differences were noted between the mean δ13C, δ15N and δ34S values according to geographic region: Isle of Man (δ13C = −20.7 ± 0.4‰, δ15N = 11.4 ±0.6‰, n = 13/86; δ34S mean = 17.1 ±0.6, n = 4/66), southwest Wales (δ13C = −20.5 ± 0.4‰, δ15N = 11.0 ±1‰, n = 32/86; δ34S = 16.1 ± 2.1, n = 21/66), and southeast Wales (δ13C =−20.3 ±0.4‰, δ15N = 10.4 ±0.7‰, n = 41/86; δ34S= 8.8 ±3‰, n = 41/66). Faunal δ13C values range from −23.1‰ to −21.2‰ (δ13C mean= −22.1 ±0.5‰, 1σ, n = 13), and δ15N values range from 6.3‰ to 9.8‰ (δ15N mean = 7.3 ± 1.1‰, 1σ, n = 13). δ34S values range from 4

  9. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  10. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL < 30 mm; medium: CL between 30 and 40 mm; large: CL ⩾ 40 mm). Off Cabrera, the highest fullness was recorded in November 2003 among small and medium shrimp, while only large specimens showed patterns similar to that found off Sóller. Off Sóller, the diet of both small (CL < 34 mm) and large (CL ⩾ 34 mm) A. antennatus was mainly influenced by season, with three dietary groups corresponding to August-September 2003, to November 2003/February 2004, and to hauls from April to June 2004. Off Cabrera, hauls (representing diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and

  11. Abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of western gray whales in relation to a 3-D seismic survey, Northeast Sakhalin Island, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gailey, Glenn; Würsig, Bernd; McDonald, Trent L

    2007-11-01

    A geophysical seismic survey was conducted in the summer of 2001 off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. The area of seismic exploration was immediately adjacent to the Piltun feeding grounds of the endangered western gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). This study investigates relative abundance, behavior, and movement patterns of gray whales in relation to occurrence and proximity to the seismic survey by employing scan sampling, focal follow, and theodolite tracking methodologies. These data were analyzed in relation to temporal, environmental, and seismic related variables to evaluate potential disturbance reactions of gray whales to the seismic survey. The relative numbers of whales and pods recorded from five shore-based stations were not significantly different during periods when seismic surveys were occurring compared to periods when no seismic surveys were occurring and to the post-seismic period. Univariate analyses indicated no significant statistical correlation between seismic survey variables and any of the eleven movement and behavior variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after accounting for temporal and environmental variables, 6 of 11 movement and behavior variables (linearity, acceleration, mean direction, blows per surfacing, and surface-dive blow rate) were not significantly associated with seismic survey variables, and 5 of 11 variables (leg speed, reorientation rate, distance-from-shore, blow interval, and dive time) were significantly associated with seismic survey variables. In summary, after accounting for environmental variables, no correlation was found between seismic survey variables and the linearity of whale movements, changes in whale swimming speed between theodolite fixes, mean direction of whale movement, mean number of whale exhalations per minute at the surface, mean time at the surface, and mean number of exhalations per minute during a whales surface-to-dive cycle. In contrast, at higher

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Long-term observations of black carbon mass concentrations at Fukue Island, western Japan, during 2009-2015: constraining wet removal rates and emission strengths from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Yugo; Pan, Xiaole; Miyakawa, Takuma; Komazaki, Yuichi; Taketani, Fumikazu; Uno, Itsushi; Kondo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Long-term (2009-2015) observations of atmospheric black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were performed using a continuous soot-monitoring system (COSMOS) at Fukue Island, western Japan, to provide information on wet removal rate constraints and the emission strengths of important source regions in East Asia (China and others). The annual average mass concentration was 0.36 µg m-3, with distinct seasonality; high concentrations were recorded during autumn, winter, and spring and were caused by Asian continental outflows, which reached Fukue Island in 6-46 h. The observed data were categorized into two classes, i.e., with and without a wet removal effect, using the accumulated precipitation along a backward trajectory (APT) for the last 3 days as an index. Statistical analysis of the observed ΔBC / ΔCO ratios was performed to obtain information on the emission ratios (from data with zero APT only) and wet removal rates (including data with nonzero APTs). The estimated emission ratios (5.2-6.9 ng m-3 ppb-1) varied over the six air mass origin areas; the higher ratios for south-central East China (30-35° N) than for north-central East China (35-40° N) indicated the relative importance of domestic emissions and/or biomass burning sectors. The significantly higher BC / CO emission ratios adopted in the bottom-up Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2 (8.3-23 ng m-3 ppb-1) over central East China and Korea needed to be reduced at least by factors of 1.3 and 2.8 for central East China and Korea, respectively, but the ratio for Japan was reasonable. The wintertime enhancement of the BC emission from China, predicted by REAS2, was verified for air masses from south-central East China but not for those from north-central East China. Wet removal of BC was clearly identified as a decrease in the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio against APT. The transport efficiency (TE), defined as the ratio of the ΔBC / ΔCO ratio with precipitation to that without precipitation, was

  14. Population dynamics of the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Short spatio-temporal differences and influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guijarro, Beatriz; Massutí, Enric; Moranta, Joan; Díaz, Paz

    2008-06-01

    The red shrimp Aristeus antennatus is one of the target species of the bottom trawl fishery of the Balearic Islands. The objective of the present paper is to study the short spatial and temporal differences of this important economic resource between two different locations off Mallorca (Cabrera: CA; Sóller: SO), where a fleet mobility pattern has been detected, and to study the influence of environmental conditions on this species. Six simultaneous bottom-trawl and oceanographic surveys were carried out at these two locations in order to collect data from the demersal species, hydrography (temperature and salinity), trophic resources and sediment characteristics. The commercial fleet from both locations was monitored by monthly on-board sampling, log-books and daily landings obtained from sales slips. Additional data was obtained from other fishing surveys. Short spatial and temporal differences have been detected between both locations. The population at CA was more demographically homogeneous, while that at SO showed important variations, like high abundance of juveniles recruiting to fishing grounds in autumn-winter and high abundance of large females during summer. Several differences have also been found in the biology of the species between locations, such as males were more abundant in SO than in CA. Also, the reproductive period started sooner in SO than in CA, and the condition of pre-spawning females was better in SO. The percentage of total lipids in the hepatopancreas was minimal during the spawning period, showing their importance as a reserve of energy for the ovary ripening. Water masses could play an important role in these differences, the characteristics of water masses being more stable in CA than in SO. Red shrimp adult females seemed to be more correlated with the warmer and more saline Levantine Intermediate Waters, while juveniles (males and females) and adult males were more correlated with the colder Western Mediterranean Deep Waters

  15. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  16. Dynamics of suprabenthos-zooplankton communities around the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental variables and effects on the biological cycle of Aristeus antennatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, J. E.; Madurell, T.; Fanelli, E.; López-Jurado, J. L.

    Dynamics of suprabenthos and zooplankton were analyzed in two areas located in the NW (off Sóller harbour) and S (off Cabrera Archipelago) of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean) at depths ranging between 135-780 m. Four stations situated respectively at 150 m (shelf-slope break), and at bathyal depths of 350, 650 and 750 m were sampled at bi-monthly intervals during six cruises performed between August 2003 and June 2004. Suprabenthos showed maximum biomass in both areas from late spring to summer (April to August), while minimum biomass was found in autumn (September-November). Though variable, temporal dynamics of zooplankton showed peaks of biomass in late winter and summer (February and June), while minimals occurred in autumn (August-September) and, at bathyal depths, in April. Suprabenthos (abundance; MDS analyses) showed a sample aggregation as a function of depth (3 groups corresponding to the shelf-slope break, upper slope — over 350 m; and the middle, deeper part of the slope — over 650-750 m), without any separation of hauls by season. By contrast, zooplankton samples were separated by season and not by depth. There was evidence of three seasonal groups corresponding to summer (June 2004-August 2003), autumn-winter (September and November 2003, February 2004), and spring (April 2004), being especially well established off Sóller. In general, suprabenthos was significantly correlated with the sediment variables (e.g. total organic matter content (% OM), potential REDOX), whereas zooplankton was almost exclusively dependent on Chl a at the surface, which suggests two different food sources for suprabenthos and zooplankton. The increase of suprabenthos abundance in April-June was paralleled by a sharp increase ( ca. 2.8 times) in the %OM on sediment during the same period, coupled ca. 1-2 months of delay with the peak of surface Chl a recorded in February-March (from satellite imagery data). Suprabenthos biomass was also correlated with

  17. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  18. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  19. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  20. An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Duncan C.; Rowland, Scott K.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel; Oviedo-Perez, Victor-Hugo

    1991-01-01

    Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT HRV-1 data undertaken for each volcano. Landsat TM data are analyzed in an attempt to construct a relative age sequence for the recent eruptive activity on Isla Fernandina. No systematic variation in the surface reflectance of lava flows as a function of age could be detected with these data. Thus it was not possible to complete a study of the temporal distribution of volcanic activity.

  1. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Plankton in Connected Waters of Bali Strait, Between Eastern Part of Java and Western Part of Bali Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, NTM; Wulandari, DY; Ayu, IP; Iswantari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Bali Strait waters located between Java and Bali Island contain high productivity, which indicated by the high diversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The purpose of the research was to understand the local (α), intra-space (β), and regional or total (Υ) diversity values (that expressed as richness) of plankton taken from surface and thermocline layers. The surface observation was carried out at three locations, two locations, with 5 stations of each, nearshore (Banyuwangi/Jawa Island and Southern part of Bali Island) and one location, with 9 stations, offshore (Bali Strait). The thermocline was observed offshore at all 9 stations as the surface. The diversity of each stations (α) were 11-20 for phytoplankton and 7-12 for zooplankton at the surface, then 9-11 and 7-13, respectively at the thermocline. The total diversity (Υ) of phytoplankton was 27 and 13 of zooplankton. Based on the β values, the plankton of nearshore were also found at offshore locations. Furthermore, some species of plankton at the surface were not found in thermocline layer. As a whole, phytoplankton and zooplankton were well distributed at the surface, but showed as specific distribution at thermocline layer, especially for phytoplankton.

  2. Superclone Expansion, Long-Distance Clonal Dispersal and Local Genetic Structuring in the Coral Pocillopora damicornis Type β in Reunion Island, South Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Gélin, Pauline; Fauvelot, Cécile; Mehn, Vincent; Bureau, Sophie; Rouzé, Héloïse; Magalon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis type β is known to present a mixed reproduction mode: through sexual reproduction, new genotypes are created, while asexual reproduction insures their propagation. In order to investigate the relative proportion of each reproduction mode in P. damicornis type β populations from Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, clonal propagation along the west coast was assessed through four sampling sites with increasing geographical distance between sites. Coral colonies were sampled either exhaustively, randomly or haphazardly within each site, and genotypic diversity was assessed using 13 microsatellite loci over a total of 510 P. damicornis type β determined a posteriori from their mtDNA haplotype (a 840 bp sequenced fragment of the Open Reading Frame). Overall, 47% of all the sampled colonies presented the same multi-locus genotype (MLG), a superclone, suggesting that asexual propagation is extremely important in Reunion Island. Within each site, numerous MLGs were shared by several colonies, suggesting local clonal propagation through fragmentation. Moreover, some of these MLGs were found to be shared among several sites located 40 km apart. While asexual reproduction by fragmentation seems unlikely over long distances, our results suggest a production of parthenogenetic larvae. Despite shared MLGs, two differentiated clusters were enclosed among populations of the west coast of Reunion Island, revealing the necessity to set up appropriate managing strategies at a local scale. PMID:28068406

  3. Efficacy of Three Vaccines in Protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from Experimental Infection with West Nile Virus: Implications for Vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis)

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Sarah S.; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D.; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator® DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek® equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  4. Fault zones ruptured during the early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquakes (January 26 and February 3, Mw 6.0) based on the associated co-seismic surface ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekkas, Efthymios L.; Mavroulis, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    The early 2014 Cephalonia Island (Ionian Sea, Western Greece) earthquake sequence comprised two main shocks with almost the same magnitude (moment magnitude (Mw) 6.0) occurring successively within a short time (January 26 and February 3) and space (Paliki peninsula in Western Cephalonia) interval. Εach earthquake was induced by the rupture of a different pre-existing onshore active fault zone and produced different co-seismic surface rupture zones. Co-seismic surface rupture structures were predominantly strike-slip-related structures including V-shaped conjugate surface ruptures, dextral and sinistral strike-slip surface ruptures, restraining and releasing bends, Riedel structures ( R, R', P, T), small-scale bookshelf faulting, and flower structures. An extensional component was present across surface rupture zones resulting in ground openings (sinkholes), small-scale grabens, and co-seismic dip-slip (normal) displacements. A compressional component was also present across surface rupture zones resulting in co-seismic dip-slip (reverse) displacements. From the comparison of our field geological observations with already published surface deformation measurements by DInSAR Interferometry, it is concluded that there is a strong correlation among the surface rupture zones, the ruptured active fault zones, and the detected displacement discontinuities in Paliki peninsula.

  5. The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the number of alien marine crustacean species has increased over the past two decades. However, knowledge about small alien marine crustaceans, like caprellid amphipods, is still very scarce. To understand the role of marinas and recreational boating in the early step of the invasion process by non-indigenous caprellids, we studied the recreational boating pressure and the spatial distribution of caprellid species in Mallorca Island. We collected caprellids from 14 marinas and 9 exposed intertidal rocky shores between November 2011 and April 2012 and we analyzed the differences in habitat use of native and exotic caprellids. Eight caprellid species, six native and two exotic, were found. Alien caprellids were only present in marinas, reaching high densities of population. The analysis of recreational boating pressure reveals that Palma-Migjorn is the area that is subject to the highest potential risk of introduction of exotic species via ship fouling. In the secondary dispersal of alien caprellids, the study reflects that recreational boating seems effective as a secondary vector in the transport of exotic species from marinas to marinas but not from marinas to natural and exposed areas. An illustrated key of caprellids from Balearic Island is provided to differentiate native and non-indigenous species.

  6. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Ronald; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Jaume, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Psammogammarus wallacei sp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided. PMID:21998551

  7. Igneous history of the Koyukuk terrane, western Alaska: constraints on the origin, evolution, and ultimate collision of an accreted island arc terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, S.E.; Patton, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Koyukuk terrane consists of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and plutonic rocks which range from Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age. The terrane crops out in a U-shaped belt which is roughly paralleled by outer belts of ultramafic rocks, oceanic plate basalts and cherts, and retrograded blueschist facies rocks of continental protolith. These rocks have been interpreted as components of a volcanic arc terrane that collided with the North American continental margin in Early Cretaceous time. The Koyukuk terrane consists of four time-stratigraphic units: (1) pre-Middle Jurassic basalts, (2) Middle and Late Jurassic granitic rocks, (3) lower Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks, and (4) upper Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Limited chemical data from the basalts of unit 1 indicate that they were erupted in a nonarc tectonic environment, possibly in an oceanic island or back arc setting. Units, 2, 3, and 4 have the characteristics of subduction-related volcanic rocks. -from Authors

  8. A new marine interstitial Psammogammarus (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Melitidae) from Gura Ici Island, off western Halmahera (North Moluccas, Indonesia), and an overview of the genus.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Hoeksema, Bert W; Jaume, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Psammogammarus wallaceisp. n. is described from the shallow marine interstitial of a sand and coral rubble beach on the Gura Ici islands (North Moluccas; Indonesia). This is the first record of this circum-tropical genus from SE Asia, with the geographically closest relative inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago in Japan. The new species is highly distinctive by the display of sexual dimorphism on pleopod II, with the medial margin of the male proximal article of exopod provided with a comb of short, blunt curved spinules; no other representative of the genus is known to display sexually-dimorphic appendages aside of the gnathopods. The new species is also noteworthy by the outline of the palm margin of male gnathopod II, hardly excavated, and by showing a carpus broader than long. An overview of the genus Psammogammarus with 14 species to date is provided.

  9. Polar gravel beach-ridge systems: Sedimentary architecture, genesis, and implications for climate reconstructions (South Shetland Islands/Western Antarctic Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schutter, Ilona

    2014-09-01

    The sedimentary architecture of polar gravel-beach ridges is presented and it is shown that ridge internal geometries reflect past wave-climate conditions. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data obtained along the coasts of Potter Peninsula (King George Island) show that beach ridges unconformably overlie the prograding strand plain. Development of individual ridges is seen to result from multiple storms in periods of increased storm-wave impact on the coast. Strand-plain progradation, by contrast, is the result of swash sedimentation at the beach-face under persistent calm conditions. The sedimentary architecture of beach ridges in sheltered parts of the coast is characterized by seaward-dipping prograding beds, being the result of swash deposition under stormy conditions, or aggrading beds formed by wave overtopping. By contrast, ridges exposed to high-energy waves are composed of seaward- as well as landward-dipping strata, bundled by numerous erosional unconformities. These erosional unconformities are the result of sediment starvation or partial reworking of ridge material during exceptional strong storms. The number of individual ridges which are preserved from a given time interval varies along the coast depending on the morphodynamic setting: sheltered coasts are characterized by numerous small ridges, whereas fewer but larger ridges develop on exposed beaches. The frequency of ridge building ranges from decades in the low-energy settings up to 1600 years under high-energy conditions. Beach ridges in the study area cluster at 9.5, 7.5, 5.5, and below 3.5 m above the present-day storm beach. Based on radiocarbon data, this is interpreted to reflect distinct periods of increased storminess and/or shortened annual sea-ice coverage in the area of the South Shetland Islands for the times around 4.3, c. 3.1, 1.9 ka cal BP, and after 0.65 ka cal BP. Ages further indicate that even ridges at higher elevations can be subject to later reactivation and reworking. A

  10. Impact of a medical waste incinerator on mercury levels in lagoon fish from a small tropical island in the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Denton, Gary R W; Trianni, Michael S; Bearden, Brian G; Houk, Peter C; Starmer, John A

    2011-01-01

    In 2004-2005, several species of marine fish were collected for mercury (Hg) analysis from Saipan Lagoon, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Relatively high concentrations were found in representatives from the Hafa Adai Beach area located some distance from known sources of Hg contamination. A follow-up investigation aimed at identifying additional land-based sources of Hg in the area was launched in early 2007. The study identified a medical waste incinerator as the primary source of Hg enrichment. The incinerator was operational for about 20 years before it was closed down by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in January 2006, for multiple violations of the Clean Air Act. Stormwater runoff from this facility entered a drainage network that discharged into the ocean at the southern end of Hafa Adai Beach, about 1 km away. At the time of this investigation storm drain sediments at the coast were only marginally enriched with mercury although values some 50x above background were detected in drainage deposits a few meters down-gradient of the incinerator site. Mercury concentrations in fish from the Hafa Adai Beach area were also significantly lower than those determined in similar species 3 yr earlier. The implications of the data are briefly discussed.

  11. AChE and EROD activities in two echinoderms, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra (Holothuroidea), in a coral reef (Reunion Island, South-western Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Kolasinski, Joanna; Taddei, Dorothée; Cuet, Pascale; Frouin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    AChE and EROD activities were investigated in two holothurian species, Holothuria leucospilota and Holoturia atra, from a tropical coral reef. These organisms were collected from 3 back-reef stations, where temperature and salinity were homogeneous. The activity levels of both AChE and EROD varied significantly between the two species, but were in the range of values determined in other echinoderm species. AChE activity levels were higher in the longitudinal muscle than in the tentacle tegument. Among the several tissues tested, the digestive tract wall exhibited higher EROD activity levels. Sex did not influence AChE and EROD activity levels in both species. Animal biomass and EROD activity levels were only correlated in the tegument tissue of H. atra, and we hypothesize a possible influence of age. EROD activity did not show intraspecific variability. A significant relationship was found between AChE activity and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion in Holothuria leucospilota. Individuals collected at the southern site presented both lower AChE activity levels and Cuvierian tubules time of expulsion, indicating possible neural disturbance. More information on holothurians biology and physiology is needed to further assess biomarkers in these key species. This study is the first of its kind performed in the coastal waters of Reunion Island and data obtained represent reference values.

  12. A GIS-Based Multicriteria Evaluation for Aiding Risk Management Pinus pinaster Ait. Forests: A Case Study in Corsican Island, Western Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk ( M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration— Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)—for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  13. A GIS-based multicriteria evaluation for aiding risk management Pinus pinaster Ait. forests: a case study in Corsican Island, western Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Vanina; Oberti, Pascal; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Riffard, Olivier; Panaïotis, Christophe; Cannac, Magali; Ferrat, Lila

    2011-07-01

    Forest management can benefit from decision support tools, including GIS-based multicriteria decision-aiding approach. In the Mediterranean region, Pinus pinaster forests play a very important role in biodiversity conservation and offer many socioeconomic benefits. However, the conservation of this species is affected by the increase in forest fires and the expansion of Matsucoccus feytaudi. This paper proposes a methodology based on commonly available data for assessing the values and risks of P. pinaster forests and to generating maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire and phytosanitary risk management. The criteria for assessing the values (land cover type, legislative tools for biodiversity conservation, environmental tourist sites and access routes, and timber yield) and the risks (fire and phytosanitation) of P. pinaster forests were obtained directly or by considering specific indicators, and they were subsequently aggregated by means of GIS-based multicriteria analysis. This approach was tested on the island of Corsica (France), and maps to aid in decisions pertaining to fire risk and phytosanitary risk (M. feytaudi) were obtained for P. pinaster forest management. Study results are used by the technical offices of the local administration-Corsican Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (ODARC)-for planning the conservation of P. pinaster forests with regard to fire prevention and safety and phytosanitary risks. The decision maker took part in the evaluation criteria study (weight, normalization, and classification of the values). Most suitable locations are given to target the public intervention. The methodology presented in this paper could be applied to other species and in other Mediterranean regions.

  14. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  15. Influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the accessibility of Aristeus antennatus and other demersal species to the deep water trawl fishery off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amores, Angel; Rueda, Lucía; Monserrat, Sebastià; Guijarro, Beatriz; Pasqual, Catalina; Massutí, Enric

    2014-10-01

    Monthly catches per unit of effort (CPUE) of adult red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus), reported in the deep water bottom trawl fishery developed on the Sóller fishing ground off northern Mallorca (Western Mediterranean), and the mean ocean surface vorticity in the surrounding areas are compared between 2000 and 2010. A good correlation is found between the rises in the surrounding surface vorticity and the drops in the CPUE of the adult red shrimp. This correlation could be explained by assuming that most of the surface vorticity episodes could reach the bottom, increasing the seabed velocities and producing sediment resuspension, which could affect the near bottom water turbidity. A. antennatus would respond to this increased turbidity disappearing from the fishing grounds, probably moving downwards to the deeper waters. This massive displacement of red shrimp specimens away from the fishing grounds would consequently decrease their accessibility to fishing exploitation. Similar although more intense responses have been observed during the downslope shelf dense water current episodes that occurred in a submarine canyon, northeast of the Iberian peninsula. The proposed mechanism suggesting how the surface vorticity observed can affect the bottom sediments is investigated using a year-long moored near-bottom current meter and a sediment trap moored near the fishing grounds. The relationship between vorticity and catches is also explored for fish species (Galeus melastomus, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides) and other crustacean (Geryon longipes and Nephrops norvegicus), considered as by-catch of the deep water fishery in the area. Results appear to support the suggestion that the water turbidity generated by the vorticity episodes is significant enough to affect the dynamics of the demersal species.

  16. Late Permian to Middle Triassic correlations and palaeogeographical reconstructions in south-western European basins: New sedimentological data from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linol, Bastien; Bercovici, Antoine; Bourquin, Sylvie; Diez, José Bienvenido; López-Gómez, José; Broutin, Jean; Durand, Marc; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2009-09-01

    -lake or ponded environments where fluvial systems generally flowed southward, except in south-eastern France (oriented to the NE). Within these SW European basins, such as Minorca, the Late Permian succession shows a major retrogradational (evolution from fluvial or alluvial fan deposits to extensive lake, playa or floodplain deposits) and a progradational trend (fluvial or alluvial fan deposits). The Permian-Triassic transition corresponds to an unconformity overlain by braided river deposits with arid climate indicators (aeolian deposits: ventifacts and aeolian dune sedimentation). At the scale of western Europe, this arid episode is dated as Smithian and the Induan age sedimentation deposits seem to be preserved only in the central part of the Germanic Basin. As with all other Peri-Tethyan basins, environment DE 2 of Minorca (above the major erosional surface) is attributed to the Smithian. In the upper part of the studied succession, braided river deposits indicative of less arid climatic conditions are preserved. This succession contains the earliest Mesozoic palaeosols, dated as Anisian by palynomorphs, and expresses a vertical evolution from fluvial to open marine depositional environments attributed to the Muschelkalk transgression.

  17. A new species of Tongorchestia from Bora Bora in the leeward Society Islands (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) .

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Bopiah, Arundathi

    2014-03-28

    The new species Tongorchestia borabora sp. nov. is described from Vaitape in Bora Bora, Leeward Islands, Society Islands. This is the first talitrid amphipod reported from Bora Bora and the third species of Tongorchestia from the Western Pacific oceanic islands. Currently Tongorchestia is endemic to oceanic islands in the Western Pacific.

  18. Hydroxy fatty acids in marine aerosols as microbial tracers: 4-year study on β- and ω-hydroxy fatty acids from remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Poonam; Ishimura, Yutaka; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2015-08-01

    To better understand the long-range atmospheric transport of microbial aerosols from Asia to the western North Pacific, marine aerosols were collected from Chichijima Island (27°04‧N; 142°13‧E) on a biweekly basis during 1990-1993. These samples were investigated for β- and ω-hydroxy fatty acids (FAs) as terrestrial biomarkers of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and higher plants, respectively. The average concentrations of β-hydroxy (C8-C31) and ω-hydroxy (C11-C28) FAs show pronounced seasonal variability with maxima in spring (300 ± 70 pg m-3) and winter (650 ± 330 pg m-3), respectively. Airmass back trajectories clearly indicate the continental outflow from Asia during winter to spring, whereas maritime airmasses dominate in summer to autumn over Chichijima. It is noteworthy that atmospheric abundances of β-hydroxy FAs and, thus, the estimated mass concentration of GNB have not been significantly varied between polluted (continental) and pristine (oceanic) airmasses during the study period. However, the relative source strength observed from cluster analysis of β-hydroxy FAs in the polluted continental airmassess vary significantly among seasons (winter: 98%, spring: 63%, summer; 11%, autumn: 26%). In addition, there were distinguishable differences between polluted continental and pristine maritime airmasses with regard to C-number predominance. The even C-number predominance of β- and ω-hydroxy FAs (∼80 and 98% of total mass concentration, respectively) in marine aerosols could be due to their significant contribution from GNB, terrestrial plants and soil microorganisms. These results have implications towards assessing the atmospheric transport of bacterial and plant lipids in the continental outflow over the open ocean.

  19. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Vernacular Literacy in the Touo Language of the Solomon Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Touo language is a non-Austronesian language spoken on Rendova Island (Western Province, Solomon Islands). First language speakers of Touo are typically multilingual, and are likely to speak other (Austronesian) vernaculars, as well as Solomon Island Pijin and English. There is no institutional support of literacy in Touo: schools function in…

  1. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  2. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  3. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  4. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune

  5. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  6. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  7. 33 CFR 80.707 - Cape Romain, SC to Sullivans Island, SC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, SC. 80.707 Section 80.707 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... to Sullivans Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the western extremity of Cape Romain 292° true to... southernmost extremity of Bull Island to the easternmost extremity of Capers Island. (d) A line formed by...

  8. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  9. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  10. Movements and Spatial Use of Odontocetes in the Western Main Hawaiian Islands: Results from Satellite-Tagging and Photo-Identification off Kaua’i and Ni’ihau in July/August 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-07

    more than half of the species of odontocetes found off the island of Hawai‘i, including short-finned pilot whales, pygmy killer whales, melon -headed...islands (e.g., false killer whales; Baird et al. 2008b, 2010), and at least one has two populations that use the area ( melon - headed whales, which have...encountered, including beaked whales, sperm whales, melon -headed whales, false killer whales, short-finned pilot whales, or pygmy killer whales. Depending on

  11. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  12. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions until May 2003. The evacuation of the island's residents in 1990 was ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  13. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  14. Mass spawning of corals on a high latitude coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, R. C.; Wills, B. L.; Simpson, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is presented that at least 60% of the 184 species of scleractinian corals found on reefs surrounding the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Western Australia) participate in a late summer mass spawning. These populations are thus reproductively active, despite most species being at the extreme southern limit of their latitudinal range (28° 29°S). In the present study, coral mass spawning occurred in the same month on both temperate (Houtman-Abrolhos) and tropical (Ningaloo) reefs of Western Australia, despite more than two months difference in the timing of seasonal temperture minima between the two regions. This concurrence in the month of spawning suggests that temperature does not operate as a simple direct proximate cue for seasonal spawning synchrony in these populations. Seasonal variation in photoperiod may provide a similar and more reliable signal in the two regions, and thus might be more likely to synchronize the seasonal reproductive rhythms of these corals. Also there is overlap in the nights of mass spawning on the Houtman Abrolhos and tropical reefs of Western Australia, despite significant differences in tidal phase and amplitude between the two regions. This indicates that tidal cycle does not synchronize with the night(s) of spawning on these reefs. Spawning is more likely to be synchronised by lunar cycles. The co-occurrence of the mass spawning with spring tides in Houtman Abrolhos coral populations may be evidence of a genetic legacy inherited from northern, tropical ancestors. Micro-tidal regimes in the Houtman Abrolhos region may have exerted insufficient selective pressure to counteract this legacy.

  15. 78 FR 65292 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council (WPFMC) Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC949 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management of Bottomfish Fishery Resources within the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Mariana Islands. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fisheries Management Council (Council) will convene public informational...

  16. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  17. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... the CR Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  18. 8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NOTCHED CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT IN GRILLAGE AT WESTERN EDGE OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. TIDE APPROACHING. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. Dengue virus type 3, South Pacific Islands, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Roche, Claudine; Musso, Didier; Mallet, Henri-Pierre; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Dofai, Alfred; Nogareda, Francisco; Nilles, Eric J; Aaskov, John

    2014-06-01

    After an 18-year absence, dengue virus serotype 3 reemerged in the South Pacific Islands in 2013. Outbreaks in western (Solomon Islands) and eastern (French Polynesia) regions were caused by different genotypes. This finding suggested that immunity against dengue virus serotype, rather than virus genotype, was the principal determinant of reemergence.

  20. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  1. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  2. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2002-12-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea [1,2]. The possible influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific [3,4]. During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures in the mantle. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles melts usually found at ocean islands and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The plates lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene were subsequently subducted, but plate reconstruction suggests that during the Oligo-Miocene it was crossed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively. Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, the difference in buoyancy between the IBM

  3. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  4. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  5. Comparing the nature of the western and eastern Azores mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Felix S.; Beier, Christoph; Stracke, Andreas; Turner, Simon P.; Pearson, Norman J.; Hauff, Folkmar; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Haase, Karsten M.

    2016-01-01

    The Azores islands in the central North-Atlantic originate from a regional melting anomaly, probably created by melting hot, unusually hydrous and geochemically enriched mantle. Here, we present Hf, Pb and Os isotopic data in geochemically well-characterised primitive lavas from the islands Flores and Corvo that are located west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as submarine samples from a subsided island west of Flores and from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes drilled in the western part of the Azores platform and beyond. These are compared to existing data from the Azores islands east of the MAR. The geodynamic origin of the two islands west of the ridge axis and furthest from the inferred plume centre in the central part of the plateau is enigmatic. The new data constrain the source compositions of the Flores and Corvo lavas and show that the western and eastern Azores mantle is isotopically similar, with the exception of an enriched component found exclusively on eastern São Miguel. Trace element ratios involving high field strength elements (HFSE) are distinctly different in the western islands (e.g. twofold higher Nb/Zr) compared to any of the islands east of the MAR. A similar signature is observed in MAR basalts to the south of the Azores platform and inferred to originate from (auto-) metasomatic enrichment of the sub-ridge mantle (Gale et al., 2011, 2013). In a similar fashion, low degree melts from an enriched source component may metasomatise the ambient plume mantle underneath the western Azores islands. Melting such a modified plume mantle can explain the chemical differences between lavas from the western and eastern Azores islands without the need for additional plume components. Recent re-enrichment and intra melting column modification of the upwelling mantle can cause local to regional scale geochemical differences in mantle-derived melts.

  6. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  7. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  8. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    high wind speed off both the eastern and western ends of islands, corresponding to 'corner accelerations' as the winds stream by the steep island topography. The lowest wind speeds are seen to be in the lee of the highest island topography.

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise is a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  9. Barrier island evolution and reworking by inlet migration along the Mississippi-Alabama gulf coast

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, J.B.; Snowden, J.O. )

    1990-09-01

    The five barrier islands along the Mississippi-Alabama coast are located 10 to 14 mi (16 to 23 km) offshore and separate Mississippi Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The barrier islands in the chain are, from east to west: Dauphin Island, Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, Ship Island, and Cat Island. The islands are low sand bodies situated on a relatively broad Holocene sand platform that extends 70 mi (113 km) from Dauphin Island on the east to Cat Island on the west. The platform varies in thickness from 25 to 75 ft (7.6 to 23 m) and rests on Holocene marine clays or on Pleistocene sediments. The barrier island chain predates the St. Bernard lobe of the Mississippi delta complex, which began to prograde about 3,000 years ago, and continued until it was abandoned approximately 1,500 years ago. In contrast to the other islands, Cat Island at the western down-drift end of the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain is characterized by more than 12 prominent east west-oriented progradational linear ridges. The ridge system of Cat Island is interpreted as a relict of an earlier stage in the life cycle of the barrier platform when there was a more robust littoral drift system and an abundant sediment supply During the Pre-St. Bernard Delta period of vigorous sedimentation, all of the islands in the barrier chain probably exhibited progradational ridges similar to those now found only on Cat Island. Presently, only vestigial traces of these progradational features remain on the islands to the east of Cat Island. Unlike Cat Island, which has been protected and preserved by the St. Bernard Delta, the other barrier islands have been modified and reworked during the past 1,500 years by processes of island and tidal inlet migration, accompanied by a general weakening of the littoral drift and a reduction of the available sediment supply.

  10. A Western Pacific Hotspot?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, C. G.; Hall, R.

    2003-04-01

    The petrology of volcanic rocks from the St. Andrew Strait and helium isotope ratios of backarc lavas from the Manus Basin have been used to propose the existence of an active hotspot beneath the eastern Bismarck Sea (Johnson et al., 1978; Macpherson et al., 1998). The past influence of this hotspot can be assessed by mapping its present location onto a plate tectonic reconstruction of the western Pacific (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). During the Middle Eocene the nascent Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc lay above the hotspot. The volume of magma emplaced at the IBM arc at that time substantially exceeds the average magma production rate for mature island arcs. Furthermore, the ultramafic (boninitic) character of much of this magmatism requires elevated temperatures. The geochemistry of contemporaneous magmatism in the backarc resembles ocean island basalts and much of the backarc region experienced significant uplift at that time. All of these features can be explained by the influx of hot, buoyant, chemically distinct mantle beneath the IBM and its hinterland. The lithosphere lying above the hotspot during the later Eocene was subsequently subducted. During the Oligo-Miocene the hotspot was traversed by parts of the Caroline Plate where the Euripik Rise is found. This is an aseismic rise that possesses the geophysical characteristics of thickened oceanic crust formed by excess, basaltic magmatism and is the type of structure that would result from the passage of relatively young oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Plate reconstruction for the western Pacific predicts a hotspot trail that is consistent with the Middle Eocene and Oligo-Miocene geology of the IBM and Caroline Plates, respectively (Macpherson and Hall, 2001). Parts of the trail have been disrupted by subsequent sea-floor spreading or lost through subduction but the remaining vestiges are consistent with the action of a thermal anomaly throughout much of the Cenozoic. More speculatively, buoyancy

  11. Rhizamoeba neglecta n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea) from the bottom sediments of freshwater Lake Leshevoe (Valamo Island, North-Western Russia), with notes on the phylogeny of the order Leptomyxida.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Alexey; Nassonova, Elena; Fahrni, Jose; Pawlowski, Jan

    2009-11-01

    A new species of Leptomyxida, named Rhizamoeba neglecta was found during studies of the amoeba fauna of the inner Lake Leshevoe located at Valamo archipelago (The Lake Ladoga, North-Western Russia). Light-microscopical and ultrastructural studies indicated that it represents a new species of Leptomyxida. The partial 18S rDNA sequence of this amoeba is very similar to that of Leptomyxa reticulata.. These organisms, however, are very different in LM morphology and biology. Organisms assigned to the genus Rhizamoeba do not form a single clade in the 18S rDNA tree. This may indicate that the genus is an artificial grouping or that a number of studied strains were misidentified. The phylogeny and the systematics of leptomyxids require further investigation.

  12. Demographic History of a Recent Invasion of House Mice on the Isolated Island of Gough

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Melissa M.; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J.; White, Michael A.; Gabriel, Sofia I.; Searle, Jeremy B.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ryan, Peter G.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century, and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behavior. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences, and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution. PMID:24617968

  13. Demographic history of a recent invasion of house mice on the isolated Island of Gough.

    PubMed

    Gray, Melissa M; Wegmann, Daniel; Haasl, Ryan J; White, Michael A; Gabriel, Sofia I; Searle, Jeremy B; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ryan, Peter G; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-04-01

    Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the world. House mice were introduced to Gough Island by sealers during the 19th century and display unusual phenotypes, including exceptionally large body size and carnivorous feeding behaviour. We describe genetic variation in Gough Island mice using mitochondrial sequences, nuclear sequences and microsatellites. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequences suggested that Gough Island mice belong to Mus musculus domesticus, with the maternal lineage possibly originating in England or France. Cluster analyses of microsatellites revealed genetic membership for Gough Island mice in multiple coastal populations in Western Europe, suggesting admixed ancestry. Gough Island mice showed substantial reductions in mitochondrial and nuclear sequence variation and weak reductions in microsatellite diversity compared with Western European populations, consistent with a population bottleneck. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) estimated that mice recently colonized Gough Island (~100 years ago) and experienced a 98% reduction in population size followed by a rapid expansion. Our results indicate that the unusual phenotypes of Gough Island mice evolved rapidly, positioning these mice as useful models for understanding rapid phenotypic evolution.

  14. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc

  15. Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Water resources of the Truk Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1983-01-01

    The Truk Islands, part of the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific, consist of 19 volcanic islands and about 65 coral islets. The volcanic islands and some of the coral islets are scattered in an 820-square-mile lagoon enclosed by a 125-mile long barrier reef. Moen, although not the largest, is by far the most developed island and is the adminstrative, commercial, educational, and transporation center of the islands. Monthly rainfall records for most years are available since 1903. Rainfall-runoff comparisons show that about half the annual rainfall runs off as surface water into Truk Lagoon. Flow characteristics of the major streams, based on more than 11 years of record, are provided and the application of data for possible use in the design of reservoirs and rain catchments is included. Historical and present development of all water sources is given. The chemical analyses of surface and ground water on Moen, with the exception of water from well 9, show the good quality of the water sources. This report summarizes all hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used for development and management of the water resources. (USGS)

  17. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Kawamura, K.; Lazaar, M.; Kunwar, B.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-09-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 μm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC) and major ions. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found as the most abundant species followed by malonic and succinic acids whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 μm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 μm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. These results imply that water-soluble species in the marine aerosols could act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific Rim. The organic species are likely produced by a combination of gas-phase photooxidation, and aerosol-phase or in-cloud processing during long-range transport. The coarse mode peaks of malonic and succinic acids were obtained in the samples with marine air masses, suggesting that they may be associated with the reaction on sea salt particles. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest their production by photooxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids via heterogeneous reactions on sea salt particles.

  18. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  19. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  20. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  1. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  3. Climate change vulnerability to agrarian ecosystem of small Island: evidence from Sagar Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, S.; Satpati, L. N.; Choudhury, B. U.; Sadhu, S.

    2017-03-01

    The present study assessed climate change vulnerability in agricultural sector of low-lying Sagar Island of Bay of Bengal. Vulnerability indices were estimated using spatially aggregated biophysical and socio-economic parameters by applying principal component analysis and equal weight method. The similarities and differences of outputs of these two methods were analysed across the island. From the integration of outputs and based on the severity of vulnerability, explicit vulnerable zones were demarcated spatially. Results revealed that life subsistence agriculture in 11.8% geographical area (2829 ha) of the island along the western coast falls under very high vulnerable zone (VHVZ VI of 84-99%) to climate change. Comparatively higher values of exposure (0.53 ± 0.26) and sensitivity (0.78 ± 0.14) subindices affirmed that the VHV zone is highly exposed to climate stressor with very low adaptive capacity (ADI= 0.24 ± 0.16) to combat vulnerability to climate change. Hence, food security for a population of >22 thousands comprising >3.7 thousand agrarian households are highly exposed to climate change. Another 17% area comprising 17.5% population covering 20% villages in north-western and eastern parts of the island also falls under high vulnerable (VI= 61%-77%) zone. Findings revealed large spatial heterogeneity in the degree of vulnerability across the island and thus, demands devising area specific planning (adaptation and mitigation strategies) to address the climate change impact implications both at macro and micro levels.

  4. Islands within islands: two montane palaeo-endemic birds impacted by recent anthropogenic fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Robin, V V; Gupta, Pooja; Thatte, Prachi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation of species that live in naturally patchy metapopulations such as mountaintops or sky islands experiences two levels of patchiness. Effects of such multilevel patchiness on species have rarely been examined. Metapopulation theory suggests that patchy habitats could have varied impacts on persistence, dependent on differential migration. It is not known whether montane endemic species, evolutionarily adapted to natural patchiness, are able to disperse between anthropogenic fragments at similar spatial scales as natural patches. We investigated historic and contemporary gene flow between natural and anthropogenic patches across the distribution range of a Western Ghats sky-island-endemic bird species complex. Data from 14 microsatellites for 218 individuals detected major genetic structuring by deep valleys, including one hitherto undescribed barrier. As expected, we found strong effects of historic genetic differentiation across natural patches, but not across anthropogenic fragments. Contrastingly, contemporary differentiation (D(PS)) was higher relative to historic differentiation (F(ST)) in anthropogenic fragments, despite the species' ability to historically traverse shallow valleys. Simulations of recent isolation resulted in high D(PS)/F(ST) values, confirming recent isolation in Western Ghats anthropogenic fragments and also suggesting that this ratio can be used to identifying recent fragmentation in the context of historic connectedness. We suggest that in this landscape, in addition to natural patchiness affecting population connectivity, anthropogenic fragmentation additionally impacts connectivity, making anthropogenic fragments akin to islands within natural islands of montane habitat, a pattern that may be recovered in other sky-island systems.

  5. Balancing water, religion and tourism on Redang Island, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Joshua B.; Nawaz, Rizwan; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Nawaz, Faiza; Sadek, Eran Sadek Said Md; Abd Latif, Zulkiflee; Blackett, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Redang Island (Pulau Redang) is an island off of Peninsular Malaysia that is part of a Marine Park archipelago of corals and thousands of fish and invertebrates. The relatively isolated local community is generally centered on fishing, and Islam guides daily life. Recently, the tourism industry has expanded on the island. New hotels and resorts provide jobs, but also expose the locals to western culture and touristic behavior, which may clash with deeply traditional community values. Further, the tourism industry may be putting a strain on the natural resources, especially the quantity and quality of freshwater. The island village may become divided between those who support the tourism industry and those who do not. Here we present an exploratory investigation into the development environment culture dynamics of tourism, water and religion on Redang Island while building collaborations between universities of this Muslim state and the West.

  6. Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

  7. EPA Proposes Changes to Use of Two Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to amend its 2005 rule that designated the Central & Western Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites. The proposed amendments will help meet the goal of reducing or eliminating dredged material disposal in the Sound's open waters

  8. Resurrection Peninsula and Knight Island ophiolites and recent faulting on Montague Island, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, Marti L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1987-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (Fig. 1). The city of Seward is located at the head of the bay and can be reached from Anchorage by highway (127 mi;204 km). Relief ranges from 1,434 ft (437 m) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 4,800 ft (1,463 m) 17 mi (28 km) to the north. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite are visible and (or) accessible by boat.The eastern half of the peninsula is located within the Chugach National Forest; the western half is mainly state land, but there is some private land with recreational cabins. The Seward A6 and A7 and Blying Sound D6 and D7 maps at 1:63,360 scale (mile-to-the-inch) cover the entire Resurrection Peninsula.Knight Island is located 53 mi (85 km) east of Seward (Fig. 1). Numerous fiords indent the 31-mi-long (50 km) by 7.4-mi-wide (12 km) island and offer excellent bedrock exposures. The island is rugged and has a maximum elevation of 3,000 ft (914 m). It has numerous mineral prospects (Tysdal, 1978; Nelson and others, 1984; Jansons and others, 1984; Koski and others, 1985), and several abandoned canneries are located on the island. Knight Island lies entirely within the Chugach National Forest—state and private inholdings constitute less than five percent of its total land area. The Seward A2, A3, B2, B3, and C2, 1:63,360-scale U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps cover the entire island.Montague Island, 50 mi (80 km) long and up to 11 mi (18 km) wide, lies 10.6 mi (17 km) southeast of Knight Island. It belongs to an island group that forms the southern margin of Prince William Sound (Fig. 1). Montague Island is less rugged and less heavily vegetated than either the Resurrection Peninsula or Knight Island. Rock exposures are excellent along the beaches, and ground disruption due to recent fault movements is clearly visible. The Seward Al and A2 and Blying Sound Dl, D2, and D3 maps cover the areas of interest on Montague Island

  9. Testing the 'island rule' for a tenebrionid beetle (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Miquel

    2002-05-01

    Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.

  10. 76 FR 33776 - Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative: Designation of an Approved Native American Tribal Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... ``Bermuda and the islands located in the Caribbean Sea, except Cuba.'' This definition applies to 8 CFR 212... or adjacent islands at land and sea ports of entry. DATES: This designation will become effective on... implemented the plan known as the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) at U.S. land and sea ports...

  11. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  12. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  13. Islands in the Midst of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, scattered across 800 kilometers from north to south and between Greece and western Turkey, are uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe, Asia and Africa. This image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer includes many of the islands of the East Aegean, Sporades, Cyclades, Dodecanese and Crete, as well as part of mainland Turkey. Many sites important to ancient and modern history can be found here. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of the large three-pronged island of Lesvos. Izmir can be located as a bright coastal area near the greenish waters of the Izmir Bay, about one quarter of the image length from the top, southeast of Lesvos. The coastal areas around this cosmopolitan Turkish city were a center of Ionian culture from the 11th century BC, and at the top of the image (north of Lesvos), once stood the ancient city of Troy.

    The image was acquired before the onset of the winter rains, on September 30, 2001, but dense vegetation is never very abundant in the arid Mediterranean climate. The sharpness and clarity of the view also indicate dry, clear air. Some vegetative changes can be detected between the western or southern islands such as Crete (the large island along the bottom of the image) and those closer to the Turkish coast which appear comparatively green. Volcanic activities are evident by the form of the islands of Santorini. This small group of islands shaped like a broken ring are situated to the right and below image center. Santorini's Thera volcano erupted around 1640 BC, and the rim of the caldera collapsed, forming the shape of the islands as they exist today.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This natural-color image was acquired by MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera, and is a

  14. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  15. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  16. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  17. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  18. Interactions between sea-level rise and wave exposure on reef island dynamics in the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Simon; Leon, Javier X.; Grinham, Alistair R.; Church, John A.; Gibbes, Badin R.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2016-05-01

    Low-lying reef islands in the Solomon Islands provide a valuable window into the future impacts of global sea-level rise. Sea-level rise has been predicted to cause widespread erosion and inundation of low-lying atolls in the central Pacific. However, the limited research on reef islands in the western Pacific indicates the majority of shoreline changes and inundation to date result from extreme events, seawalls and inappropriate development rather than sea-level rise alone. Here, we present the first analysis of coastal dynamics from a sea-level rise hotspot in the Solomon Islands. Using time series aerial and satellite imagery from 1947 to 2014 of 33 islands, along with historical insight from local knowledge, we have identified five vegetated reef islands that have vanished over this time period and a further six islands experiencing severe shoreline recession. Shoreline recession at two sites has destroyed villages that have existed since at least 1935, leading to community relocations. Rates of shoreline recession are substantially higher in areas exposed to high wave energy, indicating a synergistic interaction between sea-level rise and waves. Understanding these local factors that increase the susceptibility of islands to coastal erosion is critical to guide adaptation responses for these remote Pacific communities.

  19. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.

    The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.

    The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes

  20. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  1. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... an obstacle to the westerly winds, and wake patterns in the cloud layers are visible downstream of the island's location. In the lower left ... the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by cumulus clouds, and a spiral cloud pattern associated with an atmospheric ...

  2. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  3. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  4. MISR Views the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of the Big Island of Hawaii. The images have been rotated so that north is at the left.

    Upper left: April 2, 2000 (Terra orbit 1551) Upper right: May 4, 2000 (Terra orbit 2017) Lower left: June 5, 2000 (Terra orbit 2483) Lower right: June 21, 2000 (Terra orbit 2716)

    The first three images are color views acquired by the vertical (nadir) camera. The last image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the aftward cameras viewing at 60.0 and 70.5 degree look angles. It requires red/blue glasses with the red filter over the left eye.

    The color images show the greater prevalence of vegetation on the eastern side of the island due to moisture brought in by the prevailing Pacific trade winds. The western (lee) side of the island is drier. In the center of the island, and poking through the clouds in the stereo image are the Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, each peaking at about 4.2 km above sea level. The southern face of a line of cumulus clouds off the north coast of Hawaii is also visible in the stereo image.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Insular and migrant species, longevity records, and new species records on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Sibley, F.C.; Estabrook, T.S.; Lazell, J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; 2000), and Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; 2004). Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was the most frequently captured Neotropical migrant landbird, despite only being first detected in the region in 1989. Captures and detections of other Neotropical migrant landbirds suggest that many species may be more common in the region than previously believed, or, as speculated by other researchers, that migrant routes may be shifting eastward due to habitat degradation on western Caribbean islands. We also used recapture data to establish longevity records of resident species, including Caribbean Elaenia (Elaenia martinica; ??? 7 years), Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola; 7 years), Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor; ???9 years), and Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita; 5 years). Longevities of other resident species were similar to, or slightly less than, those reported elsewhere.

  6. New Constraints on the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Dressler, Burkhard O.; Herrick, Robert R.; Schnieders, Bernie; Scott, John

    1996-01-01

    The Slate Islands in northern Lake Superior represent the eroded remains of a complex impact crater, originally approximately 32 km in diameter. New field studies there reveal allogenic crater fill deposits along the eastern and northern portions of the islands indicating that this 500-800 Ma impact structure is not as heavily eroded as previously thought. Near the crater center, on the western side or Patterson Island, massive blocks of target rocks, enclosed within a matrix of fine-grained polymict breccia, record the extensive deformation associated with the central uplift. Shatter cones are a common structural feature on the islands and range from less than 3 cm to over 10 m in length. Although shatter cones are powerful tools for recognizing and analyzing eroded impact craters, their origin remains poorly constrained.

  7. Soil thermal regime on ice-free areas in Livingston Island and James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Oliva, Marc; Láska, Kamil; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Ángel de Pablo, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo; Ramos, Miguel; Nývlt, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Permafrost and active layer are considered prominent components of the Cryosphere, which react very sensitively to small climate variations. The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region is considered as one of the fastest warming regions on Earth, where mean annual air temperature locally increased more than 2.5°C over the last 60 years. Significant climate differences are found between the eastern and western sides of the AP. While mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) oscillate around -1 to -2 °C and precipitation reach 800 mm w.e. year-1 in the western AP, the MAAT in the eastern AP are below -6 °C and precipitation does not exceed 500 mm. These differences determine different permafrost thickness and spatial distribution in these two regions, as well as diverse patterns of active layer dynamics. With the purpose to better understand the factors controlling the soil thermal regime in maritime permafrost environments, we examine data from 2014 acquired from several sites in Livingston Island (western AP) and James Ross Island (eastern AP). The study sites show similar characteristics in terms of topography (slope < 7°) and altitude (50 to 100 m a.s.l.). Air temperature, soil thermal regime at 5 cm and 75 cm depth, as well as active layer thickness and its evolution were analysed. Mean air temperature over the study period varied between -2.6 to -2.7 °C on the different monitoring sites in Livingston Island, while in James Ross Island ranged from -7.0 to -7.9 °C. Mean soil temperature at 5 cm depth was slightly higher than air temperature in both areas: -0.7 to -1.3 °C in Livingston Island and -6.2 to -6.3 °C in James Ross Island; the same occurred for soil temperature at 75 cm: -0.4 to -0.7 °C in Livingston Island and -6.0 to -6.6 °C James Ross Island. Significantly lower values of mean daily amplitude of soil temperature at 5 cm depth and the freezing n-factor values observed during the freezing season on Livingston Island suggest a pronounced insulating effect

  8. Molecular phylogenetics of Micromeria (Lamiaceae) in the Canary Islands, diversification and inter-island colonization patterns inferred from nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Pamela; Curto, Manuel; Gusmão-Guedes, Joana; Cochofel, Jaqueline; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Bräuchler, Christian; Meimberg, Harald

    2015-08-01

    Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Micromeria in the Canary Islands using eight nuclear markers. Our results show two centers of diversification for Micromeria, one in the eastern islands Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, the other in the western islands, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. Suggested directions of inter-island colonization are the following: Gran Canaria to Lanzarote and La Gomera; Tenerife to La Palma (from the paleoisland of Teno), to El Hierro (from the younger, central part), and to La Gomera and Madeira (from the paleoislands). Colonization of La Gomera probably occurred several times from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. The taxonomic implications of these results are discussed. Incongruence among the different markers was evaluated and, using next generation sequencing, we investigated if this incongruence is due to gene duplication.

  9. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  10. Landslide-generated tsunamis at Réunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelfoun, Karim; Giachetti, Thomas; Labazuy, Philippe

    2010-10-01

    Landslides that occur on oceanic volcanoes can reach the sea and trigger catastrophic tsunamis. Réunion Island has been the location of numerous huge landslides involving tens to hundreds of cubic kilometers of material. We use a new two-fluid (seawater and landslide) numerical model to estimate the wave amplitudes and the propagation of tsunamis associated with landslide events on Réunion Island. A 10 km3 landslide from the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano would lift the water surface by about 150 m where it entered the sea. The wave thus generated would reach Saint-Denis, the capital of Réunion Island (population of about 150,000 people), in only 12 min, with an amplitude of more than 10 m, and would reach Mauritius Island in 18 min. Although Mauritius is located about 175 km from the impact, waves reaching its coast would be greater than those for Réunion Island. This is due to the initial shape of the wave, and its propagation normal to the coast at Mauritius but generally coast-parallel at Réunion Island. A submarine landslide of the coastal shelf of 2 km3, would trigger a ˜40 m high wave that would severely affect the proximal coast in the western part of Réunion Island. For a landslide of the shelf of only 0.5 km3, waves of about 2 m in amplitude would affect the proximal coast.

  11. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... necessary to prevent disruption to the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery, while providing... participants to respond quickly to unforeseen disruptions in processing capacity. From the date an exemption...

  12. Annual Reports Regarding Progress in Developing a Dredged Material Management Plan for the Long Island Sound Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The site designation for the Western and Central Long Island Sound disposal sites requires the completion of a Dredged Material Management Plan (DMMP) and EPA to conduct an annual review of progress toward completion of the DMMP.

  13. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  14. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-01-01

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species. PMID:27681300

  15. Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Minakawa, Noboru; Beier, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic structure of island Anopheles gambiae populations is important for the current tactics in mosquito control and for the proposed strategy using genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMM). Genetically-isolated mosquito populations on islands are a potential site for testing GMM. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic structure of A. gambiae populations on the islands in Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Methods The genetic diversity and the population genetic structures of 13 A. gambiae populations from five islands on Lake Victoria and six villages from the surrounding mainland area in the Suba District were examined using six microsatellite markers. The distance range of sampling sites varied between 2.5 and 35.1 km. Results A similar level of genetic diversity between island mosquito populations and adjacent mainland populations was found. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.3 for the island populations and 6.8 for the mainland populations. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.32 and 0.28 for the island and mainland populations, respectively. A low but statistically significant genetic structure was detected among the island populations (FST = 0.019) and between the island and mainland populations (FST = 0.003). A total of 12 private alleles were found, and nine of them were from the island populations. Conclusion A level of genetic differentiation between the island and mainland populations was found. Large extent of gene flow between the island and mainland mosquito populations may result from wind- or human-assisted dispersal. Should the islands on Lake Victoria be used as a trial site for the release program of GMM, mosquito dispersal between the islands and between the island and the mainland should be vigorously monitored. PMID:15581429

  16. Adha Gara Tidi: Cultural Sensitivity in Western Torres Strait. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Rod; Kennedy, Judy

    This series of articles, focusing on the Western Torres Strait Islander people, presents the following: "A Brief Introduction to Torres Strait Culture" (Rod Kennedy); "Some Guidelines for Relating to Torres Strait Islanders" (Rod Kennedy); "One Mouth Two Hands" (Rod Kennedy); "My Trading Friend in the Village of…

  17. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  18. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  19. "Treasure Island" and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riach, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)

  20. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Heat Island Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  2. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  3. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... individual fishing quota (IFQ) and individual processor quota (IPQ) in the Western Aleutian Islands golden...-designated golden king crab IFQ to be delivered to a processor in the West region of the Aleutian Islands... stationary floating crab processors; catcher/processor vessel owner (CPO) QS was assigned to LLP holders...

  4. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5,...

  5. Mosquito Survey, Island of Rota (Mariana Islands)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse

  6. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  7. A study of the Brazilian Fernando de Noronha island and Rocas atoll wakes in the tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchamabi, Christine C.; Araujo, Moacyr; Silva, Marcus; Bourlès, Bernard

    2017-03-01

    Observational data and numerical modeling were used to investigate oceanic current wakes surrounding Fernando de Noronha Island (3°51‧S-32°25‧W) and Rocas Atoll (3°52‧S-33°49‧W). These two Brazilian systems are located in the western tropical Atlantic region and are under the influence of the westward flow of the central South Equatorial Current (cSEC). In order to highlight the effects of wakes on ocean dynamics, two different numerical simulations were performed, using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS): the first one including Fernando de Noronha Island and Rocas Atoll (Scenario I) and the second one with artificial removal of the island and atoll (Scenario NI). Simulations are validated through the Scenario I that well reproduces the wakes that give rise to the development of eddies downstream of FN and AR. These mesoscale structures have a strong influence on the thermodynamic properties surrounding the Island and the Atoll. Scenario NI allows evidence of the presence of an Island and Atoll shoaling mixed layer throughout the year, primarily on the western side of the Island and the Atoll. Mixing at the base of the mixed layer, inducing a subsurface cooling, is also enhanced in the downstream portion of the Island and Atoll, particularly when the cSEC is strengthened. These simulations support the ;island mass effect; on the high productivity of subsurface waters generally observed on the western side of these islands.

  8. Preliminary Geologic Map of Mount Pagan Volcano, Pagan Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Moore, Richard B.; Sako, Maurice K.

    2006-01-01

    Pagan Island is the subaerial portion of two adjoining Quaternary stratovolcanoes near the middle of the active Mariana Arc, [FAT1]north of Saipan. Pagan and the other volcanic islands that constitute part of the Arc form the northern half of the East Mariana Ridge[FAT2], which extends about 2-4 km above the ocean floor. The > 6-km-deep Mariana Trench adjoins the East Mariana Ridge on the east, and the Mariana Trough, partly filled with young lava flows and volcaniclastic sediment, lies on the west of the Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge. The submarine West Mariana Ridge, Tertiary in age, bounds the western side of the Mariana Trough. The Mariana Trench and Northern Mariana Islands (East Mariana Ridge) overlie an active subduction zone where the Pacific Plate, moving northwest at about 10.3 cm/year, is passing beneath the Philippine Plate, moving west-northwest at 6.8 cm/year. Beneath the Northern Mariana Islands, earthquake hypocenters at depths of 50-250 km identify the location of the west-dipping subduction zone, which farther west becomes nearly vertical and extends to 700 km depth. During the past century, more than 40 earthquakes of magnitude 6.5-8.1 have shaken the Mariana Trench. The Mariana Islands form two sub-parallel, concentric, concave-west arcs. The southern islands comprise the outer arc and extend north from Guam to Farallon de Medinilla. They consist of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks and uplifted Tertiary and Quaternary limestone. The nine northern islands extend from Anatahan to Farallon de Pajaros and form part of the inner arc. The active inner arc extends south from Anatahan, where volcanoes, some of which are active, form seamounts west of the older outer arc. Other volcanic seamounts of the active arc surmount the East Mariana Ridge in the vicinity of Anatahan and Sarigan and north and south of Farallon de Pajaros. Six volcanoes (Farallon de Pajaros, Asuncion, Agrigan, Mount Pagan, Guguan, and Anatahan) in the northern islands

  9. What are the Spratly Islands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be

  10. Using hydrogeochemical methods to evaluate complex quaternary subsurface stratigraphy Block Island, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Stone, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems in Hydrogeologic investigations of glaciated regions is the determination of complex stratigraphic relationships in the subsurface where insufficient information is available from drilling and geophysical records. In this paper, chemical characteristics of groundwater were used to identify stratigraphic changes in glacial deposits that were previously inferred on Block Island, Rhode Island, USA, an emergent remnant of the late Wisconsinan terminal moraine, located approximately 16 km south of the Rhode Island mainland. Two chemically distinct water types are recognized on the island: 1) high-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels in excess of 20 mg/L, bicarbonate greater than 30 mg/L and dissolved iron ranging from 1-20 mg/L; and 2) low-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels below 16 mg/L, bicarbonate less than 30 mg/L, and less than 0.3 mg/L dissolved iron. The spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter and the resulting redox conditions are believed to control the occurrence of highiron groundwater. The high-iron waters occur almost exclusively in the eastern half of the island and appear to coincide with the presence of allochthonous blocks of Cretaceous-age coastal-plain sediments that were incorporated into Pleistocene-age deposits derived from the Narragansett Bay-Buzzard's Bay lobe of the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet. The low-iron waters occur in the western half of the island, where the occurrence of these Cretaceous-age blocks is rare and the sediments are attributed to a sublobe of the Hudson-Champlain lobe of the Late Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  11. Lagrangian observations in the Intermediate Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ollitrault, Michel; Arhan, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface float measurements at 800 m depth carried out from 1994 to 2003 in the Brazil Basin are used to characterise the equatorward Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) and its connections to the ocean interior. Transversally, the boundary flow is less than 100 km wide, and most intense at 10-20 km from the 800 m isobath. Its average velocities range from ˜0.1 ms-1 to 0.3 ms-1 depending on latitude, with individual daily values as high as 0.7 ms-1. The flow meridional extent exhibits 3 contrasted domains: (i) from 27°S to the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge at 20°30'S, the boundary flow intensifies northward along a relatively smooth topography. A counter current adjacent to it on its seaward side feeds it with intermediate water from the northern limb of the subtropical gyre. (ii) At latitudes 20-15°S characterised by a very irregular topography, the IWBC becomes weaker with even no real proof of its presence at 18-15°S. An intense mesoscale variability prevails there, which apparently takes over from the boundary flow to ensure the northward transport of water to 15°S, where the IWBC re-forms. (iii) North of this latitude, the boundary flow increases again to ˜10°S along smooth isobaths, then decreases when encountering a rougher topography and the zonal jets of the equatorial current system. A counter current present from ˜5°S to 14°S, partly fed from the boundary flow, contributes to its drainage. The IWBC shows two main input locations, at 27-23°S and 15-12°S in the southern parts of the two latitudinal domains of smooth topography where the northward current increases. Output locations coincide with major capes in the continental slope geometry, at 20°S and 18°S (the southeastern and northeastern corners of the Abrolhos Bank), at 8°S near the Recife Plateau, and at 5°S near Cape São Roque.

  12. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  13. Stress in an Island kangaroo? The Barrow Island euro, Macropus robustus isabellinus.

    PubMed

    King, J M; Bradshaw, S D

    2010-05-15

    Selected physiological parameters were monitored over a 4-year period in the Barrow Island euro, Macropus robustus isabellinus, in Western Australia in a study of this species' homeostatic capabilities in an extremely arid habitat where individuals are exposed to high environmental temperatures and a lack of free water for much of the year. Evidence was found of a significant change in the animal's milieu intérieur on only one occasion on Barrow Island: in November 1994, following a protracted 8-month drought. Euros had significantly elevated levels of plasma osmolality, cortisol, anti-diuretic hormone (lysine vasopressin - LVP), and a reduced eosinophil count. This suggests that these animals may have been dehydrated, despite the operation of appropriate physiological responses to water deprivation. Lower eosinophil counts also suggest that immune function may have been suppressed as a result of the elevated corticosteroid levels. Comparisons with the mainland sub-species of the euro revealed the presence of a non-generative normocytic hypochromic anaemia in Barrow Island euros that potentially compromises their aerobic capacity. Barrow Island is Australia's most important A Class Reserve, harbouring 8 species of marsupials, 4 of which are now extinct, or virtually so, on the adjacent mainland. This study reveals the remarkable effectiveness of the euro's homeostatic capacities, however, its future conservation depends on ensuring that potential stress due to declining water availability and environmental change is avoided.

  14. Paleoecological analyses of lake sediments reveal prehistoric human impact on forests at Anthony Island UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Hebda, Richard J.

    2007-09-01

    Pollen and plant macrofossil analyses of lake sediments from Anthony Island in the southern Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii), British Columbia, reveal 1800 yr of relatively stable temperate rainforest vegetation. Cupressaceae (cedar) pollen percentages and accumulation rates decline about 1000 cal yr BP, coincident with occupation of the island by Haida peoples, who use Thuja plicata (western red cedar) almost exclusively for house construction, dugout canoes, monumental poles, and many other items. Anthropogenic disturbance offers the most likely explanation for the decline of T. plicata.

  15. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

  16. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  17. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-11-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture.

  18. Gentle Africanized bees on an oceanic island

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Oskay, Devrim; Giray, Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic islands have reduced resources and natural enemies and potentially affect life history traits of arriving organisms. Among the most spectacular invasions in the Western hemisphere is that of the Africanized honeybee. We hypothesized that in the oceanic island Puerto Rico, Africanized bees will exhibit differences from the mainland population such as for defensiveness and other linked traits. We evaluated the extent of Africanization through three typical Africanized traits: wing size, defensive behavior, and resistance to Varroa destructor mites. All sampled colonies were Africanized by maternal descent, with over 65% presence of European alleles at the S-3 nuclear locus. In two assays evaluating defense, Puerto Rican bees showed low defensiveness similar to European bees. In morphology and resistance to mites, Africanized bees from Puerto Rico are similar to other Africanized bees. In behavioral assays on mechanisms of resistance to Varroa, we directly observed that Puerto Rican Africanized bees groomed-off and bit the mites as been observed in other studies. In no other location, Africanized bees have reduced defensiveness while retaining typical traits such as wing size and mite resistance. This mosaic of traits that has resulted during the invasion of an oceanic island has implications for behavior, evolution, and agriculture. PMID:23144660

  19. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  20. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  1. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  2. 75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific ocean perch in the Western Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  3. Paleoindian seafaring, maritime technologies, and coastal foraging on California's Channel Islands.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Braje, Todd J; Casperson, Molly; Culleton, Brendan; Fulfrost, Brian; Garcia, Tracy; Guthrie, Daniel A; Jew, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J; Moss, Madonna L; Reeder, Leslie; Skinner, Craig; Watts, Jack; Willis, Lauren

    2011-03-04

    Three archaeological sites on California's Channel Islands show that Paleoindians relied heavily on marine resources. The Paleocoastal sites, dated between ~12,200 and 11,200 years ago, contain numerous stemmed projectile points and crescents associated with a variety of marine and aquatic faunal remains. At site CA-SRI-512 on Santa Rosa Island, Paleocoastal peoples used such tools to capture geese, cormorants, and other birds, along with marine mammals and finfish. At Cardwell Bluffs on San Miguel Island, Paleocoastal peoples collected local chert cobbles, worked them into bifaces and projectile points, and discarded thousands of marine shells. With bifacial technologies similar to those seen in Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition assemblages of western North America, the sites provide evidence for seafaring and island colonization by Paleoindians with a diversified maritime economy.

  4. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the

  5. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  6. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  7. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  8. Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and

  9. Violence the Western way.

    PubMed

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  10. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  11. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  12. The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Maltese Islands.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Mario V; Rasmont, Pierre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Dathe, Holger; Pauly, Alain; Patiny, Sébastien; Terzo, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2016-09-09

    This study presents the first checklist of the bees of the Maltese Islands and includes notes on the distribution of each species. A total of 95 species belonging to five bee families are recorded: Andrenidae (17 species), Apidae (34 species), Colletidae (6 species), Halictidae (15 species) and Megachilidae (23 species). Lasioglossum callizonium (Pérez, 1896) is recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands. Records of three previously reported species are listed as dubious. The bee fauna of the Maltese Archipelago is dominated by widespread West-Palaearctic species, and most of the species recorded are also found in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Bees that have been recorded from Malta are also known from Southern Europe. The study provides a biogeographical analysis of the Maltese bee fauna, and discusses the conservation of this group and their important role in the delivery of ecosystem services in the Maltese Islands.

  13. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  14. Rhynchelmis aleutensis n. sp. (Clitellata: Lumbriculidae) from Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    A new lumbriculid worm, Rhynchelmis aleutensis, is described from streams on Adak Island, Alaska. The new species does not resemble other Alaskan or Siberian Rhynchelmis species. The paired spermathecal diverticula and the morphology of the male pores and atria suggest that it is more closely related to a species group known only from the western United States, south of Canada. The latter group has been associated with Sutroa Eisen, 1888. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  15. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-01-01

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the ‘Austronesian expansion,’ which began 4,000–5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia. PMID:25137359

  16. Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David

    2014-08-19

    Austronesian languages are spread across half the globe, from Easter Island to Madagascar. Evidence from linguistics and archaeology indicates that the 'Austronesian expansion,' which began 4,000-5,000 years ago, likely had roots in Taiwan, but the ancestry of present-day Austronesian-speaking populations remains controversial. Here, we analyse genome-wide data from 56 populations using new methods for tracing ancestral gene flow, focusing primarily on Island Southeast Asia. We show that all sampled Austronesian groups harbour ancestry that is more closely related to aboriginal Taiwanese than to any present-day mainland population. Surprisingly, western Island Southeast Asian populations have also inherited ancestry from a source nested within the variation of present-day populations speaking Austro-Asiatic languages, which have historically been nearly exclusive to the mainland. Thus, either there was once a substantial Austro-Asiatic presence in Island Southeast Asia, or Austronesian speakers migrated to and through the mainland, admixing there before continuing to western Indonesia.

  17. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  18. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  19. Prince Edward Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  20. Magnetic-island formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

  1. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  2. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  3. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  4. Surficial sediments on the western Canadian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornhold, Brian D.; Barrie, J. Vaughn

    1991-08-01

    The active continental margin off western Canada is characterized in the south by convergence between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca Plates and the America Plate, and in the north by transform fault motion between the Pacific and America Plates along the Queen Charlotte Fault. Except in some of the deepest troughs and basins shelf sediments are dominated by immature lithic arenites reflecting this tectonic setting. The Vancouver Island shelf is from 5 to 75 km wide and displays complex topography on the inner shelf and a relatively featureless mid- and outer shelf. An exception is the area off southwestern Vancouver Island where large basins bounded by morainal deposits extend more than two-thirds of the distance across the shelf. The shelf edge varies from 180 to 225 m depth and is indented by numerous canyons. Nearshore sediments consist mainly of gravels and boulders and become finer offshore such that muds are slowly accumulating in depths greater than 100 m. Off northwestern Vancouver Island calcareous sediments are abundant with carbonate values often exceeding 75%. High wave and current energies and efficient sediment trapping in coastal fiords have resulted in low rates of accumulation. Olive, glauconitic, Holocene muds and muddy sands are generally less than 0.3 m thick and accumulate only on the outer shelf over an extensive stiff, gray, glaciomarine sandy mud. Queen Charlotte Sound exhibits three broad, shallow, glacially scoured troughs, filled mainly with clayey silts and fine sands and separated by sand and gravel covered banks. Hecate Strait, between the Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland, consists of a prominent southward-opening trough along the east side of the Strait bounded by Dogfish and Laskeek Banks on the west adjacent to Graham and Moresby Islands, respectively. The trough below 200 m is filled by silts. The banks are covered by discontinuous sands and gravels of variable calcareous content. The bank edges often display megaripples and

  5. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall

  6. Hookworm enteritis with bacteremia in California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; DeLong, Robert L; Lyons, Eugene T; Melin, Sharon R

    2007-04-01

    Large breeding populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are located on San Miguel and San Nicolas Islands in the Southern California Bight. In 2001, there was a substantial increase in pup mortality in late summer and fall. From June 2002 to January 2003, 208 freshly dead pups were examined on San Miguel Island, the most western of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. Tissues from 186 of these pups were examined histologically. The primary lesions in 133 (72%) of the pups were an enteritis associated with hookworms and infections in major organs. Emaciation/starvation in 43 pups (26%) was the second most important cause of death.

  7. /sup 7/Be in Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound waters

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboe, E.; Dion, E.P.; Turekian, K.K.

    1981-04-20

    /sup 7/Be was measured in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound. The calculated standing crop in the Sargasso Sea is equal to that predicted from precipitation collectors. Long Island Sound is deficient in /sup 7/Be; virtually none exists in the water column, and less than half of the expected standing crop has been reported for the sediments. A possible sink for the missing /sup 7/Be may be the salt marshes or tidal mud flats ringing Long Island Sound.

  8. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  9. Teaching Western Literature to Non-Western Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Eric J.; Chun, Hye Won; Kim, Chung Ah

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which Western literature can be taught to Non-western students. This paper demonstrates that non-western values do not have to be overcome but rather Western values can be highlighted and reinforced to deal with literary complexity. Values and ideals such as freedom, self-identity, religion, feminism, and equality are…

  10. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic

  12. Current Tectonics of Northern Vancouver Island, Southern Queen Charlotte Islands and the Adjacent Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabine, H.; Mazzotti, S.; Hyndman, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    The area south of the Queen Charlotte Islands and north of Vancouver Island is characterized by the transition from the Cascadia subduction zone to the Queen Charlotte transform fault zone. The tectonic setting involves the Pacific, North American, Juan de Fuca, and Explorer plates, and the Winona block, as well as the Queen Charlotte and Revere-Dellwood-Wilson faults, Explorer ridge, Nootka fault, and Cascadia subduction zone. On the basis of GPS campaign data from 1993 to 2008 we derive a crustal velocity field for North Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. This velocity data is the basis for interpretation of the tectonics of the transition from the convergent to transform boundaries. Our GPS data show significant shear velocities in the Bella Coola region, ~250 km inland from the Queen Charlotte fault, although there is no seismic activity in the area. We use geodynamic models to better understand the discrepancy between the GPS data and the seismic data. We use the GPS velocities to determine whether the measured deformation rates of northernmost Vancouver Island, related to its interaction with the Explorer Plate and possibly the Queen Charlotte transform margin, are transient or permanent. Geodynamic models are used to find out if deformation in the region including North Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, and the adjacent mainland (Coast Shear Zone) is transient or long-term. To constrain the model, we use the rheology and structure of the region, with reasonable values for elastic thickness and viscosity. Two end-member models describing how the Pacific/North America plate convergence is accommodated off the Queen Charlotte Islands have been developed by others. They assume either internal crustal shortening or underthrusting of the Pacific plate. With the new GPS data we can further investigate which model explains the tectonic situation more appropriately. An earlier model strongly suggests an underthrusting fault fully locked down to 14

  13. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  14. Burrowing mayfly nymphs in western Lake Erie, 1942-1944

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    1991-01-01

    These data, collected during 1942-1944 by Dr. David C. Chandler, describe the density, biomass, and growth of a now extinct population of burrowing mayfly nymphs (primarily Hexagenia limbata) that lived in the sediments of western Lake Erie near South Bass Island. The growth dynamics of this population have not previously been documented. Female nymphs grew faster than males and were about 4 mm longer than males at emergence each year. Significantly fewer nymphs were collected in 1943 than in 1942 or 1944. Before they were extinguished by low dissolved oxygen in 1953, mayfly nymphs were abundant (about 350 weighing 10 wet g m-2) near this island and throughout most of western Lake Erie. The western basin once supported a biomass of 9.6 t · km-2 or at least 17,600 metric tonnes of mayfly nymphs. If burrowing mayflies recolonize the sediments of western Lake Erie, these data could be used to assess the extent of their recovery.

  15. Leprosy on Reunion Island, 2005-2013: Situation and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Lafarge, Sophie; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Gerber, Anne; Pouderoux, Nicolas; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Manaquin, Rodolphe; Larrieu, Sophie; Vilain, Pascal; Huiart, Laetitita

    2016-01-01

    Background Reunion Island is a French overseas territory located in the south-western of Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Madagascar. Leprosy first arrived on Reunion Island in the early 1700s with the African slaves and immigration from Madagascar. The disease was endemic until 1980 but improvement of health care and life conditions of inhabitants in the island have allowed a strong decrease in new cases of leprosy. However, the reintroduction of the disease by migrants from endemic neighbouring countries like Comoros and Madagascar is a real and continuing risk. This observational study was then conducted to measure the number of new cases detected annually on Reunion Island between 2005 and 2013, and to describe the clinical features of these patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected over two distinct periods. Incident cases between 2005 and 2010 come from a retrospective study conducted in 2010 by the regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (CIRE of Indian Ocean), when no surveillance system exist. Cases between 2011 and 2013 come from a prospective collection of all new cases, following the implementation of systematic notification of all new cases. All patient data were anonymized. Among the 25 new cases, 12 are Reunion Island residents who never lived outside Reunion Island, and hence are considered to be confirmed autochthonous patients. Registered prevalence in 2014 was 0.05 /10 000 habitants, less than the WHO’s eradication goal (1/10 000). Conclusions/Significance Leprosy is no longer a major public health problem on Reunion Island, as its low prevalence rate indicates. However, the risk of recrudescence of the disease and of renewed autochthonous transmission remains real. In this context, active case detection must be pursued through the active declaration and rapid treatment of all new cases. PMID:27082879

  16. Rings dominate western Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  17. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  18. Spatial probability distribution of future volcanic eruptions at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-05-01

    The 2011 submarine eruption that took place in the proximity of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has raised the need to identify the most likely future emission zones even on volcanoes characterized by low frequency activity. Here, we propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the probabilistic analysis of volcano-structural data of the Island collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, as well as analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. These data have been divided into different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. The most likely area to host new eruptions in El Hierro is in the south-western part of the West rift. High probability locations are also found in the Northeast and South rifts, and along the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency measures and civil defense actions.

  19. Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

  20. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  1. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR). NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). Maps show the general location of the WATR area that is used for aeronautical testing and evaluation. The products, services and facilities of WATR are discussed,

  2. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  3. White-tailed deer ecology and management on Fire Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Underwood, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Deer populations have grown dramatically on Fire Island National Seashore (FIlS) since 1983. Trend data reveal a dichotomy in deer dynamics. In the eastern half of the island, deer density appears to have stabilized between 25-35 deer/km2. In the western half of the island, deer densities are 3-4 times as high in residential communities. Concomitant with that increase has been a general decline in physical stature of some animals, visible impacts on island vegetation, especially in the Sunken Forest, and a perceived increase in the frequency of human and deer interactions. Intensive research on FIlS has shown that deer occupy relatively predictable home ranges throughout the year, but can and do move up and down the island. Impacts of deer on vegetation are most dramatic in the Sunken Forest. Most obvious are the effects of browsing on the herb layer of the Sunken Forest. The least obvious, but perhaps more significant impact is the stark lack of regeneration of canopy tree species since about 1970, which coincides with the initiation of the deer population irruption. A number of herbs and shrubs have been greatly reduced in the understory, and their propagules from the soil. Deer do not readily transmit the bacterium that causes Lyme disease to other organisms, but deer are important hosts for adult ticks which underscores their importance in the transmission pathway of the disease to humans. Deer on FIlS, while occasionally docile, are still wild animals and should be treated as such. Some animals are relatively unafraid of humans due to the absence of predation and a lack of harassment. This in turn has contributed to a longstanding tradition of feeding deer by many residents and visitors, particularly in western portions of the island. Feeding affects both the behavior and population dynamics of deer inhabiting Fire Island. Recent efforts to reduce deer feeding by visitors and residents have been very effective. Ongoing experiments with Porcine Zona Pellucida

  4. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall...

  5. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  6. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  7. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  8. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  9. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  10. Western Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In December 2008, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and in partnership with the Data Quality Campaign, the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) hosted a meeting of the West's key leaders in building state-wide integrated longitudinal data systems. Such data systems are essential to developing a better…

  11. Rethinking the "Western Tradition"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the "Western tradition" has increasingly come under attack in anti-colonialist and postmodernist discourses. It is not difficult to sympathise with the concerns that underlie advocacy of historically marginalised traditions, and the West undoubtedly has a lot to answer for. Nonetheless, while arguing a qualified yes to…

  12. Origins of Western Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    Traces Western conservationism from it roots in colonial exploitation during the mideighteenth century when scientists employed by trading companies voiced concern over large-scale ecological changes. Indicates that our contemporary understanding of the threat to the global environment is a reassertion of ideas that reached maturity over a century…

  13. Western Europe's America Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  14. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  15. The western blot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  16. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  17. A newly discovered Pliocene volcanic field on the western Sardinia continental margin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island

  18. Approximate Bayesian Computation Reveals the Crucial Role of Oceanic Islands for the Assembly of Continental Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark; Mardulyn, Patrick; Devos, Nicolas; Mateo, Rubén G; González-Mancebo, Juana M; Shaw, A Jonathan; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The perceived low levels of genetic diversity, poor interspecific competitive and defensive ability, and loss of dispersal capacities of insular lineages have driven the view that oceanic islands are evolutionary dead ends. Focusing on the Atlantic bryophyte flora distributed across the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Western Europe, and northwestern Africa, we used an integrative approach with species distribution modeling and population genetic analyses based on approximate Bayesian computation to determine whether this view applies to organisms with inherent high dispersal capacities. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in island than in continental populations, contributing to mounting evidence that, contrary to theoretical expectations, island populations are not necessarily genetically depauperate. Patterns of genetic variation among island and continental populations consistently fitted those simulated under a scenario of de novo foundation of continental populations from insular ancestors better than those expected if islands would represent a sink or a refugium of continental biodiversity. We, suggest that the northeastern Atlantic archipelagos have played a key role as a stepping stone for transoceanic migrants. Our results challenge the traditional notion that oceanic islands are the end of the colonization road and illustrate the significant role of oceanic islands as reservoirs of novel biodiversity for the assembly of continental floras.

  19. Nearshore sediment thickness, Fire Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locker, Stanley D.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wadman, Heidi M.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Forde, Arnell S.; Stalk, Chelsea A.

    2017-04-03

    Investigations of coastal change at Fire Island, New York (N.Y.), sought to characterize sediment budgets and determine geologic framework controls on coastal processes. Nearshore sediment thickness is critical for assessing coastal system sediment availability, but it is largely unquantified due to the difficulty of conducting geological or geophysical surveys across the nearshore. This study used an amphibious vessel to acquire chirp subbottom profiles. These profiles were used to characterize nearshore geology and provide an assessment of nearshore sediment volume. Two resulting sediment-thickness maps are provided: total Holocene sediment thickness and the thickness of the active shoreface. The Holocene sediment section represents deposition above the maximum flooding surface that is related to the most recent marine transgression. The active shoreface section is the uppermost Holocene sediment, which is interpreted to represent the portion of the shoreface thought to contribute to present and future coastal behavior. The sediment distribution patterns correspond to previously defined zones of erosion, accretion, and stability along the island, demonstrating the importance of sediment availability in the coastal response to storms and seasonal variability. The eastern zone has a thin nearshore sediment thickness, except for an ebb-tidal deposit at the wilderness breach caused by Hurricane Sandy. Thicker sediment is found along a central zone that includes shoreface-attached sand ridges, which is consistent with a stable or accretional coastline in this area. The thickest overall Holocene section is found in the western zone of the study, where a thicker lower section of Holocene sediment appears related to the westward migration of Fire Island Inlet over several hundred years.

  20. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally.

  1. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  2. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  3. Flying between sky islands: the effect of naturally fragmented habitat on butterfly population structure.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called "sky islands" when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening habitat.

  4. 76 FR 19028 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Purse Seine Prohibited Areas Around American Samoa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (FEP). If approved by the Secretary of Commerce, Amendment 3 would prohibit purse seine fishing in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) within 75 nautical miles (nm) of... Islands Region (PIR), 1601 Kapiolani Blvd., Suite 1110, Honolulu, HI 96814-4700. Instructions:...

  5. Aspects of Western Subanon Formal Speech. Publications in Linguistics. Publication Number 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William C.

    This dissertation presents a study of patterns of speech in Western Subanon, as heard in areas of Mindanao, an island in the Philippines. An introductory section discusses relevant general issues in linguistic research and the present study. The relationships of language to linguistics and of language to society, the objectives of the study, the…

  6. 77 FR 4822 - Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative: Designation of an Approved Native American Tribal Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Caribbean Sea, except Cuba.'' This definition applies to 8 CFR 212.1 and 235.1. Upon the designation by the... members entering the United States from contiguous territory or adjacent islands at land and sea ports of... known as the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) at U.S. land and sea ports of entry. See 73...

  7. Quantifying anthropogenically driven morphologic changes on a barrier island: Fire Island National Seashore, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, M.G.; Hapke, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Beach scraping, beach replenishment, and the presence of moderate development have altered the morphology of the dunebeach system at Fire Island National Seashore, located on a barrier island on the south coast of Long Island, New York. Seventeen communities are interspersed with sections of natural, nonmodified land within the park boundary. Beach width, dune elevation change, volume change, and shoreline change were calculated from light detection and ranging (LIDAR), real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS), and beach profile data sets at two ???4 km long study sites. Each site contains both modified (developed, replenished, and/or scraped) and nonmodified (natural) areas. The analysis spans 9 years, from 1998 to 2007, which encompasses both scraping and replenishment events at Fire Island. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare morphological changes in modified and nonmodified zones, and to identify erosional areas within the study sites. Areas of increased volume and shoreline accretion were observed at both sites and at the western site are consistent with sand replenishment activities. The results indicate that from 1998 to 2007 locations backed by development and that employed beach scraping and/or replenishment as erosion control measures experienced more loss of volume, width, and dune elevation as compared with adjacent nonmodified areas. A detailed analysis of one specific modification, beach scraping, shows distinct morphological differences in scraped areas relative to nonscraped areas of the beach. In general, scraped areas where there is development on the dunes showed decreases in all measured parameters and are more likely to experience overwash during storm events. Furthermore, the rapid mobilization of material from the anthropogenic (scraped) dune results in increased beach accretion downcoast. National park lands are immediately adjacent to developed areas on Fire Island, and even relatively small human

  8. Pacific Islands Creative Writing. A Select, Annotated Guide for Students, Librarians, and the General Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenderup, Vibeke

    This annotated bibliography provides information about critical articles and creative writing by and about Pacific Islanders available in European libraries. Although western writers often use the South Pacific as an exotic background for their narratives, they generally portray Polynesians as terrifying cannibals or gentle primitives. The aim of…

  9. First breeding records of whooping swan and brambling in North America at Attu Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Sonneborn, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    We document the first breeding records of Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) in Alaska and North America on Attu Island in the Western Aleutians in the spring of 1996. Five cygnets were seen with adults and the nest located, and a territorial pair of Bramblings was observed and a nest with eggs found.

  10. 77 FR 12243 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Islands Region Coral Reef Ecosystems Permit Form AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... vessel to fish for Western Pacific coral reef ecosystem management unit species in the designated low-use... regulations; or (3) fishing for, taking, or retaining any Potentially Harvested Coral Reef Taxa in the...

  11. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  12. 76 FR 16610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Islands Region Vessel and Gear Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Western Pacific fishery management unit species display identification markings on the vessel and gear, as... require that certain fishing gear must be marked. In the pelagic longline fisheries, the vessel...

  13. Mittigating the effects of large subduction-zone earthquakes in Western Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Stebbins, C.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2004-12-01

    No giant earthquakes have struck the outer-arc islands of western Sumatra since the sequence of 1797, 1833 and 1861. Paleoseismic studies of coral microatolls reveal that failure of the subduction interface occurs in clusters of such earthquakes about every 230 years. Thus, the next such sequence may well be no more than a few decades away. In the meantime, GPS measurements and paleogeodetic observations show that the islands continue to submerge, dragged down by the downgoing oceanic slab, in preparation for the next failures of the subduction interface. Uplift of the islands and seafloor one to two meters during large events leads to large tsunamis and substantial changes in the coastal environments of the islands, including the seaward retreat of fringing reef, beach and mangrove environments. Having spent a decade characterizing the seismic history of western coastal Sumatra, we are now beginning to work with the inhabitants of the islands and the mainland coast to mitigate the associated hazards. Thus far, we have begun to creat and distribute posters and brochures aimed at educating the islanders about their natural tectonic environment and guiding them in preparing for future large earthquakes and tsunamis. We are also installing a continuous GPS network, in order to monitor ongoing strain accumulation and possible transients.

  14. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  15. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  16. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  17. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  19. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  20. The submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  1. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  2. Rain on small tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  3. Influence of inner-continental shelf geologic framework on the evolution and behavior of the barrier-island system between Fire Island Inlet and Shinnecock Inlet, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwab, W.C.; Thieler, E.R.; Allen, J.R.; Foster, D.S.; Swift, B.A.; Denny, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution, sea-floor mapping techniques, including sidescan-sonar and subbottom profiling, were used to investigate how the geologic framework of the inner-continental shelf influenced the Holocene evolution and modern behavior of the Fire Island barrier-island system, Long Island, New York. The inner-continental shelf off Long Island is divided into two physiographic provinces by a broad outcrop of Cretaceous coastal-plain strata offshore of Watch Hill; this outcrop was part of a subaerial headland during the Holocene marine transgression. Erosion of the headland during transgression furnished sediment to the inner-continental shelf downdrift to the west. The sediment was, in turn, reworked by oceanographic processes into a series of shoreface-attached sand ridges. The oldest (~1200 yr BP) and most stable part of the barrier-island system is immediately landward of the outcropping coastal-plain strata and thickest sand ridges. East of Watch Hill, Pleistocene sediment either is exposed on the inner-continental shelf or is buried by a veneer of modern reworked sediment. Here the barrier-island system has migrated landward at a faster rate than the segment west of Watch Hill and has been breached by numerous historic inlets. Because the Pleistocene sedimentary deposit is generally of uniform thickness throughout the study area and unconformably overlies the Cretaceous coastal-plain strata, both the Holocene and historical evolution of the Fire Island barrier-island system are controlled by the physiography of this regional unconformity. In particular, the shoreface-connected sand ridges appear to be a significant source of sediment to the western portion of Fire Island. Previous attempts to develop a sediment budget for this coastal system have failed to explain volumetric discrepancies, primarily because poor assumptions were made about the nature of sediment transport in the system. A more realistic sediment budget must include a significantly larger spatial

  4. Western Kentucky thrives

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-10-01

    Independents and big boys struggle to keep up with increasing demand and a lack of experienced workers in the Illinois Basin. This is the second of a two part series reviewing the coal mining industry in the Illinois Basin which also includes Indiana and Western Kentucky. It includes a classification/correction to Part 1 of the article published in the September 2005 issue (see Coal Abstracts Entry data/number Dec 2005 00204). 4 photos.

  5. Subsurface mapping of the Ross Island flexural basin, southwest Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenman, Christopher P.

    Ross Island is a post-Miocene (< 4.6 Ma) volcanic island located in the Ross Sea region of southwest Antarctica. This region of Antarctica borders the western edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, along the Transantarctic Mountain front. Marine and over-ice multi-channel seismic reflection surveys and borehole studies targeting the Ross Sea region over the last 30+ years have been used in this study to develop a seismic stratigraphic model of the development and evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. Four key stratigraphic horizons were identified and mapped to fully capture the basin-fill, as well as strata lying above and below the flexural basin. From oldest to youngest these horizons are named RIB-m, RIM-g, RIM-b and RIB-r. Time structure, isochron and isochore maps were created for the horizons and the stratigraphic intervals they bound. The seismic stratigraphic record shows the Ross Island flexural moat formation post-dates the main tectonic subsidence phase within the Victoria Land Basin. The maps presented here are the first to fully illustrate the evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. The maps highlight depositional patterns of two distinct periods of flexural subsidence and basin-filling superimposed on the older N-S trending Victoria Land Basin depocenter. Two units of flexural basin fill, Unit FFI between horizons RIM-g and RIM-b (the oldest flexural basin fill), and Unit FFII between horizons RIM-b and RIB-r (the youngest flexural basin fill) are associated with the two periods of flexural subsidence. Flexural moat subsidence and subsequent filling occurred episodically during periods of active volcanism on the island. Unit FFI is estimated to range from ca. 4 to 2 Ma, corresponding with formation of the Mt. Bird volcanic edifice on Ross Island. Unit FFII ranges in age from ca. 2 to 1 Ma, and is related to Mt. Terror, Mt. Erebus, and Hut Point Peninsula volcanism. The isochore maps suggest the depocenter of the flexural basin during

  6. Topographic enhancement of tidal motion in the western Barents Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. YU.

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical lattice is used to study a topographically trapped motion around islands and shallow banks of the western Barents Sea caused both by the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves. Observations and model computations in the vicinity of Bear Island show well-developed trapped motion with distinctive tidal oscillatory motion. Numerical investigations demonstrate that one source of the trapped motion is tidal current rectification over shallow topgraphy. Tidal motion supports residual currents of the order of 8 cm/s around Bear Island and shallow Spitsbergenbanken. The structures of enhanced tidal currents for the semidiurnal components are generated in the shallow areas due to topographic amplification. In the diurnal band of oscillations the maximum current is associated with the shelf wave occurrence. Residual currents due to diurnal tides occur at both the shallow areas and the shelf slope in regions of maximum topographic gradients. Surface manifestation of the diurnal current enhancement is the local maximum of tidal amplitude at the shelf break of the order of 5 to 10 cm. Tidal current enhancement and tidally generated residual currents in the Bear Island and Spitsbergenabanken regions cause an increased generation of ice leads, ridges and, trapped motion of the ice floes.

  7. Recent acoustic studies of western Canadian continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Bornhold, B.D.; Brandon, M.T.; Clowes, R.M.; Currie, R.G.; Davis, E.E.; Hussong, D.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Riddihough, R.P.; Rogers, G.C.; Yorath, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    A regional survey of the western Canadian continental margin from the central Queen Charlotte Island, 52/sup 0/40'N, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 47/sup 0/40'N, has been completed with the acoustic imaging system SeaMARC II. These data, combined with single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection data, reveal many new insights concerning the deep structure of the subduction margin off Vancouver Island. Clearly evident in the imagery are the deformation of sediments at the base of the slope, the surface expression of seismically active faults, the mass wasting of sediment frequently observed at the base of the slope, and the erosional canyons and sediment transport channels on the slope and adjacent abyssal plain. The variability in the surficial and deep structures along the length of the margin is great and corresponds well with the postulated variations in the local ocean/continent motion vectors: motion along the southern Queen Charlotte Islands margin is primarily transform (about 55 mm/year) with a small component of convergence (about 10 mm/year); motion south of the triple junction at the Wilson Knolls is convergent but at a very slow rate (about 10 mm/year); and motion along the central and southern Vancouver Island margin is nearly orthogonal to the coast and more rapid (about 40 mm/year).

  8. The Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and accretion of the Yakutat microplate, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, James B.; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Bruhn, Ronald L.; Gulick, Sean P.

    2011-12-01

    The Suckling Hills and Kayak Island are isolated mountain blocks located along strike from each other within the foreland of the St. Elias orogen in southern Alaska. These blocks preserve an erosional surface that was deformed by slip on northwest-dipping reverse faults in the Pleistocene. We suggest that the Suckling Hills Fault and Kayak Island Zone form a segmented fault network that links with the Bering Glacier structure to the north. This fault network separates the central Yakataga fold and thrust belt from complex, multiply deformed structures in the western syntaxis. Ongoing accretion of the Yakutat microplate to North America results in translation of structures of the fold and thrust belt into the western syntaxis. The composite Suckling Hills Fault, Kayak Island Zone, and Bering Glacier structure may have formed because the older structures of the fold and thrust belt were unfavorably oriented within the western syntaxis region. This pattern of deformation provides a template for understanding the complex deformation within the core of the western syntaxis and predicts refolding and straightening of the western syntaxis margin with continued accretion. This study provides an analog for structural overprinting and changing deformation patterns through time in orogenic corners.

  9. Island Creek charts a return to the black

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    This article describes Island Creek Coal Co.'s plans to increase its declining production rates, reduce its losses and move back into the profit margin. Production has declined from 20 million tpy in the 1970's to 15 million today, and employment has dropped from more than 7,000 people to fewer than 4,000. Island Creek is putting more work into its bids for new contracts which would allow it to reopen two mines in western Kentucky and put 200 people back to work. They have bought back 3 mines and have repurchased 60 million tons of low-sulfur reserves and mines that will allow them to retain revenue and earning from the mines and perhaps expand them with some new business. But the most important move has been cutting costs. Over the past two years Island Creek has cut its cost per ton by about 5%, but more must be done. Industrial engineers and systems analysts have saved the company over $600,000 by improving the performance of a cleaning plant and reducing the time it took to move a longwall from 20 days to 10 days. Through sustained effort Island Creek is returning to a profitable production.

  10. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  11. The Kuroshio bifurcation associated with islands at the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruili; Wang, Guihua; Chen, Changlin

    2016-06-01

    Based upon a suite of satellite and hydrology data along with numerical model simulations, the Kuroshio is found to be separated into two branches. The two branches are located on the western and eastern sides of the Batanes Islands. The western branch, which is the main branch of the Kuroshio, is estimated to carry roughly 68% of the transport, while the eastern branch, which has not been reported before, carries the remainder. Both branches bring warmer water northward, producing two separate warm tongues east of the Luzon Strait. The western warm tongue has an obvious seasonal variation due to the seasonal variation of the Kuroshio in the northern Luzon Strait, while the eastern warm tongue is associated with Pacific mesoscale eddies. As an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) eddy approaches the Batanes Islands from the east, the eastern branch of the Kuroshio is strongly intensified (weakened), and a more (less) pronounced warm tongue is induced. Consequently, interannual variability of Pacific mesoscale eddies affects the strength of the eastern branch.

  12. Morpho-structural evolution of a volcanic island developed inside an active oceanic rift: S. Miguel Island (Terceira Rift, Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marques, F. O.; Weiss, B.; Boulesteix, T.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.; Costa, A. C. G.; Catalão, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of volcanic islands is generally marked by fast construction phases alternating with destruction by a variety of mass-wasting processes. More specifically, volcanic islands located in areas of intense regional deformation can be particularly prone to gravitational destabilisation. The island of S. Miguel (Azores) has developed during the last 1 Myr inside the active Terceira Rift, a major tectonic structure materializing the present boundary between the Eurasian and Nubian lithospheric plates. In this work, we depict the evolution of the island, based on high-resolution DEM data, stratigraphic and structural analyses, high-precision K-Ar dating on separated mineral phases, and offshore data (bathymetry and seismic profiles). The new results indicate that: (1) the oldest volcanic complex (Nordeste), composing the easternmost part of the island, was dominantly active between ca. 850 and 750 ka, and was subsequently affected by a major south-directed flank collapse. (2) Between at least 500 ka and 250 ka, the landslide depression was massively filled by a thick lava succession erupted from volcanic cones and domes distributed along the main E-W collapse scar. (3) Since 250 kyr, the western part of this succession (Furnas area) was affected by multiple vertical collapses; associated plinian eruptions produced large pyroclastic deposits, here dated at ca. 60 ka and less than 25 ka. (4) During the same period, the eastern part of the landslide scar was enlarged by retrogressive erosion, producing the large Povoação valley, which was gradually filled by sediments and young volcanic products. (5) The Fogo volcano, in the middle of S. Miguel, is here dated between ca. 270 and 17 ka, and was affected by, at least, one southwards flank collapse. (6) The Sete Cidades volcano, in the western end of the island, is here dated between ca. 91 and 13 ka, and experienced mutliple caldera collapses; a landslide to the North is also suspected from the presence of a

  13. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species.

  14. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  15. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands.

    PubMed

    Steadman, David W; Martin, Paul S; MacPhee, Ross D E; Jull, A J T; McDonald, H Gregory; Woods, Charles A; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W L

    2005-08-16

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their "last appearance" datum at approximately 11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, approximately 10,500 yr BP in South America, and approximately 4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial-interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people.

  16. Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands

    PubMed Central

    Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2005-01-01

    Whatever the cause, it is extraordinary that dozens of genera of large mammals became extinct during the late Quaternary throughout the Western Hemisphere, including 90% of the genera of the xenarthran suborder Phyllophaga (sloths). Radiocarbon dates directly on dung, bones, or other tissue of extinct sloths place their “last appearance” datum at ≈11,000 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP) or slightly less in North America, ≈10,500 yr BP in South America, and ≈4,400 yr BP on West Indian islands. This asynchronous situation is not compatible with glacial–interglacial climate change forcing these extinctions, especially given the great elevational, latitudinal, and longitudinal variation of the sloth-bearing continental sites. Instead, the chronology of last appearance of extinct sloths, whether on continents or islands, more closely tracks the first arrival of people. PMID:16085711

  17. Distribution patterns of Babesia gibsoni infection in hunting dogs from nine Japanese islands.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control.

  18. Flying between Sky Islands: The Effect of Naturally Fragmented Habitat on Butterfly Population Structure

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Sandhya; Karanth, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    High elevation montane areas are called “sky islands” when they occur as a series of high mountains separated by lowland valleys. Different climatic conditions at high elevations makes sky islands a specialized type of habitat, rendering them naturally fragmented compared to more continuous habitat at lower elevations. Species in sky islands face unsuitable climate in the intervening valleys when moving from one montane area to another. The high elevation shola-grassland mosaic in the Western Ghats of southern India form one such sky island complex. The fragmented patches make this area ideal to study the effect of the spatial orientation of suitable habitat patches on population genetic structure of species found in these areas. Past studies have suggested that sky islands tend to have genetically structured populations, possibly due to reduced gene flow between montane areas. To test this hypothesis, we adopted the comparative approach. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we compared population genetic structures of two closely related, similar sized butterfly species: Heteropsis oculus, a high elevation shola-grassland specialist restricted to the southern Western Ghats, and Mycalesis patnia, found more continuously distributed in lower elevations. In all analyses, as per expectation the sky island specialist H. oculus exhibited a greater degree of population genetic structure than M. patnia, implying a difference in geneflow. This difference in geneflow in turn appears to be due to the natural fragmentation of the sky island complexes. Detailed analysis of a subset of H. oculus samples from one sky island complex (the Anamalais) showed a surprising genetic break. A possible reason for this break could be unsuitable conditions of higher temperature and lower rainfall in the intervening valley region. Thus, sky island species are not only restricted by lack of habitat continuity between montane areas, but also by the nature of the intervening

  19. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  20. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of lesser snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shorey, R.I.; Scribner, K.T.; Kanefsky, J.; Samuel, M.D.; Libants, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  1. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  2. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Beyond a western bioethics?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura A

    2004-03-01

    Like theology and ethics generally, bioethics has increasingly developed a global consciousness. Controversies over AIDS research and access to affordable AIDS treatment have generated new awareness about the importance of international collaboration as well as the difficulty of achieving moral consensus across economic, political, and cultural divides. Advances in scientific and medical knowledge through initiatives such as the Human Genome Project invite new questions about the nature of health care as a common good. This budding global consciousness serves as a starting point for examining contemporary challenges to the secular, principle-based Western bioethics that has dominated national and international debate for three decades.

  4. The Western Blot.

    PubMed

    Hnasko, Thomas S; Hnasko, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibody-antigen interaction and is useful for the qualitative or semiquantitative identification of specific proteins and their molecular weight from a complex mixture. This chapter will outline the requisite steps including gel electrophoresis of a protein sample, transfer of protein from a gel to a membrane support, and immunodetection of a target antigen.

  5. Sedimentary environments, evolution, and stratigraphic framework of laterally prograding transgressive barrier complex: Timbalier Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Isacks, T.S.; Moslow, T.F.

    1986-05-01

    Timbalier Island is a beach-ridge barrier flanking the abandoned late Lafourche deltaic lobe on the south-central Louisiana coast. Twenty-five vibracores (5-9 m) and 12 short cores were acquired in a variety of sub-aerial, intertidal, and subaqueous environments of this barrier complex. These cores, coupled with detailed shoreline change maps, indicate that the island's migration, evolution, and stratigraphy are complex and variable. Since 1887, Timbalier Island has laterally migrated approximately 6 km to the northwest, while the adjacent inlet (Cat Island Pass) migrated 2.5 km. Due to this extensive lateral progradation at the western end of the island, the following sequence is found: (1) bay/lagoon, (2) lowerspit platform/shoreface, (3) upper spit platform/shoreface, (4) foreshore, (5) backbeach, and (6) dune. An upward decrease in burrowing and increase in physical sedimentary structures, grain size, percent sand, and sorting are observed. None of the cored sequences resemble the tidal inlet channel-spit platform models observed elsewhere but, instead, mimic regressive shoreface sequences. During the island's evolution, the interior beach ridges subsided in response to compactional subsidence and became vegetated by a Spartina and Avicennia (mangrove) marsh. In this central-interior part of the island, the progradational sequence is capped by an aggradational (0.5-1 m thick) marsh deposit.

  6. Ground-water resources of Tinian, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2000-01-01

    Tinian, which lies in the western Pacific Ocean at latitude 15°N and longitude 145°W (fig. 1), is the second largest island (39.2 mi2) in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Fresh ground water is obtained from shallow wells that tap the surface of a freshwater lends found in an aquifer composed mainly of coralline limestone. The main water-supply well withdraws water with a chloride concentration ranging from 160 to 220 mg/L. Current (1999) pumping rates adequately supply the island residents but future demand are expected to be higher.. To better understand the ground-water resources of the island and to learn more about the hydrology of oceanic islands, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) entered into a cooperative study with the Municipality of Tinian. The objective of the study, conducted between 1990 and 1997, was to assess the ground-water resources of the is;land. This report presents some of the results of the study including a description of the island's geology and geography, the current land use, the water-production system, the thickness and arcal extent of the freshwater lens, the water-table configuration and directions of ground-water flow. The report also discusses the relation of the changes in water-table elevation to daily and seasonal changes in ocean level.

  7. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  8. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

  9. Long-term (17 Ma) turbidite record of the timing and frequency of large flank collapses of the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Clare, M. A.; Jarvis, I.; Wynn, R. B.

    2014-08-01

    turbidites on the Madeira Abyssal Plain provide a record of large-volume volcanic island flank collapses from the Canary Islands. This long-term record spans 17 Ma, and comprises 125 volcaniclastic beds. Determining the timing, provenance and volumes of these turbidites provides key information about the occurrence of mass wasting from the Canary Islands, especially the western islands of Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro. These turbidite records demonstrate that landslides often coincide with protracted periods of volcanic edifice growth, suggesting that loading of the volcanic edifices may be a key preconditioning factor for landslide triggers. Furthermore, the last large-volume failures from Tenerife coincide with explosive volcanism at the end of eruptive cycles. Many large-volume Canary Island landslides also occurred during periods of warmer and wetter climates associated with sea-level rise and subsequent highstand. However, these turbidites are not serially dependent and any association with climate or sea level change is not statistically significant.

  10. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  11. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  12. 34. Two lights on the western concrete counterweight on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Two lights on the western concrete counterweight on the south span. The two lights are used, in conjunction with visible guides on Terminal Island by the bridge operator to judge speed and position of the south span as it opens or closes. Based on the movement of the lights relative to each other and the background the south span is speeded up or slowed down and the brakes applied during the opening and closing process. View facing south. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  14. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  15. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  17. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  20. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  1. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  3. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  4. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  5. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  6. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  7. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during,...

  8. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife... conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and... Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs. We started the process through a notice in the...

  9. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  10. Pronounced fixation, strong population differentiation and complex population history in the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Bengt; Ljungqvist, Marcus; Illera, Juan-Carlos; Kvist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary molecular studies of island radiations may lead to insights in the role of vicariance, founder events, population size and drift in the processes of population differentiation. We evaluate the degree of population genetic differentiation and fixation of the Canary Islands blue tit subspecies complex using microsatellite markers and aim to get insights in the population history using coalescence based methods. The Canary Island populations were strongly genetically differentiated and had reduced diversity with pronounced fixation including many private alleles. In population structure models, the relationship between the central island populations (La Gomera, Tenerife and Gran Canaria) and El Hierro was difficult to disentangle whereas the two European populations showed consistent clustering, the two eastern islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and Morocco weak clustering, and La Palma a consistent unique lineage. Coalescence based models suggested that the European mainland forms an outgroup to the Afrocanarian population, a split between the western island group (La Palma and El Hierro) and the central island group, and recent splits between the three central islands, and between the two eastern islands and Morocco, respectively. It is clear that strong genetic drift and low level of concurrent gene flow among populations have shaped complex allelic patterns of fixation and skewed frequencies over the archipelago. However, understanding the population history remains challenging; in particular, the pattern of extreme divergence with low genetic diversity and yet unique genetic material in the Canary Island system requires an explanation. A potential scenario is population contractions of a historically large and genetically variable Afrocanarian population, with vicariance and drift following in the wake. The suggestion from sequence-based analyses of a Pleistocene extinction of a substantial part of North Africa and a Pleistocene/Holocene eastward

  11. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  12. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  13. Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

  14. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    large-scale wind field, and the oceanic general circulation in which the island is embedded. First, we plan to address the so- called “island rule...Figure 1). The gliders occupied two lines perpendicular to shore on the east side of the island. In addition to the standard Sea- Bird CTD and...of island wake effects to observe the difference in the eddy field on either side of the island. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS All temperature and

  15. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  16. 77 FR 8759 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Pacific remote island areas (PRIA; these include Palmyra Atoll, Kingman Reef, Jarvis Island, Baker Island, Howland Island, Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, and Midway Atoll), must submit a transshipment...

  17. Effects of the 29 September 2009 tsunami on the Western Samoan coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, Beatriz; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tonini, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The Samoa islands are located between 169.5°W to 172.9°W and at about 14°S. The main islands are Savaii, Upolu and Tutuila. The islands lay on the Pacific Plate, are of volcanic origin, rise sharply from the seafloor from depths of about 4000 m and are surrounded by smaller islands that are usually coral atolls. Upolu and Savaii are part of the Western Samoa while the Tutuila Island is an American territory. A regional tsunami was triggered on September the 29th 2009 by an offshore earthquake with Mw=8.1 and epicentre located at about 190 km south of Samoa, near the subduction zone between the Pacific and the Australian Plate. The tsunami waves struck severely the islands of Upolu, Manono and Savaii in Western Samoa, and their effects were also observed in Tutuila, Niuatoputapu in northern Tonga, Wallis and Funtuna. A few weeks after the event, a post tsunami field survey was organised by the UNESCO with the cooperation of the University of South Pacific and The Australian Tsunami Research Centre. The field survey had several tasks, including building damage assessment and measurement of tsunami run-ups and inundation along the Western Samoa coast. In this work, measured values of run-up and inundation along some land profiles are shown. The values vary from 0.7 to 6.5 meters, being the most affected zone the south east coast. The measurements have been taken using levelling procedures performed by the UNIBO-INGV team. Damage building assessment was also performed by the team, retrieving information of some structures such as type of material used, age of the structure, degree of exposure to the waves, content of damage and water depth when there were watermarks available.

  18. Habitat Selection and Foraging Behavior of Southern Elephant Seals in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckstadt, L.; Costa, D. P.; McDonald, B. I.; Tremblay, Y.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.; Fedak, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    We examined the foraging behavior of 18 southern elephant seals foraging over two seasons in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. The foraging behavior and habitat utilization of 7 females in 2005 and 12 in 2006 were followed using satellite linked Satellite Relay Data Loggers that measured diving behavior as well collected salinity and temperature profiles as the animals dove. Animals were tagged after the annual molt during February at Cape Shirreff Livngston Island, South Shetland Islands. There was significant interannual variation in the regions of the Southern Ocean used by seals from Livingston Island. In 2005 of the 7 animals tagged one foraged 4700 km due west of the Antarctic Peninsula going as far as 150 W. The remaining females headed south along the Western Antarctic Peninsula bypassing Marguerite Bay moving south along Alexander Island. Three of these animals continued to forage in the pack ice as it developed. On their return trip all females swam past Livingston Island, continuing on to South Georgia Island where they apparently bred in the austral spring. One animal returned to Cape Shirreff to molt and her tag was recovered. During 2006 animals initially followed a similar migratory pattern going south along the Antarctic Peninsula, but unlike 2005 where the majority of the animals remained in the immediate vicinity of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, most of the animals in 2006 moved well to the west foraging as far as the Amundsen Sea. We compared the area restricted search (focal foraging areas) areas of these animals using a newly developed fractal landscape technique that identifies and quantifies areas of intensive search. The fractal analysis of area restricted search shows that the area, distance and coverage (Fractal D) searched were not different between years, while the time spent in the search areas was higher in 2005. Further analysis will examine how the physical properties of the water column as determined from the CTD data derived from

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella spp. among marine animals in the Channel Islands, California.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, R A; DeLong, R L; Byrne, B A; Jang, S; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-08-19

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen that has been isolated from free-ranging marine mammals throughout the world, with animals in the Channel Islands of California (USA) showing the highest prevalence. The goal of this study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial sensitivity and genetic similarity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of Salmonella in several non-domestic animal species on San Miguel and San Nicolas Islands. Fecal samples were collected from 90 California sea lion Zalophus californianus pups, 30 northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris pups and 87 western gulls Larus occidentalis in the Channel Islands and 59 adult male sea lions in Puget Sound, WA (USA). Salmonella were isolated, identified and serotyped, followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE. Of the California sea lion pups that were sampled on the islands, 21% (n = 19) were positive for Salmonella, whereas no adults males in Puget Sound were positive. Of the northern elephant seal pups sampled, 87% (n = 26) were harboring Salmonella. Only 9% (n = 8) of western gulls were shedding Salmonella, with one of these gulls harboring the only antimicrobial resistant isolate. The serotypes found in these animals were Enteritidis, Montevideo, Newport, Reading, and Saint Paul. The only serotype that showed variation on PFGE was Newport. The pinnipeds of the Channel Islands harbor Salmonella at a higher prevalence than pinnipeds from other geographic areas observed in previous studies. Researchers and veterinarians should exercise increased caution when working with these animals due to the zoonotic potential of Salmonella.

  20. Influences on the Morphologic Response to Hurricane Sandy: Fire Island, NY (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Brenner, O.; Schwab, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the largest storm on historical record in the Atlantic basin. The highest waves and storm surge were focused along the New York and New Jersey coasts. At the height of the storm, a wave buoy 55 km offshore of Fire Island, NY recorded a significant wave height of 9.6 m. Storm-tide levels on the beach reached 4.1 m. Field surveys of the beach and dunes collected just prior to and after landfall were used to quantify morphologic change in several focus areas. Pre-storm (May 2012) and post-storm (November 2012) lidar and aerial photography are used to quantify morphologic change along the length of the island including shoreline and beach change, and volumetric change to the beach and dunes. The extent and thicknesses of washover deposits were also mapped in the field and measurements were used to determine washover volume, distribution and characteristics. The beaches and dunes on Fire Island were severely eroded, and the island breached in three locations on the eastern segment of the island. Landward retreat of the beach averaged -26 m but varied substantially along the coast. The beaches and dunes lost over 50% of their pre-storm volume, and the dunes experienced overwash along 50% of the island. Shoreline change was highly variable with an average progradational trend of 11.4 m, likely due to the deposition of material from the upper beach and dunes onto the lower portion of the beach. Although the entire island experienced extreme erosion in the form of volume loss, beach deflation and dune leveling, the central portion of Fire Island experienced the least impact. Volumetric loss of the beach and dune and overwash extent and volume were lowest in the central segment of the island. Beach and dune volume loss was similar in magnitude on the eastern and western segments of the island, but overwash deposition extent and volume were significantly greater to the east. The variation in the response of the island during Sandy parallels the

  1. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  2. Review of geology of the New Siberian Islands between the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, North East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos'ko, M.; Korago, E.

    2009-09-01

    located at the western end of the Late Cimmerian South Anyui suture. Sequences of variable age, composition, and structural styles are known on the Lyakhov Islands. These include an ancient metamorphic sequence, Late Paleozoic ophiolitic sequence, Late Mesozoic turbidite sequence, Cretaceous granites, and Cenozoic sediments. Fold and thrust imbricate structures have been mapped on southern Bol'shoi Lyakhov Island. North-northwestern vergent thrusts transect the Island and project offshore. Open folds of Jurassic-Early Cretaceous strata are characteristic of Stolbovoi and Malyi Lyakhov islands. Geology of the New Siberian Islands supports the concept of a circum Arctic Phanerozoic fold belt. The belt is comprised of Caledonian, Ellesmerian, Early Cimmerian and Late Cimmerian fold systems, manifested in many places on the mainland and on islands around the Arctic Ocean. Knowledge of the geology of the New Siberian Islands has been used to interpret anomalous gravity and magnetic field maps and Multi Channel Seismic (MCS) lines. Two distinguishing structural stages are universally recognized within the offshore sedimentary cover which correlate with the onshore geology of the New Siberian Islands. Dating of the upper structural stage and constituent seismic units is based on structural and stratigraphic relationships between Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic units in the archipelago. The Laptev Sea-western East Siberian Sea seismostratigraphic model for the upper structural stage has much in common with the seismostratigraphic model in the American Chukchi Sea.

  3. Otomycosis in western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fasunla, James; Ibekwe, Titus; Onakoya, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Otomycosis is a recognized clinical entity in the tropical regions of the world. However, there is scanty information on this disease in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of etiological agents of otomycosis in western Nigeria. Medical records of patients with otomycosis seen in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan from 1996-2005 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Of the 5784 patients with ear diseases, 378 (6.54%) had otomycosis which consisted of 145 (38.36%) males and 233 (61.64%) females. Seventeen patients (4.50%) had recurrence within six months of treatment, 4 (1.06%) had poorly controlled plasma glucose. A significant number of our patients, 52 (13.76%), had prior topical aural antibiotic treatment following misdiagnosis. The predominant etiological agents in our series were Aspergillus niger (48.35%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (33.96%).

  4. Effects of Isolation by Continental Islands in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, on Genetic Diversity of the Large Japanese Field Mouse, Apodemus speciosus (Rodentia: Muridae), Inferred from the Mitochondrial Dloop Region.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Tasaka, Yurina; Tasaka, Ryoya; Gunji, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yuya; Takada, Yasushi; Uematsu, Yasushi; Sakai, Eiichi; Tateishi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasunori

    2017-04-01

    To study the effects of post-glacial isolation by islands on population genetic diversity and differentiation of the large Japanese field mouse, Apodemus speciosus, we examined partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial Dloop region (ca. 300 bp) in 231 individuals collected from islands in the Seto Inland Sea and adjacent regions on Honshu and Shikoku Islands in the western part of the Japanese archipelago. Molecular phylogenetic and network analyses showed that haplotypes in each island tended to form monophyletic groups, while those in Honshu and Shikoku (the major Japanese islands) showed scattered relationships and were connected with island haplotypes. These observations suggest that a set of Honshu and Shikoku haplotypes became the ancestral lineages of the island population. No gene flow was detected among island populations, indicating that independent evolution occurred on each island, without the influence of human activities, since the establishment of the islands in the Holocene. Population genetic diversities on each island were lower than those on Honshu and Shikoku. Comparison between genetic diversity and island area size showed positive correlations and supported the suggestion that genetic drift is a major factor that shaped the current haplotype constitution of the islands in the Seto Inland Sea.

  5. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  6. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  7. Rare earth elements in soils from selected areas on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.M.; Halbig, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty soil samples for the wet, windward (east) side and dry, leeward (west) side of the Island of Hawaii were analyzed for La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, and Lu by neutron activation/gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis. Data on concentrations in each sample are listed and analyzed statistically for soil samples collected from the western slope of Kohala Mountain, the western coastal plain of Mauna Kea, and the Northeastern coastal plain of Maunal Loa. Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are two to six times greater in soils from the western, dry side of the island, and good statistical correlation is exhibited among the samples for pairs of individual REEs. In the organic-rich soils of the east side, correlations are poor but are markedly improved when sample weights are adjusted for weight due to organic matter and water in soil colloids. If the mean compositions of selected rock samples from the Hawaii Reference Suite are representative of the compositions of the parent materials, REEs in the soils are moderately enriched (up to two times, based on oven-dry weights). Rare earth element concentrations in the island's western soils are as much as two times greater than the mean REE values of common sedimentary rocks worldwide; however, they are well within the concentration ranges of soils of continental origin. The eastern soils tend to have less La and Ce, but similar amounts of the middle and heavy REEs.

  8. Impact of Island-Induced Clouds on Surface Measurements: Analysis of the ARM Nauru Island Effect Study Data

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flynn, Donna M.

    2005-07-01

    The Department of Energy's second Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) site in the tropical western Pacific (TWP) region was established on the island of Nauru as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Analysis of data taken during the Nauru99 intensive field experiment indicated that the cloud and radiation measurements at the ARCS site were being affected by a cloud plume, which was induced by the island due to diurnal heating relative to the ocean and the predominantly easterly flow of the tradewinds. The Nauru Island Effects Study (NIES) was developed to identify times when the island cloud effect occurs and to quantify the effect on the ARCS measurements. The Nauru cloud plume is found to be highly correlated with surface wind direction. During suppressed conditions the plume heading is predominantly to the west because of the consistency of the easterly trade winds. During El Nino conditions, the cloud plume can occur with almost any heading due to the variability of the surface winds. During suppressed conditions the cloud plume was observed in 60% of the visible satellite images after 10:30 LST. During active conditions, the plume was observed in only 25% of the satellite images and only half of the observed plumes were downwind of the ARCS site. This study indicates that the absolute increase in low cloud frequency due to the cloud plume is on the order of 10% and the effect of the cloud plume on the average daily surface radiation is around 50-60 wm. By installing a simple measurement platform consisting of surface meteorological instruments and a global shortwave radiometer at a site on the opposite side of the island, the effect of the cloud plume on the radiation field at the ARCS site can be quantified on a long term basis.

  9. Introduced predator removal from islands. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, G.V.; Bailey, E.P.; Stahl, W.

    1996-05-01

    In order to restore black oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) and pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), 2 species injured by the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill, the introduced predator, artic fox (Alopex lagopus), was removed from 2 islands near the western edge of the trajectory of the oil. Surveys indicated that although adequate nesting habitat was available at Simeonof and Chernabura, oystercatcher and guillemot population densities were much lower than at nearby fox-free islands. Elimination of foxes is expected to dramatically increase populations of these injured species as well as other native birds.

  10. Acanthocephalus reunionensis n sp (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a parasite of Anguilla species (Anguillidae) from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R; Sasal, P; Taraschewski, H

    2007-06-01

    In a survey of 118 eels Anguilla bicolor, A. marmorata and A. mossambica, (Anguillidae) indigenous to Reunion Island in the Mascarene island group, western Indian Ocean, a new species of acanthocephalan, Acanthocepholus reunionensis n. sp., was found. With a proboscis hook formula of 19 rows of 4-5 hooks, and elongated cement glands arranged in three pairs, this species differs from all other species in the genus. This is the first record of the genus Acanthocephalus occurring in eels from the African Region.

  11. Grasshoppers of the Mascarene Islands: new species and new records (Orthoptera, Caelifera).

    PubMed

    Hugel, Sylvain

    2014-12-23

    The grasshopper fauna of Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and La Réunion), in South Western Indian ocean is examined. Numerous field surveys and examination of museum specimens recorded twenty species of Grasshoppers on the archipelago. Five of them are new records, including a new species: Odontomelus ancestrus n. sp. restricted to Round Island, a 2 km² islet North to Mauritius. Despite intensive searching, five of the non endemic species once recorded on the archipelago have not been recorded again and might correspond to temporary settlements/introductions. A key to Mascarene grasshoppers is given.

  12. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  13. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  14. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  15. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  16. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  17. Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  18. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  19. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  20. Summit geomorphology of western Pacific guyots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Waasbergen, Robert J.; Winterer, Edward L.

    Bathymetric and seismic reflection data for 21 guyots in the Japanese, Wake and Mid Pacific Mountains seamount groups show that many guyots bear thick shallow-water limestone deposits that represent nearly undeformed Cretaceous rudist-reef-bounded carbonate platforms. Three types of guyot summits are distinguished: those with more than 200 m of shallow-water limestone, sufficient to bury the underlying volcanic relief, follow the same basic morphologic patterns as their coral/algal-dominated modern counterparts. Surface morphology is controlled by the original reef/platform configuration, modified by subaerial erosion and by long-term deformation of the sedimentary deposits and the underlying volcanic edifice. These seamounts range in age from Barremian to Aptian, with Barremian or Aptian to late Albian limestone deposits. Guyots with thin limestone deposits represent reef-bearing volcanic islands at various stages of fringing-reef and barrier-reef development. These edifices and their overlying limestone deposits are of Albian age. Reef growth on these was suddenly halted when regional emergence led to cessation of shallow-water-limestone accumulation on all guyots in the western Pacific, probably during the latest Albian. The karstic surfaces were resubmerged by middle Turonian time and, in latitudes south of about 20°N, blanketed by pelagic ooze. Guyots without reef deposits appear to be products of post-Albian volcanism and erosion at sea level. Among the three types of summit-configurations a range of stages of development of Cretaceous carbonate-platforms can be observed. The exposure of the guyot summits indicated by the occurence of karstic relief of 100-200 m on many of the limestone caps suggests that the sea floor of the western Pacific was raised several hundred meters. The age and platform thickness-relationships among the different types of guyots suggests that this uplift occurred at late Albian time.

  1. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  2. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  3. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  4. Mercury in Long Island Sound sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varekamp, J.C.; Bucholtz ten Brink, M. R.; Mecray, E.I.; Kreulen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 394 surface and core samples from Long Island Sound (LIS). The surface sediment Hg concentration data show a wide spread, ranging from 600 ppb Hg in westernmost LIS. Part of the observed range is related to variations in the bottom sedimentary environments, with higher Hg concentrations in the muddy depositional areas of central and western LIS. A strong residual trend of higher Hg values to the west remains when the data are normalized to grain size. Relationships between a tracer for sewage effluents (C. perfringens) and Hg concentrations indicate that between 0-50 % of the Hg is derived from sewage sources for most samples from the western and central basins. A higher percentage of sewage-derived Hg is found in samples from the westernmost section of LIS and in some local spots near urban centers. The remainder of the Hg is carried into the Sound with contaminated sediments from the watersheds and a small fraction enters the Sound as in situ atmospheric deposition. The Hg-depth profiles of several cores have well-defined contamination profiles that extend to pre-industrial background values. These data indicate that the Hg levels in the Sound have increased by a factor of 5-6 over the last few centuries, but Hg levels in LIS sediments have declined in modern times by up to 30 %. The concentrations of C. perfringens increased exponentially in the top core sections which had declining Hg concentrations, suggesting a recent decline in Hg fluxes that are unrelated to sewage effluents. The observed spatial and historical trends show Hg fluxes to LIS from sewage effluents, contaminated sediment input from the Connecticut River, point source inputs of strongly contaminated sediment from the Housatonic River, variations in the abundance of Hg carrier phases such as TOC and Fe, and focusing of sediment-bound Hg in association with westward sediment transport within the Sound.

  5. Eddies along western boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Wilton Zumpichiatti

    The Ulleung eddy owes its existence to beta and nonlinearities . A nonlinear theory for the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) in the Japan/East Sea is proposed. Using the nonlinear reduced gravity (shallow water) equations, it is shown analytically and numerically that the eddy is established in order to balance the northward momentum flux exerted by the separating western boundary current (WBC). In this scenario the presence of beta produces a southward (eddy) force balancing the northward momentum flux of the separating East Korea Warm Current. In contrast to the familiar idea attributing the formation of eddies to instabilities (i.e., the breakdown of a known steady solution), the UWE is an integral part of the steady stable solution. On an f-plane no eddy is produced. To balance the northward momentum force imparted by the nonlinear WBC the f-plane system moves offshore producing a southward Coriolis force. We also found that the observed UWE scale agrees with the analytical and numerical estimates. The Mindanao and Halmahera eddies are due to the bending of their parent currents, nonlinearities and beta. Starting with the simple case of a northward (southward) WBC flowing along a concave solid boundary with a sharp corner on an beta-plane, it is shown that an anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddy is established to balance the upstream momentum flux. (On an f-plane no eddy is established because a pressure force which balances the WBC momentum flux is generated.) With the aid of the above analysis we then examine the collision of two opposing WBCs on a beta-plane. It is shown that this problem can be conceptually reduced to the above problem of two WBCs turning in a solid corner on a beta-plane where the streamline separating the two colliding currents acts like a "zonal wall." We show that an eddy is established (to balance the momentum flux of the respective WBC) on each side of the dividing streamline. Based on the collision problem, an explanation for the Mindanao and

  6. STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles

  7. New CHIRP Seismic Images of Submarine Terraces Around San Clemente Island Constrain its Tectonic Evolution and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derosier, B.; Driscoll, N. W.; Graves, L. G.; Holmes, J. J.; Nicholson, C.

    2015-12-01

    New High-resolution CHIRP data acquired on the R/V Point Loma in 2015 imaged flights of submarine Terraces off of San Clemente Island. Outboard terraces at ~90 to 115 m below sea level (using a nominal water column velocity of 1500 m/s) may correlate with the Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS2); the last glacial maximum (LGM). Submarine terraces were mapped on both the gentle sloping windward (west) and the steeper sloping leeward (east) sides of San Clemente Island. The submarine terrace's depths are roughly the same on both sides of the island and suggest uniform uplift. These findings are consistent with the onshore mapping of terraces on San Clemente Island. The island exhibits a marked asymmetry both onshore and offshore, with a steeply dipping eastern margin and a gentle dipping western margin. This marked asymmetry cannot be explained by the uniform uplift of San Clemente Island based on the observed onshore and offshore terraces. In our model, the asymmetry of San Clemente Island records an early phase of predominantly extensional deformation during the middle to late Miocene, with San Clemente Island being the footwall block. Such asymmetry is also observed across the 30-mile bank and the Coronado Bank with steeply dipping eastern margins and gently dipping western margins. New regional multichannel seismic data and reprocessed industry data show no sediment divergence along the hangingwall blocks, which suggests that extensional deformation predated sedimentation. Finally, the elevations of the terraces on San Clemente Island are similar to those observed on the mainland from Baja California to Newport Beach, requiring any tectonic model fitting the uplift pattern of mainland terraces to account for the similar elevations not only along the margin but also across the margin out to 70 nautical miles offshore.

  8. Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-12-01

    Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing

  9. 76 FR 13330 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Prohibiting Purse Seine Fishing in the U.S. EEZ Around Guam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... for Pelagic Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (FEP). If approved by the Secretary of Commerce... Economic Zone (EEZ) around the Mariana Archipelago, including Guam and the CNMI. The area closures are... written comments to Michael D. Tosatto, Regional Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Region (PIR),...

  10. 75 FR 45085 - Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XX15 Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2010-11 Main Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish...

  11. Uranium-Lead Zircon Ages and Sr, Nd, and Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Selected Plutonic Rocks from Western Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, Daniel M.; Lund, Karen; Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2008-01-01

    Across the Salmon River suture in western Idaho, where allochthonous Permian to Cretaceous oceanic rocks are juxtaposed against Proterozoic North American rocks, a wide variety of plutonic rocks are exposed. Available data indicate much variation in composition, source, and structural state of these plutons. The plutonic rocks were long described as the western border zone of the Cretaceous Idaho batholith but limited pre-existing age data indicate more complicated origins. Because the affinity and age of the plutonic rocks cannot be reliably determined from field relations, TIMS U-Pb dating in conjunction with Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic studies of selected plutons across the suture in western Idaho were undertaken. The data indicate three general groups of plutons including (1) those that intruded the island arc terranes during the Triassic and Jurassic, those that intruded near the western edge of oceanic rocks along the suture in the Early Cretaceous, and the plutons of the Idaho batholith that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks in the Late Cretaceous. Plutons that intruded Proterozoic North American rocks commonly include xenocrystic zircons and in several cases, ages could not be determined. The least radiogenic Sr and most radiogenic Nd are found among the Blue Mountains superterrane island arc samples. Suture-zone plutons have isotopic characteristics that span the range between Idaho batholith and island arc samples but mostly follow island arc signatures. Plutons of the Idaho batholith have the most radiogenic initial Pb and Sr ratios and the least radiogenic Nd of the samples analyzed.

  12. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  13. Western Aeronautical Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakahara, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) is a network of facilities used to support aeronautical research, science missions, exploration system concepts, and space operations. The WATR resides at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The WATR is a part of NASA's Corporate Management of Aeronautical Facilities and funded by the Strategic Capability Asset Program (SCAP). It is managed by the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) to provide the right facility at the right time. NASA is a tenant on Edwards Air Force Base and has an agreement with the Air Force Flight Test Center to use the land and airspace controlled by the Department of Defense (DoD). The topics include: 1) The WATR supports a variety of vehicles; 2) Dryden shares airspace with the AFFTC; 3) Restricted airspace, corridors, and special use areas are available for experimental aircraft; 4) WATR Products and Services; 5) WATR Support Configuration; 6) Telemetry Tracking; 7) Time Space Positioning; 8) Video; 9) Voice Communication; 10) Mobile Operations Facilities; 11) Data Processing; 12) Mission Control Center; 13) Real-Time Data Analysis; and 14) Range Safety.

  14. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  15. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius)

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ben H.; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands. PMID:26871932

  16. Predicting Where a Radiation Will Occur: Acoustic and Molecular Surveys Reveal Overlooked Diversity in Indian Ocean Island Crickets (Mogoplistinae: Ornebius).

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Baudin, Rémy; Franck, Antoine; Hugel, Sylvain; Strasberg, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory suggests that the geographic location of island radiations (local accumulation of species diversity due to cladogenesis) can be predicted based on island area and isolation. Crickets are a suitable group for testing these predictions, as they show both the ability to reach some of the most isolated islands in the world, and to speciate at small spatial scales. Despite substantial song variation between closely related species in many island cricket lineages worldwide, to date this characteristic has not received attention in the western Indian Ocean islands; existing species descriptions are based on morphology alone. Here we use a combination of acoustics and DNA sequencing to survey these islands for Ornebius crickets. We uncover a small but previously unknown radiation in the Mascarenes, constituting a three-fold increase in the Ornebius species diversity of this archipelago (from two to six species). A further new species is detected in the Comoros. Although double archipelago colonisation is the best explanation for species diversity in the Seychelles, in situ cladogenesis is the best explanation for the six species in the Mascarenes and two species of the Comoros. Whether the radiation of Mascarene Ornebius results from intra- or purely inter- island speciation cannot be determined on the basis of the phylogenetic data alone. However, the existence of genetic, song and ecological divergence at the intra-island scale is suggestive of an intra-island speciation scenario in which ecological and mating traits diverge hand-in-hand. Our results suggest that the geographic location of Ornebius radiations is partially but not fully explained by island area and isolation. A notable anomaly is Madagascar, where our surveys are consistent with existing accounts in finding no Ornebius species present. Possible explanations are discussed, invoking ecological differences between species and differences in environmental history between islands.

  17. Reconstructing Demography and Social Behavior During the Neolithic Expansion from Genomic Diversity Across Island Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vallée, François; Luciani, Aurélien; Cox, Murray P

    2016-12-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and increasingly genetics are clarifying how populations moved from mainland Asia, through Island Southeast Asia, and out into the Pacific during the farming revolution. Yet key features of this process remain poorly understood, particularly how social behaviors intersected with demographic drivers to create the patterns of genomic diversity observed across Island Southeast Asia today. Such questions are ripe for computer modeling. Here, we construct an agent-based model to simulate human mobility across Island Southeast Asia from the Neolithic period to the present, with a special focus on interactions between individuals with Asian, Papuan, and mixed Asian-Papuan ancestry. Incorporating key features of the region, including its complex geography (islands and sea), demographic drivers (fecundity and migration), and social behaviors (marriage preferences), the model simultaneously tracks a full suite of genomic markers (autosomes, X chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and Y chromosome). Using Bayesian inference, model parameters were determined that produce simulations that closely resemble the admixture profiles of 2299 individuals from 84 populations across Island Southeast Asia. The results highlight that greater propensity to migrate and elevated birth rates are related drivers behind the expansion of individuals with Asian ancestry relative to individuals with Papuan ancestry, that offspring preferentially resulted from marriages between Asian women and Papuan men, and that in contrast to current thinking, individuals with Asian ancestry were likely distributed across large parts of western Island Southeast Asia before the Neolithic expansion.

  18. Reconstructing Demography and Social Behavior During the Neolithic Expansion from Genomic Diversity Across Island Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, François; Luciani, Aurélien; Cox, Murray P.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeology, linguistics, and increasingly genetics are clarifying how populations moved from mainland Asia, through Island Southeast Asia, and out into the Pacific during the farming revolution. Yet key features of this process remain poorly understood, particularly how social behaviors intersected with demographic drivers to create the patterns of genomic diversity observed across Island Southeast Asia today. Such questions are ripe for computer modeling. Here, we construct an agent-based model to simulate human mobility across Island Southeast Asia from the Neolithic period to the present, with a special focus on interactions between individuals with Asian, Papuan, and mixed Asian–Papuan ancestry. Incorporating key features of the region, including its complex geography (islands and sea), demographic drivers (fecundity and migration), and social behaviors (marriage preferences), the model simultaneously tracks a full suite of genomic markers (autosomes, X chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and Y chromosome). Using Bayesian inference, model parameters were determined that produce simulations that closely resemble the admixture profiles of 2299 individuals from 84 populations across Island Southeast Asia. The results highlight that greater propensity to migrate and elevated birth rates are related drivers behind the expansion of individuals with Asian ancestry relative to individuals with Papuan ancestry, that offspring preferentially resulted from marriages between Asian women and Papuan men, and that in contrast to current thinking, individuals with Asian ancestry were likely distributed across large parts of western Island Southeast Asia before the Neolithic expansion. PMID:27683274

  19. The Role of Social Networks in the Post-Colonial Multilingual Island of Palau: Mechanisms of Language Maintenance and Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal mechanisms of language maintenance and shift in the rural post-colonial multilingual island community of Palau in the Western Pacific, using social networks as an explanatory framework. I explore the usefulness of social networks from three perspectives, investigating whether and how social networks can explain changes in…

  20. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  1. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  2. Island morphologies in epitaxial growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Rumaner, Lee; Ohuchi, Fumio; Olmstead, Marjorie A.; Ueno, Keiji; Koma, Atsushi

    1996-03-01

    Growth of epitaxial films commonly occurs through the coalescence of individual islands. The morphology of islands has therefore a key importance for the film qualities desired. A uniform layer-by-layer growth of the film is achieved when islands in the first layer coalesce to form a uniform layer before a second layer nucleates; a non-uniform multi-layer growth results from multiple layers successively nucleating on top of each other before the first layer coalesces. We developed a kinetic model based on an analytic solution of the diffusion equation between nucleation events to calculate the evolving island morphology during growth. The morphologies depend on deposition rate, substrate temperature, and activation energies for surface diffusion on the substrate and deposited material. By applying this theory to atomic force microscopy data of GaSe multi-layer islands, we extract a value for the activation energy for Ga diffusion across steps of GaSe. Supported by NSF Grant No. ECS-9209652, DOE Grant No. DE-FG06-94ER45516, and the Japanese New Energy Development Organization.

  3. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  4. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  5. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  6. Influence of Beach Scraping on Beach Profile Morphology: Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzmann, M.; Hapke, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fire Island is part of a barrier island system located just south of Long Island, New York. The island is 50 km long, oriented southwest-northeast, and varies in width from 150 meters to 1 kilometer. Established communities on Fire Island are part of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) which is managed by the National Park Service. The island is densely populated, and thus mitigating coastal erosion caused by large-scale storm waves has become an important issue. Severe nor'easter storms in 1991, 1992, and 1993 caused substantial erosion and property damage. This prompted communities within FIIS to conduct a pilot study in which the preventative, non-structural practice of beach scraping was employed as a method of erosion control. Beach scraping is the anthropogenic movement of sand from the berm to the back beach creating an artificial foredune. Currently, there is no published research that explores the morphologic influence of beach scraping on Fire Island, although the practice is still in place today for a number of communities. This study assesses changes caused by beach scraping using a temporally robust beach profile dataset of over 150 profiles, spanning thirteen years. Three study areas were chosen based on location (western, central, and eastern parts of Fire Island) and data availability in scraped and adjacent control areas. Analyzed characteristics include beach width, beach volume, slope (dune, beachface, global), berm crest elevation, and dune crest elevation. Initial results indicate a detectable difference in the behavior of the beach between scraped and control areas. Seasonal signals show beach width decreasing substantially westward from the scraped profile location, which is in the direction of net littoral transport. Anthropogenic relocation of berm material to the foredune zone during scraping places sediment in the back beach area that might otherwise be mobilized by storm waves, therefore depriving downcoast beaches of sediment. Longer

  7. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  8. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE PAGES

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  9. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in