Science.gov

Sample records for abrupt vessel closure

  1. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  2. Jam proof closure assembly for lidded pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1992-01-01

    An expendable closure assembly is provided for use (in multiple units) with a lockable pressure vessel cover along its rim, such as of an autoclave. This assembly is suited to variable compressive contact and locking with the vessel lid sealing gasket. The closure assembly consists of a thick walled sleeve insert for retention in the under bores fabricated in the cover periphery and the sleeve is provided with internal threading only. A snap serves as a retainer on the underside of the sleeve, locking it into an under bore retention channel. Finally, a standard elongate externally threaded bolt is sized for mating cooperation with the so positioned sleeve, whereby the location of the bolt shaft in the cover bore hole determines its compressive contact on the underlying gasket.

  3. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA P...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA P...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA P...

  7. Simply actuated closure for a pressure vessel - Design for use to trap deep-sea animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yayanos, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    A pressure vessel is described that can be closed by a single translational motion within 1 sec. The vessel is a key component of a trap for small marine animals and operates automatically on the sea floor. As the vessel descends to the sea floor, it is subjected both internally and externally to the high pressures of the deep sea. The mechanism for closing the pressure vessel on the sea floor is activated by the timed release of the ballast which was used to sink the trap. As it rises to the sea surface, the internal pressure of the vessel remains near the value present on the sea floor. The pressure vessel has been used in simulated ocean deployments and in the deep ocean (9500 m) with a 75%-85% retention of the deep-sea pressure. Nearly 100% retention of pressure can be achieved by using an accumulator filled with a gas.

  8. Cdc42 is required in a genetically distinct subset of cardiac cells during Drosophila dorsal vessel closure

    PubMed Central

    Swope, David; Kramer, Joseph; King, Tiffany R.; Cheng, Yi-Shan; Kramer, Sunita G.

    2017-01-01

    The embryonic heart tube is formed by the migration and subsequent midline convergence of two bilateral heart fields. In Drosophila the heart fields are organized into two rows of cardioblasts (CBs). While morphogenesis of the dorsal ectoderm, which lies directly above the Drosophila dorsal vessel (DV), has been extensively characterized, the migration and concomitant fundamental factors facilitating DV formation remain poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that DV closure occurs at multiple independent points along the A-P axis of the embryo in a “buttoning” pattern, divergent from the zippering mechanism observed in the overlying epidermis during dorsal closure. Moreover, we demonstrate that a genetically distinct subset of CBs is programmed to make initial contact with the opposing row. To elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying this process, we examined the role of Rho GTPases during cardiac migration using inhibitory and overexpression approaches. We found that Cdc42 shows striking cell-type specificity during DV formation. Disruption of Cdc42 function specifically prevents CBs that express the homeobox gene tinman from completing their dorsal migration, resulting in a failure to make connections with their partnering CBs. Conversely, neighboring CBs that express the orphan nuclear receptor, seven-up, are not sensitive to Cdc42 inhibition. Furthermore, this phenotype was specific to Cdc42 and was not observed upon perturbation of Rac or Rho function. Together with the observation that DV closure occurs through the initial contralateral pairing of tinman-expressing CBs, our studies suggest that the distinct buttoning mechanism we propose for DV closure is elaborated through signaling pathways regulating Cdc42 activity in this cell type. PMID:24949939

  9. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements of optical coherence tomography angiography in primary open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Harsha L; Kadambi, Sujatha V; Weinreb, Robert N; Puttaiah, Narendra K; Pradhan, Zia S; Rao, Dhanaraj A S; Kumar, Rajesh S; Webers, Carroll A B; Shetty, Rohit

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), and to compare these with peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness measurements. In a cross-sectional study, 48 eyes of 33 healthy control subjects, 63 eyes of 39 patients with POAG and 49 eyes of 32 patients with PACG underwent OCTA (RTVue-XR, Optovue, Fremont, California, USA) and RNFL imaging with spectral domain OCT. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density and RNFL parameters were evaluated using area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and sensitivities at fixed specificities. AUCs of peripapillary vessel density ranged between 0.48 for the temporal sector and 0.88 for the inferotemporal sector in POAG. The same in PACG ranged between 0.57 and 0.86. Sensitivities at 95% specificity ranged from 13% to 70% in POAG, and from 10% to 67% in PACG. AUCs of peripapillary RNFL thickness ranged between 0.51 for the temporal sector and 0.91 for the inferonasal sector in POAG. The same in PACG ranged between 0.61 and 0.87. Sensitivities at 95% specificity ranged from 8% to 68% in POAG, and from 2% to 67% in PACG. AUCs of all peripapillary vessel density measurements were comparable (p>0.05) to the corresponding RNFL thickness measurements in both POAG and PACG. Diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density parameters of OCTA, especially the inferotemporal sector measurement, was good in POAG and PACG. Diagnostic abilities of vessel density measurements were comparable to RNFL measurements in both POAG and PACG. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. 36 CFR 13.1146 - What other closures and restrictions apply to commercial fishermen and commercial fishing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1146... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What other closures and...

  11. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips.

    PubMed

    Gill, Amreeta; Shellock, Frank G

    2012-01-09

    Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants.

  12. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  13. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  14. Analysis of abrupt transitions in ecological systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence and causes of abrupt transitions, thresholds, or regime shifts between ecosystem states are of great concern and the likelihood of such transitions is increasing for many ecological systems. General understanding of abrupt transitions has been advanced by theory, but hindered by the l...

  15. Abrupt climate change and extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    There is a growing body of theoretical and empirical support for the concept of instabilities in the climate system, and indications that abrupt climate change may in some cases contribute to abrupt extinctions. Theoretical indications of instabilities can be found in a broad spectrum of climate models (energy balance models, a thermohaline model of deep-water circulation, atmospheric general circulation models, and coupled ocean-atmosphere models). Abrupt transitions can be of several types and affect the environment in different ways. There is increasing evidence for abrupt climate change in the geologic record and involves both interglacial-glacial scale transitions and the longer-term evolution of climate over the last 100 million years. Records from the Cenozoic clearly show that the long-term trend is characterized by numerous abrupt steps where the system appears to be rapidly moving to a new equilibrium state. The long-term trend probably is due to changes associated with plate tectonic processes, but the abrupt steps most likely reflect instabilities in the climate system as the slowly changing boundary conditions caused the climate to reach some threshold critical point. A more detailed analysis of abrupt steps comes from high-resolution studies of glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Comparison of climate transitions with the extinction record indicates that many climate and biotic transitions coincide. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is not a candidate for an extinction event due to instabilities in the climate system. It is quite possible that more detailed comparisons and analysis will indicate some flaws in the climate instability-extinction hypothesis, but at present it appears to be a viable candidate as an alternate mechanism for causing abrupt environmental changes and extinctions.

  16. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James W. C.; Alley, Richard B.; Archer, David E.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Dunlea, Edward; Foley, Jonathan; Fu, Rong; Holland, Marika M.; Lozier, M. Susan; Schmitt, Johanna; Smith, Laurence C.; Sugihara, George; Thompson, David W. J.; Weaver, Andrew J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2014-05-01

    Levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are exceeding levels recorded in the past millions of years, and thus climate is being forced beyond the range of the recent geological era. Lacking concerted action by the world's nations, it is clear that the future climate will be warmer, sea levels will rise, global rainfall patterns will change, and ecosystems will be altered. However, there is still uncertainty about how we will arrive at that future climate state. Although many projections of future climatic conditions have predicted steadily changing conditions giving the impression that communities have time to gradually adapt, the scientific community has been paying increasing attention to the possibility that at least some changes will be abrupt, perhaps crossing a threshold or "tipping point" to change so quickly that there will be little time to react. This presentation will synopsize the new US National Research Council Report, Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises, highlighting areas of increased and decreased concern, as well as areas of new concern. Emphasis is placed on not only abrupt change in physical climate, but on abrupt changes in human and natural systems that can occur as a result of a slowly changing climate. The report calls for action now on an abrupt change early warning system (ACEWS) if societies are to be resilient to climate change.

  17. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  18. The economics of abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Perrings, Charles

    2003-09-15

    The US National Research Council defines abrupt climate change as a change of state that is sufficiently rapid and sufficiently widespread in its effects that economies are unprepared or incapable of adapting. This may be too restrictive a definition, but abrupt climate change does have implications for the choice between the main response options: mitigation (which reduces the risks of climate change) and adaptation (which reduces the costs of climate change). The paper argues that by (i) increasing the costs of change and the potential growth of consumption, and (ii) reducing the time to change, abrupt climate change favours mitigation over adaptation. Furthermore, because the implications of change are fundamentally uncertain and potentially very high, it favours a precautionary approach in which mitigation buys time for learning. Adaptation-oriented decision tools, such as scenario planning, are inappropriate in these circumstances. Hence learning implies the use of probabilistic models that include socioeconomic feedbacks.

  19. Abrupt climate change: can society cope?

    PubMed

    Hulme, Mike

    2003-09-15

    Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being

  20. Detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the basic ideas associated with the detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems are presented. Multiple filter-based techniques and residual-based method and the multiple model and generalized likelihood ratio methods are considered. Issues such as the effect of unknown onset time on algorithm complexity and structure and robustness to model uncertainty are discussed.

  1. Abrupt tropical climate change: past and present.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lonnie G; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Brecher, Henry; Davis, Mary; León, Blanca; Les, Don; Lin, Ping-Nan; Mashiotta, Tracy; Mountain, Keith

    2006-07-11

    Three lines of evidence for abrupt tropical climate change, both past and present, are presented. First, annually and decadally averaged delta(18)O and net mass-balance histories for the last 400 and 2,000 yr, respectively, demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in the mid- to low latitudes is unprecedented for at least the last 2 millennia. Second, the continuing retreat of most mid- to low-latitude glaciers, many having persisted for thousands of years, signals a recent and abrupt change in the Earth's climate system. Finally, rooted, soft-bodied wetland plants, now exposed along the margins as the Quelccaya ice cap (Peru) retreats, have been radiocarbon dated and, when coupled with other widespread proxy evidence, provide strong evidence for an abrupt mid-Holocene climate event that marked the transition from early Holocene (pre-5,000-yr-B.P.) conditions to cooler, late Holocene (post-5,000-yr-B.P.) conditions. This abrupt event, approximately 5,200 yr ago, was widespread and spatially coherent through much of the tropics and was coincident with structural changes in several civilizations. These three lines of evidence argue that the present warming and associated glacier retreat are unprecedented in some areas for at least 5,200 yr. The ongoing global-scale, rapid retreat of mountain glaciers is not only contributing to global sea-level rise but also threatening freshwater supplies in many of the world's most populous regions.

  2. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  3. Abruptness of Cascade Failures in Power Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results on real, realistic and synthetic networks indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into ``super-grids''.

  4. Abruptness of Cascade Failures in Power Grids

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results on real, realistic and synthetic networks indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into “super-grids”. PMID:24424239

  5. Abruptness of cascade failures in power grids.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-15

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results on real, realistic and synthetic networks indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into "super-grids".

  6. Supercritical flow characteristics at abrupt expansion structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jia Jun; Puay, How Tion; Zakaria, Nor Azazi

    2017-10-01

    When dealing with the design of a hydraulic structure, lateral expansion is often necessary for flow emerging at high velocity served as a cross-sectional transition. If the abrupt expansion structure is made to diverge rapidly, it will cause the major part of the flow fail to follow the boundaries. If the transition is too gradual, it will result in a waste of structural material. A preliminary study on the flow structure near the expansion and its relationship with flow parameter is carried out in this study. A two-dimensional depth-averaged model is developed to simulate the supercritical flow at the abrupt expansion structure. Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) scheme (which is of third order accuracy) is adopted in the numerical model. Results show that the flow structure and flow characteristics at the abrupt expansion can be reproduced numerically. The validation of numerical result is done against analytical studies. The result from numerical simulation showed good agreement with the analytical solution.

  7. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  8. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (Pmore » = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.« less

  9. 50 CFR 622.43 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Gulf EEZ or South Atlantic EEZ is prohibited. (3) King and Spanish mackerel. The closure provisions of this paragraph (a)(3) do not apply to Atlantic migratory group Spanish mackerel, which are... this section. (i) A person aboard a vessel for which a commercial permit for king or Spanish mackerel...

  10. 50 CFR 648.101 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer...) EEZ closure. The Regional Administrator shall close the EEZ to fishing for summer flounder by... notifying vessel and dealer permit holders that no commercial quota is available for landing summer flounder...

  11. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 679.22 Section 679.22 Wildlife... any fishing year, vessels with a Federal fisheries permit under § 679.4 are prohibited in that part of... Conservation Zone. Trawling is prohibited at all times in the area defined in Figure 10 to this part as the...

  12. 50 CFR 635.28 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... been allocated a portion of the Purse Seine category quota under § 635.27(a)(4) may fish for BFT. Such vessel may be used to fish for yellowfin, bigeye, albacore, or skipjack tuna at any time, however... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks. (1...

  13. 50 CFR 635.28 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... been allocated a portion of the Purse Seine category quota under § 635.27(a)(4) may fish for BFT. Such vessel may be used to fish for yellowfin, bigeye, albacore, or skipjack tuna at any time, however... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks. (1...

  14. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  15. Abrupt warming of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, I.; Prihartato, P. K.; Chronis, T.; Triantafyllou, G.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reef ecosystems, often referred to as “marine rainforests,” concentrate the most diverse life in the oceans. Red Sea reef dwellers are adapted in a very warm environment, fact that makes them vulnerable to further and rapid warming. The detection and understanding of abrupt temperature changes is an important task, as ecosystems have more chances to adapt in a slowly rather than in a rapid changing environment. Using satellite derived sea surface and ground based air temperatures, it is shown that the Red Sea is going through an intense warming initiated in the mid-90s, with evidence for an abrupt increase after 1994 (0.7°C difference pre and post the shift). The air temperature is found to be a key parameter that influences the Red Sea marine temperature. The comparisons with Northern Hemisphere temperatures revealed that the observed warming is part of global climate change trends. The hitherto results also raise additional questions regarding other broader climatic impacts over the area.

  16. 33 CFR 155.815 - Tank vessel integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tank vessel integrity. 155.815..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.815 Tank vessel integrity. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a tank vessel underway or at anchor must have all closure mechanisms on the...

  17. 33 CFR 155.815 - Tank vessel integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tank vessel integrity. 155.815..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.815 Tank vessel integrity. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a tank vessel underway or at anchor must have all closure mechanisms on the...

  18. Automated Road Closure Gate

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the procedures involved in the research, design, construction, and testing of an Automated Road Closure Gate. The current road closure gates used in South Dakota are often unsafe and difficult to operate. This report will assist ...

  19. Full closure strategic analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  20. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  1. Towards Greenland Glaciation: Cumulative or Abrupt Transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, N.; Ramstein, G.; Contoux, C.; Ladant, J. B.; Dumas, C.; Donnadieu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The insolation evolution [Laskar 2004] from 4 to 2.5 Ma depicts a series of three summer solstice insolation minima between 2.7 and 2.6 Ma, but there are other more important summer solstice minima notably around 3.82 and 3.05 Ma. On such a time span of more than 1 Ma, data shows that there are variations in the evolution of atmospheric CO2 concentration with a local maximum around 3 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011], before a decrease between 3 and 2.6 Ma. The latter, suggesting an abrupt ice sheet inception around 2.7 Ma, has been shown to be a major culprit for the full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2014, in review] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, with surviving ice during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process in the first place, which could further lead to full glaciation at 2.7 Ma. Through a new tri-dimensional interpolation method implemented within the asynchronous coupling between an atmosphere ocean general circulation model (IPSL-CM5A) and an ice sheet model (GRISLI), we investigate the transient evolution of Greenland ice sheet during the Pliocene to diagnose whether the ice sheet inception is an abrupt event or rather a cumulative process, involving waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. ReferencesBartoli, G., Hönisch, B., & Zeebe, R. E. (2011). Atmospheric CO2 decline during the Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. Paleoceanography, 26(4). Contoux C, Dumas C, Ramstein G, Jost A, Dolan A. M. (2014) Modelling Greenland Ice sheet inception and sustainability during the late Pliocene. (in review for Earth and Planetary Science Letters.).Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A. C. M., & Levrard, B. (2004). A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 428

  2. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Upton, Hubert A.

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  3. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  4. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  5. Going, Going, Gone: Localizing Abrupt Offsets of Moving Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Gerrit W.; Nijhawan, Romi

    2009-01-01

    When a moving object abruptly disappears, this profoundly influences its localization by the visual system. In Experiment 1, 2 aligned objects moved across the screen, and 1 of them abruptly disappeared. Observers reported seeing the objects misaligned at the time of the offset, with the continuing object leading. Experiment 2 showed that the…

  6. Abrupt Change in Ecological Systems: Inference and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Zak; Carpenter, Stephen R; Ives, Anthony R; Kucharik, Christopher J; Ramiadantsoa, Tanjona; Stegner, M Allison; Williams, John W; Zhang, Jien; Turner, Monica G

    2018-05-18

    Abrupt ecological changes are, by definition, those that occur over short periods of time relative to typical rates of change for a given ecosystem. The potential for such changes is growing due to anthropogenic pressures, which challenges the resilience of societies and ecosystems. Abrupt ecological changes are difficult to diagnose because they can arise from a variety of circumstances, including rapid changes in external drivers (e.g., climate, or resource extraction), nonlinear responses to gradual changes in drivers, and interactions among multiple drivers and disturbances. We synthesize strategies for identifying causes of abrupt ecological change and highlight instances where abrupt changes are likely. Diagnosing abrupt changes and inferring causation are increasingly important as society seek to adapt to rapid, multifaceted environmental changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abrupt contraction flow of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhir, P.; López-López, M. T.; Bossis, G.

    2009-05-01

    Contraction and expansion flows of magnetorheological fluids occur in a variety of smart devices. It is important therefore to learn how these flows can be controlled by means of applied magnetic fields. This paper presents a first investigation into the axisymmetric flow of a magnetorheological fluid through an orifice (so-called abrupt contraction flow). The effect of an external magnetic field, longitudinal or transverse to the flow, is examined. In experiments, the pressure-flow rate curves were measured, and the excess pressure drop (associated with entrance and exit losses) was derived from experimental data through the Bagley correction procedure. The effect of the longitudinal magnetic field is manifested through a significant increase in the slope of the pressure-flow rate curves, while no discernible yield stress occurs. This behavior, observed at shear Mason numbers 10

  8. Closure of colostomy.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, P H; Conklin, H B

    1975-01-01

    We analyzed the records of 77 cases of loop colostomy closure in Vietnam War Casualties. All records were complete from the date of injury to discharge following colostomy closure. Simple of the loop colostomy was performed in 44 patients and resection of the stoma and reanastomosis of bowel segments was performed in 33 patients. Average operating time for simple closure of the loop was 70 minutes compared to 115 minutes for resection and anastomosis. Nasogastric suction was used less frequently and for a shorter time with simple loop closure. The total postoperative complication rate was 9% with simple loop closure as compared to 24% for resection and anastomosis. Simple closure of the loop described in this report is technically easier and as safe as resection of the stoma and reanastomosis. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1094967

  9. Abrupt increase in rat carotid blood flow induces rapid alteration of artery mechanical properties

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Kenneth L.; Matsumoto, Melissa M.; Young, William L.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Hashimoto, Tomoki

    2010-01-01

    Vascular remodeling is essential to proper vessel function. Dramatic changes in mechanical environment, however, may initiate pathophysiological vascular remodeling processes that lead to vascular disease. Previous work by some of our group has demonstrated a dramatic rise in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression shortly following an abrupt increase in carotid blood flow. We hypothesized that there would be a corresponding change in carotid mechanical properties. Unilateral carotid ligation surgery was performed to produce an abrupt, sustained increase in blood flow through the contralateral carotid artery of rats. The flow-augmented artery was harvested after sham surgery or 1, 2, or 6 days after flow augmentation. Vessel mechanical response in the circumferential direction was then evaluated through a series of pressure-diameter tests. Results show that the extent of circumferential stretch (normalized change in diameter) at in vivo pressure levels was significantly different (p<0.05) from normo-flow controls at 1 and 2 days following flow augmentation. Measurements at 1, 2, and 6 days were not significantly different from one another, but a trend in the data suggested that circumferential stretch was largest 1 day following surgery and subsequently decreased toward baseline values. Because previous work with this model indicated a similar temporal pattern for MMP-9 expression, an exploratory set of experiments was conducted where vessels were tested 1 day following surgery in animals treated with broad spectrum MMP inhibitors (either doxycycline or GM6001). Results showed a trend for the inhibitors to minimize changes in mechanical properties. Observations demonstrate that vessel mechanical properties change rapidly following flow augmentation and that alterations may be linked to expression of MMPs. PMID:21094476

  10. Involvement of human decidual cell-expressed tissue factor in uterine hemostasis and abruption.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, C J; Paidas, M; Murk, W K; Kayisli, U A; Gopinath, A; Huang, S J; Krikun, G; Schatz, F

    2009-11-01

    Vascular injury increases access and binding of plasma-derived factor VII to perivascular cell membrane-bound tissue factor (TF). The resulting TF/VIIa complex promotes hemostasis by cleaving pro-thrombin to thrombin leading to the fibrin clot. In human pregnancy, decidual cell-expressed TF prevents decidual hemorrhage (abruption). During placentation, trophoblasts remodel decidual spiral arteries into high conductance vessels. Shallow trophoblast invasion impedes decidual vascular conversion, producing an inadequate uteroplacental blood flow that elicits abruption-related placental ischemia. Thrombin induces several biological effects via cell surface protease activated receptors. In first trimester human DCs thrombin increases synthesis of sFlt-1, which elicits placental ischemia by impeding angiogenesis-related decidual vascular remodeling. During pregnacy, the fibrillar collagen-rich amnion and choriodecidua extracellular matrix (ECM) provides greater than additive tensile strength and structural integrity. Thrombin acts as an autocrine/paracrine mediator that degrades these ECMs by augmenting decidual cell expression of: 1) matrix metalloproteinases and 2) interleukin-8, a key mediator of abruption-associated decidual infiltration of neutrophils, which express several ECM degrading proteases. Among the cell types at the maternal fetal interface at term, TF expression is highest in decidual cells indicating that this TF meets the hemostatic demands of labor and delivery. TF expression in cultured term decidual cells is enhanced by progestin and thrombin suggesting that the maintenance of elevated circulating progesterone provides hemostatic protection and that abruption-generated thrombin acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion on decidual cells to promote hemostasis via enhanced TF expression.

  11. Involvement of human decidual cell-expressed tissue factor in uterine hemostasis and abruption

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, C.J.; Paidas, M.; Murk, W.K.; Kayisli, U.A.; Gopinath, A.; Krikun, G.; Huang, S.J.; Schatz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular injury increases access and binding of plasma-derived factor VII to perivascular cell membrane-bound tissue factor (TF). The resulting TF/VIIa complex promotes hemostasis by cleaving pro-thrombin to thrombin leading to the fibrin clot. In human pregnancy, decidual cell-expressed TF prevents decidual hemorrhage (abruption). During placentation, trophoblasts remodel decidual spiral arteries into high conductance vessels. Shallow trophoblast invasion impedes decidual vascular conversion, producing an inadequate uteroplacental blood flow that elicits abruption-related placental ischemia. Thrombin induces several biological effects via cell surface protease activated receptors. In first trimester human DCs thrombin increases synthesis of sFlt-1, which elicits placental ischemia by impeding angiogenesis-related decidual vascular remodeling. During pregnacy, the fibrillar collagen-rich amnion and choriodecidua extracellular matrix (ECM) provides greater than additive tensile strength and structural integrity. Thrombin acts as an autocrine/paracrine mediator that degrades these ECMs by augmenting decidual cell expression of: 1) matrix metalloproteinases and 2) interleukin-8, a key mediator of abruption-associated decidual infiltration of neutrophils, which express several ECM degrading proteases. Our recent observations that: 1) among the cell types at the maternal fetal interface at term TF expression is highest in decidual cells indicates that this TF meets the hemostatic demands of labor and delivery; 2) TF expression in cultured term decidual cells is enhanced by progestin and thrombin suggest that maintenance of elevated circulating progesterone at term provides hemostatic protection, whereas abruption-generated thrombin can act in autocrine/paracrine fashion on DCs to promote hemostasis via enhanced TF expression. PMID:19720393

  12. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Tan, Ning; Ladant, Jean-baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille

    2017-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), the global annual mean temperatures inferred by data and model studies were 2-3° warmer than pre-industrial values. Accordingly, Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to reach at the most, only half of that of present-day [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ˜ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, the Greenland ice sheet has reached its full size [Lunt et al. 2008]. A crucial question concerns the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet from half to full size during the 3 - 2.5 Ma period. Data show a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined with low summer insolation to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maxima. This suggests rather a cumulative process than an abrupt event. In order to diagnose the evolution of the ice sheet build-up, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables us to investigate the waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. We use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014), which allows the evolution of CO2 concentration and of orbital parameters, and the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet size to be taken into account. By interpolating climatic snapshot simulations ran with various possible combinations of CO2, orbits and ice sheet sizes, we can build a continuous climatic forcing that is then used to provide 500 kyrs-long ice sheet simulations. With such a tool, we may offer a physically based answer to different CO2 reconstructions scenarios and analyse which one is the most consistent with Greenland ice sheet buildup.

  13. Mechanisms for ductus arteriosus closure.

    PubMed

    Coceani, Flavio; Baragatti, Barbara

    2012-04-01

    Closure of the ductus arteriosus at birth is a complex phenomenon being conditioned by antenatal events and progressing in preprogrammed steps. Functional at first, narrowing of the vessel is determined by 2 overlapping processes--removal of the prostaglandin E(2)-based relaxation sustaining prenatal patency and activation of a constrictor mechanism by the natural rise in blood oxygen tension. Two schemes have been proposed for oxygen action--one involving a cytochrome P450 hemoprotein (sensor)/endothelin-1 (effector) complex and the other a set of voltage-gated K(+) channels. These proposals, however, are not mutually exclusive. Structural closure follows the constriction through a remodeling process initiated antenatally with the development of intimal cushions and completed postnatally by a host of humoral and mechanical stimuli. Research in this area has already provided clinical applications. Nevertheless, management of premature infants with persistent ductus remains troublesome and calls for an alternative approach to the prostaglandin E(2) inhibitors now in use. Studies in progress on the oxygen-sensing system may lead to a definitive solution for this problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Port closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Shaher, Z

    2007-08-01

    Laparoscopic trocars do create wounds. This article aims to review and list different techniques used for closure of the fascia incision at trocar sites. A literature search was performed for articles dealing with closure techniques. The author searched this subject in English on Medline by combining the words "trocar" and "hernia," as well as "Deschamps" and "Reverdin." All articles reporting techniques with their references were reviewed. The articles described many techniques in addition to classical closure using curved needles, including Grice needle, Maciol needles, Endoclose device, Carter-Thomason device, Tahoe ligature device, Endo-Judge device, eXit puncture closure device, Lowsley retractor, spinal cord needles, dual hemostat, suture carrier, Riverdin and Deschamps needles, and Gore-Tex closure device. Three main groups of techniques were found with favor of extracorporeal manipulations under direct visualization. Old methods are sufficient and cost-effective.

  15. 78 FR 76759 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trimester Closure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Fishery; Trimester Closure for the Common Pool Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Trimester 3, from January 1, 2014, through April 30, 2014, to common pool vessels, because the Trimester 3... intended to prevent the overharvest of the common pool's allocation of GOM haddock. DATES: The closure of...

  16. Controls on the abruptness of gravel-sand transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Domarad, N.; Rennie, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    As gravel-bedded rivers fine downstream, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bed. This is the only abrupt transition in grain-size that occurs in the fluvial system and has attracted considerable attention. A number of competing theories have been proposed to account for the abruptness of the transition, including base-level control, attrition of ~10mm gravel to produce sand, and sediment sorting processes. The prevailing theory for the emergence of abrupt transitions is size selective sorting of bimodal sediment wherein gravel deposits due to downstream declining shear stress, fining the bedload until a sand-bed emerges. We explored this hypothesis by examining grain-size, shear stress, gravel mobility and sand suspension thresholds through the gravel-sand transition (GST) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. The Fraser GST is an arrested gravel wedge with patches of gravel downstream of the wedge forming a diffuse extension. There is an abrupt change in bed slope through the transition that leads to an abrupt change in shear stress. The GST, bed-slope change and backwater caused by the ocean are all coincident spatially, which enhances the sharpness of the GST. Interestingly, the bimodal reach of the river occurs downstream of the GST and exhibits no downstream gradients in shear stress, suspended sediment flux, gravel mobility or sand suspension thresholds. This calls into question the prevailing theory for the emergence of an abrupt GST by size selective sorting. We provide evidence, both empirical and theoretical, that suggests the emergence of an abrupt GST is caused by rapid deposition of sand when fine gravel deposits. We argue that the emergence of gravel-sand transitions is a consequence of gravel-bedded rivers adopting a steeper slope than sand-bedded rivers. The abruptness arises because the bed slope required to convey the gravel load fixes the distal location of a terminal gravel wedge, and once the river has

  17. Thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in early pregnancy and placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James E; McClain, Monica R; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Canick, Jacob A; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, T Flint; Nyberg, David A; Bernstein, Peter S; D'Alton, Mary E

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the relationship between thyroid antibodies and placental abruption. This cohort study assesses thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in relation to placental abruption among 10,062 women with singleton viable pregnancies (from the First and Second Trimester Risk of Aneuploidy [FaSTER] trial). A thyroperoxidase antibody cutoff of 50 international units/mL is used for comparison with published data from another cohort. Women with elevated thyroperoxidase antibody levels in the first and second trimesters have a higher rate of placental abruption than antibody-negative women. This relationship is less strong in the first trimester (1.51% compared with 0.83%; odds ratio [OR], 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-3.37) than in the second trimester (1.78% compared with 0.82%; OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.21-3.99). A similar, but weaker, relationship is present for thyroglobulin antibodies. Sixty-four of 782 thyroperoxidase antibody-positive pregnancies without abruption become negative by the second trimester; one pregnancy with abruption becomes antibody-positive. Odds ratios for pregnancies with both thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibody elevations are also higher (first trimester: OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.91-4.86; second trimester: OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.17-6.33). The present data confirm an association between thyroid antibody elevations and placental abruption described in a recent report. These findings, however, do not provide support for recommending routine testing for thyroid antibodies during pregnancy. II.

  18. [Reversible catatonia after the abrupt discontinuation of clozapine: Case report].

    PubMed

    Jaafari, M; Bout, A; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we report the case of a patient, aged 26, with schizophrenia who was admitted to psychiatric emergencies for catatonia, one week after abrupt discontinuation of clozapine. An improvement was seen after only two days of the reintroduction of clozapine alone. This catatonia is reversible and it responds magnificently to the reintroduction of clozapine. And we conclude that patients and their caregivers need to be educated about the effects of abrupt cessation of clozapine administration. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase Memory Preserving Harmonics from Abruptly Autofocusing Beams.

    PubMed

    Koulouklidis, Anastasios D; Papazoglou, Dimitris G; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the harmonics from abruptly autofocusing ring-Airy beams present a surprising property: They preserve the phase distribution of the fundamental beam. Consequently, this "phase memory" imparts to the harmonics the abrupt autofocusing behavior, while, under certain conditions, their foci coincide in space with the one of the fundamental. Experiments agree well with our theoretical estimates and detailed numerical calculations. Our findings open the way for the use of such beams and their harmonics in strong field science.

  20. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in the Mariana Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Investigating Flow Features Near Abrupt Topography in...waves generated by flow over topography and mesoscale eddies generated by flow past islands. Having identified the prime locations in the region for such

  1. Abrupt Depletion Layer Approximation for the Metal Insulator Semiconductor Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Determines the excess surface change carrier density, surface potential, and relative capacitance of a metal insulator semiconductor diode as a function of the gate voltage, using the precise questions and the equations derived with the abrupt depletion layer approximation. (Author/GA)

  2. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  3. Granulation tissue formation at the bronchial stump is reduced after stapler closure in comparison to suture closure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yotaro; Kawamura, Masafumi; Gika, Masatoshi; Nomori, Hiroaki

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of the bronchial stump after lobectomy between mechanical stapler closure and manual suture closure. The effect of fibrin glue application on each method of closure was also observed. Right upper lobectomy was performed in beagles (n=31) using staplers (ST group) or sutures (SU group). In a separate experiment, fibrin glue was sprayed onto the stump after each respective method of closure. After one week, the stump region was examined macroscopically, and also by histology. chi(2)-Test and Mann-Whitney test were used for comparative analysis. The incidence of adhesion formation between the surrounding tissues was significantly reduced in the ST group in comparison to the SU group (22 vs. 80%, P=0.04). The thickness of granulation tissue over the stump was significantly reduced in the ST group in comparison to the SU group (0.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.5+/-0.3 mm, P<0.0001). Vessel density in the granulation tissue was also significantly reduced in the ST group in comparison to the SU group (6+/-2 vs. 16+/-2, P=0.003). Fibrin glue application after stapler closure significantly increased the incidence of adhesion formation, granulation tissue thickness, and vessel density in the granulation tissue over the stump.

  4. Crack closure, a literature study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, M.

    1993-08-01

    In this report crack closure is treated. The state of the art is reviewed. Different empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other, and their benefits are discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are discussed, and some results from fatigue tests are also reported. Experimental data from the literature are reported.

  5. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Abrupt Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2017-01-03

    Abrupt changes in climate have occurred in many locations around the globe over the last glacial cycle, with pronounced temperature swings on timescales of decades or less in the North Atlantic. The global pattern of these changes suggests that they reflect variability in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). This review examines the evidence from ocean sediments for ocean circulation change over these abrupt events. The evidence for changes in the strength and structure of the AMOC associated with the Younger Dryas and many of the Heinrich events is strong. Although it has been difficult to directly document changes in the AMOC over the relatively short Dansgaard-Oeschger events, there is recent evidence supporting AMOC changes over most of these oscillations as well. The lack of direct evidence for circulation changes over the shortest events leaves open the possibility of other driving mechanisms for millennial-scale climate variability.

  6. Recommended Experimental Procedures for Evaluation of Abrupt Wing Stall Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Hall, R. M.; Owens, D. B.; Lamar, J. E.; McMillin, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the experimental program under the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. Candidate figures of merit from conventional static tunnel tests are summarized and correlated with data obtained in unique free-to-roll tests. Where possible, free-to-roll results are also correlated with flight data. Based on extensive studies of static experimental figures of merit in the Abrupt Wing Stall Program for four different aircraft configurations, no one specific figure of merit consistently flagged a warning of potential lateral activity when actual activity was seen to occur in the free-to-roll experiments. However, these studies pointed out the importance of measuring and recording the root mean square signals of the force balance.

  7. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  8. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  9. Elucidating Dynamical Processes Relevant to Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) Bo Qiu Dept of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa 1000 Pope Rd. Honolulu, HI 96822 phone: (808) 956...c) to explore relevant dynamics by using both simplified models and OGCM output with realistic topography and surface boundary conditions...scale abyssal circulation, we propose to use the Hallberg Isopycnal Model (HIM). The HIM allows sloping isopycnals to interact with bottom topography

  10. Climate Stability: Pathway to understand abrupt glacial climate shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Knorr, G.; Barker, S.; Lohmann, G.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial climate is marked by abrupt, millennial-scale climate changes known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles that have been linked to variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The most pronounced stadial coolings, Heinrich Stadials (HSs), are associated with massive iceberg discharges to the North Atlantic. This motivates scientists to consider that the North Atlantic freshwater perturbations is a common trigger of the associated abrupt transitions between weak and strong AMOC states. However, recent studies suggest that the Heinrich ice-surging events are triggered by ocean subsurface warming associated with an AMOC slow-down. Furthermore, the duration of ice-rafting events does not systematically coincide with the beginning and end of the pronounced cold conditions during HSs. In this context, we show that both, changes in atmospheric CO2 and ice sheet configuration can provide important control on the stability of the AMOC, using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. Our simulations reveal that gradual changes in Northern Hemisphere ice sheet height and atmospheric CO2 can act as a trigger of abrupt glacial/deglacial climate changes. The simulated global climate responses—including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rain belts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw—are generally consistent with empirical evidence. We further find that under a delicate configuration of atmospheric CO2 and ice sheet height the AMOC can be characterized by a self-oscillation (resonance) feature (Hopf Bifucation) with a 1000-year cycle that is comparable with observed small DO events during the MIS 3. This provides an alternative explanation for millennial-scale DO variability during glacial periods.

  11. [Prelabour uterine torsion complicated by partial abruption and fetal death].

    PubMed

    Agar, N; Canis, M; Accoceberry, M; Bourdel, N; Lafaye, A-L; Gallot, D

    2014-06-01

    Uterine torsion is a rare obstetrical complication whose diagnosis remains challenging. We report a case of 180 degrees dextrogyre torsion at 36(+5) weeks of gestation complicated by partial abruption and in utero fetal death. Emergency cesarean section was performed through an unintentional posterior hysterotomy. Literature reports a few similar cases. Vertical hysterotomy should be advised in this context avoiding incision on lateral sides associated with increased risk of vascular or ureteral injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Placental abruption possibly due to parvovirus B19 infection.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Ayaka; Takai, Yasushi; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Samejima, Kouki; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the development of anemia-associated fetal hydrops associated with maternal parvovirus B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 infection occurs via the globoside (P antigen) receptor, the main glycolipid of erythroid cells, which induces apoptosis. Similar findings have been reported for the P antigen of globoside-containing placental trophoblast cells. A 32-year-old woman was infected with human parvovirus B19 at week 32 of pregnancy, and had severe anemia at week 34. At week 37, an emergency cesarean section was performed because of sudden abdominal pain and fetal bradycardia; placental abruption was found. A live male infant was delivered with no sign of fetal hydrops or fetal infection. Placental tissue was positive for parvovirus B19 according to polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-related M30 CytoDEATH monoclonal antibody revealed M30 staining of the placental villous trophoblasts. Placental trophoblasts and erythroid precursor cells have been reported to express globoside (P antigen), which is necessary for parvovirus B19 infectivity, and to show apoptotic activity as a result of infection. Placentas from three other pregnancies with documented abruption showed no M30 staining. The present case strongly suggests an association between placental abruption and apoptosis resulting from parvovirus B19 infection.

  13. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mL⋅L−1 [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems. PMID:25825727

  14. Anticipatory adjustments to abrupt changes of opposing forces.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Katrin; Heuer, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory adjustments to abrupt load changes are based on task-specific predictive information. The authors asked whether anticipatory adjustments to abrupt offsets of horizontal forces are related to expectancy. In two experiments participants held a position against an opposing force or moved against it. At force offset they had to stop rapidly. Duration of the opposing force or distance moved against it varied between blocks of trials and was constant within each block, or it varied from trial to trial. These two variations resulted in opposite changes of the expectancy of force offset with the passage of time or distance. With constant force durations or distances in each block of trials, anticipatory adjustments tended to be poorest with the longest duration or distance, but with variable force durations or distances they tended to be best with the longest duration or distance. Thus anticipatory adjustments were related to expectancy rather than time or distance per se. Anticipatory adjustments resulted in shorter peak amplitudes of the involuntary movements, accompanied by longer movement times in Experiment 1 and faster movement times in Experiment 2. Thus, for different states of the limb at abrupt dynamic changes anticipatory adjustments involve different mechanisms that modulate different mechanical characteristics.

  15. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mLṡL-1 [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  16. Acute diabetes insipidus mediated by vasopressinase after placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Wallia, Amisha; Bizhanova, Aigerim; Huang, Wenyu; Goldsmith, Susan L; Gossett, Dana R; Kopp, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Postpartum, diabetes insipidus (DI) can be part of Sheehan's syndrome or lymphocytic hypophysitis in combination with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, acute onset of isolated DI in the postpartum period is unusual. This patient presented at 33 weeks gestation with placental abruption, prompting a cesarean delivery of twins. Immediately after delivery, she developed severe DI. The DI could be controlled with the vasopressinase-resistant 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP), but not with arginine vasopressin (AVP), and it resolved within a few weeks. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the postpartum DI in this patient was caused by the release of placental vasopressinase into the maternal bloodstream. Cells were transiently transfected with the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2) and treated with either AVP or DDAVP in the presence of the patient's serum collected postpartum or 10 weeks after delivery. The response to the different treatments was evaluated by measuring the activity of a cAMP-responsive firefly luciferase reporter construct. The in vitro studies demonstrate that the patient's postpartum serum disrupts activation of the AVPR2 by AVP, but not by the vasopressinase-resistant DDAVP. Placental abruption can rarely be associated with acute postpartum DI caused by release of placental vasopressinase into the bloodstream. This clinical entity must be considered in patients with placental abruption and when evaluating patients presenting with DI after delivery.

  17. 76 FR 72643 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Closure of the Hawaii Shallow-Set Pelagic Longline Fishery Due...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    .... 080225267-91393-03] RIN 0648-XA370 Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Closure of the Hawaii Shallow- Set...: Temporary rule; fishery closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the shallow-set pelagic longline fishery north of the Equator for all vessels registered under the Hawaii longline limited access program. The shallow-set...

  18. Atmospheric CO2 and abrupt climate change on submillennial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward

    2010-05-01

    How atmospheric CO2 varies and is controlled on various time scales and under various boundary conditions is important for understanding how the carbon cycle and climate change are linked. Ancient air preserved in ice cores provides important information on past variations in atmospheric CO2. In particular, concentration records for intervals of abrupt climate change may improve understanding of mechanisms that govern atmospheric CO2. We present new multi-decadal CO2 records that cover Greenland stadial 9 (between Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events 8 and 9) and the abrupt cooling event at 8.2 ka. The CO2 records come from Antarctic ice cores but are well synchronized with Greenland ice core records using new high-resolution CH4 records,precisely defining the timing of CO2 change with respect to abrupt climate events in Greenland. Previous work showed that during stadial 9 (40~38 ka), CO2 rose by about 15~20 ppm over around 2,000 years, and at the same time temperatures in Antarctica increased. Dust proxies indicate a decrease in dust flux over the same period. With more detailed data and better age controls we now find that approximately half of the CO2 increase during stadial 9 occurred abruptly, over the course of decades to a century at ~39.6 ka. The step increase of CO2 is synchronous with a similar step increase of Antarctic isotopic temperature and a small abrupt change in CH4, and lags after the onset of decrease in dust flux by ~400 years. New atmospheric CO2 records at the well-known ~8.2 ka cooling event were obtained from Siple Dome ice core, Antarctica. Our preliminary CO2 data span 900 years and include 19 data points within the 8.2 ka cooling event, which persisted for ~160 years (Thomas et al., Quarternary Sci. Rev., 2007). We find that CO2 increased by 2~4 ppm during that cooling event. Further analyses will improve the resolution and better constrain the CO2 variability during other times in the early Holocene to determine if the variations observed

  19. Finding Intervals of Abrupt Change in Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Shekhar, S.; Liess, S.

    2011-12-01

    In earth science data (e.g., climate data), it is often observed that a persistently abrupt change in value occurs in a certain time-period or spatial interval. For example, abrupt climate change is defined as an unusually large shift of precipitation, temperature, etc, that occurs during a relatively short time period. A similar pattern can also be found in geographical space, representing a sharp transition of the environment (e.g., vegetation between different ecological zones). Identifying such intervals of change from earth science datasets is a crucial step for understanding and attributing the underlying phenomenon. However, inconsistencies in these noisy datasets can obstruct the major change trend, and more importantly can complicate the search of the beginning and end points of the interval of change. Also, the large volume of data makes it challenging to process the dataset reasonably fast. In earth science data (e.g., climate data), it is often observed that a persistently abrupt change in value occurs in a certain time-period or spatial interval. For example, abrupt climate change is defined as an unusually large shift of precipitation, temperature, etc, that occurs during a relatively short time period. A similar change pattern can also be found in geographical space, representing a sharp transition of the environment (e.g., vegetation between different ecological zones). Identifying such intervals of change from earth science datasets is a crucial step for understanding and attributing the underlying phenomenon. However, inconsistencies in these noisy datasets can obstruct the major change trend, and more importantly can complicate the search of the beginning and end points of the interval of change. Also, the large volume of data makes it challenging to process the dataset fast. In this work, we analyze earth science data using a novel, automated data mining approach to identify spatial/temporal intervals of persistent, abrupt change. We first

  20. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  1. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  2. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  3. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  4. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  5. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  6. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  7. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure...

  8. RELAP-7 Closure Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling; Berry, R. A.; Martineau, R. C.

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5’s and TRACE’s capabilities and extends their analysis capabilities for all reactor system simulation scenarios. The RELAP-7 codemore » utilizes the well-posed 7-equation two-phase flow model for compressible two-phase flow. Closure models used in the TRACE code has been reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past decades and provide a basis for the colure correlations implemented in the RELAP-7 code. This document provides a summary on the closure correlations that are currently implemented in the RELAP-7 code. The closure correlations include sub-grid models that describe interactions between the fluids and the flow channel, and interactions between the two phases.« less

  9. 50 CFR 622.34 - Gulf EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...′47″ S 28°30′51″ 82°52′55″ T 28°27′46″ 82°55′09″ U 28°30′51″ 82°52′09″ 1 Crystal River Entrance Light... (l) will begin on the same date and time as the Texas closure unless circumstances dictate otherwise... day. All times are eastern standard time. During these closures, a person aboard a vessel using or...

  10. Abrupt cooling over the North Atlantic in modern climate models

    PubMed Central

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier; Drijfhout, Sybren; Mary, Yannick; Bennabi, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Observations over the 20th century evidence no long-term warming in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPG). This region even experienced a rapid cooling around 1970, raising a debate over its potential reoccurrence. Here we assess the risk of future abrupt SPG cooling in 40 climate models from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Contrary to the long-term SPG warming trend evidenced by most of the models, 17.5% of the models (7/40) project a rapid SPG cooling, consistent with a collapse of the local deep-ocean convection. Uncertainty in projections is associated with the models' varying capability in simulating the present-day SPG stratification, whose realistic reproduction appears a necessary condition for the onset of a convection collapse. This event occurs in 45.5% of the 11 models best able to simulate the observed SPG stratification. Thus, due to systematic model biases, the CMIP5 ensemble as a whole underestimates the chance of future abrupt SPG cooling, entailing crucial implications for observation and adaptation policy. PMID:28198383

  11. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds.

    PubMed

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P; Kroon, Dick; Wright, James D; Swart, Peter K; Nath, Bejugam Nagender; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Bialik, Or M; Blättler, Clara L; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sébastien; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Mee, Anna Ling Hui; Lüdmann, Thomas; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M; Pratiwi, Santi D; Reijmer, John J G; Reolid, Jesús; Slagle, Angela L; Sloss, Craig R; Su, Xiang; Yao, Zhengquan; Young, Jeremy R

    2016-07-20

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most intense climatic elements yet its initiation and variations are not well established. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents in IODP cores from the Maldives yields an age of 12. 9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment's content of particulate organic matter. A weaker 'proto-monsoon' existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system.

  12. Abrupt climate warming in East Antarctica during the early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Holger; Heiri, Oliver; Wagner, Bernd; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2007-08-01

    We report a centennial-scale warming event between 8600 and 8400 cal BP from Amery Oasis, East Antarctica, that is documented by the geochemical record in a lacustrine sediment sequence. The organic carbon content, the C/S ratio, and the sedimentation rate in this core have distinctly elevated values around 8500 y ago reflecting relatively warm and ice-free conditions that led to well-ventilated conditions in the lake and considerable sedimentation of both autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter on the lake bottom. This abrupt warming event occurred concurrently with reported warm climatic conditions in the Southern Ocean while the climate in central East Antarctic remained cold. The comparison of the spatial and temporal variability of warm climatic periods documented in various terrestrial, marine, and glacial archives from East Antarctica elucidates the uniqueness of the centennial-scale warming event in the Amery Oasis. We also discuss a possible correlation of the Amery warming event with the abrupt climatic deterioration around 8200 cal BP on the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Demenocal, P.B.; Okahashi, H.; Linsley, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Aller??d Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until ???8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  14. North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Praetorius, Summer K; Mix, Alan C.; Davies, Maureen H.; Wolhowe, Matthew D; Addison, Jason A.; Prahl, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    Marine sediments from the North Pacific document two episodes of expansion and strengthening of the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) accompanied by seafloor hypoxia during the last deglacial transition1, 2, 3, 4. The mechanisms driving this hypoxia remain under debate1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. We present a new high-resolution alkenone palaeotemperature reconstruction from the Gulf of Alaska that reveals two abrupt warming events of 4–5 degrees Celsius at the onset of the Bølling and Holocene intervals that coincide with sudden shifts to hypoxia at intermediate depths. The presence of diatomaceous laminations and hypoxia-tolerant benthic foraminiferal species, peaks in redox-sensitive trace metals12, 13, and enhanced 15N/14N ratio of organic matter13, collectively suggest association with high export production. A decrease in 18O/16O values of benthic foraminifera accompanying the most severe deoxygenation event indicates subsurface warming of up to about 2 degrees Celsius. We infer that abrupt warming triggered expansion of the North Pacific OMZ through reduced oxygen solubility and increased marine productivity via physiological effects; following initiation of hypoxia, remobilization of iron from hypoxic sediments could have provided a positive feedback on ocean deoxygenation through increased nutrient utilization and carbon export. Such a biogeochemical amplification process implies high sensitivity of OMZ expansion to warming.

  15. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  16. Gestalt concept of closure: a construct without closure.

    PubMed

    Wasserstein, Jeanette

    2002-12-01

    This comment reviews the original Gestalt literature which introduced the concept of 'closure'. It is argued that the meaning of 'closure' was confounded in the source literature and, thus, the term connotes more than it denotes. Research based on different measures of this ambiguous construct inevitably may not always converge.

  17. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including the...

  18. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including the...

  19. Closure head for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A closure head for a nuclear reactor includes a stationary outer ring integral with the reactor vessel with a first rotatable plug disposed within the stationary outer ring and supported from the stationary outer ring by a bearing assembly. A sealing system is associated with the bearing assembly to seal the annulus defined between the first rotatable plug and the stationary outer ring. The sealing system comprises tubular seal elements disposed in the annulus with load springs contacting the tubular seal elements so as to force the tubular seal elements against the annulus in a manner to seal the annulus. The sealing system also comprises a sealing fluid which is pumped through the annulus and over the tubular seal elements causing the load springs to compress thereby reducing the friction between the tubular seal elements and the rotatable components while maintaining a gas-tight seal therebetween.

  20. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... waters of the Oakland Estuary just north of the Park Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal Project on November 4, 2013 through November 22, 2013. This...

  1. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  2. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  3. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  4. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  5. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  6. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  7. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage

    PubMed Central

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-01-01

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound. PMID:25605890

  8. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage.

    PubMed

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-02-03

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound.

  9. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Bryden, H L; Borghini, M; Ben Ismail, S

    2016-03-11

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected.

  10. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-01-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected. PMID:26965790

  11. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  12. Bend-imitating models of abruptly bent electron waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.

    2011-07-01

    The fundamentals of bend-imitating approach regarding the one-electron quantum mechanics in abruptly bent ideal electron waveguides are given. In general, the theory allows to model each particular circularlike bend of a continuous quantum wire as some effective multichannel scatterer being pointlike in longitudinal direction. Its scattering ability is determined by the bending angle, mean bending radius, lateral coordinate (or coordinates) in wire cross section, time (or electronic energy), and possibly by the applied magnetic field. In an equivalent formulation, the theory gives rise to rather simple matching rules for the electron wave function and its longitudinal derivative affecting only the straight parts of a wire and thereby permitting to bypass a detailed quantum mechanical consideration of elbow domains. The proposed technique is applicable for the analytical investigation of spectral and transport electronic properties related to the ideal abruptly bent 3D wirelike structures of fixed cross section and is adaptable to the 2D wirelike structures as well as to the wirelike structures subjected to the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of wire bending. In the framework of bend-imitating approach, the investigation of electron scattering in a singly bent 2D quantum wire and a doubly bent 2D quantum wire with S-like bend has been made and the explicit dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients on geometrical parameters of respective structure as well as on electron energy have been obtained. The total suppression of mixing between the scattering channels of S-like bent quantum wire is predicted.

  13. Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Purcell, Conor

    2014-08-21

    During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses--including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw--are generally consistent with empirical evidence. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials.

  14. Abrupt plate acceleration during rifted margin formation: Cause and effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon; Butterworth, Nathaniel; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    Extension rate is known to control key processes during rifted margin formation such as crust-mantle coupling, decompression melting, magmatism, and serpentinisation. Here we build on recent advances in plate tectonic reconstructions by quantifying the extension velocity history of Earth's major rifted margins during the last 240 million years. We find that many successful rifts start with a slow phase of extension followed by rapid acceleration that introduces a fast phase. The transition from slow to fast rifting takes place long before crustal break-up: approximately half of the present day rifted margin area was created during the slow, and the other half during the fast rift phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. In these models, rift velocities are not imposed but instead evolve naturally in response to the changing strength of the rift. Our results demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback. The abruptness of rift acceleration is thereby governed by the nonlinearity of lithospheric localization. Realistic brittle and power-law rheologies lead to a speed-up duration between two and ten million years. For successful rifts that generate a new ocean basin, the duration of rift speed-up is notably almost independent of the applied extensional force. Instead, the force controls the duration of the slow phase: higher forces shorten the slow phase while lower forces prolong it. If the force is too low, however, delocalisation processes prevent the rift from reaching the point of speed-up and produce a failed rift, even if the extensional system was active for many million years.

  15. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-groutedmore » polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.« less

  16. Angle closure in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

  17. Evaluation of the significance of abrupt changes in precipitation and runoff process in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ping; Wu, Ziyi; Sang, Yan-Fang; Gu, Haiting; Zhao, Yuxi; Singh, Vijay P.

    2018-05-01

    Abrupt changes are an important manifestation of hydrological variability. How to accurately detect the abrupt changes in hydrological time series and evaluate their significance is an important issue, but methods for dealing with them effectively are lacking. In this study, we propose an approach to evaluate the significance of abrupt changes in time series at five levels: no, weak, moderate, strong, and dramatic. The approach was based on an index of correlation coefficient calculated for the original time series and its abrupt change component. A bigger value of correlation coefficient reflects a higher significance level of abrupt change. Results of Monte-Carlo experiments verified the reliability of the proposed approach, and also indicated the great influence of statistical characteristics of time series on the significance level of abrupt change. The approach was derived from the relationship between correlation coefficient index and abrupt change, and can estimate and grade the significance levels of abrupt changes in hydrological time series. Application of the proposed approach to ten major watersheds in China showed that abrupt changes mainly occurred in five watersheds in northern China, which have arid or semi-arid climate and severe shortages of water resources. Runoff processes in northern China were more sensitive to precipitation change than those in southern China. Although annual precipitation and surface water resources amount (SWRA) exhibited a harmonious relationship in most watersheds, abrupt changes in the latter were more significant. Compared with abrupt changes in annual precipitation, human activities contributed much more to the abrupt changes in the corresponding SWRA, except for the Northwest Inland River watershed.

  18. Interferometric Imaging Directly with Closure Phases and Closure Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Narayan, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric imaging now achieves angular resolutions as fine as ∼10 μas, probing scales that are inaccessible to single telescopes. Traditional synthesis imaging methods require calibrated visibilities; however, interferometric calibration is challenging, especially at high frequencies. Nevertheless, most studies present only a single image of their data after a process of “self-calibration,” an iterative procedure where the initial image and calibration assumptions can significantly influence the final image. We present a method for efficient interferometric imaging directly using only closure amplitudes and closure phases, which are immune to station-based calibration errors. Closure-only imaging provides results that are as noncommittal as possible and allows for reconstructing an image independently from separate amplitude and phase self-calibration. While closure-only imaging eliminates some image information (e.g., the total image flux density and the image centroid), this information can be recovered through a small number of additional constraints. We demonstrate that closure-only imaging can produce high-fidelity results, even for sparse arrays such as the Event Horizon Telescope, and that the resulting images are independent of the level of systematic amplitude error. We apply closure imaging to VLBA and ALMA data and show that it is capable of matching or exceeding the performance of traditional self-calibration and CLEAN for these data sets.

  19. Abrupt Atmospheric Methane Increases Associated With Hudson Strait Heinrich Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R.; Brook, E.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Blunier, T.; Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Romanini, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The drivers of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Period are not well understood. While Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are thought to be linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), it is not clear how or if Heinrich Events—extensive influxes of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean that impacted global climate and biogeochemistry—are related. An enduring problem is the difficultly in dating iceberg rafted debris deposits that typically lack foraminifera. Here we present an ultra-high resolution record of methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core at unprecedented, continuous temporal resolution from 67.2-9.8 ka BP, which we propose constrains the timing of Heinrich events. Our methane record essentially mirrors Greenland ice core stable isotope variability across D-O events, except during Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4 and 5. Partway through these stadials only, methane increases abruptly and rapidly, as at the onset of a D-O event but Greenland temperature exhibits no equivalent response. Speleothem records exhibit signatures of drought in the Northern extra-tropics and intensified monsoonal activity over South America at these times. We use a simple heuristic model to propose that cold air temperatures and extensive sea ice in the North, resulting from Heinrich events, caused extreme reorganization of tropical hydroclimate. This involved curtailment of the seasonal northerly migration of tropical rain belts, leading to intensification of rainfall over Southern Hemisphere tropical wetlands, thus allowing production of excess methane relative to a 'normal' Greenland stadial. We note that this mechanism can operate if AMOC is already in a slowed state when a Heinrich event occurs, as paleo-evidence suggests it was. Heinrich events and associated sea ice cover would therefore act to prolong the duration of this AMOC state. Our findings place the big four Heinrich events of Hudson Strait origin

  20. Heat and pregnancy-related emergencies: Risk of placental abruption during hot weather.

    PubMed

    He, Siyi; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    Outdoor heat increases the risk of preterm birth and stillbirth, but the association with placental abruption has not been studied. Placental abruption is a medical emergency associated with major morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. We determined the relationship between ambient temperature and risk of placental abruption in warm seasons. We performed a case-crossover analysis of 17,172 women whose pregnancies were complicated by placental abruption in Quebec, Canada from May to October 1989-2012. The main exposure measure was the maximum temperature reached during the week before abruption. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of temperature with placental abruption, adjusted for humidity and public holidays. We assessed whether associations were stronger preterm or at term, or varied with maternal age, parity, comorbidity and socioeconomic status. Compared with 15°C, a maximum weekly temperature of 30°C was associated with 1.07 times the odds of abruption (95% CI 0.99-1.16). When the timing of abruption was examined, the associations were significantly stronger at term (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.24) than preterm (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83-1.10). Relationships were more prominent at term for women who were younger than 35years old, nulliparous or socioeconomically disadvantaged, but did not vary with comorbidity. Associations were stronger within 1 and 5days of abruption. Temperature was not associated with preterm abruption regardless of maternal characteristics. Elevated temperatures in warm seasons may increase the risk of abruption in women whose pregnancies are near or at term. Pregnant women may be more sensitive to heat and should consider preventive measures such as air conditioning and hydration during hot weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural...

  2. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural...

  3. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural...

  4. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities...

  5. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate authorities...

  6. Abrupt drainage cycles of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Soulet, Guillaume; Ménot, Guillemette; Bayon, Germain; Rostek, Frauke; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Toucanne, Samuel; Lericolais, Gilles; Bard, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Continental ice sheets are a key component of the Earth’s climate system, but their internal dynamics need to be further studied. Since the last deglaciation, the northern Eurasian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) has been connected to the Black Sea (BS) watershed, making this basin a suitable location to investigate former ice-sheet dynamics. Here, from a core retrieved in the BS, we combine the use of neodymium isotopes, high-resolution elemental analysis, and biomarkers to trace changes in sediment provenance and river runoff. We reveal cyclic releases of meltwater originating from Lake Disna, a proglacial lake linked to the FIS during Heinrich Stadial 1. Regional interactions within the climate–lake–FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. This phenomenon raised the BS water level by ∼100 m until the sill of the Bosphorus Strait was reached, flooding the vast northwestern BS shelf and deeply affecting the hydrology and circulation of the BS and, probably, of the Marmara and Aegean Seas. PMID:23569264

  7. Modeling geologically abrupt climate changes in the Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, B. J.; Seidov, D.

    2010-12-01

    The gradual cooling of the Cenozoic, including the Miocene epoch, was punctuated by many geologically abrupt warming and cooling episodes - strong deviations from the cooling trend with time span of ten to hundred thousands of years. Our working hypothesis is that some of those warming episodes at least partially might have been caused by dynamics of the emerging Antarctic Ice Sheet, which, in turn, might have caused strong changes of sea surface salinity in the Miocene Southern Ocean. Feasibility of this hypothesis is explored in a series of coupled ocean-atmosphere computer experiments. The results suggest that relatively small and geologically short-lived changes in freshwater balance in the Southern Ocean could have significantly contributed to at least two prominent warming episodes in the Miocene. Importantly, the experiments also suggest that the Southern Ocean was more sensitive to the salinity changes in the Miocene than today, which can attributed to the opening of the Central American Isthmus as a major difference between the Miocene and the present-day ocean-sea geometry.

  8. Turbulent forced convection of nanofluids downstream an abrupt expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimouche, Abdelali; Mataoui, Amina

    2018-03-01

    Turbulent forced convection of Nanofluids through an axisymmetric abrupt expansion is investigated numerically in the present study. The governing equations are solved by ANYS 14.0 CFD code based on the finite volume method by implementing the thermo-physical properties of each nanofluid. All results are analyzed through the evolutions of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number. For each nanofluid, the effect of both volume fraction and Reynolds number on this type of flow configuration, are examined. An increase on average Nusselt number with the volume fraction and Reynolds number, are highlighted and correlated. Two relationships are proposed. The first one, determines the average Nusselt number versus Reynolds number, volume fraction and the ratio of densities of the solid particles to that of the base fluid ( \\overline{Nu}=f(\\operatorname{Re},φ, ρ_s/ρ_f) ). The second one varies according Reynolds number, volume fraction and the conductivities ratio of solid particle to that of the base fluid ( \\overline{Nu}=f(\\operatorname{Re},φ, k_s/k_f) ).

  9. Placental abruption: etiopathogenic aspects, diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Brăila, Anca Daniela; Gluhovschi, Adrian; Neacşu, Adrian; Lungulescu, Cristian Virgil; Brăila, Mihai; Vîrcan, Elena Luminiţa; Cotoi, Bogdan Virgil; Gogănău, Alexandru Marian

    2018-01-01

    The severe form of retroplacental hematoma is a serious accident in the second stage of pregnancy and at birth with frightening for the mother and fetus that often lead to death. The pathological mechanism presumes conditions for a "special ground" capital for the "efficiency" of the acute intradecidual vascular accident with the rupture of the uterus-placental arterioles. The complete clinical picture of this severe form of retroplacental hematoma - the placental abruption, observed and mentioned by the classics (vascular drama of Couvelaire) consists of five syndromes, 18 signs and symptoms, four paradoxes, phenomena not fully met in the other forms of retroplacental hematoma (minor and intermediate). The rate of incidence of retroplacental hematoma is in between 0.13-1.38% and depends on the environment, on the socio-economic and medical conditions, on the "obstetric education" and associated pathology. Our study aims at re-evaluating the clinico-paraclinical phenomenon imposed by the dramatism of the phenomenon of in utero placental apoplexy, the impact on neonatal mortality and on the functional prognosis from the point of view of surgical climax.

  10. Dynamic response of desert wetlands to abrupt climate change

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Kathleen B.; Manker, Craig R.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Desert wetlands are keystone ecosystems in arid environments and are preserved in the geologic record as groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits are inherently discontinuous and stratigraphically complex, which has limited our understanding of how desert wetlands responded to past episodes of rapid climate change. Previous studies have shown that wetlands responded to climate change on glacial to interglacial timescales, but their sensitivity to short-lived climate perturbations is largely unknown. Here, we show that GWD deposits in the Las Vegas Valley (southern Nevada, United States) provide a detailed and nearly complete record of dynamic hydrologic changes during the past 35 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), including cycles of wetland expansion and contraction that correlate tightly with climatic oscillations recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Cessation of discharge associated with rapid warming events resulted in the collapse of entire wetland systems in the Las Vegas Valley at multiple times during the late Quaternary. On average, drought-like conditions, as recorded by widespread erosion and the formation of desert soils, lasted for a few centuries. This record illustrates the vulnerability of desert wetland flora and fauna to abrupt climate change. It also shows that GWD deposits can be used to reconstruct paleohydrologic conditions at millennial to submillennial timescales and informs conservation efforts aimed at protecting these fragile ecosystems in the face of anthropogenic warming. PMID:26554007

  11. Abrupt climate changes during Termination III in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mejías, Carlos; Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Stoll, Heather; Cacho, Isabel; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence

    2017-09-19

    The Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial transitions represent the highest amplitude climate changes over the last million years. Unraveling the sequence of events and feedbacks at Termination III (T-III), including potential abrupt climate reversals similar to those of the last Termination, has been particularly challenging due to the scarcity of well-dated records worldwide. Here, we present speleothem data from southern Europe covering the interval from 262.7 to 217.9 kyBP, including the transition from marine isotope stage (MIS) 8 to MIS 7e. High-resolution δ 13 C, δ 18 O, and Mg/Ca profiles reveal major millennial-scale changes in aridity manifested in changing water availability and vegetation productivity. uranium-thorium dates provide a solid chronology for two millennial-scale events (S8.1 and S8.2) which, compared with the last two terminations, has some common features with Heinrich 1 and Heinrich 2 in Termination I (T-I).

  12. Abrupt climate changes during Termination III in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mejías, Carlos; Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Stoll, Heather; Cacho, Isabel; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    The Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial transitions represent the highest amplitude climate changes over the last million years. Unraveling the sequence of events and feedbacks at Termination III (T-III), including potential abrupt climate reversals similar to those of the last Termination, has been particularly challenging due to the scarcity of well-dated records worldwide. Here, we present speleothem data from southern Europe covering the interval from 262.7 to 217.9 kyBP, including the transition from marine isotope stage (MIS) 8 to MIS 7e. High-resolution δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca profiles reveal major millennial-scale changes in aridity manifested in changing water availability and vegetation productivity. uranium-thorium dates provide a solid chronology for two millennial-scale events (S8.1 and S8.2) which, compared with the last two terminations, has some common features with Heinrich 1 and Heinrich 2 in Termination I (T-I).

  13. Abrupt climate changes during Termination III in Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Mejías, Carlos; Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Bartolomé, Miguel; Stoll, Heather; Cacho, Isabel; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    The Late Quaternary glacial–interglacial transitions represent the highest amplitude climate changes over the last million years. Unraveling the sequence of events and feedbacks at Termination III (T-III), including potential abrupt climate reversals similar to those of the last Termination, has been particularly challenging due to the scarcity of well-dated records worldwide. Here, we present speleothem data from southern Europe covering the interval from 262.7 to 217.9 kyBP, including the transition from marine isotope stage (MIS) 8 to MIS 7e. High-resolution δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca profiles reveal major millennial-scale changes in aridity manifested in changing water availability and vegetation productivity. uranium–thorium dates provide a solid chronology for two millennial-scale events (S8.1 and S8.2) which, compared with the last two terminations, has some common features with Heinrich 1 and Heinrich 2 in Termination I (T-I). PMID:28874530

  14. Anticipating abrupt shifts in temporal evolution of probability of eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Loschetter, A.

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the probability of eruption by jointly accounting for different sources of monitoring parameters over time is a key component for volcano risk management. In the present study, we are interested in the transition from a state of low-to-moderate probability value to a state of high probability value. By using the data of MESIMEX exercise at the Vesuvius volcano, we investigated the potential for time-varying indicators related to the correlation structure or to the variability of the probability time series for detecting in advance this critical transition. We found that changes in the power spectra and in the standard deviation estimated over a rolling time window both present an abrupt increase, which marks the approaching shift. Our numerical experiments revealed that the transition from an eruption probability of 10-15% to > 70% could be identified up to 1-3 h in advance. This additional lead time could be useful to place different key services (e.g., emergency services for vulnerable groups, commandeering additional transportation means, etc.) on a higher level of alert before the actual call for evacuation.

  15. Abrupt drainage cycles of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Soulet, Guillaume; Ménot, Guillemette; Bayon, Germain; Rostek, Frauke; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Toucanne, Samuel; Lericolais, Gilles; Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-23

    Continental ice sheets are a key component of the Earth's climate system, but their internal dynamics need to be further studied. Since the last deglaciation, the northern Eurasian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) has been connected to the Black Sea (BS) watershed, making this basin a suitable location to investigate former ice-sheet dynamics. Here, from a core retrieved in the BS, we combine the use of neodymium isotopes, high-resolution elemental analysis, and biomarkers to trace changes in sediment provenance and river runoff. We reveal cyclic releases of meltwater originating from Lake Disna, a proglacial lake linked to the FIS during Heinrich Stadial 1. Regional interactions within the climate-lake-FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. This phenomenon raised the BS water level by ∼100 m until the sill of the Bosphorus Strait was reached, flooding the vast northwestern BS shelf and deeply affecting the hydrology and circulation of the BS and, probably, of the Marmara and Aegean Seas.

  16. Dynamic response of desert wetlands to abrupt climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, Kathleen; Manker, Craig; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Desert wetlands are keystone ecosystems in arid environments and are preserved in the geologic record as groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits are inherently discontinuous and stratigraphically complex, which has limited our understanding of how desert wetlands responded to past episodes of rapid climate change. Previous studies have shown that wetlands responded to climate change on glacial to interglacial timescales, but their sensitivity to short-lived climate perturbations is largely unknown. Here, we show that GWD deposits in the Las Vegas Valley (southern Nevada, United States) provide a detailed and nearly complete record of dynamic hydrologic changes during the past 35 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), including cycles of wetland expansion and contraction that correlate tightly with climatic oscillations recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Cessation of discharge associated with rapid warming events resulted in the collapse of entire wetland systems in the Las Vegas Valley at multiple times during the late Quaternary. On average, drought-like conditions, as recorded by widespread erosion and the formation of desert soils, lasted for a few centuries. This record illustrates the vulnerability of desert wetland flora and fauna to abrupt climate change. It also shows that GWD deposits can be used to reconstruct paleohydrologic conditions at millennial to submillennial timescales and informs conservation efforts aimed at protecting these fragile ecosystems in the face of anthropogenic warming.

  17. Detecting and isolating abrupt changes in linear switching systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Sohail; Zhao, Qing; Huang, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a novel fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for switching linear systems is developed. All input and output signals are assumed to be corrupted with measurement noises. In the proposed method, a 'lifted' linear model named as stochastic hybrid decoupling polynomial (SHDP) is introduced. The SHDP model governs the dynamics of the switching linear system with all different modes, and is independent of the switching sequence. The error-in-variable (EIV) representation of SHDP is derived, and is used for the fault residual generation and isolation following the well-adopted local approach. The proposed FDI method can detect and isolate the fault-induced abrupt changes in switching models' parameters without estimating the switching modes. Furthermore, in this paper, the analytical expressions of the gradient vector and Hessian matrix are obtained based on the EIV SHDP formulation, so that they can be used to implement the online fault detection scheme. The performance of the proposed method is then illustrated by simulation examples.

  18. Mechanical characterization of capsule properties using abrupt-step channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Le Goff, Anne; Kaoui, Badr; Barthè-Biesel, Dominique; Biomechanics; Bioengineering Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capsules consisting of a liquid droplet enclosed by a thin polymerized membrane are commonly encountered in nature (cells) or in industrial process (pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food products). The mechanical properties of the capsule wall are essential to guarantee the particle integrity and release of the internal contents when and where necessary. The difficulty is to assess the mechanical properties of the thin membrane. We will show how abrupt-step channels can be used to identify the membrane viscoelastic properties and point of rupture. This can be achieved by using a channel presenting a step change in cross-section and inverting the direction of the flow of the capsule suspension within the tube. To deduce information on the viscoelasticity, we will exploit the relaxation of the capsules as they flow through the expansion. To study membrane rupture, we will instead invert the channel, block the capsules at the neck of the constriction and determine the pressure difference needed for breakup. All the experiments will be conducted on initially spherical capsules with a thin cross-linked protein membrane for a proof of concept.

  19. Vessel Loading Observations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    Vessel Loading Observations Procedures for P.L. 480, Titles II & III, : Section 416(b) and Food for Progress programs. Notice advises steamship lines and other interested parties that the vessel loading observation (VLO) procedure will continue to be...

  20. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  1. From Abrupt Change to the Future (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, T.

    2009-04-01

    The award of the Oeschger Medal 2009 is a particular honor and pleasure for me as I was given the chance to take over from Hans Oeschger the lead of a wonderful Institute at the University of Bern in 1993. Very apprehensive first, in front of the huge expectations and challenges, I quickly found dear colleagues, close collaborators and extremely supportive staff who all dedicated their time and creativity to work for the common goal of better understanding the Earth System, its variations in the past and its sensitivity to perturbations that man is inflicting on it today. Although met with innate skepticism first by the experimental physicists, our efforts in modelling, particularly the approach of using climate models of reduced complexity, quickly paid off and provided added value to the hard won data and measurements from polar ice cores. It is clear that modelling in such a diverse environment is so much more stimulating and enriching than working on a sophisticated parameterisation in a big modelling centre. Simple models have suggested that the Earth System may have limited stability and that rather fundamental changes could be triggered by the increase of greenhouse gases. However, it is the unique results from polar ice cores, particularly from Greenland that showed that, indeed, the Earth System has limited stability and can react in extremely abrupt ways to changes in forcing. Likewise, the Antarctic ice cores have provided one of the corner stones of our knowledge about climate change: Concentrations of CO2 are today 29% higher than ever during the last 800,000 years. These two fundamental insights from the paleoclimatic archive call for accelerated research into the sensitivity of the climate system and its components to perturbations, as well as the investigation of feedback mechanisms in the biogeochemical cycles that are disturbed by the input of CO2 into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels and land use change. Our research has only scratched the

  2. An international contrast of rates of placental abruption: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Cande V; Keyes, Katherine M; Hamilton, Ava; Gissler, Mika; Wu, Chunsen; Liu, Shiliang; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Skjærven, Rolv; Williams, Michelle A; Tikkanen, Minna; Cnattingius, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Although rare, placental abruption is implicated in disproportionately high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding geographic and temporal variations may provide insights into possible amenable factors of abruption. We examined abruption frequencies by maternal age, delivery year, and maternal birth cohorts over three decades across seven countries. Women that delivered in the US (n = 863,879; 1979-10), Canada (4 provinces, n = 5,407,463; 1982-11), Sweden (n = 3,266,742; 1978-10), Denmark (n = 1,773,895; 1978-08), Norway (n = 1,780,271, 1978-09), Finland (n = 1,411,867; 1987-10), and Spain (n = 6,151,508; 1999-12) were analyzed. Abruption diagnosis was based on ICD coding. Rates were modeled using Poisson regression within the framework of an age-period-cohort analysis, and multi-level models to examine the contribution of smoking in four countries. Abruption rates varied across the seven countries (3-10 per 1000), Maternal age showed a consistent J-shaped pattern with increased rates at the extremes of the age distribution. In comparison to births in 2000, births after 2000 in European countries had lower abruption rates; in the US there was an increase in rate up to 2000 and a plateau thereafter. No birth cohort effects were evident. Changes in smoking prevalence partially explained the period effect in the US (P = 0.01) and Sweden (P<0.01). There is a strong maternal age effect on abruption. While the abruption rate has plateaued since 2000 in the US, all other countries show declining rates. These findings suggest considerable variation in abruption frequencies across countries; differences in the distribution of risk factors, especially smoking, may help guide policy to reduce abruption rates.

  3. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  4. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in...

  5. 77 FR 13013 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary... vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective date of this closure the maximum retainable...

  6. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  7. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  8. 78 FR 15643 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National... using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary... catcher vessels using trawl gear in the BSAI. After the effective date of this closure the maximum...

  9. Sampling and monitoring for closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, Virginia T.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Russell, Carol C.

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of planning a new mine or mine expansion within the modern regulatory framework is to design for ultimate closure. Sampling and monitoring for closure is a form of environmental risk management. By implementing a sampling and monitoring program early in the life of the mining operation, major costs can be avoided or minimized. The costs for treating mine drainage in perpetuity are staggering, especially if they are unanticipated. The Metal Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS), a cooperative government-industry-academia organization, was established to address drainage-quality technologies of metal mining and metallurgical operations. ADTI-MMS recommends that sampling and monitoring programs consider the entire mine-life cycle and that data needed for closure of an operation be collected from exploration through postclosure.

  10. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed tomore » control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.« less

  11. Maternal sleep duration and complaints of vital exhaustion during pregnancy is associated with placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with cardiovascular complications and preterm delivery (PTD). Insufficient sleep results in metabolic alterations and increased inflammation, both known to contribute to placental abruption (abruption), a determinant of PTD. We examined associations of abruption with sleep duration and complaints of vital exhaustion. The study included 164 abruption cases and 160 controls in a multicenter study in Peru. Data on habitual sleep duration and vital exhaustion during the first 6 months of pregnancy were elicited during interviews conducted following delivery. Women were categorized according to short, normal and long sleep duration (≤6, 7-8 and ≥9 h); and frequency of feeling exhausted. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Short and long sleep durations were associated with increased odds of abruption. The ORs of abruption in relation to short (≤6 h) and long (≥9 h) sleep duration were 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.7) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1), compared with normal sleep duration (7-8 h). Complaints of vital exhaustion were also associated with abruption (OR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.46-3.85), and were independent of sleep duration. We extend the existing literature and support the thesis that maternal sleep habits and disorders should be assessed among pregnant women.

  12. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank

  13. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  14. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  15. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  16. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  17. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge...

  18. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge...

  19. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge...

  20. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge...

  1. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge...

  2. 50 CFR 648.161 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Bluefish Fishery § 648.161 Closures. (a) EEZ closure. NMFS shall close the EEZ to fishing for bluefish by... dealer permit holders that no commercial quota is available for landing bluefish in that state. ...

  3. Improving the Safety of Moving Lane Closures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    Moving lane closures are an increasingly utilized and inherently hazardous traffic control procedure for highway : maintenance and operations activities. To improve the safety of moving lane closures for workers and motorists, : this research studied...

  4. DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Approaching Regulatory Closure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper is a status update on the use of DNAPL source reduction remedial technologies, and provides information about recent projects where regulatory closure has been reached or projects are approaching regulatory closure, following source reduction.

  5. Abrupt vegetation transitions characterise long-term Amazonian peatland development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roucoux, K. H.; Baker, T. R.; Gosling, W. D.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Jones, T. D.; Lahteenoja, O.; Lawson, I. T.

    2012-04-01

    woodland with abundant Myrtaceae; (4) Expansion of Mauritia/Mauritiella palm swamp vegetation c. 1000 years ago representing establishment of the present day vegetation community. Our results show that the vegetation at this site has undergone continuous change throughout the period of peat formation. The sequence of vegetation development is not straightforward, being characterised by abrupt transitions between vegetation types and reversals in the apparent trajectory of change. Overall this suggests that the system is highly dynamic on centennial to millennial timescales. This complexity may reflect vegetation responses to a combination of external (physical) and internal (biological) drivers and the presence of thresholds in the system. Future investigations will work towards understanding the processes that drive these vegetation transitions and predicting peatland vegetation responses to future climatic change.

  6. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure. (a) Closure Plan. The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste injection well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for closure of the well that meets... of material to be used in plugging; (iv) The method of placement of the plugs; (v) Any proposed test...

  7. Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography...westward flow in the North Equatorial Current (NEC) encounters tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt... Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether appreciable energy/momentum is lost from the large-scale NEC flow to smaller scales and

  8. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p < 0.001). Based on serum cotinine levels, 30.3% of the case women and 17.6% of the control women were considered smokers (p = 0.003). Serum cotinine levels among smokers were higher in the abruption group than in the control group (median 229.5 ng/ml (interquartile range 169.8-418.1) vs. 153.5 ng/ml (56.6-241.4), p = 0.002). Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Of the women reporting as nonsmokers, approximately 7% were considered smokers based on cotinine testing. pregnant women with subsequent placental abruption are heavier smokers than pregnant control women. Self-reported smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  9. Preliminary experience with a new device for delayed sternal closure strategy in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Santini, Francesco; Onorati, Francesco; Telesca, Mariassunta; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Open chest management with delayed sternal closure (DSC) is a valuable strategy in the management of patients with postcardiotomy hemodynamic instability or severe coagulopathy. The conventional extemporized material available for off-label sternal stenting however may limit its efficacy. We evaluated outcomes of patients with refractory severe postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock (SPCCS) treated with DSC using a novel temporary sternal spreader (NTSS) which allows myocardial recovery by progressive controlled approximation of the sternal edges. Seven patients (4 male, mean age 66.5 ± 5 years) with refractory SPCCS showing acute hemodynamic instability at sternal closure, were implanted with the NTSS, consisting of stainless-steel branches linked to 2 diverging plates of polyether-ether ketone, whose progressive opening/closing mechanism can be controlled from outside the chest with a rotating steel wire. The sternal wound was closed by an elastic membrane to achieve a sterile field. Swan-Ganz monitoring was employed, and clinical outcomes evaluated. The device was successfully implanted in all patients without device-related complications or failures. Progressive approximation of sternal edges, titrated on cardiac index values, was successfully completed allowing subsequent uneventful sternal closure in all. Mean time from SPCCS to sternal closure was 70 ± 21 hours. No patient developed infective complications or late hemodynamic instability after device removal and sternal closure. One patient (14%) died of multiorgan failure on postoperative day 9. Despite the limited number of patients enrolled, the NTSS proved safe and effective in allowing complete myocardial recovery after SPCCS, avoiding hemodynamic instability related to abrupt sternal closure, with no occurrence of infective complications.

  10. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  11. The association between maternal smoking and placenta abruption: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh

    2017-08-01

    Several epidemiological studies have determined that maternal smoking can increase the risk of placenta abruption. To date, only a meta-analysis has been performed for assessing the relationship between smoking and placenta abruption. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the risk of placenta abruption. A literature search was conducted in major databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to April 2016. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed using Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random effects model. The literature search yielded 1167 publications until April 2016 with 4 309 610 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, there was a significant association between smoking and placenta abruption (1.80; 95% CI: 1.75, 1.85). Based on the results of cohort studies, smoking and placenta abruption had a significant association (relative risk ratio: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.51, 1.80). Based on reports in epidemiological studies, we showed that smoking is a risk factor for placenta abruption.

  12. Containment vessel drain system

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  13. Stress-induced, time-dependent fracture closure at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Hickman, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Time-dependent closure of fractures in quartz was measured in situ at 22-530??C temperature and 0.1-150 MPa water pressure. Unlike previous crack healing and rock permeability studies, in this study, fracture aperture is monitored directly and continuously using a windowed pressure vessel, a long-working-distance microscope, and reflected-light interferometry. Thus the fracture volume and geometry can be measured as a function of time, temperature, and water pressure. Relatively uniform closure occurs rapidly at temperatures and pressures where quartz becomes significantly soluble in water. During closure the aperture is reduced by as much as 80% in a few hours. We infer that this closure results from the dissolution of small particles or asperities that prop the fracture open. The driving force for closure via dissolution of the prop is the sum of three chemical potential terms: (1) the dissolution potential, proportional to the logarithm of the degree of undersaturation of the solution; (2) the coarsening potential, proportional to the radius of curvature of the prop; and (3) the pressure solution potential, proportional to the effective normal stress at the contact between propping particles and the fracture wall. Our observations suggest that closure is controlled by a pressure solution-like process. The aperture of dilatant fractures and microcracks in the Earth that are similar to those in our experiments, such as ones generated from thermal stressing or brittle failure during earthquake rupture and slip, will decrease rapidly with time, especially if the macroscopic stress is nonhydrostatic.

  14. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  15. 40 CFR 265.146 - Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance of both closure and post-closure care. 265.146 Section 265.146 Protection of Environment... Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements for financial assurance for both closure and post-closure care for one or...

  16. 40 CFR 264.146 - Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assurance of both closure and post-closure care. 264.146 Section 264.146 Protection of Environment... mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements for financial assurance for both closure and post-closure care for one or more...

  17. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  18. Revisiting the Landau fluid closure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.

  19. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  20. Disposal of Vessels at Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel disposal general permits are issued by the EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Information is provided for vessel disposal permit applicants and where to dispose a vessel.

  1. Sampling and monitoring for closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, V.T.; Russell, C.C.; Smith, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Metals Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS) addresses technical drainage-quality issues related to metal mining and related metallurgical operations, for future and active mines, as well as, for historical mines and mining districts. One of the first projects of ADTI-MMS is to develop a handbook describing the best sampling, monitoring, predicting, mitigating, and modeling of drainage from metal mines, pit lakes and related metallurgical facilities based upon current scientific and engineering practices. One of the important aspects of planning a new mine in today's regulatory environment is the philosophy of designing a new or existing mine or expansion of operations for ultimate closure. The holistic philosophy taken in the ADTI-MMS handbook maintains that sampling and monitoring programs should be designed to take into account all aspects of the mine-life cycle. Data required for the closure of the operation are obtained throughout the mine-life cycle, from exploration through post-closure.

  2. Vessels, Marinas and Ports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of EPA’s vessels (recreational/commercial/military), marinas, and ports programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for addressing their associated environmental impacts, such as air and water pollution.

  3. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  4. Clinical relevance of coronary angiography at the time of percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Andreas; Praz, Fabien; Seiler, Christian; Windecker, Stephan; Meier, Bernhard

    2007-11-01

    The value of incidental coronary angiography during percutaneous shunt closure to screen for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. On the occasion of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO), incidental coronary angiography routinely offered to men >40 and women >50 years, or younger patients with particular risk patterns, was performed in 575 patients (64% men, mean age 55 +/- 10 years, mean 1.5 +/- 1.1 cardiovascular risk factors) without overt history, signs, or symptoms of CAD. CAD was found in 164 patients (29%); 53 (9%) had >or=50% diameter stenoses. Thirty patients (5%) had one-vessel, 13 (2%) two-vessel, and 10 (2%) three-vessel disease. Patients with CAD (n = 164) were older (60 +/- 9 vs. 53 +/- 10 years; P < 0.0001), more frequently male (76% vs. 59%; P = 0.0002), and had a higher body mass index (26.5 +/- 4.0 vs. 25.4 +/- 4.6; P = 0.006) and more cardiovascular risk factors (2.0 +/- 1.1 vs. 1.2 +/- 1.0; P < 0.0001). There were six procedural complications (1%). Two were unequivocally related to coronary angiography: one minor stroke (diplopia), and one iatrogenic dissection of the right coronary ostium requiring stenting. Furthermore, four arteriovenous fistulae at the puncture site requiring elective surgical closure were possibly related to coronary angiography. Forty-five patients (8% of total) underwent percutaneous (n = 43) or surgical (n = 2) revascularization. In selected asymptomatic patients referred for percutaneous PFO closure, incidental coronary angiography discloses a rather high prevalence of clinically unsuspected CAD. These findings are relevant not only for timely revascularization but also for maintenance of long-term antiplatelet therapy beyond the few months recommended after PFO closure. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Catalogue of abrupt shifts in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate models

    PubMed Central

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Bathiany, Sebastian; Beaulieu, Claudie; Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin; Huntingford, Chris; Scheffer, Marten; Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt transitions of regional climate in response to the gradual rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are notoriously difficult to foresee. However, such events could be particularly challenging in view of the capacity required for society and ecosystems to adapt to them. We present, to our knowledge, the first systematic screening of the massive climate model ensemble informing the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, and reveal evidence of 37 forced regional abrupt changes in the ocean, sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, and terrestrial biosphere that arise after a certain global temperature increase. Eighteen out of 37 events occur for global warming levels of less than 2°, a threshold sometimes presented as a safe limit. Although most models predict one or more such events, any specific occurrence typically appears in only a few models. We find no compelling evidence for a general relation between the overall number of abrupt shifts and the level of global warming. However, we do note that abrupt changes in ocean circulation occur more often for moderate warming (less than 2°), whereas over land they occur more often for warming larger than 2°. Using a basic proportion test, however, we find that the number of abrupt shifts identified in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios is significantly larger than in other scenarios of lower radiative forcing. This suggests the potential for a gradual trend of destabilization of the climate with respect to such shifts, due to increasing global mean temperature change. PMID:26460042

  6. The association between uterine leiomyoma and placenta abruption: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira

    2017-11-01

    Some epidemiological studies have found that uterine leiomyoma can increase the risk of placenta abruption. To date, the meta-analysis has not been performed for assessing the relationship between uterine leiomyoma and placenta abruption. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between uterine leiomyoma and the risk of placenta abruption. A literature search was conducted out in major databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from the earliest possible year to October 2016. The heterogeneity across studies was explored by Q-test and I 2 statistic. The publication bias was assessed by Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were showed using odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. The literature search included 953 articles until October 2016 with 232,024 participants. Based on OR estimates obtained from case-control and cohort studies, there was significant association between uterine leiomyoma and placenta abruption (2.63; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.88). We showed based on reports in observational studies that uterine leiomyoma is a risk factor for placenta abruption.

  7. Catalogue of abrupt shifts in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Bathiany, Sebastian; Beaulieu, Claudie; Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin; Huntingford, Chris; Scheffer, Marten; Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Abrupt transitions of regional climate in response to the gradual rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are notoriously difficult to foresee. However, such events could be particularly challenging in view of the capacity required for society and ecosystems to adapt to them. We present, to our knowledge, the first systematic screening of the massive climate model ensemble informing the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, and reveal evidence of 37 forced regional abrupt changes in the ocean, sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, and terrestrial biosphere that arise after a certain global temperature increase. Eighteen out of 37 events occur for global warming levels of less than 2°, a threshold sometimes presented as a safe limit. Although most models predict one or more such events, any specific occurrence typically appears in only a few models. We find no compelling evidence for a general relation between the overall number of abrupt shifts and the level of global warming. However, we do note that abrupt changes in ocean circulation occur more often for moderate warming (less than 2°), whereas over land they occur more often for warming larger than 2°. Using a basic proportion test, however, we find that the number of abrupt shifts identified in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios is significantly larger than in other scenarios of lower radiative forcing. This suggests the potential for a gradual trend of destabilization of the climate with respect to such shifts, due to increasing global mean temperature change.

  8. Catalogue of abrupt shifts in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate models.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Bathiany, Sebastian; Beaulieu, Claudie; Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin; Huntingford, Chris; Scheffer, Marten; Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-10-27

    Abrupt transitions of regional climate in response to the gradual rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are notoriously difficult to foresee. However, such events could be particularly challenging in view of the capacity required for society and ecosystems to adapt to them. We present, to our knowledge, the first systematic screening of the massive climate model ensemble informing the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, and reveal evidence of 37 forced regional abrupt changes in the ocean, sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, and terrestrial biosphere that arise after a certain global temperature increase. Eighteen out of 37 events occur for global warming levels of less than 2°, a threshold sometimes presented as a safe limit. Although most models predict one or more such events, any specific occurrence typically appears in only a few models. We find no compelling evidence for a general relation between the overall number of abrupt shifts and the level of global warming. However, we do note that abrupt changes in ocean circulation occur more often for moderate warming (less than 2°), whereas over land they occur more often for warming larger than 2°. Using a basic proportion test, however, we find that the number of abrupt shifts identified in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios is significantly larger than in other scenarios of lower radiative forcing. This suggests the potential for a gradual trend of destabilization of the climate with respect to such shifts, due to increasing global mean temperature change.

  9. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  10. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.Themore » project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.« less

  11. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to fishing...

  12. Initial experience with the Cardiva Boomerang vascular closure device in diagnostic catheterization.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Brendan J; Godfrey, Michael J; Lennon, Ryan J; Ryan, James L; Bresnahan, John F; Rihal, Charanjit S; Ting, Henry H

    2007-02-01

    The authors studied the safety and efficacy of the Cardiva Boomerang vascular closure device in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Conventional vascular closure devices (sutures, collagen plugs, or metal clips) have been associated with catastrophic complications including arterial occlusion and foreign body infections; furthermore, they cannot be utilized in patients with peripheral vascular disease or vascular access site in a vessel other than the common femoral artery. The Cardiva Boomerang device facilitates vascular hemostasis without leaving any foreign body behind at the access site, can be used in peripheral vascular disease, and can be used in vessels other than the common femoral artery A total of 96 patients undergoing transfemoral diagnostic cardiac catheterization were included in this study, including 25 (26%) patients with contraindications to conventional closure devices. Femoral angiography was performed prior to deployment of the Cardiva Boomerang closure device. Patients were ambulated at 1 hr after hemostasis was achieved. The device was successfully deployed and hemostasis achieved with the device alone in 95 (99%) patients. The device failed to deploy in 1 (1%) patient and required conversion to standard manual compression. Minor complications were observed in 5 (5%) patients. No patients experienced major complications including femoral hematoma > 4 cm, red blood cell transfusion, retroperitoneal bleed, arteriovenous fistula, pseudoaneurysm, infection, arterial occlusion, or vascular surgery. The Cardiva Boomerang device is safe and effective in patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization using the transfemoral approach, facilitating early ambulation with low rates of vascular complications. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Partin, J W; Quinn, T M; Shen, C-C; Okumura, Y; Cardenas, M B; Siringan, F P; Banner, J L; Lin, K; Hu, H-M; Taylor, F W

    2015-09-02

    Proxy records of temperature from the Atlantic clearly show that the Younger Dryas was an abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation, but records of hydroclimate are underutilized in defining the event. Here we combine a new hydroclimate record from Palawan, Philippines, in the tropical Pacific, with previously published records to highlight a difference between hydroclimate and temperature responses to the Younger Dryas. Although the onset and termination are synchronous across the records, tropical hydroclimate changes are more gradual (>100 years) than the abrupt (10-100 years) temperature changes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt recovery of Greenland temperatures likely reflects changes in regional sea ice extent. Proxy data and transient climate model simulations support the hypothesis that freshwater forced a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thereby causing the Younger Dryas. However, changes in ocean overturning may not produce the same effects globally as in Greenland.

  14. Conclusive evidence of abrupt coagulation inside the void during cyclic nanoparticle formation in reactive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wetering, F. M. J. H. van de; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.

    2016-07-25

    In this letter, we present scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results that confirm in a direct way our earlier explanation of an abrupt coagulation event as the cause for the void hiccup. In a recent paper, we reported on the fast and interrupted expansion of voids in a reactive dusty argon–acetylene plasma. The voids appeared one after the other, each showing a peculiar, though reproducible, behavior of successive periods of fast expansion, abrupt contraction, and continued expansion. The abrupt contraction was termed “hiccup” and was related to collective coagulation of a new generation of nanoparticles growing in the void using relativelymore » indirect methods: electron density measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. In this letter, we present conclusive evidence using SEM of particles collected at different moments in time spanning several growth cycles, which enables us to follow the nanoparticle formation process in great detail.« less

  15. Revealing Abrupt and Spontaneous Ruptures of Protein Native Structure under picoNewton Compressive Force Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S Roy; Cao, Jin; He, Yufan; Lu, H Peter

    2018-03-27

    Manipulating protein conformations for exploring protein structure-function relationship has shown great promise. Although protein conformational changes under pulling force manipulation have been extensively studied, protein conformation changes under a compressive force have not been explored quantitatively. The latter is even more biologically significant and relevant in revealing protein functions in living cells associated with protein crowdedness, distribution fluctuations, and cell osmotic stress. Here we report our experimental observations on abrupt ruptures of protein native structures under compressive force, demonstrated and studied by single-molecule AFM-FRET spectroscopic nanoscopy. Our results show that the protein ruptures are abrupt and spontaneous events occurred when the compressive force reaches a threshold of 12-75 pN, a force amplitude accessible from thermal fluctuations in a living cell. The abrupt ruptures are sensitive to local environment, likely a general and important pathway of protein unfolding in living cells.

  16. High-resolution Greenland ice core data show abrupt climate change happens in few years.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Andersen, Katrine K; Bigler, Matthias; Clausen, Henrik B; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fischer, Hubertus; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hansson, Margareta; Johnsen, Sigfús J; Jouzel, Jean; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Popp, Trevor; Rasmussen, Sune O; Röthlisberger, Regine; Ruth, Urs; Stauffer, Bernhard; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie-Louise; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Arny E; Svensson, Anders; White, James W C

    2008-08-01

    The last two abrupt warmings at the onset of our present warm interglacial period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cooling event, were investigated at high temporal resolution from the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. The deuterium excess, a proxy of Greenland precipitation moisture source, switched mode within 1 to 3 years over these transitions and initiated a more gradual change (over 50 years) of the Greenland air temperature, as recorded by stable water isotopes. The onsets of both abrupt Greenland warmings were slightly preceded by decreasing Greenland dust deposition, reflecting the wetting of Asian deserts. A northern shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone could be the trigger of these abrupt shifts of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, resulting in changes of 2 to 4 kelvin in Greenland moisture source temperature from one year to the next.

  17. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  18. Abrupt Climate Change: the View from the Past, the Present and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is changing as humans put more and more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. With CO2 levels today around 400ppm, we are clearly committed to far more climate change, both in the near term, and well beyond our children's future. A key question is how that change will occur. Abrupt climate changes are those that exceed our expectations, preparedness, and ability to adapt. Such changes challenge us economically, physically, and socially. This talk will draw upon results from ice core research over the past twenty years, as well as a new NRC report on abrupt climate change in order to address abrupt change, as seen in the past in ice cores, as seen today in key environmental systems upon which humans depend, and what is may be coming in the future.

  19. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  2. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after removing...

  3. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  4. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit ismore » clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.« less

  5. Reactor vessel annealing system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Phillip E.; Katz, Leonoard R.; Nath, Raymond J.; Blaushild, Ronald M.; Tatch, Michael D.; Kordalski, Frank J.; Wykstra, Donald T.; Kavalkovich, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

  6. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... that apply to landfills (§ 264.310). (c)(1) The owner or operator of a waste pile that does not comply...(c) or § 264.251(b), must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the pile under § 264.112 both a plan...

  7. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  8. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the requirements... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after...

  9. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  10. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  11. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  12. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.280 Closure and post-closure care. (a) During the closure period the owner or...

  13. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  14. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-10-06

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of themore » LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted.« less

  15. Abrupt Change of the Transboundary Runoff and Its Influence on Water Security of Lanstang-Mekong River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Y. F.; Xie, P.; Ziyi, W.; Jiangyan, Z.; Qianjin, D.; Xu, L.

    2017-12-01

    As a significant manifestation of hydrological variability, abrupt change will obviously impact on the water security. To analyze what does the variation bring under changing environment, abrupt change detection should be a basic task, as well as variation level evaluation and hydrological frequency analysis. However, there lacks an effective method to reach those purposes systematically. Here we derived correlation coefficient between the original series and the jump-component series which is related to the difference degree of mean value before and after the abrupt change. Based on it, we proposed the moving-correlation-coefficient-based detection method and evaluated the significance of abrupt change as different levels related to the value of correlation coefficient. Then, with the obtained results, we calculated hydrological frequency in different situation (before and after the abrupt change). The approach above was employed to investigate the transboundary runoff of Lanstang-Mekong River at some kinds of time scale. We obtained the abrupt changes from runoff series of year, flood season and dry season which are almost the same. All the abrupt changes were significant which could reach to the moderate level. Compared with the past situation (before the abrupt change), the hydrological frequency in the current situation (after the abrupt change) indicated the water security of the water supply and flood control in the lower reaches of Lanstang-Mekong River could be guaranteed better, which is owed to the construction and operation of the water conservancy projects on the upper Lanstang-Mekong River.

  16. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  17. Color Doppler imaging of the retrobulbar vessels in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Pauk-Domańska, Magdalena; Walasik-Szemplińska, Dorota

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose level due to impaired insulin secretion and activity. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to functional disorders of numerous organs and to their damage. Vascular lesions belong to the most common late complications of diabetes. Microangiopathic lesions can be found in the eyeball, kidneys and nervous system. Macroangiopathy is associated with coronary and peripheral vessels. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microangiopathic complication characterized by closure of slight retinal blood vessels and their permeability. Despite intensive research, the pathomechanism that leads to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood. The examinations used in assessing diabetic retinopathy usually involve imaging of the vessels in the eyeball and the retina. Therefore, the examinations include: fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography of the retina, B-mode ultrasound imaging, perimetry and digital retinal photography. There are many papers that discuss the correlations between retrobulbar circulation alterations and progression of diabetic retinopathy based on Doppler sonography. Color Doppler imaging is a non-invasive method enabling measurements of blood flow velocities in small vessels of the eyeball. The most frequently assessed vessels include: the ophthalmic artery, which is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, as well as the central retinal vein and artery, and the posterior ciliary arteries. The analysis of hemodynamic alterations in the retrobulbar vessels may deliver important information concerning circulation in diabetes and help to answer the question whether there is a relation between the progression of diabetic retinopathy and the changes observed in blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball. This paper presents the overview of literature regarding studies on blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball in patients with diabetic

  18. Dawning of the N =32 Shell Closure Seen through Precision Mass Measurements of Neutron-Rich Titanium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leistenschneider, E.; Reiter, M. P.; Ayet San Andrés, S.; Kootte, B.; Holt, J. D.; Navrátil, P.; Babcock, C.; Barbieri, C.; Barquest, B. R.; Bergmann, J.; Bollig, J.; Brunner, T.; Dunling, E.; Finlay, A.; Geissel, H.; Graham, L.; Greiner, F.; Hergert, H.; Hornung, C.; Jesch, C.; Klawitter, R.; Lan, Y.; Lascar, D.; Leach, K. G.; Lippert, W.; McKay, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Schwenk, A.; Short, D.; Simonis, J.; Somà, V.; Steinbrügge, R.; Stroberg, S. R.; Thompson, R.; Wieser, M. E.; Will, C.; Yavor, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Dickel, T.; Dillmann, I.; Gwinner, G.; Plaß, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Dilling, J.

    2018-02-01

    A precision mass investigation of the neutron-rich titanium isotopes Ti-5551 was performed at TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). The range of the measurements covers the N =32 shell closure, and the overall uncertainties of the Ti-5552 mass values were significantly reduced. Our results conclusively establish the existence of the weak shell effect at N =32 , narrowing down the abrupt onset of this shell closure. Our data were compared with state-of-the-art ab initio shell model calculations which, despite very successfully describing where the N =32 shell gap is strong, overpredict its strength and extent in titanium and heavier isotones. These measurements also represent the first scientific results of TITAN using the newly commissioned multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer, substantiated by independent measurements from TITAN's Penning trap mass spectrometer.

  19. Slowing down as an early warning signal for abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Dakos, Vasilis; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H; Brovkin, Victor; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Held, Hermann

    2008-09-23

    In the Earth's history, periods of relatively stable climate have often been interrupted by sharp transitions to a contrasting state. One explanation for such events of abrupt change is that they happened when the earth system reached a critical tipping point. However, this remains hard to prove for events in the remote past, and it is even more difficult to predict if and when we might reach a tipping point for abrupt climate change in the future. Here, we analyze eight ancient abrupt climate shifts and show that they were all preceded by a characteristic slowing down of the fluctuations starting well before the actual shift. Such slowing down, measured as increased autocorrelation, can be mathematically shown to be a hallmark of tipping points. Therefore, our results imply independent empirical evidence for the idea that past abrupt shifts were associated with the passing of critical thresholds. Because the mechanism causing slowing down is fundamentally inherent to tipping points, it follows that our way to detect slowing down might be used as a universal early warning signal for upcoming catastrophic change. Because tipping points in ecosystems and other complex systems are notoriously hard to predict in other ways, this is a promising perspective.

  20. Slowing down as an early warning signal for abrupt climate change

    PubMed Central

    Dakos, Vasilis; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H.; Brovkin, Victor; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Held, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    In the Earth's history, periods of relatively stable climate have often been interrupted by sharp transitions to a contrasting state. One explanation for such events of abrupt change is that they happened when the earth system reached a critical tipping point. However, this remains hard to prove for events in the remote past, and it is even more difficult to predict if and when we might reach a tipping point for abrupt climate change in the future. Here, we analyze eight ancient abrupt climate shifts and show that they were all preceded by a characteristic slowing down of the fluctuations starting well before the actual shift. Such slowing down, measured as increased autocorrelation, can be mathematically shown to be a hallmark of tipping points. Therefore, our results imply independent empirical evidence for the idea that past abrupt shifts were associated with the passing of critical thresholds. Because the mechanism causing slowing down is fundamentally inherent to tipping points, it follows that our way to detect slowing down might be used as a universal early warning signal for upcoming catastrophic change. Because tipping points in ecosystems and other complex systems are notoriously hard to predict in other ways, this is a promising perspective. PMID:18787119

  1. Abrupt Strategy Change Underlies Gradual Performance Change: Bayesian Hierarchical Models of Component and Aggregate Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynton, Sarah K. A.; Anglim, Jeromy

    2017-01-01

    While researchers have often sought to understand the learning curve in terms of multiple component processes, few studies have measured and mathematically modeled these processes on a complex task. In particular, there remains a need to reconcile how abrupt changes in strategy use can co-occur with gradual changes in task completion time. Thus,…

  2. Acceptable Risk Analysis for Abrupt Environmental Pollution Accidents in Zhangjiakou City, China.

    PubMed

    Du, Xi; Zhang, Zhijiao; Dong, Lei; Liu, Jing; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Liu, Renzhi

    2017-04-20

    Abrupt environmental pollution accidents cause considerable damage worldwide to the ecological environment, human health, and property. The concept of acceptable risk aims to answer whether or not a given environmental pollution risk exceeds a societally determined criterion. This paper presents a case study on acceptable environmental pollution risk conducted through a questionnaire survey carried out between August and October 2014 in five representative districts and two counties of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, China. Here, environmental risk primarily arises from accidental water pollution, accidental air pollution, and tailings dam failure. Based on 870 valid questionnaires, demographic and regional differences in public attitudes towards abrupt environmental pollution risks were analyzed, and risk acceptance impact factors determined. The results showed females, people between 21-40 years of age, people with higher levels of education, public servants, and people with higher income had lower risk tolerance. People with lower perceived risk, low-level risk knowledge, high-level familiarity and satisfaction with environmental management, and without experience of environmental accidents had higher risk tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that public satisfaction with environmental management was the most significant factor in risk acceptance, followed by perceived risk of abrupt air pollution, occupation, perceived risk of tailings dam failure, and sex. These findings should be helpful to local decision-makers concerned with environmental risk management (e.g., selecting target groups for effective risk communication) in the context of abrupt environmental accidents.

  3. Turbulent Swirling Flow Downstream of an Abrupt Pipe Expansion -- Modeling and Experimental Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    aerospace engineering um~Ŕ" eqe~vswse 0engiee amp snry stem englnerlag. enI~e so ISaCW , meterI scienc Turbulent Swirling Flow Dowstreas of an Abrupt...With the horizontal test section and circumferentially local measurements, the extent of the influence of gravity -induced convection can be determined

  4. State survey of medical boards regarding abrupt loss of a prescriber of controlled substances.

    PubMed

    Sera, Leah; Brown, Micke; McPherson, Mary Lynn; Walker, Kathryn A; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate states' experiences with abrupt changes in controlled substances (CS) prescribing, to determine whether states have action plans in place to manage such situations, and describe the components of any such plans. A survey of executive directors of 51 medical boards was conducted to evaluate states' experiences with abrupt changes in CS prescribing, the extent of consumer complaints attributed to these events, and the types of plans in place to manage these situations. Forty-six executive directors of medical boards responded. Twenty boards (43.5 percent) confirmed that their state had experienced abrupt loss of CS providers and 11 (55 percent) of these executive directors indicated that the loss resulted in increased consumer complaints. The majority of executive directors (86 percent) had no action plan. Six executive directors reported some type of action plan or process consisting of regulatory action, patient-provider connection, professional education, patient education, or public notice. Most states do not have operational plans in place. However, a few have key strategies that may be useful in addressing potential problems following abrupt loss of a CS prescriber. State medical boards can play a significant role in the development of comprehensive preparedness plans to mitigate damage from the loss of CS prescribers in the community.

  5. Extensive wildfires, climate change, and an abrupt state change in subalpine ribbon forests, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Calder, W John; Shuman, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Ecosystems may shift abruptly when the effects of climate change and disturbance interact, and landscapes with regularly patterned vegetation may be especially vulnerable to abrupt shifts. Here we use a fossil pollen record from a regularly patterned ribbon forest (alternating bands of forests and meadows) in Colorado to examine whether past changes in wildfire and climate produced abrupt vegetation shifts. Comparing the percentages of conifer pollen with sedimentary δ 18 O data (interpreted as an indicator of temperature or snow accumulation) indicates a first-order linear relationship between vegetation composition and climate change with no detectable lags over the past 2,500 yr (r = 0.55, P < 0.001). Additionally, however, we find that the vegetation changed abruptly within a century of extensive wildfires, which were recognized in a previous study to have burned approximately 80% of the surrounding 1,000 km 2 landscape 1,000 yr ago when temperatures rose ~0.5°C. The vegetation change was larger than expected from the effects of climate change alone. Pollen assemblages changed from a composition associated with closed subalpine forests to one similar to modern ribbon forests. Fossil pollen assemblages then remained like those from modern ribbon forests for the following ~1,000 yr, providing a clear example of how extensive disturbances can trigger persistent new vegetation states and alter how vegetation responds to climate. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Acceptable Risk Analysis for Abrupt Environmental Pollution Accidents in Zhangjiakou City, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xi; Zhang, Zhijiao; Dong, Lei; Liu, Jing; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Liu, Renzhi

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt environmental pollution accidents cause considerable damage worldwide to the ecological environment, human health, and property. The concept of acceptable risk aims to answer whether or not a given environmental pollution risk exceeds a societally determined criterion. This paper presents a case study on acceptable environmental pollution risk conducted through a questionnaire survey carried out between August and October 2014 in five representative districts and two counties of Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, China. Here, environmental risk primarily arises from accidental water pollution, accidental air pollution, and tailings dam failure. Based on 870 valid questionnaires, demographic and regional differences in public attitudes towards abrupt environmental pollution risks were analyzed, and risk acceptance impact factors determined. The results showed females, people between 21–40 years of age, people with higher levels of education, public servants, and people with higher income had lower risk tolerance. People with lower perceived risk, low-level risk knowledge, high-level familiarity and satisfaction with environmental management, and without experience of environmental accidents had higher risk tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that public satisfaction with environmental management was the most significant factor in risk acceptance, followed by perceived risk of abrupt air pollution, occupation, perceived risk of tailings dam failure, and sex. These findings should be helpful to local decision-makers concerned with environmental risk management (e.g., selecting target groups for effective risk communication) in the context of abrupt environmental accidents. PMID:28425956

  7. [Smoking abstinence rate and its associated factors between abrupt and gradual smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Hao, R; Zhou, J P; Ni, L; Li, Q Y; Shi, G C

    2017-12-12

    Objective: To analyze and compare the abstinence rate of smoking quitting methods and its associated factors between abrupt and gradual smoking cessation in smokers with drug-based therapy. Methods: A prospective clinical study was conducted in patients undergoing quitting smoking intervention in Ruijin Hospital smoking cessation clinic between June 2013 and May 2016. All the subjects were randomized in a 1∶1 ratio into the abrupt smoking cessation group (smoking as usual over 3 weeks before a planned quit day, and then stopping smoking abruptly) and the gradual smoking cessation group (gradually reducing tobacco use over 3 weeks before a planned quit day, and then stopping smoking totally). The primary outcome was the complete abstinence rate, and the secondary outcomes included 1-month, 3-month and 6 month 7-day point prevalence of abstinence rates and 3 month sustained abstinence rates. Changes of body weight and drug adverse events were also compared. Results: A total of 314 moderate to severe nicotine-dependent patients were admitted in the study, including 157 patients in the abrupt smoking cessation and 157 patients in the gradual smoking cessation group. Fourteen patients fell off during the follow-up. For the complete abstinence rate, the gradual smoking cessation group was higher than the abrupt smoking cessation group(55.0% vs . 36.9%, χ(2)=9.841, P =0.002) .For 7-d smoking abstinence rate in the 1st, 3rd, 6th month, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (all P >0.05). As for the 3-month sustained abstinence rate, a higher smoking quitting rate was seen in the gradual smoking cessation group compared to the abrupt smoking cessation group in the 6-month follow-up (17.9% vs .8.7%, χ(2)=5.441, P =0.020). The adverse drug reaction incidence was higher in the abrupt smoking cessation group than the gradual smoking cessation group (Gastrointestinal discomfort: 39.2% vs . 17.7%, χ(2)=12.336, P =0.000; Dreaminess: 40.2% vs . 13.3%, χ(2

  8. 50 CFR 622.43 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following closure restrictions apply (See § 622.49 for closure provisions when an ACL is reached or... quota specified in § 622.42, or the ACL specified in 622.49, being reached and subsequent data indicate that the quota or ACL was not reached, the Assistant Administrator may file a notification to that...

  9. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... following ways: (a) By the owners and operators who took the UST system out of service; (b) By the current... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.74 Closure records. Owners and operators must maintain...

  10. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using commonly... the total capacity of the UST system, remain in the system. (b) When an UST system is temporarily...

  11. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using commonly... the total capacity of the UST system, remain in the system. (b) When an UST system is temporarily...

  12. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using commonly... the total capacity of the UST system, remain in the system. (b) When an UST system is temporarily...

  13. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following ways: (a) By the owners and operators who took the UST system out of service; (b) By the current... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.74 Closure records. Owners and operators must maintain...

  14. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following ways: (a) By the owners and operators who took the UST system out of service; (b) By the current... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.74 Closure records. Owners and operators must maintain...

  15. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using commonly... the total capacity of the UST system, remain in the system. (b) When an UST system is temporarily...

  16. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... following ways: (a) By the owners and operators who took the UST system out of service; (b) By the current... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.74 Closure records. Owners and operators must maintain...

  17. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using commonly... the total capacity of the UST system, remain in the system. (b) When an UST system is temporarily...

  18. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... following ways: (a) By the owners and operators who took the UST system out of service; (b) By the current... STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.74 Closure records. Owners and operators must maintain...

  19. 50 CFR 635.28 - Fishery closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... closure, NMFS will also take into consideration the criteria specified in § 635.27(a)(8). (b) Sharks—(1... this section, when NMFS calculates that the landings for the shark species management group, as... of closure for that shark species, shark management group, and/or region that will be effective no...

  20. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    PubMed

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  1. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    PubMed

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  2. School Closures in Rural Finnish Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autti, Outi; Hyry-Beihammer, Eeva Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    The network of small rural schools in Finland has been radically weakened since the global recession of the 1990s. This article focuses on the social role of rural schools and the phenomenon of school closures. Our aim is to look at rural schools from the viewpoint of local residents and examine how they experience school closures. We seek to hear…

  3. 50 CFR 635.28 - Fishery closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishery closures. 635.28 Section 635.28 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.28 Fishery closures. (a...

  4. 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2005 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission is proud to present its Final Report for your consideration. As required by law, the Commission thoroughly and objectively reviewed the domestic installation closure and realignment recommendations proposed by the Secretary of Defense on May 13, 2005.

  5. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  6. Abrupt strategy change underlies gradual performance change: Bayesian hierarchical models of component and aggregate strategy use.

    PubMed

    Wynton, Sarah K A; Anglim, Jeromy

    2017-10-01

    While researchers have often sought to understand the learning curve in terms of multiple component processes, few studies have measured and mathematically modeled these processes on a complex task. In particular, there remains a need to reconcile how abrupt changes in strategy use can co-occur with gradual changes in task completion time. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the degree to which strategy change was abrupt or gradual, and whether strategy aggregation could partially explain gradual performance change. It also aimed to show how Bayesian methods could be used to model the effect of practice on strategy use. To achieve these aims, 162 participants completed 15 blocks of practice on a complex computer-based task-the Wynton-Anglim booking (WAB) task. The task allowed for multiple component strategies (i.e., memory retrieval, information reduction, and insight) that could also be aggregated to a global measure of strategy use. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to compare abrupt and gradual functions of component and aggregate strategy use. Task completion time was well-modeled by a power function, and global strategy use explained substantial variance in performance. Change in component strategy use tended to be abrupt, whereas change in global strategy use was gradual and well-modeled by a power function. Thus, differential timing of component strategy shifts leads to gradual changes in overall strategy efficiency, and this provides one reason for why smooth learning curves can co-occur with abrupt changes in strategy use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which transport equations are solved for scalar variables, such as the turbulent kinetic energy, a timescale, or a measure of anisotropy. Algebraic constitutive representations are reviewed for their role in relating scalar closures to the Reynolds stress tensor. Seamless and nonzonal methods, which invoke a single closure model, are reviewed, especially detached eddy simulation (DES) and adaptive DES. Other topics surveyed include data-driven modeling and intermittency and laminar fluctuation models for transition prediction. The review concludes with an outlook.

  8. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  9. Effect of transcatheter closure of baffle leaks following senning or mustard atrial redirection surgery on oxygen saturations and polycythaemia.

    PubMed

    Bentham, James; English, Kate; Hares, Dominic; Gibbs, John; Thomson, John

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical importance and methods of transcatheter closure of systemic venous baffle leaks after atrial redirection procedures for transposed great vessels. Until the late 1970s, atrial redirection surgery was the principal surgical palliative approach to manage transposed great vessels. Baffle leaks are among the many long-term complications of this type of surgery, and their prevalence increases over time. The clinical consequences of baffle leaks in this population are poorly understood, and the indications for closure are incompletely defined. During outpatient follow-up of 126 patients after atrial redirection surgery, 15 baffle leaks were detected in 11 patients. All underwent transcatheter closure using either an occluding device or a covered stent if there was concomitant baffle obstruction. The average age at the time of the procedure was 26 years (range 6 to 42). Ten of 11 patients were cyanosed at rest or on a simple walk test (median oxygen saturation level 80%, range 65% to 96%). Six of 11 patients were polycythemic before leak closure (median hemoglobin concentration 19 g/dl, range 13.8 to 23). After closure, there was a significant improvement in saturation (median 97%, p <0.0001) and a significant reduction in hemoglobin concentration at 6 months after the procedure (median 14.8 g/dl, p <0.05). There were no procedural adverse events. One patient experienced late device embolization necessitating surgical removal. In conclusion, transcatheter closure of baffle leaks is a technically feasible although frequently complex and lengthy procedure. Closure is associated with an improvement in oxygen saturations and a reduction in polycythaemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  11. Factors associated with increasing nursing home closures.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John; Lave, Judith; Fisher, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    We determine the rate of nursing home closures for 7 years (1999-2005) and examine internal (e.g., quality), organizational (e.g., chain membership), and external (e.g., competition) factors associated with these closures. The names of the closed facilities and dates of closure from state regulators in all 50 states were obtained. This information was linked to the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data, which contains information on internal, organizational, and market factors for almost all nursing homes in the United States. One thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine facilities closed over this time period (1999-2005). The average annual rate of closure was about 2 percent of facilities, but the rate of closure was found to be increasing. Nursing homes with higher rates of deficiency citations, hospital-based facilities, chain members, small bed size, and facilities located in markets with high levels of competition were more likely to close. High Medicaid occupancy rates were associated with a high likelihood of closure, especially for facilities with low Medicaid reimbursement rates. As states actively debate about how to redistribute long-term care services/dollars, our findings show that they should be cognizant of the potential these decisions have for facilitating nursing home closures.

  12. Analytic closures for M1 neutrino transport

    DOE PAGES

    Murchikova, E. M.; Abdikamalov, E.; Urbatsch, T.

    2017-04-25

    Carefully accounting for neutrino transport is an essential component of many astrophysical studies. Solving the full transport equation is too expensive for most realistic applications, especially those involving multiple spatial dimensions. For such cases, resorting to approximations is often the only viable option for obtaining solutions. One such approximation, which recently became popular, is the M1 method. It utilizes the system of the lowest two moments of the transport equation and closes the system with an ad hoc closure relation. The accuracy of the M1 solution depends on the quality of the closure. Several closures have been proposed in themore » literature and have been used in various studies. We carry out an extensive study of these closures by comparing the results of M1 calculations with precise Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation field around spherically symmetric protoneutron star models. We find that no closure performs consistently better or worse than others in all cases. The level of accuracy that a given closure yields depends on the matter configuration, neutrino type and neutrino energy. As a result, given this limitation, the maximum entropy closure by Minerbo on average yields relatively accurate results in the broadest set of cases considered in this work.« less

  13. Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury.

    PubMed

    Eliya-Masamba, Martha C; Banda, Grace W

    2013-10-22

    Acute traumatic wounds are one of the common reasons why people present to the emergency department. Primary closure has traditionally been reserved for traumatic wounds presenting within six hours of injury and considered 'clean' by the attending surgeon, with the rest undergoing delayed primary closure as a means of controlling wound infection. Primary closure has the potential benefit of rapid wound healing but poses the potential threat of increased wound infection. There is currently no evidence to guide clinical decision-making on the best timing for closure of traumatic wounds. To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. In May 2013, for this first update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials comparing primary closure with delayed closure of non bite traumatic wounds. Two review authors independently evaluated the results of the searches against the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Since no studies met the inclusion criteria, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There is currently no systematic evidence to guide clinical decision-making regarding the timing for closure of traumatic wounds. There is a need for robust research to investigate the effect of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours of injury.

  14. Risk of fetal death associated with maternal drug dependence and placental abruption: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah D; Vermeulen, Marian J; Ray, Joel G

    2007-07-01

    Substance use in pregnancy is associated with placental abruption, but the risk of fetal death independent of abruption remains undetermined. Our objective was to examine the effect of maternal drug dependence on placental abruption and on fetal death in association with abruption and independent of it. To examine placental abruption and fetal death, we performed a retrospective population-based study of 1 854 463 consecutive deliveries of liveborn and stillborn infants occurring between January 1, 1995 and March 31, 2001, using the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. Maternal drug dependence was associated with a tripling of the risk of placental abruption in singleton pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.6-3.7), but not in multiple gestations (adjusted OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.12-6.4). Maternal drug dependence was associated with an increased risk of fetal death independent of abruption (adjusted OR 1.6: 95% CI 1.1-2.2) in singleton pregnancies, but not in multiples. Risk of fetal death was increased with placental abruption in both singleton and multiple gestations, even after controlling for drug dependence (adjusted OR 11.4 in singleton pregnancy; 95% CI 10.6-12.2, and 3.4 in multiple pregnancy; 95% CI 2.4-4.9). Maternal drug use is associated with an increased risk of intrauterine fetal death independent of placental abruption. In singleton pregnancies, maternal drug dependence is associated with an increased risk of placental abruption.

  15. High pressure storage vessel

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  16. Blood Vessels in Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Abrahimi, P; Liu, R; Pober, J S

    2015-07-01

    Human vascularized allografts are perfused through blood vessels composed of cells (endothelium, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells) that remain largely of graft origin and are thus subject to host alloimmune responses. Graft vessels must be healthy to maintain homeostatic functions including control of perfusion, maintenance of permselectivity, prevention of thrombosis, and participation in immune surveillance. Vascular cell injury can cause dysfunction that interferes with these processes. Graft vascular cells can be activated by mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to participate in graft inflammation contributing to both ischemia/reperfusion injury and allograft rejection. Different forms of rejection may affect graft vessels in different ways, ranging from thrombosis and neutrophilic inflammation in hyperacute rejection, to endothelialitis/intimal arteritis and fibrinoid necrosis in acute cell-mediated or antibody-mediated rejection, respectively, and to diffuse luminal stenosis in chronic rejection. While some current therapies targeting the host immune system do affect graft vascular cells, direct targeting of the graft vasculature may create new opportunities for preventing allograft injury and loss. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Vessel-to-Reef Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using vessels as artificial reefs is an option for disposal. Artificial reefs serve to benefit the environment. Vessel-to-reef projects can follow the best management practices guidance. Guidance are provided for how to clean up vessels for use as reefs.

  18. CLOSURE OF LARYNGECTOMY DEFECTS IN THE AGE OF CHEMORADIATION THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.; Lin, Derrick; Wax, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    The use of chemoradiation therapy in laryngeal cancer has resulted in significant reconstructive challenges. Although reconstruction of salvage laryngectomy defects remains controversial, current literature supports aggressive management of these defects with vascularized tissue, even when there is sufficient pharyngeal tissue present for primary closure. Significant advancement in reconstructive techniques has permitted improved outcomes in patients with advanced disease who require total laryngopharyngectomy or total laryngoglossectomy. Use of enteric and fasciocutaneous flaps result in good patient outcomes. Finally, wound complication rates after salvage surgery approach 60% depending on comorbid conditions such as cardiac insufficiency, hypothyroidism, or extent of previous treatment. Neck dehiscence, great vessel exposure, fistula formation, or cervical skin necrosis results in complex wounds that can often be treated initially with negative pressure dressings followed by definitive reconstruction. The timing of repair and approach to the vessel-depleted neck also present challenges in this patient population. Currently, there is significant institutional bias in the management of the patient with postchemoradiation salvage laryngectomy. Future prospective multi-institutional studies are certainly needed to more clearly define optimal treatment of these difficult patients. PMID:21416549

  19. Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Dogs With Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Effect of Percutaneous Closure on Cardiac Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Spalla, I; Locatelli, C; Zanaboni, A M; Brambilla, P; Bussadori, C

    2016-05-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is 1 of the most common congenital heart defects in dogs and percutaneous closure is effective in achieving ductal closure; PDA closure is associated with abrupt hemodynamic changes. A marked decrease in standard parameters of systolic function as assessed by M- or B-mode echocardiography after PDA closure was identified in previous studies. Speckle tracking echocardiography can provide further insight into the effect of PDA closure on cardiac mechanics in dogs affected by PDA. Twenty-five client-owned dogs with PDA. Prospective study. Dogs were recruited over a 2-year period. Complete echocardiographic evaluation was performed before and 24 hours after PDA closure, including standard (end-diastolic volumes indexed to body surface area in B- and M-mode [EDVIB /M ], end-systolic volumes indexed to body surface area in B- and M-mode [ESVIB /M ], allometric scaling in diastole [AlloD] and systole [AlloS], pulmonary flow to systemic flow [Qs/Qp], ejection fraction [EF], and fractional shortening [FS]), and advanced speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE): global longitudinal, radial, circumferential and transverse strain (S), and strain rate (SR). Patent ductus arteriosus closure was associated with statistically significant decreases in EDVIM /B and ESVIM /B , AlloD and AlloS, SI, EF, and FS. A statistically significant decrease in the absolute values of radial, transverse, and circumferential S and SR was observed, whereas longitudinal S and SR did not change significantly. Patent ductus arteriosus closure by percutaneous approach is associated with marked decreases of conventional echocardiographic parameters as a result of the changes in loading conditions, but no evidence of systolic dysfunction was identified by means of STE, as none of the S and SR values were below reference ranges. In the short term, contractility is enhanced in the long axis (long S/SR values were not statistically different before and after closure) and

  20. Stress-induced, time-dependent fracture closure at hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeler, N. M.; Hickman, S. H.

    2004-02-01

    Time-dependent closure of fractures in quartz was measured in situ at 22-530°C temperature and 0.1-150 MPa water pressure. Unlike previous crack healing and rock permeability studies, in this study, fracture aperture is monitored directly and continuously using a windowed pressure vessel, a long-working-distance microscope, and reflected-light interferometry. Thus the fracture volume and geometry can be measured as a function of time, temperature, and water pressure. Relatively uniform closure occurs rapidly at temperatures and pressures where quartz becomes significantly soluble in water. During closure the aperture is reduced by as much as 80% in a few hours. We infer that this closure results from the dissolution of small particles or asperities that prop the fracture open. The driving force for closure via dissolution of the prop is the sum of three chemical potential terms: (1) the dissolution potential, proportional to the logarithm of the degree of undersaturation of the solution; (2) the coarsening potential, proportional to the radius of curvature of the prop; and (3) the pressure solution potential, proportional to the effective normal stress at the contact between propping particles and the fracture wall. Our observations suggest that closure is controlled by a pressure solution-like process. The aperture of dilatant fractures and microcracks in the Earth that are similar to those in our experiments, such as ones generated from thermal stressing or brittle failure during earthquake rupture and slip, will decrease rapidly with time, especially if the macroscopic stress is nonhydrostatic.

  1. Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. N.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. The period was chosen to include a high-velocity solar wind stream and low-velocity wind. Abrupt events were accepted for study if the sum of the energy density in the magnetic field and velocity changes was above a specified minimum. A statistical analysis of the events in the high-velocity solar wind stream shows that Alfvenic changes predominate. This conclusion is independent of whether steady state requirements are imposed on conditions before and after the event. Alfvenic changes do not dominate in the lower-speed wind. This study extends the plasma field evidence for outwardly propagating Alfvenic changes to time scales as small as 1 min (scale lengths on the order of 20,000 km).

  2. Abrupt GaP/Si hetero-interface using bistepped Si buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Wang, Y., E-mail: yanping.wang@insa-rennes.fr; Kuyyalil, J.; Nguyen Thanh, T.

    We evidence the influence of the quality of the starting Si surface on the III-V/Si interface abruptness and on the formation of defects during the growth of III-V/Si heterogeneous crystal, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. GaP layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal Si (001). The strong effect of the Si substrate chemical preparation is first demonstrated by studying structural properties of both Si homoepitaxial layer and GaP/Si heterostructure. It is then shown that choosing adequate chemical preparation conditions and subsequent III-V regrowth conditions enables the quasi-suppression of micro-twins in the epilayer.more » Finally, the abruptness of GaP/Si interface is found to be very sensitive to the Si chemical preparation and is improved by the use of a bistepped Si buffer prior to III-V overgrowth.« less

  3. Globally synchronous ice core volcanic tracers and abrupt cooling during the last glacial period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bay, R.C.; Bramall, N.E.; Price, P.B.; Clow, G.D.; Hawley, R.L.; Udisti, R.; Castellano, E.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo pattern recognition analysis of the coincidence between three regional volcanic histories from ice coring of Greenland and Antarctica over the period 2 to 45 ka, using SO4 anomalies in Greenland and East Antarctica determined by continuous core chemistry, together with West Antarctic volcanic ash layers determined by remote optical borehole logging and core assays. We find that the Antarctic record of volcanism correlates with Glacial abrupt climate change at a 95% to >99.8% (???3??) significance level and that volcanic depositions at the three locations match at levels exceeding 3??, likely indicating that many common horizons represent single eruptive events which dispersed material world wide. These globally coincident volcanics were associated with abrupt cooling, often simultaneous with onsets or sudden intensifications of millennial cold periods. The striking agreement between sites implies that the consistency of current timescales obtained by isotopic and glaciological dating methods is better than estimated. Copyright 2006 by the American Geogphysical Union.

  4. Observation of an abrupt electron heating mode transition in capacitive single radio frequency discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Sebastian; Trieschmann, Jan; Schulze, Julian; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Derzsi, Aranka; Korolov, Ihor; Donkó, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The electron heating in capacitive discharges at very low pressures (~1 Pa) is dominated by stochastic heating. In this regime electrons are accelerated by the oscillating sheaths, traverse through the plasma bulk and interact with the opposite sheath. By varying the driving frequency or the gap size of the discharge, energetic electrons reach the sheath edge at different temporal phases, i.e., the collapsing or expanding phase, or the moment of minimum sheath width. This work reports numerical experiments based on Particle-In-Cell simulations which show that at certain frequencies the discharge switches abruptly from a low density mode in a high density mode. The inverse transition is also abrupt, but shows a significant hysteresis. This behavior is explained by the complex interaction of the bulk and the sheath. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation in the frame of TRR 87.

  5. Tunable thulium-doped fiber laser based on an abrupt-tapered in-fiber interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Arriaga, M. V.; Durán-Sánchez, M.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.; Santiago-Hernández, H.; Bello-Jiménez, M.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study of an all-fiber tunable thulium-doped fiber laser based on an abrupt-tapered in-fiber interferometer is presented. A microfiber filter with length of 6 mm and diameter of 20 μm is used to achieve single laser wavelength tuning in a range of 19.4 nm and dual-wavelength laser operation at 1761.8 and 1793.4 nm with a channel spacing of 31.6 nm. The abrupt-tapered structure allows multi-modal interference at the air-cladding interface. The proposed in-fiber interferometer exhibits characteristics of low cost and simple fabrication, making it suitable for practical applications in wavelength filtering and wavelength selection in all-fiber lasers.

  6. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Beaugrand, Grégory; Edwards, Martin; Brander, Keith; Luczak, Christophe; Ibanez, Frederic

    2008-11-01

    Warming of the global climate is now unequivocal and its impact on Earth' functional units has become more apparent. Here, we show that marine ecosystems are not equally sensitive to climate change and reveal a critical thermal boundary where a small increase in temperature triggers abrupt ecosystem shifts seen across multiple trophic levels. This large-scale boundary is located in regions where abrupt ecosystem shifts have been reported in the North Atlantic sector and thereby allows us to link these shifts by a global common phenomenon. We show that these changes alter the biodiversity and carrying capacity of ecosystems and may, combined with fishing, precipitate the reduction of some stocks of Atlantic cod already severely impacted by exploitation. These findings offer a way to anticipate major ecosystem changes and to propose adaptive strategies for marine exploited resources such as cod in order to minimize social and economic consequences.

  7. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    2015-04-30

    The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle and vice versa, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2σ) for Dansgaard-Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard-Oeschger dynamics.

  8. Flow Regime Study in a High Density Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser with an Abrupt Exit

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Shadle, L.J.; Yue, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Flow regime study was conducted in a 0.3 m diameter, 15.5 m height circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser with an abrupt exit at the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. Local particle velocities were measured at various radial positions and riser heights using an optical fiber probe. On-line measurement of solid circulating rate was continuously recorded by the Spiral. Glass beads of mean diameter 61 μm and particle density of 2,500 kg/m3 were used as bed material. The CFB riser was operated at various superficial gas velocities ranging from 3 to 7.6 m/s and solid massmore » flux from 20 to 550 kg/m2-s. At a constant riser gas velocity, transition from fast fluidization to dense suspension upflow (DSU) regime started at the bottom of the riser with increasing solid flux. Except at comparatively low riser gas velocity and solid flux, the apparent solid holdup at the top exit region was higher than the middle section of the riser. The solid fraction at this top region could be much higher than 7% under high riser gas velocity and solid mass flux. The local particle velocity showed downward flow near the wall at the top of the riser due to its abrupt exit. This abrupt geometry reflected the solids and, therefore, caused solid particles traveling downward along the wall. However, at location below, but near, the top of the riser the local particle velocities were observed flowing upward at the wall. Therefore, DSU was identified in the upper region of the riser with an abrupt exit while the fully developed region, lower in the riser, was still exhibiting core-annular flow structure. Our data were compared with the flow regime boundaries proposed by Kim et al. [1] for distinguishing the dilute pneumatic transport, fast fluidization, and DSU.« less

  9. The abrupt changes in the yellowed fibril density in the Linen of Turin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V.; Fazio, G.; Mandaglio, G.

    2012-03-01

    The present investigation is an attempt to explain the abrupt changes in the yellowed fibril density (or image intensity) values in the dorsal part of the Shroud of Turin body image. The interested areas are the ones at the base of the shoulders and the buttocks. These rapid changes in the body image intensity are not anomalies of the linen manufacture. They can be explained with the original presence of aromas and/or burial ointments.

  10. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Buizert, Christo; Adrian, Betty M.; Ahn, Jinho; Albert, Mary; Alley, Richard B.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Bauska, Thomas K.; Bay, Ryan C.; Bencivengo, Brian B.; Bentley, Charles R.; Brook, Edward J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Clow, Gary D.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Conway, Howard; Cravens, Eric; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Edwards, Jon S.; Fegyveresi, John M.; Ferris, Dave G.; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Fudge, T. J.; Gibson, Chris J.; Gkinis, Vasileios; Goetz, Joshua J.; Gregory, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Geoffrey Mill; Iverson, Nels; Johnson, Jay A.; Jones, Tyler R.; Kalk, Michael L.; Kippenhan, Matthew J.; Koffman, Bess G.; Kreutz, Karl; Kuhl, Tanner W.; Lebar, Donald A.; Lee, James E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Markle, Bradley R.; Maselli, Olivia J.; McConnell, Joseph R.; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Mitchell, Logan E.; Mortensen, Nicolai B.; Neff, Peter D.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Nunn, Richard M.; Orsi, Anais J.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Pedro, Joel B.; Pettit, Erin C.; Price, P. Buford; Priscu, John C.; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Rosen, Julia L.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Schoenemann, Spruce W.; Sendelbach, Paul J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Shturmakov, Alexander J.; Sigl, Michael; Slawny, Kristina R.; Souney, Joseph M.; Sowers, Todd A.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Steig, Eric J.; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Twickler, Mark S.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; Voigt, Donald E.; Waddington, Edwin D.; Welten, Kees C.; Wendricks, Anthony W.; White, James W. C.; Winstrup, Mai; Wong, Gifford J.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard–Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives1. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard–Oeschger cycle and vice versa2, 3, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw4, 5, 6. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events7, 8, 9. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision2, 3,10. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2σ) for Dansgaard–Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard–Oeschger dynamics.

  11. Difficulty accepting lifestyle limitations after the abrupt onset of end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Strong, C; Hamel, K; Cummings-Cosgrove, M; Brown, R

    1995-07-01

    Adjustment to the lifestyle changes imposed by end-stage renal disease is particularly difficult when the onset is abrupt and unheralded. A case of atheroembolism is presented in which living situation, dietary compliance, and family involvement are particularly problematic for the dialysis staff. Discussion by team members focuses on the evolution of a reasonable disposition through diligence and persistence, recognizing the need to compromise medical indications with individual lifestyle and available family support.

  12. Abrupt treatments of hysteria during World War I, 1914-18.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Ad Sandy

    2018-06-01

    Case reports of the abrupt recovery of hysterical disorders during World War I (1914-18), though undoubtedly subject to publication bias, raise both aetiological and treatment issues regarding pseudo-neurological conversion symptoms. Published clinical anecdotes report circumstantial, psychotherapeutic, hypnotic, persuasive (and coercive) methods seemingly inducing recovery, and also responses to fright and alterations of consciousness. The ethics of modern medical practice would not allow many of these techniques, which were reported to be effective, even in the chronic cases.

  13. Additivity of abrupt onset effects supports nonspatial distraction, not the capture of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Folk, Charles L; Remington, Roger W; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2009-02-01

    In a recent article, Schreij, Owens, and Theeuwes (2008) reported that abruptly onsetting distractors produce costs in performance even when spatial-cuing effects confirm the presence of a top-down set for color. The authors argued that these results show that abruptly onsetting new objects capture attention independent of a top-down set and, thus, provide conclusive evidence against the theory that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attentional control settings (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). In the following article, we argue that, contrary to the conclusion drawn by Schreij et al., their own data (1) disconfirm the claim that their abrupt onsets captured spatial attention and (2) are consistent with nonspatial interference accounts of singleton-distractor effects. In support of the nonspatial account, we show that in a paradigm similar to Schreij et al.'s, distractors that do not capture attention can nonetheless influence responses to a target. We conclude that the results of Schreij et al. do not represent a challenge to contingent capture theory.

  14. Dissociating the capture of attention from saccade activation by subliminal abrupt onsets.

    PubMed

    Schoeberl, Tobias; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Attentional capture and effects on saccade metrics by subliminal abrupt onset cues have been studied with peripheral cues at one out of several (two to four) display locations, swiftly followed by additional onsets at the other display locations. The lead time of the cue was too short to be seen. Here, we were interested in whether such subliminal onset cues influenced saccades primarily by way of attention or by way of direct saccade activation. In separate blocks, participants made speeded pro-saccades towards a black target or anti-saccades away from the target. Prior to the targets, an abrupt onset cue was presented either at the same side as the target (valid condition) or at the opposite side (invalid condition). If cues influenced performance by way of attentional capture, we expected facilitation of target processing in valid compared to invalid conditions (cueing effect) in the pro- as well as in the anti-saccade task. If the cues activated saccades in their direction, we expected the cueing effect to drop in the anti-saccade task compared to the pro-saccade task because in the anti-saccade task the invalid cue would activate the finally required response, whereas the valid cue would activate the alternative response, leading to interference. Results were in line with the former of these possibilities suggesting that subliminal abrupt onsets influenced saccades by way of attention with no or little direct activation of saccades.

  15. Correction to: Dissociating the capture of attention from saccade activation by subliminal abrupt onsets.

    PubMed

    Schoeberl, Tobias; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Attentional capture and effects on saccade metrics by subliminal abrupt onset cues have been studied with peripheral cues at one out of several (two to four) display locations, swiftly followed by additional onsets at the other display locations. The lead time of the cue was too short to be seen. Here, we were interested in whether such subliminal onset cues influenced saccades primarily by way of attention or by way of direct saccade activation. In separate blocks, participants made speeded pro-saccades towards a black target or anti-saccades away from the target. Prior to the targets, an abrupt onset cue was presented either at the same side as the target (valid condition) or at the opposite side (invalid condition). If cues influenced performance by way of attentional capture, we expected facilitation of target processing in valid compared to invalid conditions (cueing effect) in the pro- as well as in the anti-saccade task. If the cues activated saccades in their direction, we expected the cueing effect to drop in the anti-saccade task compared to the pro-saccade task because in the anti-saccade task the invalid cue would activate the finally required response, whereas the valid cue would activate the alternative response, leading to interference. Results were in line with the former of these possibilities suggesting that subliminal abrupt onsets influenced saccades by way of attention with no or little direct activation of saccades.

  16. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364

  17. Placental Abruption and Perinatal Mortality With Preterm Delivery as a Mediator: Disentangling Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, Cande V.; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use recent methodology in causal inference to disentangle the direct and indirect effects that operate through a mediator in an exposure-response association paradigm. They demonstrate how total effects can be partitioned into direct and indirect effects even when the exposure and mediator interact. The impact of bias due to unmeasured confounding on the exposure-response association is assessed through a series of sensitivity analyses. These methods are applied to a problem in perinatal epidemiology to examine the extent to which the effect of abruption on perinatal mortality is mediated through preterm delivery. Data on over 26 million US singleton births (1995–2002) were utilized. Risks of mortality among abruption and nonabruption births were 102.7 and 6.2 per 1,000 births, respectively. Risk ratios of the natural direct and indirect (preterm delivery-mediated) effects of abruption on mortality were 10.18 (95% confidence interval: 9.80, 10.58) and 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 1.33, 1.38), respectively. The proportion of increased mortality risk mediated through preterm delivery was 28.1%, with even higher proportions associated with deliveries at earlier gestational ages. Sensitivity analyses underscore that the qualitative conclusions of some mediated effects and substantial direct effects are reasonably robust to unmeasured confounding of a fairly considerable magnitude. PMID:21430195

  18. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals.

  19. The resilience of postglacial hunter-gatherers to abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Matthews, Ian; Langdon, Pete; Langdon, Cath; Palmer, Adrian; Lincoln, Paul; Abrook, Ashley; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Bayliss, Alex; MacLeod, Alison; Deeprose, Laura; Darvill, Chris; Kearney, Rebecca; Beavan, Nancy; Staff, Richard; Bamforth, Michael; Taylor, Maisie; Milner, Nicky

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the resilience of early societies to climate change is an essential part of exploring the environmental sensitivity of human populations. There is significant interest in the role of abrupt climate events as a driver of early Holocene human activity, but there are very few well-dated records directly compared with local climate archives. Here, we present evidence from the internationally important Mesolithic site of Star Carr showing occupation during the early Holocene, which is directly compared with a high-resolution palaeoclimate record from neighbouring lake beds. We show that-once established-there was intensive human activity at the site for several hundred years when the community was subject to multiple, severe, abrupt climate events that impacted air temperatures, the landscape and the ecosystem of the region. However, these results show that occupation and activity at the site persisted regardless of the environmental stresses experienced by this society. The Star Carr population displayed a high level of resilience to climate change, suggesting that postglacial populations were not necessarily held hostage to the flickering switch of climate change. Instead, we show that local, intrinsic changes in the wetland environment were more significant in determining human activity than the large-scale abrupt early Holocene climate events.

  20. Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II

    PubMed Central

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Stenni, B.; Blunier, T.; Cattani, O.; Chappellaz, J.; Cheng, H.; Dreyfus, G.; Edwards, R. L.; Falourd, S.; Govin, A.; Kawamura, K.; Johnsen, S. J.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Lourantou, A.; Marshall, G.; Minster, B.; Mudelsee, M.; Pol, K.; Röthlisberger, R.; Selmo, E.; Waelbroeck, C.

    2010-01-01

    The deuterium excess of polar ice cores documents past changes in evaporation conditions and moisture origin. New data obtained from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C East Antarctic ice core provide new insights on the sequence of events involved in Termination II, the transition between the penultimate glacial and interglacial periods. This termination is marked by a north–south seesaw behavior, with first a slow methane concentration rise associated with a strong Antarctic temperature warming and a slow deuterium excess rise. This first step is followed by an abrupt north Atlantic warming, an abrupt resumption of the East Asian summer monsoon, a sharp methane rise, and a CO2 overshoot, which coincide within dating uncertainties with the end of Antarctic optimum. Here, we show that this second phase is marked by a very sharp Dome C centennial deuterium excess rise, revealing abrupt reorganization of atmospheric circulation in the southern Indian Ocean sector. PMID:20566887

  1. Response of the tropical Pacific to abrupt climate change 8,200 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, A. R.; Battisti, D.; Bitz, C. M.; Sachs, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The relatively stable climate of the Holocene epoch was punctuated by a period of large and abrupt climate change ca. 8,200 yr BP, when an outburst of glacial meltwater into the Labrador Sea drove large and abrupt climate changes across the globe. However, little is known about the response of the tropical Pacific to this event. We present the first evidence for large perturbations to the eastern tropical Pacific climate, based on sedimentary biomarker and hydrogen isotopic records from a freshwater lake in the Galápagos Islands. We inform these reconstructions with freshwater forcing simulations performed with the Community Climate System Model version 4. Together, the biomarker records and model simulations provide evidence for a mechanistic link between (1) a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the eastern equatorial Pacific and (2) decreased frequency and/or intensity of Eastern Pacific El Niño events during the 8,200 BP event. While climate theory and modeling studies support a southward shift of the ITCZ in response to a weakened AMOC, the dynamical drivers for the observed change in ENSO variability are less well developed. To explore these linkages, we perform simulations with an intermediate complexity model of the tropical Pacific. These results provide valuable insight into the controls of tropical Pacific climate variability and the mechanisms behind the global response to abrupt climate change.

  2. The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner.

  3. Extender for securing a closure

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  4. Landfill closure with dredged materials - desktop analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    This report describes a Rutgers University project for the New Jersey Department of : Transportation (NJDOT) designed to analyze the potential for closure of New Jersey : landfills using dredge material from existing Confined Disposal Facilities (CDF...

  5. Feasibility of lane closures using probe data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    To develop an adequate traffic operations management and congestion mitigation plan for every roadway : maintenance and construction project requiring lane closures, transportation agencies need accurate and : reliable estimates of traffic impacts as...

  6. Options for Closure of the Infected Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Chris A.; Rosenberger, Laura H.; Politano, Amani D.; Davies, Stephen W.; Riccio, Lin M.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The infected abdomen poses substantial challenges to surgeons, and often, both temporary and definitive closure techniques are required. We reviewed the options available to close the abdominal wall defect encountered frequently during and after the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Methods A comprehensive review was performed of the techniques and literature on abdominal closure in the setting of intra-abdominal infection. Results Temporary abdominal closure options include the Wittmann Patch, Bogota bag, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), the AbThera™ device, and synthetic or biologic mesh. Definitive reconstruction has been described with mesh, components separation, and autologous tissue transfer. Conclusion Reconstructing the infected abdomen, both temporarily and definitively, can be accomplished with various techniques, each of which is associated with unique advantages and disadvantages. Appropriate judgment is required to optimize surgical outcomes in these complex cases. PMID:23216525

  7. School Closure: An Answer to Declining Enrollment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Y. L. Jack

    1982-01-01

    Examining reasons for school closure such as economics and equal educational opportunity, Lam concludes that school closings only serve to highlight inefficient school board policy, ineffective funding, and declining educational quality. (SK)

  8. Systematization of a set of closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F

    2011-11-01

    Approximations in population dynamics are gaining popularity since stochastic models in large populations are time consuming even on a computer. Stochastic modeling causes an infinite set of ordinary differential equations for the moments. Closure models are useful since they recast this infinite set into a finite set of ordinary differential equations. This paper systematizes a set of closure approximations. We develop a system, which we call a power p closure of n moments, where 0≤p≤n. Keeling's (2000a,b) approximation with third order moments is shown to be an instantiation of this system which we call a power 3 closure of 3 moments. We present an epidemiological example and evaluate the system for third and fourth moments compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  10. The etiology and determinants of hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Longo, D R; Sohn, M W; Shortell, S M

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the etiology of hospital closure and the correlates of hospital closure and the extent of similarity in this organizational outcome between pre- and post-Prospective Payment System (PPS) implementation. It also replicates a study from an earlier time period. Findings support the study's main hypotheses: in more stringent and turbulent markets, institutional and strategic variables are more important determinants of hospital closure. Merger acquisitions are found to be similar to both system acquisitions and autonomous hospitals. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) status and regulation show an effect on hospital closure and merger acquisition. While many similarities exist when compared to the replicated study and findings prior to PPS implementation, it appears that sufficient differences exist to support the hypothesis that the PPS has an impact upon hospital organizational outcome.

  11. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  12. Carbon fiber internal pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Internal pressure vessels were designed; the filament was wound of carbon fibers and epoxy resin and tested to burst. The fibers used were Thornel 400, Thornel 75, and Hercules HTS. Additional vessels with type A fiber were made. Polymeric linears were used, and all burst testing was done at room temperature. The objective was to produce vessels with the highest attainable PbV/W efficiencies. The type A vessels showed the highest average efficiency: 2.56 x 10 to the 6th power cm. Next highest efficiency was with Thornel 400 vessels: 2.21 x 10 to the 6th power cm. These values compare favorably with efficiency values from good quality S-glass vessels, but strains averaged 0.97% or less, which is less than 1/3 the strain of S-glass vessels.

  13. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base closure...

  14. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base closure...

  15. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect with Occlutech Duct Occluder.

    PubMed

    Atik-Ugan, Sezen; Saltik, Irfan Levent

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus occluders are used for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects, as well as for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. The Occlutech Duct Occluder is a newly introduced device for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we present a case in which the Occlutech Duct Occluder was successfully used on a patient for the closure of a perimembraneous ventricular septal defect.

  16. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  17. Stump closure of a thick pancreas using stapler closure increases pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Manabu; Tani, Masaji; Okada, Ken-ichi; Hirono, Seiko; Miyazawa, Motoki; Shimizu, Astusi; Kitahata, Yuji; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate surgical stump closure after distal pancreatectomy (DP) is still controversial. This study investigated the benefits and risks of stapler closure during DP. The risk factors of pancreatic fistulas were investigated in 122 DPs among 3 types of stump closure: hand-sewn suture (n = 32), bipolar scissors (n = 45), and stapler closure (n = 45). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pancreatic fistula between the 3 types of stump closure (hand-sewn suture [44%] vs bipolar scissors [37.7%] vs stapler closure [35.5%]). By using receiver operating characteristics curves, 12 mm was the best cutoff value of the thickness of the pancreas for pancreatic fistulas after DP using stapler closure. Three factors (ie, male sex, body mass index >25 kg/m(2), and stapler closure) were independent risk factors of pancreatic fistulas after DP with a pancreas thicker than 12 mm. A pancreas thicker than 12 mm significantly increased the incidence of pancreatic fistulas after DP using stapler closure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    during, their training . DLI required Only 803 houising units oii thle Army students inl thle human intelligence field Annex, the post cýxchiaige arid...community also stressed the Navy did not proposes significantly reduccd closure costs by know the true cost of relocating or replicating taking...Warfare Center- Carderock, Annapolis Detachment, The Annapolis community stressed in 1991 theDefense Base Closure and Realignment Coin- Annapolis

  19. Does omphalocele major undergo spontaneous closure?

    PubMed Central

    Emordi, Victor C.; Osifo, David O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The early surgical management of omphalocele major in Africa predisposes neonates to surgical complications which are often worsened by the presence of associated anomalies. Conservative management using available escharotics results in early skin cover by secondary wound healing. This delays the need for fascial closure and avoids neonatal surgical risks thus improving survival. We present a case of omphalocele major that underwent spontaneous closure during conservative management with honey dressing without surgical intervention. PMID:28928917

  20. Tracking Vessels to Illegal Pollutant Discharges Using Multisource Vessel Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busler, J.; Wehn, H.; Woodhouse, L.

    2015-04-01

    Illegal discharge of bilge waters is a significant source of oil and other environmental pollutants in Canadian and international waters. Imaging satellites are commonly used to monitor large areas to detect oily discharges from vessels, off-shore platforms and other sources. While remotely sensed imagery provides a snap-shot picture useful for detecting a spill or the presence of vessels in the vicinity, it is difficult to directly associate a vessel to an observed spill unless the vessel is observed while the discharge is occurring. The situation then becomes more challenging with increased vessel traffic as multiple vessels may be associated with a spill event. By combining multiple sources of vessel location data, such as Automated Information Systems (AIS), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and SAR-based ship detection, with spill detections and drift models we have created a system that associates detected spill events with vessels in the area using a probabilistic model that intersects vessel tracks and spill drift trajectories in both time and space. Working with the Canadian Space Agency and the Canadian Ice Service's Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution (ISTOP) program, we use spills observed in Canadian waters to demonstrate the investigative value of augmenting spill detections with temporally sequenced vessel and spill tracking information.

  1. 75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is rescinding the trawl closure in the Chiniak Gully Research Area. This action is necessary to allow vessels using....0910091344-9056-02] RIN 0648-XT71 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research...

  2. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA704 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... apportionment of the 2011 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species...

  3. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XZ06 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... of the 2010 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species fishery...

  4. Rubber closures for freeze-dried products.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, G H

    1976-10-01

    Once a biological product has been developed to perform its required medical or pharmaceutical function, it is essential that a container-closure system by chosen which will preserve the efficacy of the product up to the point of administration. The general requirements applicable to proper closure function will be reviewed and the suitability of natural and synthetic elastomers to perform these functions will be discussed. The specialized application of elastomeric materials as closures for freeze-dried products presents additional requirements which are superimposed upon those previously discussed. The first of these unique considerations relates to the proper physical design which will permit the outgassing of water vapor during the sublimation step in the lyophilizing chamber. During this outgassing the design must also permit the closure to remain affixed in the neck while only partially inserted. Since these preparations are lyophilized because they are unstable in aqueous solutions, the elastomer used must constitute an effective barrier to the transmission of moisture vapor through the closure. The MVT and gas transmission properties of elastomers will be discussed. Special consideration will be given to the extremely low temperatures used in the sublimation, stoppering, and storage before use of lyophilized products. The phenomenon of glass transition points with different elastomers will be explained as its relation to satisfactory performance of the closure function at low temperatures.

  5. ASD Closure in Structural Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Wiktor, Dominik M; Carroll, John D

    2018-04-17

    While the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ASD closure has been established, new data have recently emerged regarding the negative impact of residual iatrogenic ASD (iASD) following left heart structural interventions. Additionally, new devices with potential advantages have recently been studied. We will review here the potential indications for closure of iASD along with new generation closure devices and potential late complications requiring long-term follow-up. With the expansion of left-heart structural interventions and large-bore transseptal access, there has been growing experience gained with management of residual iASD. Some recently published reports have implicated residual iASD after these procedures as a potential source of diminished clinical outcomes and mortality. Additionally, recent trials investigating new generation closure devices as well as expanding knowledge regarding late complications of percutaneous ASD closure have been published. While percutaneous ASD closure is no longer a novel approach to managing septal defects, there are several contemporary issues related to residual iASD following large-bore transseptal access and new generation devices which serve as an impetus for this review. Ongoing attention to potential late complications and decreasing their incidence with ongoing study is clearly needed.

  6. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Transseptal Guidewire Stabilization for Device Closure of a Large Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George, E-mail: joseph59@gmail.com; Kunwar, Brajesh Kumar, E-mail: kunwar_brajesh@yahoo.com

    A 46-year-old man presenting with massive hemoptysis was found to have a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) in the right lung. Closure of the PAVM with an Amplatzer-type duct occluder was hampered by inability to advance the device delivery sheath into the PAVM due to vessel tortuosity and inadequate guidewire support. Atrial septal puncture was performed and a femorofemoral arteriovenous guidewire loop through the right pulmonary artery, PAVM, and left atrium was created. Traction on both ends of the guidewire loop allowed advancement of the device delivery sheath into the PAVM and successful completion of the procedure. Transseptal guidewire stabilizationmore » can be a valuable option during device closure of large PAVMs when advancement, stability, or kinking of the device delivery sheath is an issue.« less

  8. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  9. Pressure-tight closure for thermoelements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1937-06-14

    The thermoelements were arranged in a pressure-tight housing for measuring temperatures on the inside of high-pressure hydrogenation equipment. Should the housing ever leak due to failure of the material or the grinding action of the high sand content of the coal paste, the stall was liable to be set on fire. If, in an installation protected in this manner, an element housing should leak, the pressure tight closure at one end of the housing prevented an escape of the gas and product and the stall could continue to run without danger. The final form of this closure was discussed inmore » detail in this report. In the development of this closure, particular value was attached to a compact construction. In the sealing for a 30-mm high pressure tube, four steel and four constantan wires were insulated and arranged pressure-tight. Each of the three fillers had a different purpose. The hard-rubber insert took the surface pressure, the rubber stopper provided a seal and the cast gypsum provided protection against heat should hot gas or product reach the closure in case of a leaky housing. Two drawings were given showing the thermoelement-closure, and the final form of the closure. The report discussed methods of evacuating from the thermohousings any accumulations of condensed water, which could damage insulation, or hydrogen, which continually diffused in small amounts during operation and which could attack the iron elements of the thermocouples. The pressure-tight closures for thermoelements had been successful at preventing fires due to leakage for more than nine months of operation. 2 sketches.« less

  10. Anterior Segment Imaging for Angle Closure.

    PubMed

    Chansangpetch, Sunee; Rojanapongpun, Prin; Lin, Shan C

    2018-04-01

    To summarize the role of anterior segment imaging (AS-imaging) in angle closure diagnosis and management, and the possible advantages over the current standard of gonioscopy. Literature review and perspective. Review of the pertinent publications with interpretation and perspective in relation to the use of AS-imaging in angle closure assessment focusing on anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Several limitations have been encountered with the reference standard of gonioscopy for angle assessment. AS-imaging has been shown to have performance in angle closure detection compared to gonioscopy. Also, imaging has greater reproducibility and serves as better documentation for long-term follow-up than conventional gonioscopy. The qualitative and quantitative information obtained from AS-imaging enables better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of angle closure and provides useful parameters for risk assessment and possible prediction of the response to laser and surgical intervention. The latest technologies-including 3-dimensional imaging-have allowed for the assessment of the angle that simulates the gonioscopic view. These advantages suggest that AS-imaging has a potential to be a reference standard for the diagnosis and monitoring of angle closure disease in the future. Although gonioscopy remains the primary method of angle assessment, AS-imaging has an increasing role in angle closure screening and management. The test should be integrated into clinical practice as an adjunctive tool for angle assessment. It is arguable that AS-imaging should be considered first-line screening for patients at risk for angle closure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 264.197 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... as hazardous waste, unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure activities...

  12. 40 CFR 264.280 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.280 Section 264.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 264.278, except that soil-pore liquid monitoring may be terminated 90 days after the last application...

  13. CG Vessel Traffic Service Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Corps of Engineers and the Maritime Administration have forecast that total commercial cargo transported through U.S. ports and waterways will increase... electronic navigation and surveillance equipment since the early 1960’s to evaluate various concepts by which vessel traffic safety could be enhanced...relatively complete data base on vessel traffic. On the other hand, the addition of radar and other electronic surveillance should: --Prevent vessel

  14. Targeting Therapy Resistant Tumor Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Porkka K, Laakko- nen P, Ruoslahti E. Nucleolin expressed at the cell surface is a marker of endothelial cells in angiogenic blood vessels. J Cell...anti-angiogenic therapy. Markers of such vessels will be useful in developing strategies for complete destruction of breast cancer vasculature, and in...express specific markers , and that these lymphatic markers are tumor type specific and distinct from blood vessel markers in the same tumors. The

  15. Scalp Wound Closure with K wires: An alternative easier method to scalp wound closure.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, S; Ajik, S

    2012-12-01

    Scalp defects and lacerations present a reconstructive challenge to plastic surgeons. Many methods have been described from the use of skin grafting to rotation flaps. Here we present a method of closure of a contaminated scalp wound with the use of Kirschner wires. In our case, closure of scalp laceration was made possible with the use of 1.4 Kirschner wires and cable tie/ zip tie fasteners. The duration to closure of wound was 10 days. In reconstructing the scalp defect, this method was found to adhere to principles of scalp reconstruction. There were no post operative complications found from the procedure. On initial application on the edge of the wound, tension applied caused the K wires to cut through the wound edge. On replacement of K wires 1cm away from wound edge the procedure was not plagued by any further complication. In conclusion we find scalp closure with Kirschner wires are a simple and effective method for scalp wound closure.

  16. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels

  17. Americium behaviour in plastic vessels.

    PubMed

    Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Abelairas, A

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of (241)Am dissolved in water in different plastic storage vessels was determined. Three different plastics were investigated with natural and distilled waters and the retention of (241)Am by these plastics was studied. The same was done by varying vessel agitation time, vessel agitation speed, surface/volume ratio of water in the vessels and water pH. Adsorptions were measured to be between 0% and 70%. The adsorption of (241)Am is minimized with no water agitation, with PET or PVC plastics, and by water acidification. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Graphite filament wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Damico, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Filament wound NOL rings, 4-inch and 8-inch diameter closed-end vessels involving three epoxy resin systems and three graphite fibers were tested to develop property data and fabrication technology for filament wound graphite/epoxy pressure vessels. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst tests at room temperature. Manufacturing parameters were established for tooling, winding, and curing that resulted in the development of a pressure/vessel performance factor (pressure x volume/weight) or more than 900,000 in. for an oblate spheroid specimen.

  19. Primary closure in colon trauma.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Aragón, Luis Enrique; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Vaca-Pérez, Enrique; Belmares-Taboada, Jaime Arístides; Ortiz-Castillo, Fátima de Guadalupe; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Primary repair of colon injuries is an accepted therapeutic option; however, controversy persists regarding its safety. Our objective was to report the evolution and presence of complications in patients with colon injury who underwent primary closure and to determine if the time interval (>6 h), degree of injury, contamination, anatomic site injured, PATI (Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index) >25, and the presence of other injuries in colon trauma are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal and descriptive study conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto," San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. We included patients with abdominal trauma with colon injury subjected to surgical treatment. chi(2) was used for basic statistical analysis. There were 481 patients with abdominal trauma who underwent surgery; 77(16.1%) had colon injury. Ninety percent (n = 69) were treated in the first 6 h; 91% (n = 70) were due to penetrating injuries, and gunshot wound accounted for 48% (n = 37). Transverse colon was the most frequently injured (38%) (n = 29). Grade I and II injuries accounted for 75.3% (n = 58). Procedures included primary repair (76.66 %) (n = 46); resection with anastomosis (8.3%) (n = 5); and colostomy (15%) (n = 9). Associated injuries were present in 76.6% (n = 59). There was some degree of contamination in 85.7% (n = 66); 82.8% (58) had PATI <25. Complications associated with the surgical procedure were observed in 28.57% (n = 22). Reoperation was necessary in 10% (n = 8). Average hospital stay was 11.4 days. Mortality was 3.8% (n = 3); none of these were related to colon injury. Primary repair is a safe procedure for treatment of colon injuries. Patients with primary repair had lower morbidity (p <0.009). Surgery during the first 6 h (p <0.006) and in hemodynamically stable patients (p <0.014) had a lower risk of complications.

  20. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Simon J.; Bristow, Charlie S.; Drake, Nick A.

    2015-01-01

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world’s greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  1. Abrupt skin lesion border cutoff measurement for malignancy detection in dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Sertan; Bayraktar, Mustafa; Kockara, Sinan; Mete, Mutlu; Halic, Tansel; Field, Halle E; Wong, Henry K

    2016-10-06

    Automated skin lesion border examination and analysis techniques have become an important field of research for distinguishing malignant pigmented lesions from benign lesions. An abrupt pigment pattern cutoff at the periphery of a skin lesion is one of the most important dermoscopic features for detection of neoplastic behavior. In current clinical setting, the lesion is divided into a virtual pie with eight sections. Each section is examined by a dermatologist for abrupt cutoff and scored accordingly, which can be tedious and subjective. This study introduces a novel approach to objectively quantify abruptness of pigment patterns along the lesion periphery. In the proposed approach, first, the skin lesion border is detected by the density based lesion border detection method. Second, the detected border is gradually scaled through vector operations. Then, along gradually scaled borders, pigment pattern homogeneities are calculated at different scales. Through this process, statistical texture features are extracted. Moreover, different color spaces are examined for the efficacy of texture analysis. The proposed method has been tested and validated on 100 (31 melanoma, 69 benign) dermoscopy images. Analyzed results indicate that proposed method is efficient on malignancy detection. More specifically, we obtained specificity of 0.96 and sensitivity of 0.86 for malignancy detection in a certain color space. The F-measure, harmonic mean of recall and precision, of the framework is reported as 0.87. The use of texture homogeneity along the periphery of the lesion border is an effective method to detect malignancy of the skin lesion in dermoscopy images. Among different color spaces tested, RGB color space's blue color channel is the most informative color channel to detect malignancy for skin lesions. That is followed by YCbCr color spaces Cr channel, and Cr is closely followed by the green color channel of RGB color space.

  2. The Abrupt Onset of the Modern South Asian Monsoon Winds (iodp Exp. 359)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, C.; Eberli, G. P.; Kroon, D.; Wright, J. D.; Swart, P. K.; Nath, B. N.; Reijmer, J.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most extreme features in Earth's climate system, yet its initiation and variations are not well established. The SAM is a seasonal reversal of winds accompanied by changes in precipitation with heavy rain during the summer monsoon. It is one of the most intense annually recurring climatic elements and of immense importance in supplying moisture to the Indian subcontinent thus affecting human population and vegetation, as well as marine biota in the surrounding seas. The seasonal precipitation change is one of the SAM elements most noticed on land, whereas the reversal of the wind regime is the dominating driver of circulation in the central and northern Indian Ocean realm. New data acquired during International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 359 from the Inner Sea of the Maldives provide a previously unread archive that reveals an abrupt onset of the SAM-linked ocean circulation pattern and its relationship to the long term Neogene climate cooling. In particular it registers ocean current fluctuations and changes of intermediate water mass properties for the last 25 myrs that are directly related to the monsoon. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents yields an age of 12.9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment's content of sedimentary organic matter. A weaker `proto-monsoon' existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system.

  3. Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Takahito; Crucifix, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The last glacial period was punctuated by a series of abrupt climate shifts, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. The frequency of DO events varied in time, supposedly because of changes in background climate conditions. Here, the influence of external forcings on DO events is investigated with statistical modelling. We assume two types of simple stochastic dynamical systems models (double-well potential-type and oscillator-type), forced by the northern hemisphere summer insolation change and/or the global ice volume change. The model parameters are estimated by using the maximum likelihood method with the NGRIP Ca^{2+} record. The stochastic oscillator model with at least the ice volume forcing reproduces well the sample autocorrelation function of the record and the frequency changes of warming transitions in the last glacial period across MISs 2, 3, and 4. The model performance is improved with the additional insolation forcing. The BIC scores also suggest that the ice volume forcing is relatively more important than the insolation forcing, though the strength of evidence depends on the model assumption. Finally, we simulate the average number of warming transitions in the past four glacial periods, assuming the model can be extended beyond the last glacial, and compare the result with an Iberian margin sea-surface temperature (SST) record (Martrat et al. in Science 317(5837): 502-507, 2007). The simulation result supports the previous observation that abrupt millennial-scale climate changes in the penultimate glacial (MIS 6) are less frequent than in the last glacial (MISs 2-4). On the other hand, it suggests that the number of abrupt millennial-scale climate changes in older glacial periods (MISs 6, 8, and 10) might be larger than inferred from the SST record.

  4. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  5. [Large vessel vasculitides].

    PubMed

    Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Puksić, Silva; Gracanin, Ana Gudelj

    2013-01-01

    Large vessel vasculitis includes Giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is the most common form of vasculitis affect patients aged 50 years or over. The diagnosis should be considered in older patients who present with new onset of headache, visual disturbance, polymyalgia rheumatica and/or fever unknown cause. Glucocorticoides remain the cornerstone of therapy. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic panarteritis of the aorta ant its major branches presenting commonly in young ages. Although all large arteries can be affected, the aorta, subclavian and carotid arteries are most commonly involved. The most common symptoms included upper extremity claudication, hypertension, pain over the carotid arteries (carotidynia), dizziness and visual disturbances. Early diagnosis and treatment has improved the outcome in patients with TA.

  6. Taking Closure to the Next Level - 13030

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, E.T.

    2013-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP) is the Hanford Site's first closure project and when it is complete, in 2015, it will have cleaned up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land adjacent to the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the DOE to manage the removal and cleanup of Hanford's nuclear legacy along the River Corridor. Work began in 2005 and is now more than 85% complete with more than 2 years left in the contract. A Closure Team was commissioned in December 2009 and has since issued a closure strategy and a disciplined three-phase approach tomore » transition land parcels to DOE, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) as cleanup is completed. This process supports DOE-RL objectives for progressive footprint reduction based on the division of the River Corridor into geographical land parcels. It also allows for incremental area-by-area transition and turnover to the Long-Term Stewardship program. Several important milestones stand between now and the successful end of the RCCP. They include overall funding impacts, working with DOE-RL on new scope additions, meeting regulatory milestones, and maintaining a strong safety performance. (authors)« less

  7. A nonlocal fluid closure for antiparallel reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, J.; Hakim, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-12-01

    The integration of kinetic effects in fluid models is an important problem in global simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere and space weather modelling. In particular, it has been shown that ion kinetics play an important role in the dynamics of large reconnecting systems, and that fluid models can account of some of these effects[1,2] . Here we introduce a new fluid model and closure for collisionless magnetic reconnection and more general applications. Taking moments of the kinetic equation, we evolve the full pressure tensor for electrons and ions, which includes the off diagonal terms necessary for reconnection. Kinetic effects are recovered by using a nonlocal heat flux closure, which approximates linear Landau damping in the fluid framework [3]. Using the island coalescence problem as a test, we show how the nonlocal ion closure improves on the typical collisional closures used for ten-moment models and circumvents the need for a colllisional free parameter. Finally, we extend the closure to study guide-field reconnection and discuss the implementation of a twenty-moment model.[1] A. Stanier et al. Phys Rev Lett (2015)[2] J. Ng et al. Phys Plasmas (2015)[3] G. Hammett et al. Phys Rev Lett (1990)

  8. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  9. Columbus Closure Project Released without Radiological Restrictions

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, G.

    2007-07-01

    The Columbus Closure Project (CCP), a historic radiological research complex, was cleaned up for future use without radiological restriction in 2006. The CCP research and development site contributed to national defense, nuclear fuel fabrication, and the development of safe nuclear reactors in the United States until 1988 when research activities were concluded for site decommissioning. In November of 2003, the Ohio Field Office of the U.S. Department of Energy contracted ECC/E2 Closure Services, LLC (Closure Services) to complete the removal of radioactive contamination from of a 1955 era nuclear sciences area consisting of a large hot cell facility, research reactormore » building and underground piping. The project known as the Columbus Closure Project (CCP) was completed in 27 months and brought to a close 16 years of D and D in Columbus, Ohio. This paper examines the project innovations and challenges presented during the Columbus Closure Project. The examination of the CCP includes the project regulatory environment, the CS safety program, accelerated clean up innovation, project execution strategies and management of project waste issues and the regulatory approach to site release 'without radiological restrictions'. (authors)« less

  10. Phase closure nulling: Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, A.; Duvert, G.; Malbet, F.; Kern, P.

    2009-11-01

    We provide a complete theory of the phase closure of a binary system in which a small, feeble, and unresolved companion acts as a perturbing parameter on the spatial frequency spectrum of a dominant, bright, resolved source. We demonstrate that the influence of the companion can be measured with precision by measuring the phase closure of the system near the nulls of the primary visibility function. In these regions of phase closure nulling, frequency intervals always exist where the phase closure signature of the companion is larger than any systematic error and can thus be measured. We show that this technique allows retrieval of many astrophysically relevant properties of faint and close companions such as flux, position, and in favorable cases, spectrum. As a proof of concept, using the AMBER/VLTI instrument with 3 auxiliary telescopes of 1.8 m and only 15 minutes of on-sky integration, we detected the five magnitudes fainter companion of HD 59717 at only 3.5 stellar radii distance from the primary. This is one of the highest contrast detected by interferometry between a companion and its parent star. We conclude by a rapid study of the potentialities of phase closure nulling observations with current interferometers and explore the requirements for a new type of dedicated instrument.

  11. Abrupt onset of muscle dysfunction after treatment for Grave's disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hernán Martínez, José; Sánchez, Alfredo; Torres, Oberto; Palermo, Coromoto; Santiago, Mónica; Figueroa, Carlos; Trinidad, Rafael; Mangual, Michelle; Gutierrez, Madeleine; González, Eva; Miranda, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Myopathy is a known complication of hypothyroidism, commonly characterized by an elevation in Creatine Kinase (CPK) due to increase capillary permeability proportional to the hypothyroid state. Thyroid hormone is important for the expression of fast myofibrillar proteins in the muscle. In hypothyroidism the expression of these proteins are deficient and there is an increase accumulation of slow myofibrillar proteins. A rapid or abrupt descend in thyroid hormones caused by radioiodine therapy after prolonged hyperthyroidism can lead to local hypothyroid state within the muscle tissue, resulting in CPK elevation and hypothyroid myopathy. Hormone replacement leads to resolution of symptoms and normalization of muscle enzymes serum levels.

  12. Abrupt variations of Indian and East Asian summer monsoons during the last deglacial stadial and interstadial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bing; Hong, Yetang; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Cai, Cheng; Peng, Haijun; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu; Yuan, Linggui

    2014-08-01

    The phase relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) during the last deglaciation remains controversial. Here, we reconstruct a 15,000-year plant cellulose δ13C proxy record for the ISM from the Yuexi peat bog in southwestern China. The record shows that the ISM abruptly decreases during the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial and abruptly increases during the Bølling-Allerød (BA) interstadial. A comparison of the Yuexi record with other related proxy climate records reveals two types of phenomena. First, the strengths of the two Asian monsoons are inversely related during the YD stadial, i.e., the ISM strength decreases and the EASM increases. During this period, the southern Chinese mainland consisted of a wide arid zone while the northern Chinese mainland was much wetter. The arid zone in southern China resulted from two different types of monsoon processes: the abnormal northward extension of the EASM rain belt, leading to less rainfall in southeast China, or an illusion that the EASM weakened. The other process is a real weakening of the ISM. Second, during the BA interstadial, the strengths of both the ISM and EASM clearly increased. However, the maximum strengths appear to have occurred in the Allerød period. During this period, the entire Chinese mainland, both northern and southern, experienced wet conditions. The abnormal climate pattern of wet in the north and dry in the south during the YD stadial occurs because of the combined effects of the strengthened EASM, intensified westerlies, and weakened ISM, which could be attributed to the response to the abrupt cooling in the high northern latitudes and to the El Niño-like activity in the equatorial Pacific. The widespread wet climate during the BA interstadial may be related to an abrupt increase in the greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere and to the La Niña-like activity in the equatorial Pacific. These results contribute to a better

  13. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Closure/post-closure (40 cfr parts 264/265, subpart g) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The module explains the difference between closure and post-closure. It lists the types of facilities that are subject to closure/post-closures and defines the difference between partial and final closure. It specifies who submits a closure plan and when a closure plan must be submitted, lists the steps in the process, and states the time frame for submittal. It identifies when and how a closure must be amended. It explains the time frame for notification of closure and the deadlines for beginning and completing closure. It specifies which facilities need contingent post-closure plans and lists and the elements of post-closure andmore » cites the requirements. It specifies the conditions and timing for amending a post-closure plan and states who must certify closure/post-closure.« less

  14. 2D Fast Vessel Visualization Using a Vessel Wall Mask Guiding Fine Vessel Detection

    PubMed Central

    Raptis, Sotirios; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses the fine retinal-vessel's detection issue that is faced in diagnostic applications and aims at assisting in better recognizing fine vessel anomalies in 2D. Our innovation relies in separating key visual features vessels exhibit in order to make the diagnosis of eventual retinopathologies easier to detect. This allows focusing on vessel segments which present fine changes detectable at different sampling scales. We advocate that these changes can be addressed as subsequent stages of the same vessel detection procedure. We first carry out an initial estimate of the basic vessel-wall's network, define the main wall-body, and then try to approach the ridges and branches of the vasculature's using fine detection. Fine vessel screening looks into local structural inconsistencies in vessels properties, into noise, or into not expected intensity variations observed inside pre-known vessel-body areas. The vessels are first modelled sufficiently but not precisely by their walls with a tubular model-structure that is the result of an initial segmentation. This provides a chart of likely Vessel Wall Pixels (VWPs) yielding a form of a likelihood vessel map mainly based on gradient filter's intensity and spatial arrangement parameters (e.g., linear consistency). Specific vessel parameters (centerline, width, location, fall-away rate, main orientation) are post-computed by convolving the image with a set of pre-tuned spatial filters called Matched Filters (MFs). These are easily computed as Gaussian-like 2D forms that use a limited range sub-optimal parameters adjusted to the dominant vessel characteristics obtained by Spatial Grey Level Difference statistics limiting the range of search into vessel widths of 16, 32, and 64 pixels. Sparse pixels are effectively eliminated by applying a limited range Hough Transform (HT) or region growing. Major benefits are limiting the range of parameters, reducing the search-space for post-convolution to only masked regions

  15. Parallel closure theory for toroidally confined plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.

    2017-10-01

    We solve a system of general moment equations to obtain parallel closures for electrons and ions in an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic field gradient terms are kept and treated using the Fourier series method. Assuming lowest order density (pressure) and temperature to be flux labels, the parallel heat flow, friction, and viscosity are expressed in terms of radial gradients of the lowest-order temperature and pressure, parallel gradients of temperature and parallel flow, and the relative electron-ion parallel flow velocity. Convergence of closure quantities is demonstrated as the number of moments and Fourier modes are increased. Properties of the moment equations in the collisionless limit are also discussed. Combining closures with fluid equations parallel mass flow and electric current are also obtained. Work in collaboration with the PSI Center and supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant Nos. DE-SC0014033, DE-SC0016256, and DE-FG02-04ER54746.

  16. On Subsurface Fracture Opening and Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanistic understanding of fracture opening and closure in geologic media is of significant importance to nature resource extraction and waste management, such as geothermal energy extraction, oil/gas production, radioactive waste disposal, and carbon sequestration and storage). A dynamic model for subsurface fracture opening and closure has been formulated. The model explicitly accounts for the stress concentration around individual aperture channels and the stress-activated mineral dissolution and precipitation. A preliminary model analysis has demonstrated the importance of the stress-activated dissolution mechanism in the evolution of fracture aperture in a stressed geologic medium. The model provides a reasonable explanation for some key features of fracture opening and closure observed in laboratory experiments, including a spontaneous switch from a net permeability reduction to a net permeability increase with no changes in a limestone fracture experiment.

  17. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  18. Spontaneous closure of traumatic macular hole

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Au Eong, Kah-Guan

    2012-01-01

    Macular hole formation is a well-known complication following ocular trauma. Less commonly recognised is the spontaneous closure of such holes. A 27-year-old man presented with a history of blunt trauma to his left eye. Eye evaluation showed conjunctival laceration, diffuse retinal oedema and multiple retinal haemorrhages in that eye. A month later, he developed a full thickness macular hole. Two months later, there was spontaneous complete closure of the full-thickness macular hole in the left eye as confirmed on optical coherence tomography. Spontaneous closure of hole is not uncommon. Observation for a period of up to 12 months is a reasonable management option. Macular hole surgery for traumatic macular holes may be delayed in such cases. PMID:23961017

  19. Spontaneous closure of traumatic macular hole.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Srinivasan; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Au Eong, Kah-Guan

    2012-07-01

    Macular hole formation is a well-known complication following ocular trauma. Less commonly recognised is the spontaneous closure of such holes. A 27-year-old man presented with a history of blunt trauma to his left eye. Eye evaluation showed conjunctival laceration, diffuse retinal oedema and multiple retinal haemorrhages in that eye. A month later, he developed a full thickness macular hole. Two months later, there was spontaneous complete closure of the full-thickness macular hole in the left eye as confirmed on optical coherence tomography. Spontaneous closure of hole is not uncommon. Observation for a period of up to 12 months is a reasonable management option. Macular hole surgery for traumatic macular holes may be delayed in such cases.

  20. Velopharyngeal closure and the longus capitis muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Y; Nishimura, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1996-09-01

    The dynamic mechanism of velopharyngeal function not only in normal individuals but also in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, which is mainly related to cleft palate, has been the subject of considerable interest and controversy. Recently, in order to clarify velopharyngeal movement in the valvular action on phonation we examined dynamic MR images of this area taken in the transverse plane in parallel with the muscle sling of levator veli palatini. In cases in whom the closure pattern in that plane is circular, detailed observation revealed a very interesting result; that is, the longus capitis muscle, one of the group of anterior vertebral muscles, is directly involved in velopharyngeal valving function. It has not previously been reported that the longus capitis muscle acts as one of the velopharyngeal closure muscles, in addition to levator veli palatini. The present study demonstrated that contraction of the muscle contributed to velopharyngeal closure by forward movement of the pharyngeal wall.

  1. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    PubMed

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Perforated peptic ulcer closure: laparoscopic or open?

    PubMed

    Alekberzade, A V; Krylov, N N; Rustamov, E A; Badalov, D A; Popovtsev, M A

    To compare laparoscopic and open closure of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). The study included 153 patients who underwent PPU suturing. 78 patients underwent laparoscopic closure (laparoscopic group) and open suturing via upper midline laparotomy was performed in 75 cases (open group). Surgery time, postoperative pain severity, time of analgesics intake, postoperative complications, hospital-stay and and cosmetic effect were compared. Laparoscopic PPU closure may be effective and accessible in experienced endoscopic surgeon. It significantly reduces postoperative pain severity, need for analgesics, incidence of postoperative complications and provides excellent cosmetic effect. However, there is greater time of surgery compared with open intervention. There were no significant differences in hspital-stay between groups. Laparoscopic PPU suturing can be considered a good alternative to open surgery. Further researches are needed for standardization, assessment of safety, real advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic technique.

  3. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR WELDING END CLOSURE TO CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Correy, T.B.

    1959-08-01

    A semi-automatic apparatus is described for welding a closure to the open end of a can containing a nuclear fuel slug. An arc is struck at the center of the closure and is shifted to a region near its periphery. Then the assembly of closure, can, and fuel slug is rotated so that the peripheral region of the closure is preheated. Next the arc is shifted to the periphery itself of the closure, and the assembly is rotated so that the closure is welded to the can.

  4. Hamiltonian closures in fluid models for plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    This article reviews recent activity on the Hamiltonian formulation of fluid models for plasmas in the non-dissipative limit, with emphasis on the relations between the fluid closures adopted for the different models and the Hamiltonian structures. The review focuses on results obtained during the last decade, but a few classical results are also described, in order to illustrate connections with the most recent developments. With the hope of making the review accessible not only to specialists in the field, an introduction to the mathematical tools applied in the Hamiltonian formalism for continuum models is provided. Subsequently, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of models based on the magnetohydrodynamics description, including those based on the adiabatic and double adiabatic closure. It is shown how Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems can be applied to impose the incompressibility closure on a magnetohydrodynamic model and how an extended version of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics, accounting for two-fluid effects, is amenable to a Hamiltonian formulation. Hamiltonian reduced fluid models, valid in the presence of a strong magnetic field, are also reviewed. In particular, reduced magnetohydrodynamics and models assuming cold ions and different closures for the electron fluid are discussed. Hamiltonian models relaxing the cold-ion assumption are then introduced. These include models where finite Larmor radius effects are added by means of the gyromap technique, and gyrofluid models. Numerical simulations of Hamiltonian reduced fluid models investigating the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection are illustrated. The last part of the review concerns recent results based on the derivation of closures preserving a Hamiltonian structure, based on the Hamiltonian structure of parent kinetic models. Identification of such closures for fluid models derived from kinetic systems based on the Vlasov and drift-kinetic equations are presented, and

  5. Oceanic link between abrupt changes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ping; Zhang, Rong; Hazeleger, Wilco; Wen, Caihong; Wan, Xiuquan; Ji, Link; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Seidel, Howard

    2008-07-01

    Abrupt changes in the African monsoon can have pronounced socioeconomic impacts on many West African countries. Evidence for both prolonged humid periods and monsoon failures have been identified throughout the late Pleistocene and early Holocene epochs. In particular, drought conditions in West Africa have occurred during periods of reduced North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, such as the Younger Dryas cold event. Here, we use an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to examine the link between oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic Ocean and changes in the strength of the African monsoon. Our simulations show that when North Atlantic thermohaline circulation is substantially weakened, the flow of the subsurface North Brazil Current reverses. This leads to decreased upper tropical ocean stratification and warmer sea surface temperatures in the equatorial South Atlantic Ocean, and consequently reduces African summer monsoonal winds and rainfall over West Africa. This mechanism is in agreement with reconstructions of past climate. We therefore suggest that the interaction between thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean and wind-driven currents in the tropical Atlantic Ocean contributes to the rapidity of African monsoon transitions during abrupt climate change events.

  6. The ability of computed tomography to diagnose placental abruption in the trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Tammy R; Berardoni, Nicole E; Manriquez, Maria; Gridley, Daniel; Vail, Sydney J; Pieri, Paola G; O'Neill; Pressman, Melissa A

    2013-01-01

    Fetal demise following trauma remains a devastating complication largely owing to placental injury and abruption. Our objective was to determine if abdominopelvic computed tomographic (CT) imaging can assess for placental abruption (PA) when obtained to exclude associated maternal injuries. Retrospective review of pregnant trauma patients of 20-week gestation or longer presenting to a trauma center during a 7-year period who underwent CT imaging as part of their initial evaluation. Radiographic images were reviewed by a radiologist for evidence of PA and classified based on percentage of visualized placental enhancement. Blinded to CT results, charts were reviewed by an obstetrician for clinical evidence of PA and classified as strongly positive, possibly positive, or no evidence. A total of 176 patients met inclusion criteria. CT imaging revealed evidence of PA in 61 patients (35%). As the percentage of placental enhancement decreased, patients were more likely to have strong clinical manifestations of PA, reaching statistical significance when enhancement was less than 50%. CT imaging evidence of PA was apparent in all patients who required delivery for nonassuring fetal heart tones. CT imaging evaluation of the placenta can accurately identify PA and therefore can help stratify patients at risk for fetal complications. The likelihood of requiring delivery increased as placental enhancement declined to less than 25%. Diagnostic study, level III.

  7. Attention capture by abrupt onsets: re-visiting the priority tag model.

    PubMed

    Sunny, Meera M; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Abrupt onsets have been shown to strongly attract attention in a stimulus-driven, bottom-up manner. However, the precise mechanism that drives capture by onsets is still debated. According to the new object account, abrupt onsets capture attention because they signal the appearance of a new object. Yantis and Johnson (1990) used a visual search task and showed that up to four onsets can be automatically prioritized. However, in their study the number of onsets co-varied with the total number of items in the display, allowing for a possible confound between these two variables. In the present study, display size was fixed at eight items while the number of onsets was systematically varied between zero and eight. Experiment 1 showed a systematic increase in reactions times with increasing number of onsets. This increase was stronger when the target was an onset than when it was a no-onset item, a result that is best explained by a model according to which only one onset is automatically prioritized. Even when the onsets were marked in red (Experiment 2), nearly half of the participants continued to prioritize only one onset item. Only when onset and no-onset targets were blocked (Experiment 3), participants started to search selectively through the set of only the relevant target type. These results further support the finding that only one onset captures attention. Many bottom-up models of attention capture, like masking or saliency accounts, can efficiently explain this finding.

  8. Temperature independent refractive index measurement using a fiber Bragg grating on abrupt tapered tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, André D.; Silveira, Beatriz; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Frazão, Orlando

    2018-05-01

    A fiber Bragg grating was inscribed in an abrupt fiber taper using a femtosecond laser and phase-mask interferometer. The abrupt taper transition allows to excite a broad range of guided modes with different effective refractive indices that are reflected at different wavelengths according to Bragg's law. The multimode-Bragg reflection expands over 30 nm in the telecom-C-band. This corresponds to a mode-field overlap of up to 30% outside of the fiber, making the device suitable for evanescent field sensing. Refractive index and temperature measurements are performed for different reflection peaks. Temperature independent refractive index measurements are achieved by considering the difference between the wavelength shifts of two measured reflection peaks. A minimum refractive index sensitivity of 16 ± 1 nm/RIU was obtained in a low refractive index regime (1.3475-1.3720) with low influence of temperature (-0.32 ± 0.06 pm/°C). The cross sensitivity for this structure is 2.0 × 10-5 RIU/°C. The potential for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature is also studied.

  9. Abrupt Holocene climate change as an important factor for human migration in West Greenland

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, William J.; Huang, Yongsong; Fritz, Sherilyn C.; Anderson, N. John

    2011-01-01

    West Greenland has had multiple episodes of human colonization and cultural transitions over the past 4,500 y. However, the explanations for these large-scale human migrations are varied, including climatic factors, resistance to adaptation, economic marginalization, mercantile exploration, and hostile neighborhood interactions. Evaluating the potential role of climate change is complicated by the lack of quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions near settlement areas and by the relative stability of Holocene temperature derived from ice cores atop the Greenland ice sheet. Here we present high-resolution records of temperature over the past 5,600 y based on alkenone unsaturation in sediments of two lakes in West Greenland. We find that major temperature changes in the past 4,500 y occurred abruptly (within decades), and were coeval in timing with the archaeological records of settlement and abandonment of the Saqqaq, Dorset, and Norse cultures, which suggests that abrupt temperature changes profoundly impacted human civilization in the region. Temperature variations in West Greenland display an antiphased relationship to temperature changes in Ireland over centennial to millennial timescales, resembling the interannual to multidecadal temperature seesaw associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. PMID:21628586

  10. Self-assembly of electronically abrupt borophene/organic lateral heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolong; Wei, Zonghui; Balla, Itamar; Mannix, Andrew J.; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Luijten, Erik; Hersam, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional boron sheets (that is, borophene) have recently been realized experimentally and found to have promising electronic properties. Because electronic devices and systems require the integration of multiple materials with well-defined interfaces, it is of high interest to identify chemical methods for forming atomically abrupt heterostructures between borophene and electronically distinct materials. Toward this end, we demonstrate the self-assembly of lateral heterostructures between borophene and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). These lateral heterostructures spontaneously form upon deposition of PTCDA onto submonolayer borophene on Ag(111) substrates as a result of the higher adsorption enthalpy of PTCDA on Ag(111) and lateral hydrogen bonding among PTCDA molecules, as demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the weak chemical interaction between borophene and PTCDA, while molecular-resolution ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal an electronically abrupt interface at the borophene/PTCDA lateral heterostructure interface. As the first demonstration of a borophene-based heterostructure, this work will inform emerging efforts to integrate borophene into nanoelectronic applications. PMID:28261662

  11. Proprioceptive recalibration in the right and left hands following abrupt visuomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Salomonczyk, Danielle; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that after reaching with misaligned visual feedback of the hand, one adapts his or her reaches and partially recalibrates proprioception, such that sense of felt hand position is shifted to match the seen hand position. However, to date, this has only been demonstrated in the right (dominant) hand following reach training with a visuomotor distortion in which the rotated cursor distortion was introduced gradually. As reach adaptation has been shown to differ depending on how the distortion is introduced (gradual vs. abrupt), we sought to examine proprioceptive recalibration following reach training with a cursor that was abruptly rotated 30° clockwise relative to hand motion. Furthermore, because the left and right arms have demonstrated selective advantages when matching visual and proprioceptive targets, respectively, we assessed proprioceptive recalibration in right-handed subjects following training with either the right or the left hand. On average, we observed shifts in felt hand position of approximately 7.6° following training with misaligned visual feedback of the hand, which is consistent with our previous findings in which the distortion was introduced gradually. Moreover, no difference was observed in proprioceptive recalibration across the left and right hands. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration is a robust process that arises symmetrically in the two hands following visuomotor adaptation regardless of the initial magnitude of the error signal.

  12. Aerodynamic and acoustic effects of abrupt frequency changes in excised larynges.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen M; Scherer, Ronald C

    2009-04-01

    To determine the aerodynamic and acoustic effects due to a sudden change from chest to falsetto register or vice versa. It was hypothesized that the continuous change in subglottal pressure and flow rate alone (pressure-flow sweep [PFS]) can trigger a mode change in the canine larynx. Ten canine larynges were each mounted over a tapered tube that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air. Glottographic signals were recorded during each PFS experiment, during which airflow was increased in a gradual manner for a period of 20-30 s. Abrupt changes in fundamental frequency (F(0)) and mode of vibration occurred during the PFS in the passive larynx without any change in adduction or elongation. The lower frequency mode of oscillation of the vocal folds, perceptually identified as the chest register, had relatively large amplitude oscillation, significant vocal fold contact, a rich spectral content, and a relatively loud audio signal. The higher frequency mode of oscillation, perceptually identified as falsetto, had little or no vocal fold contact and a dominant first partial. Relatively abrupt F(0) changes also occurred for gradual adduction changes, with the chest register corresponding to greater adduction, falsetto to less adduction.

  13. Banning Fisheries Discards Abruptly Has a Negative Impact on the Population Dynamics of Charismatic Marine Megafauna.

    PubMed

    Fondo, Esther N; Chaloupka, Milani; Heymans, Johanna J; Skilleter, Greg A

    2015-01-01

    Food subsidies have the potential to modify ecosystems and affect the provision of goods and services. Predictable Anthropogenic Food Subsidies (PAFS) modify ecosystems by altering ecological processes and food webs. The global concern over the effects of PAFS in ecosystems has led to development of environmental policies aimed at curbing the production or ultimately banning of PAFS. However, the effects of reducing or banning PAFS are not known. We explore the consequences of PAFS removal in a marine ecosystem under two scenarios: 1) gradual reduction, or 2) an abrupt ban, using a mass balance model to test these hypotheses-The reduction or loss of PAFS will: i) modify trophic levels and food webs through effects on foraging by opportunistic species, ii) increase the resilience of opportunistic species to food shortages, and iii) modify predator-prey interactions through shifts in prey consumption. We found that PAFS lower the trophic levels of opportunistic scavengers and increase their food pathways. Scavengers are able to switch prey when PAFS are reduced gradually but they decline when PAFS are abruptly banned. PAFS reduction to a certain minimal level causes a drop in the ecosystem's stability. We recommend gradual reduction of PAFS to a minimal level that would maintain the ecosystem's stability and allow species exploiting PAFS to habituate to the food subsidy reduction.

  14. Definition of Mutually Optimum NDI and Proof Test Criteria for 2219 Aluminum Pressure Vessels. Volume 2: Optimization and Fracture Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Toth, C., Jr.; King, R. G.; Todd, P. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Certain behavioral aspects associated with fracture and crack extension that cannot be studied using other techniques were evaluated with the ultrasonic method. Characterization of collimated beam techniques showed that significant beam width reduction could be accomplished. Techniques for collimation are given. The crack-opening displacement-gage correction-factor study showed that displacement resulting from crack opening and that from plasticity could be readily differentiated. Crack closure studies using both ultrasonic and crack-opening displacement measurements showed an opening and closing behavior associated with load-unload curves. The results of this work were in general agreement with the closure concepts of Elber. Ultrasonic measurements used to study the nature of flaw extension characteristics associated with failure of the ligament between the flaw front and back surface showed that penetration could occur by an abrupt fracturing after subcritical growth or by continuous growth.

  15. [Magnetic closure for ileostomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Loygue, J; Salmon, R; Bloch, P

    1980-09-20

    The Maclet magnetic stoma seal already used by the authors for colostomies was applied to the closure of permanent terminal ileostomies. A reservoir is constructed upstreams of the closure with the last loop of ileum, so that the faeces accumulate and can be evacuated by intermittence. Patients empty the reservoir by removing the cap which blocks the intestinal lumen and introducing a probe into it. The technique was used on 2 patients who had undergone total proctocolectomy for familial polyposis of the colon. One patient has now been followed up for 3 years and the other for 6 months. The perfect continence obtained by this method favourably compares with Kock's continent ileostomy.

  16. Uncertainty Quantification of Multi-Phase Closures

    SciTech Connect

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Baglietto, Emilio

    In the ensemble-averaged dispersed phase formulation used for CFD of multiphase ows in nuclear reactor thermohydraulics, closures of interphase transfer of mass, momentum, and energy constitute, by far, the biggest source of error and uncertainty. Reliable estimators of this source of error and uncertainty are currently non-existent. Here, we report on how modern Validation and Uncertainty Quanti cation (VUQ) techniques can be leveraged to not only quantify such errors and uncertainties, but also to uncover (unintended) interactions between closures of di erent phenomena. As such this approach serves as a valuable aide in the research and development of multiphase closures.more » The joint modeling of lift, drag, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion|forces that lead to tranfer of momentum between the liquid and gas phases|is examined in the frame- work of validation of the adiabatic but turbulent experiments of Liu and Banko , 1993. An extensive calibration study is undertaken with a popular combination of closure relations and the popular k-ϵ turbulence model in a Bayesian framework. When a wide range of super cial liquid and gas velocities and void fractions is considered, it is found that this set of closures can be validated against the experimental data only by allowing large variations in the coe cients associated with the closures. We argue that such an extent of variation is a measure of uncertainty induced by the chosen set of closures. We also nd that while mean uid velocity and void fraction pro les are properly t, uctuating uid velocity may or may not be properly t. This aspect needs to be investigated further. The popular set of closures considered contains ad-hoc components and are undesirable from a predictive modeling point of view. Consequently, we next consider improvements that are being developed by the MIT group under CASL and which remove the ad-hoc elements. We use non-intrusive methodologies for sensitivity analysis and calibration

  17. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  18. Abrupt transitions to a cold North Atlantic in the late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford; Larsen, Darren; Florian, Christopher; Pendleton, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The Holocene provides a time interval with boundary conditions similar to present, except for greenhouse gas concentrations. Recent high-resolution Northern Hemisphere records show general cooling related to orbital terms through the late Holocene, but also highly non-linear abrupt departures of centennial scale summer cold periods. These abrupt departures are evident within the last two millennia (the transitions between the Roman Warm Period (RWP, ~2,000 yr BP), the Dark Ages Cold Period (DACP, ~500-900 years AD), the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, 1000-1200 years AD) and the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~1300-1900 AD). A series of new, high-resolution and securely dated lake records from Iceland also show abrupt climate departures over the past 2 ka, characterized by shifts to persistent cold summers and an expanded cryosphere. Despite substantial differences in catchment-specific processes that dominate the lake records, the multi-proxy reconstructions are remarkably similar. After nearly a millennium with little evidence of significant climate shifts, the beginning of the first millennium AD is characterized by renewed summer cooling that leads to an expanding cryosphere. Slow summer cooling over the first five centuries is succeeded by widespread substantial cooling, with evidence for substantial expansion of glaciers and ice caps throughout our field areas between 530 and 900 AD, and an accompanying reduction in vegetation cover across much of Iceland that led to widespread landscape instability. These data suggest that the North Atlantic system began a transition into a new cold state early in the first millennium AD, which was amplified after 500 AD, until it was interrupted by warmer Medieval times between ~1000 and 1250 AD. Although severe soil erosion in Iceland is frequently associated with human settlement dated to 871 ±2 AD our reconstructions indicate that soil erosion began several centuries before settlement, during the DACP, whereas for several centuries

  19. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption.

    PubMed

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-12-15

    Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. Prospective cohort study is implemented at University Clinic for Obstetric and Gynecology in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The study included 109 delivered patients: 40 with preeclapmsia, 22 with IUGR, 17 with placental abruption and 30 as control group with normal pregnancy. The amount of 3 ml venous blood has been used for detection of these point mutations using ThromboStrip -Opegen, QIAGEN kit manufactured for thrombotic risk. The highest frequency was found: in the group with preeclampsia 35% were MTHFR homozygous, IUGR -MTHFR heterozygous 45%, Placental abruption- 52.9% MTHFR heterozygous, and in the control group without thrombophilia 56.7%. There were combined thrombophilia in 3 patients. There aren`t statistical significance in presence of thrombophilia among groups (p > 0.05). Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was found between carriers of MTHFR homozygous in preeclampsia and group with placental abruption and control group. Relative risk in IUGR group for MTHFR homozygous was 5.54 (1.37abruption for Factor V Leiden heterozygous was 4.50 (0.47abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted.

  20. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study is implemented at University Clinic for Obstetric and Gynecology in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The study included 109 delivered patients: 40 with preeclapmsia, 22 with IUGR, 17 with placental abruption and 30 as control group with normal pregnancy. The amount of 3 ml venous blood has been used for detection of these point mutations using ThromboStrip -Opegen, QIAGEN kit manufactured for thrombotic risk. RESULTS: The highest frequency was found: in the group with preeclampsia 35% were MTHFR homozygous, IUGR -MTHFR heterozygous 45%, Placental abruption- 52.9% MTHFR heterozygous, and in the control group without thrombophilia 56.7%. There were combined thrombophilia in 3 patients. There aren`t statistical significance in presence of thrombophilia among groups (p > 0.05). Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was found between carriers of MTHFR homozygous in preeclampsia and group with placental abruption and control group. Relative risk in IUGR group for MTHFR homozygous was 5.54 (1.37abruption for Factor V Leiden heterozygous was 4.50 (0.47abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted. PMID:27275292

  1. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  2. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce. ...

  3. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce. ...

  4. Parents' Attitudes to the Closure of Small Rural Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbold, A.; Nisbet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes of 134 parents of children from 10 rural schools threatened with closure, and 56 parents of children from seven schools recently closed, were assessed by interview. Most parents opposed closure, and most gave educational reasons for their attitudes. (Author)

  5. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  6. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Grace M; Thuente, Daniel; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-06-01

    Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months) and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy). Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control.

  7. 36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 13.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority. The... cultural or scientific values, subsistence uses, endangered or threatened species conservation, and other...

  8. Measuring Need for Closure in Classroom Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Need for closure, as formulated by Kruglanski and colleagues [Kruglanski, A. W. (1990). Lay epistemic theory in social-cognitive psychology. "Psychological Inquiry," 1(3), 181-197; Kruglanski, A. W., & Webster, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: Seizing and freezing. "Psychological Review," 103, 263-283; Webster,…

  9. Opening up closure. Semiotics across scales

    PubMed

    Lemke

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic emergence of new levels of organization in complex systems is related to the semiotic reorganization of discrete/continuous variety at the level below as continuous/discrete meaning for the level above. In this view both the semiotic and the dynamic closure of system levels is reopened to allow the development and evolution of greater complexity.

  10. Case Closure Procedures for Foreign Military Sales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-05

    This is our final report on the Audit of Case Closure Procedures for Foreign Military Sales for your information and use. Comments on a draft of this...report were considered in preparing the final report. We made the audit from January through August 1989. The objectives of the audit were to

  11. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.124...

  12. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.124...

  13. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.124...

  14. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.124...

  15. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.124...

  16. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure. 264.178 Section 264.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR... from the containment system. Remaining containers, liners, bases, and soil containing or contaminated...

  17. A Quick Guide to Paravalvular Leak Closure

    PubMed Central

    Gafoor, Sameer; Franke, Jennifer; Bertog, Stefan; Lam, Simon; Vaskelyte, Laura; Hofmann, Ilona; Matic, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a seldomly covered aspect of structural heart disease. However, this is a condition that frequently presents after valvular replacement. This article will cover the diagnosising and treating PVL (i.e. imaging, access, and device selection). In addition, specific aspects of aortic and mitral PVL closure will be covered in this review. PMID:29588686

  18. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any area which is closed for the protection of: (a) Threatened, endangered... communities. (c) Objects or areas of historical, archeological, geological, or paleontological interest. (d...

  19. Rural Primary School Closures in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Richard C.

    A three-phase interdisciplinary effort between educators and environmental planners is focusing on the social effects of rural primary school reorganization now occuring in England as a result of a declining birth rate and the resulting need for school closure. A questionnaire mailed nationally to rural Local Education Authorities, cross-community…

  20. Closure of large wounds using rubber bands in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Maria Angélica Baron; Petroianu, Andy; Martins, Silmar Grey de Oliveira; Resende, Vivian; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of the rubber elastic band in the treatment of large wounds of the body wall of rabbits by means of traction of its edges. we studied 30 New Zealand rabbits, divided into three groups (n=10): Group 1- healing by secondary intention; Group 2- removal and eutopic repositioning of skin as full thickness skin graft; Group 3- Approximation of wound edges with elastic rubber band. In all animals, we removed a segment of the back skin and subcutaneous tissue down to the fascia, in accordance with an acrylic mold of 8 cm long by 12 cm wide. All animals were observed for 21 days. two animals of groups 1 and 2 had wound abscess. In Group 2, there was partial or total graft loss in 90% of animals. The complete closure of the wounds was observed in four animals of Group 1, six of Group 2 and eight of Group 3. There was no difference between the scar resistance values of groups 2 and 3, which were higher than those in Group 1. The scars of the three groups were characterized by the presence of mature connective tissue mixed with blood vessels and inflammatory infiltration, predominantly polymorphonuclear. the tensile strength of the wound edges with rubber elastic band is as efficient as the skin graft to treat rabbits' large body wounds.

  1. Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, P; Worthington, H; Esposito, M; Elst, M; Waes, O J F

    2004-01-01

    Sutures, staples and adhesive tapes are the traditional methods of wound closure, whilst tissue adhesives have entered clinical practice more recently. Closure of wounds with sutures enables meticulous closure, but sutures may induce tissue reactivity and they usually require removal. Tissue adhesives offer the advantages there are no sutures to remove later for the patient and no risk of needlestick injury to the surgeon. Tissue adhesives have been used primarily in emergency rooms but this review looks at the use of tissue adhesives in the operating room where surgeons are increasingly using these for the closure of surgical skin incisions. To determine the relative effects of various tissue adhesives and conventional skin closure techniques on the healing of surgical wounds. The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched. Bibliographies of review articles were checked for studies outside the handsearched journals and wound care product manufacturers were contacted. Randomised controlled clinical trials only. Screening of eligible studies and data extraction was conducted independently and in triplicate whilst assessment of the methodological quality of the trials was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results were expressed as random effect models using weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risk with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was investigated including both clinical and methodological factors. Eight RCTs were included (630 patients). No statistically significant differences were found between various tissue adhesives and sutures (8 trials) for dehiscence, infection, satisfaction with cosmetic appearance when assessed by patients' or surgeons' general satisfaction. Nor were differences found between a tissue adhesive and tapes (2 trials) for infection, patients' assessment of cosmetic

  2. Transapical access closure: the TA PLUG device†

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Henriette; Nietlispach, Fabian; Göber, Volkhard; Englberger, Lars; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard; Carrel, Thierry; Huber, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Percutaneous closure of the transapical (TA) access site for large-calibre devices is an unsolved issue. We report the first experimental data on the TA PLUG device for true-percutaneous closure following large apical access for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. METHODS The TA PLUG, a self-sealing full-core closure device, was implanted in an acute animal study in six pigs (60.2 ± 0.7 kg). All the pigs received 100 IU/kg of heparin. The targeted activated clotting time was left to normalize spontaneously. After accessing the left ventricular apex with a 39 French introducer, the closure plug device was delivered with a 33 French over-the-wire system under fluoroscopic guidance into the apex. Time to full haemostasis as well as rate of bleeding was recorded. Self-anchoring properties were assessed by haemodynamic push stress under adrenalin challenge. An additional feasibility study was conducted in four pigs (58.4 ± 1.1 kg) with full surgical exposure of the apex, and assessed device anchoring by pull-force measurements with 0.5 Newton (N) increments. All the animals were electively sacrified. Post-mortem analysis of the heart was performed and the renal embolic index assessed. RESULTS Of six apical closure devices, five were correctly inserted and fully deployed at the first attempt. One became blocked in the delivery system and was placed successfully at the second attempt. In all the animals, complete haemostasis was immediate and no leak was recorded during the 5-h observation period. Neither leak nor any device dislodgement was observed under haemodynamic push stress with repeated left ventricular peak pressure of up to 220 mmHg. In the feasibility study assessing pull-stressing, device migration occurred at a force of 3.3 ± 0.5 N corresponding to 247.5 mmHg. Post-mortem analyses confirmed full expansion of all devices at the intended target. No macroscopic damage was identified at the surrounding myocardium. The renal embolic index was

  3. Impacts of abrupt climate changes in the Levant from Last Glacial Dead Sea levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torfstein, Adi; Goldstein, Steven L.; Stein, Mordechai; Enzel, Yehouda

    2013-06-01

    A new, detailed lake level curve for Lake Lisan (the Last Glacial Dead Sea) reveals a high frequency of abrupt fluctuations during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) compared to the relatively high stand characterizing MIS2, and the significantly lower Holocene lake. The lake level fluctuations reflect the hydrological conditions in the large watershed of the lake, which in turn reflects the hydro-climatic conditions in the central Levant region. The new curve shows that the fluctuations coincide on millennial timescales with temperature variations recorded in Greenland. Four patterns of correlation are observed through the last ice age: (1) maximum lake elevations were reached during MIS2, the coldest interval; (2) abrupt lake level drops to the lowest elevations coincided with the occurrence of Heinrich (H) events; (3) the lake returned to higher-stand conditions along with warming in Greenland that followed H-events; (4) significant lake level fluctuations coincided with virtually every Greenland stadial-interstadial cycle. Over glacial-interglacial time-scales, Northern Hemisphere glacial cooling induces extreme wetness in the Levant, with high lake levels reaching ˜160 m below mean sea level (mbmsl), approximately 240 m above typical Holocene levels of ˜400 mbmsl. These orbital time-scale shifts are driven by expansions of the European ice sheet, which deflect westerly storm tracks southward to the Eastern Mediterranean, resulting in increased sea-air temperature gradients that invoke increased cyclogenesis, and enhanced moisture delivery to the Levant. The millennial-scale lake level drops associated with Greenland stadials are most extreme during Heinrich stadials and reflect abrupt cooling of the Eastern Mediterranean atmosphere and sea-surface, which weaken the cyclogenic rain engine and cause extreme Levant droughts. During the recovery from the effect of Heinrich stadials, the regional climate configuration resumed typical glacial conditions, with enhanced

  4. Effects of Early, Abrupt Weaning on HIV-free Survival of Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kasonde, Prisca; Scott, Nancy; Vwalika, Cheswa; Walter, Jan; Bulterys, Marc; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    Background In low-resource settings, many programs recommend that women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stop breast-feeding early. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate whether abrupt weaning at 4 months as compared with the standard practice has a net benefit for HIV-free survival of children. Methods We enrolled 958 HIV-infected women and their infants in Lusaka, Zambia. All the women planned to breast-feed exclusively to 4 months; 481 were randomly assigned to a counseling program that encouraged abrupt weaning at 4 months, and 477 to a program that encouraged continued breast-feeding for as long as the women chose. The primary outcome was either HIV infection or death of the child by 24 months. Results In the intervention group, 69.0% of the mothers stopped breast-feeding at 5 months or earlier; 68.8% of these women reported the completion of weaning in less than 2 days. In the control group, the median duration of breast-feeding was 16 months. In the overall cohort, there was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of HIV-free survival among the children; 68.4% and 64.0% survived to 24 months without HIV infection in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = 0.13). Among infants who were still being breast-fed and were not infected with HIV at 4 months, there was no significant difference between the groups in HIV-free survival at 24 months (83.9% and 80.7% in the intervention and control groups, respectively; P = 0.27). Children who were infected with HIV by 4 months had a higher mortality by 24 months if they had been assigned to the intervention group than if they had been assigned to the control group (73.6% vs. 54.8%, P = 0.007). Conclusions Early, abrupt cessation of breast-feeding by HIV-infected women in a low-resource setting, such as Lusaka, Zambia, does not improve the rate of HIV-free survival among children born to HIV-infected mothers and is harmful to HIV-infected infants

  5. Postglacial Human resilience and susceptibility to abrupt climate change new insights from Star Carr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockley, Simon; Abrook, Ashley; Bayliss, Alex; Candy, Ian; Conneller, Chantal; Darvill, Chris; Deeprose, Laura; Kearney, Rebecca; Langdon, Pete; Langdon Langdon, Cath; Lincoln, Paul; Macleod, Alison; Matthews, Ian; Palmer, Adrian; Schreve, Danielle; Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky

    2017-04-01

    We know little about the lives of the early humans who lived during the early Postglacial period (the Lateglacial and Early Holocene), a time characterised by abrupt climate change after 16,000, which includes a series of abrupt climatic transitions linked to the reorganisation of the global environment after the glacial maximum and the last major global warming event at the onset of the Holocene. The hunter-gatherers who lived during the early Postglacial have been characterised as highly mobile, dispersed and living within small groups, and there is much debate as to how they adapted to climatic and environmental change: did they move in response to climatic transitions (and if so what was the climatic threshold), or instead adapt their lifeways to the new environmental conditions? A key area for examining these ideas is the British Isles as it sits on the Atlantic fringe of Northwest Europe with a climate that is highly responsive to the wider climate forcing experienced in the northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, in this period, Britain is directly linked to continental Europe due to lowered global sea levels allowing for the ease of human migration in and out of this region. In general the British record has been seen as being dominated by abandonment and reoccupation in the Postglacial during periods of climatic transition with hunter-gatherer mobility being closely linked to the prevailing environment. Recent discoveries at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr and surrounding area, linked to local and regional climate records, based on isotopic, chironomid and pollen proxy data and dated at high chronological resolution, offer a new picture. Postglacial human occupation of the area commences at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition but is short lived and appears to end close to the Pre-Boreal Oscillation, However, this is followed by a period where hunter-gatherers occupy Star Carr and settle and invest time and effort into building huts and large scale wooden

  6. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 265.1202 Closure and... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after...

  7. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 265.1202 Closure and... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 265.1202 Closure and... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 265.1202 Closure and... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If, after...

  10. Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions.

    PubMed

    Dumville, Jo C; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V; Riley, Philip; Patel, Neil; Darcey, James; Esposito, Marco; van der Elst, Maarten; van Waes, Oscar J F

    2014-11-28

    Sutures (stitches), staples and adhesive tapes have been used for many years as methods of wound closure, but tissue adhesives have entered clinical practice more recently. Closure of wounds with sutures enables the closure to be meticulous, but the sutures may show tissue reactivity and can require removal. Tissue adhesives offer the advantages of an absence of risk of needlestick injury and no requirement to remove sutures later. Initially, tissue adhesives were used primarily in emergency room settings, but this review looks at the use of tissue adhesives in the operating room/theatre where surgeons are using them increasingly for the closure of surgical skin incisions. To determine the effects of various tissue adhesives compared with conventional skin closure techniques for the closure of surgical wounds. In March 2014 for this second update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. We did not restrict the search and study selection with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Only randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. We conducted screening of eligible studies, data extraction and risk of bias assessment independently and in duplicate. We expressed results as random-effects models using mean difference for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. We investigated heterogeneity, including both clinical and methodological factors. This second update of the review identified 19 additional eligible trials resulting in a total of 33 studies (2793 participants) that met the inclusion criteria. There was low quality evidence that sutures were significantly better than tissue adhesives for reducing the risk of wound breakdown (dehiscence; RR 3.35; 95% CI 1.53 to 7

  11. Multilayer Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2005-01-01

    A method has been devised to enable the fabrication of lightweight pressure vessels from multilayer composite materials. This method is related to, but not the same as, the method described in gMaking a Metal- Lined Composite-Overwrapped Pressure Vessel h (MFS-31814), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 59. The method is flexible in that it poses no major impediment to changes in tank design and is applicable to a wide range of tank sizes. The figure depicts a finished tank fabricated by this method, showing layers added at various stages of the fabrication process. In the first step of the process, a mandrel that defines the size and shape of the interior of the tank is machined from a polyurethane foam or other suitable lightweight tooling material. The mandrel is outfitted with metallic end fittings on a shaft. Each end fitting includes an outer flange that has a small step to accommodate a thin layer of graphite/epoxy or other suitable composite material. The outer surface of the mandrel (but not the fittings) is covered with a suitable release material. The composite material is filament- wound so as to cover the entire surface of the mandrel from the step on one end fitting to the step on the other end fitting. The composite material is then cured in place. The entire workpiece is cut in half in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry at its mid-length point, yielding two composite-material half shells, each containing half of the foam mandrel. The halves of the mandrel are removed from within the composite shells, then the shells are reassembled and bonded together with a belly band of cured composite material. The resulting composite shell becomes a mandrel for the subsequent steps of the fabrication process and remains inside the final tank. The outer surface of the composite shell is covered with a layer of material designed to be impermeable by the pressurized fluid to be contained in the tank. A second step on the outer flange of

  12. Ge-on-insulator tunneling FET with abrupt source junction formed by utilizing snowplow effect of NiGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Ryo; Katoh, Takumi; Takaguchi, Ryotaro; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2018-04-01

    Tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) attract much attention for use in realizing next-generation low-power processors. In particular, Ge-on-insulator (GOI) TFETs are expected to realize low power operation with a high on-current/off-current (I on/I off) ratio, owing to their narrow bandgap. Here, to improve the performance of GOI-TFETs, a source junction with a high doping concentration and an abrupt impurity profile is essential. In this study, a snowplow effect of NiGe combined with low-energy BF2 + implantation has been investigated to realize an abrupt p+/n Ge junction for GOI n-channel TFETs. By optimizing the Ni thickness to form NiGe (thickness: 4 nm), an abrupt junction with a B profile abruptness of ˜5 nm/dec has been realized with a high doping concentration of around 1021 cm-3. The operation of GOI n-TFETs with this source junction having the abrupt B profile has been demonstrated, and the improvement of TFET properties such as the I on/I off ratio from 311 to 743 and the subthreshold slope from 368 to 239 mV/dec has been observed. This junction formation technology is attractive for enhancing the TFET performance.

  13. Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy is not inferior to other closure techniques.

    PubMed

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Chaer, Rabih A; Naddaf, Abdallah; El-Shazly, Omar M; Marone, Luke; Makaroun, Michel S

    2016-09-01

    Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been much maligned as an inferior technique with worse outcomes than in patch closure. Our purpose was to compare perioperative and long-term results of different CEA closure techniques in a large institutional experience. A consecutive cohort of CEAs between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. Closure technique was used to divide patients into three groups: primary longitudinal arteriotomy closure (PRC), patch closure (PAC), and eversion closure (EVC). End points were perioperative events, long-term strokes, and restenosis ≥70%. Multivariate regression models were used to assess the effect of baseline predictors. There were 1737 CEA cases (bilateral, 143; mean age, 71.4 ± 9.3 years; 56.2% men; 35.3% symptomatic) performed during the study period with a mean clinical follow-up of 49.8 ± 36.4 months (range, 0-155 months). More men had primary closure, but other demographic and baseline symptoms were similar between groups. Half the patients had PAC, with the rest evenly distributed between PRC and EVC. The rate of nerve injury was 2.7%, the rate of reintervention for hematoma was 1.5%, and the length of hospital stay was 2.4 ± 3.0 days, with no significant differences among groups. The combined stroke and death rate was 2.5% overall and 3.9% and 1.7% in the symptomatic and asymptomatic cohort, respectively. Stroke and death rates were similar between groups: PRC, 11 (2.7%); PAC, 19 (2.2%); EVC, 13 (2.9%). Multivariate analysis showed baseline symptomatic disease (odds ratio, 2.4; P = .007) and heart failure (odds ratio, 3.1; P = .003) as predictors of perioperative stroke and death, but not the type of closure. Cox regression analysis demonstrated, among other risk factors, no statin use (hazard ratio, 2.1; P = .008) as a predictor of ipsilateral stroke and severe (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) renal insufficiency (hazard ratio, 2.6; P

  14. Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

  15. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  16. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    AD-A09b 319 PRC SYSTEMS SERVICES CO MELEAN VA F/S 5/4 CMOMERCIAL VESSEL SAFET Y ECONOM IC BENEFITS (U) FEB Al C A CROOK , W R WHITTEMORE , M MARR5 DOT...N ., . . i* . .... ........ ’q m m l w ’ .. ... .... . .J F Y* •LEVEV teprt N. CB-ID-2-81 Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits PRELIMINARY PRC...constitute endorsement or approval of such products. COMMERCIAL VESSEL SAFETY ECONOMIC BENEFITS PRC Systems Services Company 7600 Old Springhouse

  17. Heart and Blood Vessels in Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common of these problems affects the aorta, the main blood vessel carrying blood from the ... have problems in blood vessels other than the aorta. Even though heart and blood vessel problems affect ...

  18. 50 CFR 300.32 - Vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.32 Vessel licenses. (a) Each vessel fishing in the Licensing Area... amount, in metric tons, of any tuna species landed or transshipped from the vessel at United States ports...

  19. 50 CFR 300.32 - Vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.32 Vessel licenses. (a) Each vessel fishing in the Licensing Area... amount, in metric tons, of any tuna species landed or transshipped from the vessel at United States ports...

  20. 50 CFR 300.32 - Vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.32 Vessel licenses. (a) Each vessel fishing in the Licensing Area... amount, in metric tons, of any tuna species landed or transshipped from the vessel at United States ports...

  1. 50 CFR 300.32 - Vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.32 Vessel licenses. (a) Each vessel fishing in the Licensing Area... amount, in metric tons, of any tuna species landed or transshipped from the vessel at United States ports...

  2. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on

  3. The Rising Rate of Rural Hospital Closures.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Thomas, Sharita R; Randolph, Randy K; Perry, Julie R; Thompson, Kristie W; Holmes, George M; Pink, George H

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the rate of rural hospital closures has increased significantly. This study is a preliminary look at recent closures and a formative step in research to understand the causes and the impact on rural communities. The 2009 financial performance and market characteristics of rural hospitals that closed from 2010 through 2014 were compared to rural hospitals that remained open during the same period, stratified by critical access hospitals (CAHs) and other rural hospitals (ORHs). Differences were tested using Pearson's chi-square (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank test of medians. The relationships between negative operating margin and (1) market factors and (2) utilization/staffing factors were explored using logistic regression. In 2009, CAHs that subsequently closed from 2010 through 2014 had, in general, lower levels of profitability, liquidity, equity, patient volume, and staffing. In addition, ORHs that closed had smaller market shares and operated in markets with smaller populations compared to ORHs that remained open. Odds of unprofitability were associated with both market and utilization factors. Although half of the closed hospitals ceased providing health services altogether, the remainder have since converted to an alternative health care delivery model. Financial and market characteristics appear to be associated with closure of rural hospitals from 2010 through 2014, suggesting that it is possible to identify hospitals at risk of closure. As closure rates show no sign of abating, it is important to study the drivers of distress in rural hospitals, as well as the potential for alternative health care delivery models. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  4. 40 CFR 265.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must equal the cost of final closure at the point in the facility's active life when the extent and... at all times over the life of the facility. (3) The closure cost estimate may not incorporate any... facility at the time of partial or final closure. (4) The owner or operator may not incorporate a zero cost...

  5. 40 CFR 265.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must equal the cost of final closure at the point in the facility's active life when the extent and... at all times over the life of the facility. (3) The closure cost estimate may not incorporate any... facility at the time of partial or final closure. (4) The owner or operator may not incorporate a zero cost...

  6. The Effect of Rural Hospital Closures on Community Economic Health

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, George M; Slifkin, Rebecca T; Randolph, Randy K; Poley, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of rural hospital closures on the local economy. Data Sources U.S. Census Bureau, OSCAR, Medicare Cost Reports, and surveys of individuals knowledgeable about local hospital closures. Study Design Economic data at the county level for 1990–2000 were combined with information on hospital closures. The study sample was restricted to rural counties experiencing a closure during the sample period. Longitudinal regression methods were used to estimate the effect of hospital closure on per-capita income, unemployment rate, and other community economic measures. Models included both leading and lagged closure terms allowing a preclosure economic downturn as well as time for the closure to be fully realized by the community. Data Collection Information on closures was collected by contacting every state hospital association, reconciling information gathered with that contained in the American Hospital Association file and OIG reports. Principal Findings Results indicate that the closure of the sole hospital in the community reduces per-capita income by $703 (p<0.05) or 4 percent (p<0.05) and increases the unemployment rate by 1.6 percentage points (p<0.01). Closures in communities with alternative sources of hospital care had no long-term economic impact, although income decreased for 2 years following the closure. Conclusions The local economic effects of a hospital closure should be considered when regulations that affect hospitals' financial well-being are designed or changed. PMID:16584460

  7. Crack closure and sequential effects in fatigue: A literature survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, M.

    A literature survey of the phenomenon of crack closure is reported here. The state of the art is reviewed and several empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other. Their properties, advantages and disadvantages are briefly discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are presented and experimental data from the literature are reported.

  8. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a) District...

  9. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a) District...

  10. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a) District...

  11. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a) District...

  12. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a) District...

  13. 40 CFR 267.143 - Financial assurance for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 267... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.143 Financial assurance for closure. The owner or operator must establish financial assurance for closure of each storage or treatment unit that he owns or operates. In...

  14. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base closure... frequently contain provisions limiting the extent of environmental analysis required for actions taken under...

  15. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base closure... frequently contain provisions limiting the extent of environmental analysis required for actions taken under...

  16. CHF Enhancement by Vessel Coating for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Fan-Bill Cheung; Joy L. Rempe

    2004-06-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) is a key severe accident management (SAM) strategy that has been adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). One viable means for IVR is the method of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) by flooding of the reactor cavity during a severe accident. As part of a joint Korean – United States International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (K-INERI), an experimental study has been conducted to investigate the viability of using an appropriate vessel coating to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF) limits during ERVC. Toward this end, transient quenching and steady-state boilingmore » experiments were performed in the SBLB (Subscale Boundary Layer Boiling) facility at Penn State using test vessels with micro-porous aluminum coatings. Local boiling curves and CHF limits were obtained in these experiments. When compared to the corresponding data without coatings, substantial enhancement in the local CHF limits for the case with surface coatings was observed. Results of the steady state boiling experiments showed that micro-porous aluminum coatings were very durable. Even after many cycles of steady state boiling, the vessel coatings remained rather intact, with no apparent changes in color or structure. Moreover, the heat transfer performance of the coatings was found to be highly desirable with an appreciable CHF enhancement in all locations on the vessel outer surface but with very little effect of aging.« less

  17. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  18. Economic comparison of methods of wound closure: wound closure strips vs. sutures and wound adhesives.

    PubMed

    Zempsky, William T; Zehrer, Cindy L; Lyle, Christopher T; Hedbloom, Edwin C

    2005-09-01

    Our objective was to review and assess the treatment of low-tension wounds and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of wound closure methods. We used a health economic model to estimate cost/closure of adhesive wound closure strips, tissue adhesives and sutures. The model incorporated cost-driving variables: application time, costs and the likelihood and costs of dehiscence and infection. The model was populated with variable estimates derived from the literature. Cost estimates and cosmetic results were compared. Parameter values were estimated using national healthcare and labour statistics. Sensitivity analyses were used to verify the results. Our analysis suggests that adhesive wound closure strips had the lowest average cost per laceration ($7.54), the lowest cost per infected laceration ($53.40) and the lowest cost per laceration with dehiscence ($25.40). The costs for sutures were $24.11, $69.91 and $41.91, respectively; the costs for tissue adhesives were $28.77, $74.68 and $46.68, respectively. The cosmetic outcome for all three treatments was equivalent. We conclude adhesive wound closure strips were both a cost-saving and a cost-effective alternative to sutures and tissue adhesives in the closure of low-tension lacerations.

  19. Abrupt uplift within the past 1700 years at Southern Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bucknam, R.C.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Leopold, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    Shorelines rose as much as 7 meters along southern Puget Sound and Hood Canal between 500 and 1700 years ago. Evidence for this uplift consists of elevated wave-cut shore platforms near Seattle and emerged, peat-covered tidal flats as much as 60 kilometers to the southwest. The uplift was too rapid for waves to leave intermediate shorelines on even the best preserved platform. The tidal flats also emerged abruptly; they changed into freshwater swamps and meadows without first becoming tidal marshes. Where uplift was greatest, it adjoined an inferred fault that crosses Puget Sound at Seattle and it probably accompanied reverse slip on that fault 1000 to 1100 years ago. The uplift and probable fault slip show that the crust of the North America plate contains potential sources of damaging earthquakes in the Puget Sound region.

  20. Automated detection of sperm whale sounds as a function of abrupt changes in sound intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Christopher D.; Rayborn, Grayson H.; Brack, Benjamin A.; Kuczaj, Stan A.; Paulos, Robin L.

    2003-04-01

    An algorithm designed to detect abrupt changes in sound intensity was developed and used to identify and count sperm whale vocalizations and to measure boat noise. The algorithm is a MATLAB routine that counts the number of occurrences for which the change in intensity level exceeds a threshold. The algorithm also permits the setting of a ``dead time'' interval to prevent the counting of multiple pulses within a single sperm whale click. This algorithm was used to analyze digitally sampled recordings of ambient noise obtained from the Gulf of Mexico using near bottom mounted EARS buoys deployed as part of the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center experiment. Because the background in these data varied slowly, the result of the application of the algorithm was automated detection of sperm whale clicks and creaks with results that agreed well with those obtained by trained human listeners. [Research supported by ONR.

  1. Therapeutic amnioinfusion for chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence: a possible prevention of the infant respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Morita, Ayako; Kondoh, Eiji; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Fujita, Kohei; Mogami, Haruta; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-04-01

    Chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence (CAOS), characterized by chronic vaginal bleeding and oligohydramnios, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery and lung problems in the infant. Fetal lung damage may be induced by not only oligohydramnios but also iron-induced oxidative stress through chronic aspiration of bloody substances in amniotic fluid. We describe a pregnancy complicated with CAOS that was managed with repeated amnioinfusions. This is the first report showing that amnioinfusions succeeded in a significant reduction in high concentrations of iron, lactose dehydrogenase, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, in the amniotic fluid complicated by CAOS. The baby, born at 26 weeks' gestation via cesarean, was discharged home without supplemental oxygen 116 days after birth. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Nonlinearity in bacterial population dynamics: Proposal for experiments for the observation of abrupt transitions in patches

    PubMed Central

    Kenkre, V. M.; Kumar, Niraj

    2008-01-01

    An explicit proposal for experiments leading to abrupt transitions in spatially extended bacterial populations in a Petri dish is presented on the basis of an exact formula obtained through an analytic theory. The theory provides accurately the transition expressions despite the fact that the actual solutions, which involve strong nonlinearity, are inaccessible to it. The analytic expressions are verified through numerical solutions of the relevant nonlinear equation. The experimental setup suggested uses opaque masks in a Petri dish bathed in ultraviolet radiation [Lin A-L, et al. (2004) Biophys J 87:75–80 and Perry N (2005) J R Soc Interface 2:379–387], but is based on the interplay of two distances the bacteria must traverse, one of them favorable and the other adverse. As a result of this interplay feature, the experiments proposed introduce highly enhanced reliability in interpretation of observations and in the potential for extraction of system parameters. PMID:19033185

  3. Theory and Design Tools For Studies of Reactions to Abrupt Changes in Noise Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.; Ehrlich, Gary E.; Zador, Paul; Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Study plans, a pre-tested questionnaire, a sample design evaluation tool, a community publicity monitoring plan, and a theoretical framework have been developed to support combined social/acoustical surveys of residents' reactions to an abrupt change in environmental noise, Secondary analyses of more than 20 previous surveys provide estimates of three parameters of a study simulation model; within individual variability, between study wave variability, and between neighborhood variability in response to community noise. The simulation model predicts the precision of the results from social surveys of reactions to noise, including changes in noise. When the study simulation model analyzed the population distribution, noise exposure environments and feasible noise measurement program at a proposed noise change survey site, it was concluded that the site could not yield sufficient precise estimates of human reaction model to justify conducting a survey. Additional secondary analyses determined that noise reactions are affected by the season of the social survey.

  4. Synchronous centennial abrupt events in the ocean and atmosphere during the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianyu; Robinson, Laura F; Burke, Andrea; Southon, John; Spooner, Peter; Morris, Paul J; Ng, Hong Chin

    2015-09-25

    Antarctic ice-core data reveal that the atmosphere experienced abrupt centennial increases in CO2 concentration during the last deglaciation (~18 thousand to 11 thousand years ago). Establishing the role of ocean circulation in these changes requires high-resolution, accurately dated marine records. Here, we report radiocarbon data from uranium-thorium-dated deep-sea corals in the Equatorial Atlantic and Drake Passage over the past 25,000 years. Two major deglacial radiocarbon shifts occurred in phase with centennial atmospheric CO2 rises at 14.8 thousand and 11.7 thousand years ago. We interpret these radiocarbon-enriched signals to represent two short-lived (less than 500 years) "overshoot" events, with Atlantic meridional overturning stronger than that of the modern era. These results provide compelling evidence for a close coupling of ocean circulation and centennial climate events during the last deglaciation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Fisheries portfolio diversification and turnover buffer Alaskan fishing communities from abrupt resource and market changes

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Timothy J.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Hilborn, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in natural resources and their markets are a ubiquitous challenge to human communities. Building resilient social-ecological systems requires approaches that are robust to uncertainty and to regime shifts. Harvesting diverse portfolios of natural resources and adapting portfolios in response to change could stabilize economies reliant on natural resources and their markets, both of which are prone to unpredictable shifts. Here we use fisheries catch and revenue data from Alaskan fishing communities over 34 years to test whether diversification and turnover in the composition of fishing opportunities increased economic stability during major ocean and market regime shifts in 1989. More than 85% of communities show reduced fishing revenues following these regime shifts. However, communities with the highest portfolio diversity and those that could opportunistically shift the composition of resources they harvest, experienced negligible or even positive changes in revenue. Maintaining diversity in economic opportunities and enabling turnover facilitates sustainability of communities reliant on renewable resources facing uncertain futures. PMID:28091534

  6. On the calculation of turbulent heat transport downstream from an abrupt pipe expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chieng, C. C.; Launder, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical study is reported of flow and heat transfer in the separated flow region created by an abrupt pipe expansion. Computations employed an adaptation of the TEACH-2E computer program with the standard model of turbulence. Emphasis is given to the simulation, from both a physical and numerical viewpoint, of the region in the immediate vicinity of the wall where turbulent transport gives way to molecular conduction and diffusion. Wall resistance laws or wall functions used to bridge this near-wall region are based on the idea that, beyond the viscous sublayer, the turbulent length scale is universal, increasing linearly with distance from the wall. Predictions of expermental data for a diameter ratio of 0.54 show generally encouraging agreement with experiment. At a diameter of 0.43 different trends are discernible between measurement and calculation though this appears to be due to effects unconnected with the wall region studied.

  7. On the calculation of turbulent heat transport downstream from an abrupt pipe expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chieng, C. C.; Launder, B. E.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical study of flow and heat transfer in the separated flow region produced by an abrupt pipe explosion is reported, with emphasis on the region in the immediate vicinity of the wall where turbulent transport gives way to molecular conduction and diffusion. The analysis is based on a modified TEACH-2E program with the standard k-epsilon model of turbulence. Predictions of the experimental data of Zemanick and Dougall (1970) for a diameter ratio of 0.54 show generally encouraging agreement with experiment. At a diameter ratio of 0.43 different trends are discernable between measurement and calculation, though this appears to be due to effects unconnected with the wall region studied here.

  8. Fast Response of the Tropics to an Abrupt Loss of Arctic Sea Ice via Ocean Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Deser, Clara; Sun, Lantao; Tomas, Robert A.

    2018-05-01

    The role of ocean dynamics in the transient adjustment of the coupled climate system to an abrupt loss of Arctic sea ice is investigated using experiments with Community Climate System Model version 4 in two configurations: a thermodynamic slab mixed layer ocean and a full-depth ocean that includes both dynamics and thermodynamics. Ocean dynamics produce a distinct sea surface temperature warming maximum in the eastern equatorial Pacific, accompanied by an equatorward intensification of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and Hadley Circulation. These tropical responses are established within 25 years of ice loss and contrast markedly with the quasi-steady antisymmetric coupled response in the slab-ocean configuration. A heat budget analysis reveals the importance of anomalous vertical advection tied to a monotonic temperature increase below 200 m for the equatorial sea surface temperature warming maximum in the fully coupled model. Ocean dynamics also rapidly modify the midlatitude atmospheric response to sea ice loss.

  9. North Atlantic ocean circulation and abrupt climate change during the last glaciation.

    PubMed

    Henry, L G; McManus, J F; Curry, W B; Roberts, N L; Piotrowski, A M; Keigwin, L D

    2016-07-29

    The most recent ice age was characterized by rapid and hemispherically asynchronous climate oscillations, whose origin remains unresolved. Variations in oceanic meridional heat transport may contribute to these repeated climate changes, which were most pronounced during marine isotope stage 3, the glacial interval 25 thousand to 60 thousand years ago. We examined climate and ocean circulation proxies throughout this interval at high resolution in a deep North Atlantic sediment core, combining the kinematic tracer protactinium/thorium (Pa/Th) with the deep water-mass tracer, epibenthic δ(13)C. These indicators suggest reduced Atlantic overturning circulation during every cool northern stadial, with the greatest reductions during episodic Hudson Strait iceberg discharges, while sharp northern warming followed reinvigorated overturning. These results provide direct evidence for the ocean's persistent, central role in abrupt glacial climate change. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Ice-coupled wave propagation across an abrupt change in ice rigidity, density, or thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Murray D.; Squire, Vernon A.

    1996-09-01

    The model of Fox and Squire [1990, 1991, 1994], which discusses the oblique propagation of surface gravity waves from the open sea into an ice sheet of constant thickness and properties, is augmented to include propagation across an abrupt transition of properties within a continuous ice sheet or across two dissimilar ice sheets that abut one another but are free to move independently. Rigidity, thickness, and/or density may change across the transition, allowing, for example, the modeling of ice-coupled waves into, across, and out of refrozen leads and polynyas, across cracks, and through coherent pressure ridges. Reflection and transmission behavior is reported for various changes in properties under both types of transition conditions.

  11. Advance, Retreat, and Halt of Abrupt Gravel-Sand Transitions in Alluvial Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Astrid; Chavarrías, Víctor; Ferguson, Robert I.; Viparelli, Enrica

    2017-10-01

    Downstream fining of bed sediment in alluvial rivers is usually gradual, but often an abrupt decrease in characteristic grain size occurs from about 10 to 1 mm, i.e., a gravel-sand transition (GST) or gravel front. Here we present an analytical model of GST migration that explicitly accounts for gravel and sand transport and deposition in the gravel reach, sea level change, subsidence, and delta progradation. The model shows that even a limited gravel supply to a sand bed reach induces progradation of a gravel wedge and predicts the circumstances required for the gravel front to advance, retreat, and halt. Predicted modern GST migration rates agree well with measured data at Allt Dubhaig and the Fraser River, and the model qualitatively captures the behavior of other documented gravel fronts. The analysis shows that sea level change, subsidence, and delta progradation have a significant impact on the GST position in lowland rivers.

  12. Manic espisode, confusional syndrome and reversible splenial lesion after abrupt withdrawal of oxcarbazepine.

    PubMed

    Merizalde, Milton; Navalón, Pablo; González, María Fernanda; Domínguez, Alberto; Livianos, Lorenzo; Martínez, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Anticonvulsants are considered a second line option for bipolar disorder, it is known that the abrupt withdrawal is rarely related with demyelinated lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum. Oxcarbazepine is used in bipolar disorder although it is not stated in the data sheet. We presented a case of a 50 years old woman with bipolar disorder who is treated with lithium and oxcarbazepine, she presented a manic episode and a confusional syndrome after she stopped taking the medication. The magnetic resonance showed a restricted diffusion area at the splenium of the corpus callosum and bifrontal hygromas that disappear two weeks later. The results of this study suggest that for a patient presenting with a mild encephalopathy and reversible splenial lesion, one should consider whether it is related to withdrawal of oxcarbazepine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Paleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Yarrow; Briner, Jason P.; Miller, Gifford H.; Francis, Donna R.

    2009-03-01

    A continuous record of insect (Chironomidae) remains preserved in lake sediments is used to infer temperature changes at a small lake in Arctic Canada through the Holocene. Early Holocene summers at the study site were characterized by more thermophilous assemblages and warmer inferred temperatures than today, presumably in response to the positive anomaly in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Peak early Holocene warmth was interrupted by two cold reversals between 9.5 and 8 cal ka BP, during which multiple cold-stenothermous chironomid taxa appeared in the lake. The earlier reversal appears to correlate with widespread climate anomalies around 9.2 cal ka BP; the age of the younger reversal is equivocal but it may correlate with the 8.2 cal ka BP cold event documented elsewhere. Widespread, abrupt climate shifts in the early Holocene illustrate the susceptibility of the climate system to perturbations, even during periods of enhanced warmth in the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Abrupt shift in the observed runoff from the southwestern Greenland ice sheet

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Petersen, Dorthe; Langen, Peter L.; Citterio, Michele; Box, Jason E.

    2017-01-01

    The recent decades of accelerating mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet have arisen from an increase in both surface meltwater runoff and ice flow discharge from tidewater glaciers. Despite the role of the Greenland ice sheet as the dominant individual cryospheric contributor to sea level rise in recent decades, no observational record of its mass loss spans the 30-year period needed to assess its climatological state. We present for the first time a 40-year (1975–2014) time series of observed meltwater discharge from a >6500-km2 catchment of the southwestern Greenland ice sheet. We find that an abrupt 80% increase in runoff occurring between the 1976–2002 and 2003–2014 periods is due to a shift in atmospheric circulation, with meridional exchange events occurring more frequently over Greenland, establishing the first observation-based connection between ice sheet runoff and climate change. PMID:29242827

  15. Elicitation and abrupt termination of behaviorally significant catchlike tension in a primitive insect.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, G; Field, L H

    1983-07-01

    Sustained steady contractural or catchlike tension (CT) occurs in the metathoracic extensor tibiae muscle of the primitive insect the weta (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae) during its characteristic leg-extension defense behavior or following leg-position conditioning. Similar action occurs occasionally in semi-intact preparations and is abruptly turned off by a single peripheral inhibitory impulse. These phenomena were reproduced routinely by first infusing saline containing 10(-8) M (or stronger) octopamine into the muscle for 12 min, and then stimulating the slow excitatory motor neuron SETi with a brief burst. Direct stimulation of the dorsal unpaired median neuron, innervating the extensor tibiae (DUMETi) prior to SETi stimulation, also led to CT. Both octopamine and DUMETi markedly enhanced the tension developed in response to a burst of impulses in SETi.

  16. Hemispheric asymmetry of ERPs and MMNs evoked by slow, fast and abrupt auditory motion.

    PubMed

    Shestopalova, L B; Petropavlovskaia, E A; Vaitulevich, S Ph; Nikitin, N I

    2016-10-01

    The current MMN study investigates whether brain lateralization during automatic discrimination of sound stimuli moving at different velocities is consistent with one of the three models of asymmetry: the right-hemispheric dominance model, the contralateral dominance model, or the neglect model. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for three patterns of sound motion produced by linear or abrupt changes of interaural time differences. The slow motion (450deg/s) was used as standard, and the fast motion (620deg/s) and the abrupt sound shift served as deviants in the oddball blocks. All stimuli had the same onset/offset spatial positions. We compared the effects of the recording side (left, right) and of the direction of sound displacement (ipsi- or contralateral with reference to the side of recording) on the ERPs and mismatch negativity (MMN). Our results indicated different patterns of asymmetry for the ERPs and MMN responses. The ERPs showed a velocity-independent right-hemispheric dominance that emerged at the descending limb of N1 wave (at around 120-160ms) and could be related to overall context of the preattentive spatial perception. The MMNs elicited in the left hemisphere (at around 230-270ms) exhibited a contralateral dominance, whereas the right-hemispheric MMNs were insensitive to the direction of sound displacement. These differences in contralaterality between MMN responses produced by the left and the right hemisphere favour the neglect model of the preattentive motion processing indexed by MMN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abrupt climate change and transient climates during the Paleogene: a marine perspective.

    PubMed

    Zachos, J C; Lohmann, K C; Walker, J C; Wise, S W

    1993-03-01

    Detailed investigations of high latitude sequences recently collected by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) indicate that periods of rapid climate change often culminated in brief transient climates, with more extreme conditions than subsequent long term climates. Two examples of such events have been identified in the Paleogene; the first in latest Paleocene time in the middle of a warming trend that began several million years earlier: the second in earliest Oligocene time near the end of a Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene global cooling trend. Superimposed on the earlier event was a sudden and extreme warming of both high latitude sea surface and deep ocean waters. Imbedded in the latter transition was an abrupt decline in high latitude temperatures and the brief appearance of a full size continental ice-sheet on Antarctica. In both cases the climate extremes were not stable, lasting for less than a few hundred thousand years, indicating a temporary or transient climate state. Geochemical and sedimentological evidence suggest that both Paleogene climate events were accompanied by reorganizations in ocean circulation, and major perturbations in marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum was marked by reduced oceanic turnover and decreases in global delta 13C and in marine productivity, while the Early Oligocene glacial maximum was accompanied by intensification of deep ocean circulation and elevated delta 13C and productivity. It has been suggested that sudden changes in climate and/or ocean circulation might occur as a result of gradual forcing as certain physical thresholds are exceeded. We investigate the possibility that sudden reorganizations in ocean and/or atmosphere circulation during these abrupt transitions generated short-term positive feedbacks that briefly sustained these transient climatic states.

  18. Remote Detection and Modeling of Abrupt and Gradual Tree Mortality in the Southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muss, J. D.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    Current climate models predict a warming and drying trend that has a high probability of increasing the frequency and spatial extent of tree mortality events. Field surveys can be used to identify, date, and attribute a cause of mortality to specific trees, but monetary and time constraints prevent broad-scale surveys, which are necessary to establish regional or global trends in tree mortality. This is significant because widespread forest mortality will likely lead to radical changes in evapotranspiration and surface albedo, which could compound climate change. While understanding the causes and mechanisms of tree mortality events is crucial, it is equally important to be able to detect and monitor mortality and subsequent changes to the ecosystem at broad spatial- and temporal-scales. Over the past five years our ability to remotely detect abrupt forest mortality events has improved greatly, but gradual events—such as those caused by drought or certain types of insects—are still difficult to identify. Moreover, it is virtually impossible to quantify the amount of mortality that has occurred within a mixed pixel. We have developed a system that fuses climate and satellite-derived spectral data to identify both the date and the agent of forest mortality events. This system has been used with Landsat time series data to detect both abrupt and general trends in tree loss that have occurred during the past quarter-century in northern New Mexico. It has also been used with MODIS data to identify pixels with a high likelihood of drought-caused tree mortality in the Southwestern US. These candidate pixels were then fed to ED-FRT, a coupled forest dynamics-radiative transfer model, to generate estimates of drought-induced. We demonstrate a multi-scale approach that can produce results that will be instrumental in advancing our understanding of tree mortality-climate feedbacks, and improve our ability to predict what forests could look like in the future.

  19. Extreme temperatures, foundation species, and abrupt ecosystem change: an example from an iconic seagrass ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jordan A; Burkholder, Derek A; Heithaus, Michael R; Fourqurean, James W; Fraser, Matthew W; Statton, John; Kendrick, Gary A

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climatic events can trigger abrupt and often lasting change in ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation (i.e., habitat-forming) species. However, while the frequency/intensity of extreme events is predicted to increase under climate change, the impact of these events on many foundation species and the ecosystems they support remains poorly understood. Here, we use the iconic seagrass meadows of Shark Bay, Western Australia--a relatively pristine subtropical embayment whose dominant, canopy-forming seagrass, Amphibolis antarctica, is a temperate species growing near its low-latitude range limit--as a model system to investigate the impacts of extreme temperatures on ecosystems supported by thermally sensitive foundation species in a changing climate. Following an unprecedented marine heat wave in late summer 2010/11, A. antarctica experienced catastrophic (>90%) dieback in several regions of Shark Bay. Animal-borne video footage taken from the perspective of resident, seagrass-associated megafauna (sea turtles) revealed severe habitat degradation after the event compared with a decade earlier. This reduction in habitat quality corresponded with a decline in the health status of largely herbivorous green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the 2 years following the heat wave, providing evidence of long-term, community-level impacts of the event. Based on these findings, and similar examples from diverse ecosystems, we argue that a generalized framework for assessing the vulnerability of ecosystems to abrupt change associated with the loss of foundation species is needed to accurately predict ecosystem trajectories in a changing climate. This includes seagrass meadows, which have received relatively little attention in this context. Novel research and monitoring methods, such as the analysis of habitat and environmental data from animal-borne video and data-logging systems, can make an important contribution to this framework. © 2014 John Wiley

  20. Abrupt Increases in Amazonian Tree Mortality Due to Drought-Fire Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silverio, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nobrega, Caroline C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, longterm experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW x m(exp -1)). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with less than 1% in nondrought years. These results show that a few extreme drought events, coupled with forest fragmentation and anthropogenic ignition sources, are already causing widespread fire-induced tree mortality and forest degradation across southeastern Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change.

  1. Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought-fire interactions.

    PubMed

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K; Nepstad, Daniel C; Morton, Douglas C; Putz, Francis E; Coe, Michael T; Silvério, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N; Davidson, Eric A; Nóbrega, Caroline C; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2014-04-29

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, long-term experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW ⋅ m(-1)). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with <1% in nondrought years. These results show that a few extreme drought events, coupled with forest fragmentation and anthropogenic ignition sources, are already causing widespread fire-induced tree mortality and forest degradation across southeastern Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change.

  2. Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought–fire interactions

    PubMed Central

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silvério, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nóbrega, Caroline C.; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, long-term experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW⋅m−1). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with <1% in nondrought years. These results show that a few extreme drought events, coupled with forest fragmentation and anthropogenic ignition sources, are already causing widespread fire-induced tree mortality and forest degradation across southeastern Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change. PMID:24733937

  3. Abrupt opium discontinuation has no significant triggering effect on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Zare, Jahangir; Nasri, Hamidreza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2011-04-01

    A deleterious effect of withdrawal symptoms due to abrupt discontinuation of opium on the cardiovascular system is one of the recent interesting topics in the cardiovascular field. The current study hypothesized that the withdrawal syndrome due to discontinuing opium might be an important trigger for the appearance of acute myocardial infarction. Eighty-one opium-addicted individuals who were candidates for cardiovascular clinical evaluation and consecutively hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) ward of Shafa Hospital in Kerman between January and July 2009 were included in the study and categorized in the case group, including patients experiencing withdrawal symptoms within 6-12 h after the reduced or discontinued use of opium according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-revised IV version (DSM-IV-R) criteria for opium dependence and withdrawal, and the control group, without opium withdrawal symptoms. The appearance of acute myocardial infarction was compared between the two groups using multivariable regression models. Acute myocardial infarction occurred in 50.0% of those with withdrawal symptoms and in 45.1% of patients without evidence of opium withdrawal (P = 0.669). Multivariable analysis showed that opium withdrawal symptoms were not a trigger for acute myocardial infarction adjusting for demographic characteristics, marital status, education level and common coronary artery disease risk profiles [odds ratio (OR) = 0.920, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.350-2.419, P = 0.866]. Also, daily dose of opium before reducing or discontinuing use did not predict the appearance of myocardial infarction in the presence of confounder variables (OR = 0.975, 95% CI = 0.832-1.143, P = 0.755). Withdrawal syndrome due to abrupt discontinuation of opium does not have a triggering role for appearance of acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Abrupt pre-Bølling-Allerød warming and circulation changes in the deep ocean.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Nivedita; Subhas, Adam V; Southon, John R; Eiler, John M; Adkins, Jess F

    2014-07-03

    Several large and rapid changes in atmospheric temperature and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--probably linked to changes in deep ocean circulation--occurred during the last deglaciation. The abrupt temperature rise in the Northern Hemisphere and the restart of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the start of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, 14,700 years ago, are among the most dramatic deglacial events, but their underlying physical causes are not known. Here we show that the release of heat from warm waters in the deep North Atlantic Ocean probably triggered the Bølling-Allerød warming and reinvigoration of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Our results are based on coupled radiocarbon and uranium-series dates, along with clumped isotope temperature estimates, from water column profiles of fossil deep-sea corals in a limited area of the western North Atlantic. We find that during Heinrich stadial 1 (the cool period immediately before the Bølling-Allerød interstadial), the deep ocean was about three degrees Celsius warmer than shallower waters above. This reversal of the ocean's usual thermal stratification pre-dates the Bølling-Allerød warming and must have been associated with increased salinity at depth to preserve the static stability of the water column. The depleted radiocarbon content of the warm and salty water mass implies a long-term disconnect from rapid surface exchanges, and, although uncertainties remain, is most consistent with a Southern Ocean source. The Heinrich stadial 1 ocean profile is distinct from the modern water column, that for the Last Glacial Maximum and that for the Younger Dryas, suggesting that the patterns we observe are a unique feature of the deglacial climate system. Our observations indicate that the deep ocean influenced dramatic Northern Hemisphere warming by storing heat at depth that preconditioned the system for a subsequent abrupt overturning event during the

  5. Abrupt climate change and transient climates during the Paleogene: a marine perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachos, J. C.; Lohmann, K. C.; Walker, J. C.; Wise, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed investigations of high latitude sequences recently collected by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) indicate that periods of rapid climate change often culminated in brief transient climates, with more extreme conditions than subsequent long term climates. Two examples of such events have been identified in the Paleogene; the first in latest Paleocene time in the middle of a warming trend that began several million years earlier: the second in earliest Oligocene time near the end of a Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene global cooling trend. Superimposed on the earlier event was a sudden and extreme warming of both high latitude sea surface and deep ocean waters. Imbedded in the latter transition was an abrupt decline in high latitude temperatures and the brief appearance of a full size continental ice-sheet on Antarctica. In both cases the climate extremes were not stable, lasting for less than a few hundred thousand years, indicating a temporary or transient climate state. Geochemical and sedimentological evidence suggest that both Paleogene climate events were accompanied by reorganizations in ocean circulation, and major perturbations in marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum was marked by reduced oceanic turnover and decreases in global delta 13C and in marine productivity, while the Early Oligocene glacial maximum was accompanied by intensification of deep ocean circulation and elevated delta 13C and productivity. It has been suggested that sudden changes in climate and/or ocean circulation might occur as a result of gradual forcing as certain physical thresholds are exceeded. We investigate the possibility that sudden reorganizations in ocean and/or atmosphere circulation during these abrupt transitions generated short-term positive feedbacks that briefly sustained these transient climatic states.

  6. Climatic and Societal Causes for Abrupt Environmental Change in the Mediterranean During the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Noble, P. J.; Archer, C.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cifnani, G.; Passigli, S.; Piovesan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We compare climatic and societal causes for abrupt environmental change for the last 2000 years in the Rieti Basin, central Italy using high-resolution sedimentary paleoenvironmental proxies, historical documents, and annually resolved independent climate reconstructions of temperature and precipitation. Pollen zones, identified from temporally constrained cluster analysis, coincide with historic periods developed from well-established ceramic sequences corresponding to the Roman Imperial through Late Antique (1 to 600 CE) Early Medieval (600 to 875 CE), Medieval through Late Medieval (875 to 1400 CE), Renaissance and Modern (1400 to 1725 CE), and Contemporary periods (1725 CE to present). Non-metric dimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination showed that each temporal period occupied a unique ecologic space suggesting that a new landscape was created during each successive historic period. During Roman time, between 1 and 500 CE, a modest decline in forest coincides with a positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and drier climate; however mesophyllous forest is preserved. Steep decline in forest cover between 850 and 950 CE coincides with positive temperature anomalies in Europe and a positive NAO. Although this would seem to suggest climate as a cause, temperature and precipitation changes are modest and the magnitude and rapidity of the vegetation change suggests climate played a small role. Archaeological evidence from across Europe identifies socioeconomic factors that produced forest clearing. In contrast, cooler temperatures and a negative NAO (increased ppt) appears to have been a catalyst for land abandonment and forest recovery in the 13th to 14th centuries. The NAO produces opposite effects on societies in the eastern and western Mediterranean with the negative phase in 1400 CE leading to cool wet climate and land abandonment in central Italy but an abrupt shift to drier conditions and change from sedentary village life to nomadism in Syria.

  7. Abrupt aridities in the Levant-Sahel linked with solar activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, M.; Kushnir, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Observations of 19th and 20th century precipitation in the Dead Sea watershed region display a multidecadal, anti-phase relationship to North Atlantic (NAtl) sea surface temperature (SST) variability, such that when the NAtl is relatively cold, Jerusalem experiences higher than normal precipitation and vice versa. This association is underlined by a negative correlation to precipitation in the sub-Saharan Sahel and a positive correlation to precipitation in western North America, areas that are also affected by multidecadal NAtl SST variability. These observations are consistent with broad range of Holocene hydroclimatic fluctuations from the epochal, to the millennial and centennial time scales, as displayed by the Dead Sea and Sahelian lake levels and by direct and indirect proxy indicators of NAtl SSTs. On the epochal time scale, the gradual cooling of NAtl SSTs throughout the Holocene in response to precession-driven reduction of summer insolation is associated with previously well-studied wet-to-dry transition in the Sahel and with a general increase in Dead Sea lake levels from low stands after the Younger Dryas to higher stands in the mid- to late-Holocene. On the millennial and centennial time scales there is also evidence for an antiphase relationship between Holocene variations in the Dead Sea and Sahelian lake levels and with proxy indicators of NAtl SSTs. However, the records are punctuated by abrupt lake-level drops and extensive expansion of the desert belt at ~8.1, 5.7, 3.3 and 1.4 ka cal BP, which appear to be in-phase and which occur during previously documented abrupt major cooling events in the Northern Hemisphere. We link these cooling to solar activity variations that were identified in the North Atlantic IRD and cosmogenic isotopes records.

  8. Abrupt Upper-Plate Tilting Upon Slab-Transition-Zone Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crameri, F.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    During its sinking, the remnant of a surface plate crosses and interacts with multiple boundaries in Earth's interior. The most-prominent dynamic interaction arises at the upper-mantle transition zone where the sinking plate is strongly affected by the higher-viscosity lower mantle. Within our numerical model, we unravel, for the first time, that this very collision of the sinking slab with the transition zone induces a sudden, dramatic downward tilt of the upper plate towards the subduction trench. The slab-transition zone collision sets parts of the higher-viscosity lower mantle in motion. Naturally, this then induces an overall larger return flow cell that, at its onset, tilts the upper plate abruptly by around 0.05 degrees and over around 10 Millions of years. Such a significant and abrupt variation in surface topography should be clearly visible in temporal geologic records of large-scale surface elevation and might explain continental-wide tilting as observed in Australia since the Eocene or North America during the Phanerozoic. Unravelling this crucial mantle-lithosphere interaction was possible thanks to state-of-the-art numerical modelling (powered by StagYY; Tackley 2008, PEPI) and post-processing (powered by StagLab; www.fabiocrameri.ch/software). The new model that is introduced here to study the dynamically self-consistent temporal evolution of subduction features accurate subduction-zone topography, robust single-sided plate sinking, stronger plates close to laboratory values, an upper-mantle phase transition and, crucially, simple continents at a free surface. A novel, fully-automated post-processing includes physical model diagnostics like slab geometry, mantle flow pattern, upper-plate tilt angle and trench location.

  9. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  10. Common pressure vessel battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.

    1978-01-01

    Performance tests run on two common pressure vessel type nickel hydrogen batteries are described and the results presented. The study included: (1) charge retention tests, (2) synchronous eclipse season cycling tests, and (3) temperature differential tests.

  11. Reactor vessel seal service fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ritz, W.C.

    1975-12-01

    An apparatus for the preparation of exposed sealing surfaces along the open rim of a nuclear reactor vessel comprised of a motorized mechanism for traveling along the rim and simultaneously brushing the exposed surfaces is described.

  12. 77 FR 75186 - Notice of Closure, Target Shooting Public Safety Closure on the Lake Mountains in Utah County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Closure, Target Shooting Public Safety Closure on the Lake Mountains in Utah County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of... Lake Mountains in Utah County, Utah, to recreational target shooting to protect public safety. This... shooting closure within the described area will remain in effect no longer than two years from December 19...

  13. Tissue adhesives for closure of surgical incisions.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Paul; Esposito, Marco; Worthington, Helen V; van der Elst, Maarten; van Waes, Oscar J F; Darcey, James

    2010-05-12

    Sutures, staples and adhesive tapes are the traditional methods of wound closure, whilst tissue adhesives have entered clinical practice more recently. Closure of wounds with sutures enables meticulous closure, but they may show tissue reactivity and can require removal. Tissue adhesives offer the advantages of no risk of needlestick injury and no requirement to remove sutures later. Tissue adhesives have been used primarily in emergency rooms but this review looks at the use of tissue adhesives in the operating room where surgeons are increasingly using these for the closure of surgical skin incisions. To determine the relative effects of various tissue adhesives and conventional skin closure techniques on the healing of surgical wounds. For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (Searched 17/11/09); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) - The Cochrane Library Issue 4 2009; Ovid MEDLINE - 1950 to November Week 1 2009; Ovid EMBASE - 1980 to 2009 Week 46; EBSCO CINAHL - 1982 to 17 November 20098. No date or language restrictions were applied. Only randomised controlled clinical trials were eligible for inclusion. Screening of eligible studies and data extraction were conducted independently and in triplicate whilst assessment of the methodological quality of the trials was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results were expressed as random effects models using mean difference for continuous outcomes and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was investigated including both clinical and methodological factors. This update identified an additional six trials resulting in a total of fourteen RCTs (1152 patients) which met the inclusion criteria. Sutures were significantly better than tissue adhesives for minimising dehiscence (10 trials). Sutures were also found to be significantly faster to use. For all other analyses of infection, patient and operator

  14. 50 CFR 648.101 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer... fishing for summer flounder by commercial vessels for the remainder of the calendar year by publishing... available for landing summer flounder in that state. ...

  15. Measuring Diameters Of Large Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R.; Kissel, Ralph R.; Oliver, Charles E.; Smith, Earnest C.; Redmon, John W., Sr.; Wallace, Charles C.; Swanson, Charles P.

    1990-01-01

    Computerized apparatus produces accurate results quickly. Apparatus measures diameter of tank or other large cylindrical vessel, without prior knowledge of exact location of cylindrical axis. Produces plot of inner circumference, estimate of true center of vessel, data on radius, diameter of best-fit circle, and negative and positive deviations of radius from circle at closely spaced points on circumference. Eliminates need for time-consuming and error-prone manual measurements.

  16. An abrupt slowdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during 1915-1935 induced by solar forcing in a coupled GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Song, Y.; Yu, Y.; Liu, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we explore an abrupt change of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) apparent in the historical run simulated by the second version of the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model - Spectral Version 2 (FGOALS-s2). The abrupt change is noted during the period from 1915 to 1935, in which the maximal AMOC value is weakened beyond 6 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). The abrupt signal first occurs at high latitudes (north of 46° N), then shifts gradually to middle latitudes (∼35° N) three to seven years later. The weakened AMOC can be explained in the following. The weak total solar irradiance (TIS) during early twentieth century decreases pole-to-equator temperature gradient in the upper stratosphere. The North polar vortex is weakened, which forces a negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase during 1905-1914. The negative phase of NAO induces anomalous easterly winds in 50-70° N belts, which decrease the release of heat fluxes from ocean to atmosphere and induce surface warming over these regions. Through the surface ice-albedo feedback, the warming may lead to continuously melting sea ice in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, which results in freshwater accumulation. This can lead to salinity and density reductions and then an abrupt slowdown of AMOC. Moreover, due to increased TIS after 1914, the enhanced Atlantic northward ocean heat transport from low to high latitudes induces an abrupt warming of sea surface temperature or upper ocean temperature in mid-high latitudes, which can also weaken the AMOC. The abrupt change of AMOC also appears in the PiControl run, which is associated with the lasting negative NAO phases due to natural variability.

  17. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Bogoslof Pacific cod exemption area. (1) All catcher vessels less than 60 ft (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook... Pacific cod have been caught by catcher vessels less than 60 ft (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook-and-line... using jig or hook-and-line gear in the exemption area by notification published in the Federal Register...

  18. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Bogoslof Pacific cod exemption area. (1) All catcher vessels less than 60 ft (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook... Pacific cod have been caught by catcher vessels less than 60 ft (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook-and-line... using jig or hook-and-line gear in the exemption area by notification published in the Federal Register...

  19. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Bogoslof Pacific cod exemption area. (1) All catcher vessels less than 60 ft (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook... Pacific cod have been caught by catcher vessels less than 60 ft (18.3 m) LOA using jig or hook-and-line... using jig or hook-and-line gear in the exemption area by notification published in the Federal Register...

  20. Direct generation of abruptly focusing vortex beams using a 3/2 radial phase-only pattern.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jeffrey A; Cottrell, Don M; Zinn, Jonathan M

    2013-03-20

    Abruptly focusing Airy beams have previously been generated using a radial cubic phase pattern that represents the Fourier transform of the Airy beam. The Fourier transform of this pattern is formed using a system length of 2f, where f is the focal length of the Fourier transform lens. In this work, we directly generate these abruptly focusing Airy beams using a 3/2 radial phase pattern encoded onto a liquid crystal display. The resulting optical system is much shorter. In addition, we can easily produce vortex patterns at the focal point of these beams. Experimental results match theoretical predictions.

  1. Echocardiographic predictors of coil vs device closure in patients undergoing percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure.

    PubMed

    Roushdy, Alaa; Abd El Razek, Yasmeen; Mamdouh Tawfik, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    To determine anatomic and hemodynamic echocardiographic predictors for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device vs coil closure. Seventy-six patients who were referred for elective transcatheter PDA closure were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent full echocardiogram including measurement of the PDA pulmonary end diameter, color flow width and extent, peak and end-diastolic Doppler gradients across the duct, diastolic flow reversal, left atrial dimensions and volume, left ventricular sphericity index, and volumes. The study group was subdivided into 2 subgroups based on the mode of PDA closure whether by coil (n = 42) or device (n = 34). Using univariate analysis there was a highly significant difference between the 2 groups as regard the pulmonary end diameter measured in both the suprasternal and parasternal short-axis views as well as the color flow width and color flow extent (P < .0001). The device closure group had statistically significant higher end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes indexed, left atrial volume, and diastolic flow reversal. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a pulmonary end diameter cutoff point from the suprasternal view > 2.5 mm and from parasternal short-axis view > 2.61 mm to have the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict the likelihood for device closure (AUC 0.971 and 0.979 respectively). The pulmonary end diameter measured from the suprasternal view was the most independent predictor of device closure. The selection between PDA coil or device closure can be done on the basis of multiple anatomic and hemodynamic echocardiographic variables. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Suitability of Exoseal Vascular Closure Device for Antegrade Femoral Artery Puncture Site Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Liebl, Andrea; Poullos, Nektarios

    Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of the Exoseal vascular closure device for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods. In a prospective study from February 2011 to January 2012, a total of 93 consecutive patients received a total of 100 interventional procedures via an antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. An Exoseal vascular closure device (6F) was used for closure in all cases. Puncture technique, duration of manual compression, and use of compression bandages were documented. All patients were monitored by vascular ultrasound and color-coded duplex sonography of their respective femoral artery puncture site within 12 to 36more » h after angiography to check for vascular complications. Results. In 100 antegrade interventional procedures, the Exoseal vascular closure device was applied successfully for closure of the femoral artery puncture site in 96 cases (96 of 100, 96.0 %). The vascular closure device could not be deployed in one case as a result of kinking of the vascular sheath introducer and in three cases because the bioabsorbable plug was not properly delivered to the extravascular space adjacent to the arterial puncture site, but instead fully removed with the delivery system (4.0 %). Twelve to 36 h after the procedure, vascular ultrasound revealed no complications at the femoral artery puncture site in 93 cases (93.0 %). Minor vascular complications were found in seven cases (7.0 %), with four cases (4.0 %) of pseudoaneurysm and three cases (3.0 %) of significant late bleeding, none of which required surgery. Conclusion. The Exoseal vascular closure device was safely used for antegrade puncture of the femoral artery, with a high rate of procedural success (96.0 %), a low rate of minor vascular complications (7.0 %), and no major adverse events.« less

  3. Stress and Sealing Performance Analysis of Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    WU, TSU-TE

    2005-05-24

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing the containment vessel subjected to the combined loading of closure-bolt torque and internal pressure. The detailed stress distributions in the O-rings generated by both the torque load and the internal pressure can be evaluated by using this method. Consequently, the sealing performance of the O-rings can be determined. The material of the O-rings can be represented by any available constitutive equation for hyperelastic material. In the numerical calculation of this paper, the form of the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy potential is used. The technique treats both the preloading process of bolt tightening andmore » the application of internal pressure as slow dynamic loads. Consequently, the problem can be evaluated using explicit numerical integration scheme.« less

  4. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P < 0.05) with higher prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (except for geographic atrophy), while it was not significantly (all P > 0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P < 0.001; multivariate analysis) with older age and longer axial length, while the ratios of Sattler's layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  5. Vesselness propagation: a fast interactive vessel segmentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenli; Dachille, Frank; Harris, Gordon J.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2006-03-01

    With the rapid development of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), resulting in increasing temporal and spatial resolution of data sets, clinical use of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is rapidly increasing. Analysis of vascular structures is much needed in CTA images; however, the basis of the analysis, vessel segmentation, can still be a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a fast interactive method for CTA vessel segmentation, called vesselness propagation. This method is a two-step procedure, with a pre-processing step and an interactive step. During the pre-processing step, a vesselness volume is computed by application of a CTA transfer function followed by a multi-scale Hessian filtering. At the interactive stage, the propagation is controlled interactively in terms of the priority of the vesselness. This method was used successfully in many CTA applications such as the carotid artery, coronary artery, and peripheral arteries. It takes less than one minute for a user to segment the entire vascular structure. Thus, the proposed method provides an effective way of obtaining an overview of vascular structures.

  6. Automated method for identification and artery-venous classification of vessel trees in retinal vessel networks.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vinayak S; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Garvin, Mona K; Abramoff, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The separation of the retinal vessel network into distinct arterial and venous vessel trees is of high interest. We propose an automated method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees in a retinal color image by converting a vessel segmentation image into a vessel segment map and identifying the individual vessel trees by graph search. Orientation, width, and intensity of each vessel segment are utilized to find the optimal graph of vessel segments. The separated vessel trees are labeled as primary vessel or branches. We utilize the separated vessel trees for arterial-venous (AV) classification, based on the color properties of the vessels in each tree graph. We applied our approach to a dataset of 50 fundus images from 50 subjects. The proposed method resulted in an accuracy of 91.44% correctly classified vessel pixels as either artery or vein. The accuracy of correctly classified major vessel segments was 96.42%.

  7. Gap geometry dictates epithelial closure efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ravasio, Andrea; Cheddadi, Ibrahim; Chen, Tianchi; Pereira, Telmo; Ong, Hui Ting; Bertocchi, Cristina; Brugues, Agusti; Jacinto, Antonio; Kabla, Alexandre J.; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Gov, Nir; Neves de Almeida, Luís; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Closure of wounds and gaps in tissues is fundamental for the correct development and physiology of multicellular organisms and, when misregulated, may lead to inflammation and tumorigenesis. To re-establish tissue integrity, epithelial cells exhibit coordinated motion into the void by active crawling on the substrate and by constricting a supracellular actomyosin cable. Coexistence of these two mechanisms strongly depends on the environment. However, the nature of their coupling remains elusive because of the complexity of the overall process. Here we demonstrate that epithelial gap geometry in both in vitro and in vivo regulates these collective mechanisms. In addition, the mechanical coupling between actomyosin cable contraction and cell crawling acts as a large-scale regulator to control the dynamics of gap closure. Finally, our computational modelling clarifies the respective roles of the two mechanisms during this process, providing a robust and universal mechanism to explain how epithelial tissues restore their integrity. PMID:26158873

  8. Application of electron closures in extended MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Eric; Adair, Brett; Taylor, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    Rigorous closure of the extended MHD equations in plasma fluid codes includes the effects of electron heat conduction along perturbed magnetic fields and contributions of the electron collisional friction and stress to the extended Ohms law. In this work we discuss application of a continuum numerical solution to the Chapman-Enskog-like electron drift kinetic equation using the NIMROD code. The implementation is a tightly-coupled fluid/kinetic system that carefully addresses time-centering in the advance of the fluid variables with their kinetically-computed closures. Comparisons of spatial accuracy, computational efficiency and required velocity space resolution are presented for applications involving growing magnetic islands in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. The reduction in parallel heat conduction due to particle trapping in toroidal geometry is emphasized. Work supported by DOE under Grant Nos. DE-FC02-08ER54973 and DE-FG02-04ER54746.

  9. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    PubMed Central

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  10. Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-22

    leadership . At the same time, he should issue written press releases. Selected senior leaders from the base should be briefed separately from key community...they will hold with other agencies on base. These matters should be the commander’s call; they will reflect his style of leadership and preference for...base closure. He alone must foresee what can most likely go wrong as well as what should go right in this arduous process. DCNSIZING AN ORGANIZATIN The

  11. Collective Protection (COLPRO) Novel Closures Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-28

    science and technology programs for future ColPro systems may include interfaces such as novel designs using zippers, hook-and-pile closures, and...necessitate new testing procedures. Additionally, stand- ards of performance must be adjusted as technologies advance. Test procedures and parameters...listed in this TOP may require updating to accommodate new technologies in test items or in test instrumentation. Any variation to the TOP procedures

  12. Theater gateway closure: a strategic level barricade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    that at the strategic level the effects are based on the economic and diplomatic elements of the national power, affecting proportionally sustainment...Seven months of detrimental political implications, expensive effects on military operations, and strategic level barricades during 2011 and 2012 in...logistical planners at the strategic level can anticipate or mitigate the effects of a theater gateway closure on military operations. Through two

  13. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  14. Closure of logging wounds after 10 years

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller; Thomas M. Schuler

    1994-01-01

    Closure of logging wounds on 96 sample trees was evaluated after 2, 5, and 10 years for Appalachian hardwood trees in north-central West Virginia. For yellow-poplar, northern red oak, black cherry, and white oak, many small wounds, 1 to 50 square inches in size, closed between 5 and 10 years after logging. For larger wounds, 50 to 200 square inches, it appears that...

  15. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Sarah S; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Matter, Anja; Koulov, Atanas; Singh, Satish K; Germershaus, Oliver; Mathaes, Roman

    2018-04-05

    Prefilled syringes (PFSs) are increasingly preferred over vials as container closure systems (CCSs) for injectable drug products when facilitated or self-administration is required. However, PFSs are more complex compared to CCSs consisting of vial, rubber stopper, and crimp cap. Container closure integrity (CCI) assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for PFSs as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the CCS is necessary for an appropriate CCI assessment as well as for packaging development and qualification. A comprehensive CCI assessment of 6 different PFSs from 3 different manufacturers (including 1 polymeric PFS) was conducted using helium leak testing. PFS components were manipulated to systematically assess the contribution of the different sealing areas to CCI, namely rigid needle shield (RNS)/needle, RNS/tip cone, and the individual ribs of a syringe plunger. The polymeric PFS required an equilibrium measurement for accurate container closure integrity testing. The different sealing areas and a single plunger rib were shown to provide adequate CCI. Acceptable tip cap movement until the point of CCI failure was estimated. The assessment of acceptable tip cap movement demonstrated the importance of considering the RNS/tip cone seal design to ensure CCI of the PFS upon post assembly possesses and shipment. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Traction-compression-closure for exomphalos major.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Antonino; Owen, Anthony; Bianchi, Adrian

    2006-11-01

    We present our experience with traction-compression-closure (TCC) for exomphalos major (EM) to achieve a safe and embryologically correct midline supraumbilical aesthetic closure with preservation of the umbilicus. Nineteen neonates with EM were paralyzed and ventilated. The abdominal domain was increased by upward cord traction to assist liver-bowel reduction by gravity and sac ligation, followed by circumferential elastic body binder compression. The supraumbilical abdominal wall anomaly cicatrized spontaneously or was closed surgically as a midline scar, with preservation of the umbilicus. Over 7 years (1998-2004), 19 patients with EM were treated by TCC, 18 of whom survived. The patients' median gestational age was 36 weeks (range, 24-40 weeks); their median birth weight was 2312 g (range, 890-3000 g). The median time to reduction was 4 days (range, 3-5 days), whereas that to full enteral feeds was 6 days (range, 4-6 days). Mechanical ventilation for 7 days (range, 6-8 days) was not associated with any morbidity, and the time to home discharge was 11 days (range, 8-12 days). Five patients did not require any surgery. There was no episode of sac rupture or infection. Abdominal expansion by vertical cord traction followed by compression reduction (TCC) under muscle relaxation and ventilation is time well spent toward a safe and aesthetic midline abdominal wall closure without tension for EM.

  18. VR closure rates for two vocational models.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Virginia V; Jones, Amanda M; Frounfelker, Rochelle; Harding, Brian; Hardin, Teresa; Bond, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment is an evidence-based practice for individuals with psychiatric disabilities. To be financially viable, IPS programs require funding from the state-federal vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. However, some observers have questioned the compatibility of IPS and the VR system. Using a randomized controlled trial comparing IPS to a well-established vocational program called the Diversified Placement Approach (DPA), we examined rates of VR sponsorship and successful VR closures. We also describe the establishment of an active collaboration between a psychiatric rehabilitation agency and the state VR system to facilitate rapid VR sponsorship for IPS clients. Both IPS and DPA achieved a 44% rate of VR Status 26 closure when considering all clients entering the study. IPS and DPA averaged similar amount of time to achieve VR sponsorship. Time from vocational program entry to Status 26 was 51 days longer on average for IPS. Even though several IPS principles seem to run counter to VR practices, such as zero exclusion and rapid job search, we found IPS closure rates comparable to those for DPA, a vocational model that screens for readiness, provides prevocational preparation, and extensively uses agency-run businesses.

  19. Closure of fatigue cracks at high strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic strains under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The strain levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic strains. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high strains, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high strain is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.

  20. Stapler Esophageal Closure During Total Laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Ismi, Onur; Unal, Murat; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Yesilova, Mesut; Helvaci, Ilter; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical esophageal closure with stapler during total laryngectomy has been used by various authors to decrease the surgical time and pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) rates. In a few of the studies, surgical site infection (SSI) rates are mentioned and none of the studies emphasize the effect of decreased surgical time on postoperative cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. In this study, the authors compared the PCF rates, SSI rates, operation times between 30 mechanical stapler and 40 manual esophageal closure during total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer patients. National Nasocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNISS) scores were recorded and compared between groups. Total laryngectomy and total operation times were lower in the stapler group patients (P < 0.001 for total laryngectomy time, P = 0.024 for total operation time). There were lower rates of pharyngocutaneous fistula (P = 0.032), surgical site infection (P = 0.019), and NNISS scores (P = 0.009) in the stapler group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding postoperative systemic complications (P = 0.451). In conclusion, stapler esophageal closure decreases operation time, PCF, SSI rates, and NNISS scores but not the systemic complication rates. Comorbid illnesses and prolonged surgical time are risk factors for postoperative systemic complications in total laryngectomy patients, but patients with additional illnesses must not encourage the surgeon to use stapler for decreasing postoperative systemic complications.

  1. Clay Corner: Recreating Chinese Bronze Vessels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    1998-01-01

    Presents a lesson where students make faux Chinese bronze vessels through slab or coil clay construction after they learn about the history, function, and design of these vessels. Utilizes a variety of glaze finishes in order to give the vessels an aged look. Gives detailed guidelines for creating the vessels. (CMK)

  2. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements...

  3. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements...

  4. Negative regulators of vessel patterning.

    PubMed

    Suchting, Steven; Freitas, Catarina; le Noble, Ferdinand; Benedito, Rui; Bréant, Christiane; Duarte, Antonio; Eichmann, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Blood vessels and nerves are structurally similar, complex branched networks that require guidance to ensure their proper positioning in the body. Recent studies have demonstrated that specialized endothelial cells, resembling axonal growth cones, are located at the tips of growing capillaries. These endothelial tip cells guide outgrowing capillaries in response to gradients of extracellular matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here we show that endothelial tip cell formation and vessel branching are negatively regulated by the Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4). Heterozygous deletion of Dll4 or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signalling using gamma-secretase inhibitor revealed a striking vascular phenotype, with greatly increased numbers of filopodia-extending endothelial tip cells and increased expression of tip cell marker genes compared to controls. Filopodia extension in Dll4+/- retinal vessels required VEGF and was inhibited when VEGF signalling was blocked. While VEGF expression was not significantly altered in Dll4+- retinas, Dll4+/- vessels showed increased expression of VEGF Receptor 2 and decreased expression of VEGF Receptor 1 compared to wildtype, suggesting that they could be more responsive to VEGF stimulation. In addition, expression of Dll4 in wildtype tip cells was itself decreased when VEGF signalling was blocked, indicating that Dll4 may act downstream of VEGF as a 'brake' on VEGF-mediated angiogenic sprouting. Taken together, these data reveal Dll4 as a novel negative regulator of vascular sprouting and vessel branching that is required for normal vascular network formation during development.

  5. Abrupt reflow enhances cytokine-induced proinflammatory activation of endothelial cells during simulated shock and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranran; Zijlstra, Jan G; Kamps, Jan A A M; van Meurs, Matijs; Molema, Grietje

    2014-10-01

    Circulatory shock and resuscitation are associated with systemic hemodynamic changes, which may contribute to the development of MODS (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). In this study, we used an in vitro flow system to simulate the consecutive changes in blood flow as occurring during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in vivo. We examined the kinetic responses of different endothelial genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells preconditioned to 20 dyne/cm unidirectional laminar shear stress for 48 h to flow cessation and abrupt reflow, respectively, as well as the effect of flow cessation and reflow on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation. Endothelial CD31 and VE-cadherin were not affected by the changes in flow in the absence or presence of TNF-α. The messenger RNA levels of proinflammatory molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1), and IL-8 (interleukin 8) were significantly induced by flow cessation respectively acute reflow, whereas ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) was downregulated on flow cessation and induced by subsequent acute reflow. Flow cessation also affected the Ang/Tie2 (Angiopoietin/Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase) system by downregulating Tie2 and inducing its endothelial ligand Ang2, an effect that was further extended on acute reflow. Furthermore, the induction of proinflammatory adhesion molecules by TNF-α under flow cessation was significantly enhanced on subsequent acute reflow. This study demonstrated that flow alterations per se during shock and resuscitation contribute to endothelial activation and that these alterations interact with proinflammatory factors coexisting in vivo such as TNF-α. The abrupt reflow-related enhancement of cytokine-induced endothelial proinflammatory activation supports the concept that sudden regain of flow during resuscitation has an aggravating effect on endothelial activation, which may play a significant role in vascular

  6. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Olson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ???470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (???10??) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ???15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudo-gravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ???3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San

  7. Response of the auroral electrojet indices to abrupt southward IMF turnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerloev, J. W.; Hoffman, R. A.; Ohtani, S.; Weygand, J.; Barnes, R.

    2010-05-01

    We present results from a study of the behavior of the auroral electrojet indices following abrupt southward turnings of the IMF Bz. The auroral electrojet indices are calculated from observations made by more than 100 ground based stations provided by the SuperMAG collaborators. Based on three simple criteria we selected 73 events. In each event the interval of analysis started at the time of the IMF Bz southward turning and ended 45 minutes later or at the onset of any abrupt energy unloading event in the magnetosphere, regardless of size. We refer to this period as the "pre-unloading phase". To isolate the dependence of the auroral electrojets on the solar induced ionospheric conductivity during this phase we separated the standard AU/AL indices into two new sets of indices defined by the upper and lower envelope of the north-south component for all sunlit stations (AUs/ALs) and for all stations in darkness (AUd/ALd). Based on events and statistical analyses we can conclude that following a southward turning of the IMF Bz the AUd/ALd indices show no measurable response while the AUs/ALs indices clearly intensify. The intensifications of AUs/ALs are dependent on the intensity of the solar wind driver (as measured by IMF Bz or the Akasofu ɛ parameter). The lack of AUd/ALd response does not depend on the intensity of any subsequent substorm. We find that during these isolated events the ionospheric current system is primarily confined to the sunlit ionosphere. This truncated version of the classical global DP-2 current system suggests that auroral electrojet continuity is not maintained across the terminator. Because of its conductivity dependence on the solar zenith angle, this truncated global current pattern is expected to be highly dependent on UT and season and thus can be asymmetric between hemispheres. Thus we argue that the global two-cell DP-2 current system is not a consequence only of a southward turning of the IMF but requires also the reduction of the

  8. Ecosystem resilience to abrupt late Quaternary change in continental southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Poppy; Mackay, Anson; Bezrukova, Elena; Shchetnikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Quaternary climate variability is dominated by long term orbital forcing along with abrupt sub-Milankovitch events on the scales of millennia to centuries, driven by internal feedback mechanisms, volcanic forcing and fluctuating solar activity. Although these are well documented in the North Atlantic region, their expression is poorly understood in Siberia, particularly in relation to abrupt climatic events. Siberia has the world's highest level of continentality offering an opportunity to study changes remote from oceanic influences and improving understanding of interactions between the Siberian High and other atmospheric systems including the Aleutian Low, Arctic oscillation and Icelandic Low1 and ENSO2. Understanding of palaeoenvironmental change in Siberia is essential due to the region's high sensitivity to climatic change, with warming rates considerably higher than the global average over the past 50 years3, triggering significant environmental changes, including permafrost degradation, shifts in the forest-steppe biome, increases in forest fires and warming of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Additionally, the region provides essential palaeoenvironmental context for early hominins, for example at globally important sites such as Denisova cave4, and megafauna extinctions5. This presentation outlines ongoing work at Lake Baunt, SE Siberia including: key quaternary climate forcings, the site and its regional context, the key methods and preliminary results. These include a dated record back to ˜30ka BP (based on multiple 14C dates and Bayesian age modelling), multiproxy indicators of palaeoproductivity (e.g. biogenic silica and diatom analyses) and lake mixing regimes (inferred from diatom analyses). Together these highlight several key Quaternary fluctuations potentially correlated to events recorded in Greenland Ice Cores (GS2, GS2.1, GI1, GS1), and these are considered against key Quaternary records including those from nearby Lake Baikal and Hulu Cave in

  9. Forced-rupture of cell-adhesion complexes reveals abrupt switch between two brittle states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toan, Ngo Minh; Thirumalai, D.

    2018-03-01

    Cell adhesion complexes (CACs), which are activated by ligand binding, play key roles in many cellular functions ranging from cell cycle regulation to mediation of cell extracellular matrix adhesion. Inspired by single molecule pulling experiments using atomic force spectroscopy on leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), expressed in T-cells, bound to intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM), we performed constant loading rate (rf) and constant force (F) simulations using the self-organized polymer model to describe the mechanism of ligand rupture from CACs. The simulations reproduce the major experimental finding on the kinetics of the rupture process, namely, the dependence of the most probable rupture forces (f*s) on ln rf (rf is the loading rate) exhibits two distinct linear regimes. The first, at low rf, has a shallow slope, whereas the slope at high rf is much larger, especially for a LFA-1/ICAM-1 complex with the transition between the two occurring over a narrow rf range. Locations of the two transition states (TSs) extracted from the simulations show an abrupt change from a high value at low rf or constant force, F, to a low value at high rf or F. This unusual behavior in which the CACs switch from one brittle (TS position is a constant over a range of forces) state to another brittle state is not found in forced-rupture in other protein complexes. We explain this novel behavior by constructing the free energy profiles, F(Λ)s, as a function of a collective reaction coordinate (Λ), involving many key charged residues and a critical metal ion (Mg2+). The TS positions in F(Λ), which quantitatively agree with the parameters extracted using the Bell-Evans model, change abruptly at a critical force, demonstrating that it, rather than the molecular extension, is a good reaction coordinate. Our combined analyses using simulations performed in both the pulling modes (constant rf and F) reveal a new mechanism for the two loading regimes observed in the

  10. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  11. The Problem of Latent Attentional Capture: Easy Visual Search Conceals Capture by Task-Irrelevant Abrupt Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. We propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, we show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. We argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which employed an easy visual search. PMID:26854530

  12. A Static Color Discontinuity Can Capture Spatial Attention when the Target Is an Abrupt-Onset Singleton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Bryan R.; Neely, James H.

    2008-01-01

    C. L. Folk, R. W. Remington, and J. C. Johnston's (1992) contingent involuntary orienting hypothesis states that a salient visual feature will involuntarily capture attention only when the observer's attentional set includes similar features. In four experiments, when the target's relevant feature was its being an abruptly onset singleton,…

  13. The problem of latent attentional capture: Easy visual search conceals capture by task-irrelevant abrupt onsets.

    PubMed

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-08-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. The authors propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, the authors show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. The authors argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which used an easy visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Could gradual changes in Holocene Saharan landscape have caused the observed abrupt shift in North Atlantic dust deposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerer, Sabine; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian; Stanelle, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    The abrupt change in North Atlantic dust deposition found in sediment records has been associated with a rapid large scale transition of Holocene Saharan landscape. We hypothesize that gradual changes in the landscape may have caused this abrupt shift in dust deposition either because of the non-linearity in dust activation or because of the heterogeneous distribution of major dust sources. To test this hypothesis, we investigate the response of North Atlantic dust deposition to a prescribed 1) gradual and spatially homogeneous decrease and 2) gradual southward retreat of North African vegetation and lakes during the Holocene using the aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM. In our simulations, we do not find evidence of an abrupt increase in dust deposition as observed in marine sediment records along the Northwest African margin. We conclude that such gradual changes in landscape are not sufficient to explain the observed abrupt changes in dust accumulation in marine sediment records. Instead, our results point to a rapid large-scale retreat of vegetation and lakes in the area of significant dust sources.

  15. The nature of abrupt climate change during the last glacial period from detailed isotopic records from the NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T. J.; Svensson, A.; Steffensen, J. P.; Johnsen, S. J.; White, J. W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Isotopic and chemical impurity records from Greenland ice cores with sub-annual resolution across three fast climate transitions of the last deglacial termination reveal complex patterns of environmental change for the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1 (GI-1 or Bølling), the onset of Greenland Stadial 1 (GS-1 or Younger Dryas), and the onset of the Holocene. In the NGRIP ice core each of these transitions is initiated by a 1-3 year mode shift in deuterium excess, which is a proxy for the Greenland precipitation moisture source. These mode shifts in deuterium excess are decoupled in time from the isotopic (deuterium and oxygen-18) transitions from which they are derived. In general the abrupt isotopic transitions follow the corresponding deuterium excess shifts and span decades rather than years. Similar data from GISP2 confirms the clear deuterium excess mode shifts for transitions from cold states to warm states; however the abrupt deuterium excess transition at the onset of GS-1 is not expressed in a similar way at GISP2. Ironically, it appears that this cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas, for which we have theories of the triggering event, is less clearly recorded than warming events, the triggering of which is still poorly understood. Along with other available paleo-data, these results indicate that the sum of an abrupt climate change is composed of multiple responses from different parts of the climate system. These responses can be separated by as little as a single year to a few decades and the collection of these responses result in a variety of abrupt transitions giving each a unique anatomy. Here we expand this type of analysis with new isotope, deuterium excess, and accumulation rate time series from NGRIP across the abrupt transitions associated with several interstadial events of the Last Glacial period (Dansgaard-Oeschger events). Indeed the temporal phasing of deuterium excess and the isotopic content of the ice can vary from one event

  16. Effects on the equine colon ecosystem of grass silage and haylage diets after an abrupt change from hay.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, S; Julliand, V; Lindberg, J E; Bertilsson, J; Jansson, A

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an abrupt change from grass hay (81% DM) to grass silage (36% DM) or grass haylage (55% DM), fed at similar DM intakes, and to compare the effects of silage and haylage on the composition and activities of the colon microflora. The forages were from the same swath harvested on the same day. Four adult colon-fistulated geldings were randomly assigned to diets in a crossover design. The study started with a preperiod when all 4 horses received the hay diet, followed by an abrupt feed change to the haylage diet for 2 horses and the silage diet for 2 horses. All 4 horses then had a new second preperiod of hay, followed by an abrupt feed change to the opposite haylage and silage diet. The periods were 21 d long, and the forage-only diets were supplemented with minerals and salt. The abrupt feed changes were made at 0800 h. Colon samples were taken before the abrupt feed change, 4 and 28 h after the feed change, and 8, 15, and 21 d after the feed change, all at 1200 h. Colon bacterial counts, VFA, pH, and DM concentrations were unchanged throughout the first 28 h after the abrupt feed change from hay to haylage and silage. Also, fecal pH and DM concentrations were unchanged during the first 28 h. During the weekly observations, colon lactobacilli counts increased (P = 0.023) in horses receiving the silage diet and were greater than on the haylage diet at 21 d. Streptococci counts decreased (P = 0.046) in horses receiving the haylage diet and were less than on the silage diet at 15 and 21 d. Total VFA concentrations and colon and fecal pH did not differ between diets and were unchanged throughout the weekly observations. The DM concentration of colon digesta and feces decreased (P = 0.030 and 0.049, respectively) on both diets during the weekly observations. The results suggest that in horses fed at the maintenance level of energy intake, an abrupt feed change from grass hay to grass silage or grass haylage from

  17. Umbilical hernia following gastroschisis closure: a common event?

    PubMed

    Tullie, L G C; Bough, G M; Shalaby, A; Kiely, E M; Curry, J I; Pierro, A; De Coppi, P; Cross, K M K

    2016-08-01

    To assess incidence and natural history of umbilical hernia following sutured and sutureless gastroschisis closure. With audit approval, we undertook a retrospective clinical record review of all gastroschisis closures in our institution (2007-2013). Patient demographics, gastroschisis closure method and umbilical hernia occurrence were recorded. Data, presented as median (range), underwent appropriate statistical analysis. Fifty-three patients were identified, gestation 36 weeks (31-38), birth weight 2.39 kg (1-3.52) and 23 (43 %) were male. Fourteen patients (26 %) underwent sutureless closure: 12 primary, 2 staged; and 39 (74 %) sutured closure: 19 primary, 20 staged. Sutured closure was interrupted sutures in 24 patients, 11 pursestring and 4 not specified. Fifty patients were followed-up over 53 months (10-101) and 22 (44 %) developed umbilical hernias. There was a significantly greater hernia incidence following sutureless closure (p = 0.0002). In sutured closure, pursestring technique had the highest hernia rate (64 %). Seven patients underwent operative hernia closure; three secondary to another procedure. Seven patients had their hernias resolve. One patient was lost to follow-up and seven remain under observation with no reported complications. There is a significant umbilical hernia incidence following sutureless and pursestring sutured gastroschisis closure. This has not led to complications and the majority have not undergone repair.

  18. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  19. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...

  20. 19 CFR 4.5 - Government vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government vessels. 4.5 Section 4.5 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.5 Government vessels. (a) No... that is the property of, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) will be treated as a Government vessel...