Science.gov

Sample records for abrupt vessel closure

  1. Complications of coronary intervention: abrupt closure, dissection, perforation

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DESs) and superior anticoagulation has successfully improved the safety and patency rates of complex percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). The evolving techniques of contemporary PCI have been unable to completely eliminate coronary injury and mechanical complications. Primary causes for abrupt closure include dissection, thrombus formation and acute stent thrombosis. Initial treatment for abrupt closure includes balloon redilatation, optimisation of activated clotting time (ACT) and deployment of stent to stabilise a dissection. Coronary perforation is one of the most challenging and feared complications of PCI. It is most frequently due to distal wire or balloon/stent oversizing and should be fixed with balloon occlusion. Covered stent may be needed for large perforation in major proximal vessels. Perforations in small or distal vessels not resolving with balloon occlusion may be managed by coil or Gelfoam embolisation. Referral to emergency coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) should be an option in case perforations do not seal.

  2. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  4. Jam proof closure assembly for lidded pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1992-01-01

    An expendable closure assembly is provided for use (in multiple units) with a lockable pressure vessel cover along its rim, such as of an autoclave. This assembly is suited to variable compressive contact and locking with the vessel lid sealing gasket. The closure assembly consists of a thick walled sleeve insert for retention in the under bores fabricated in the cover periphery and the sleeve is provided with internal threading only. A snap serves as a retainer on the underside of the sleeve, locking it into an under bore retention channel. Finally, a standard elongate externally threaded bolt is sized for mating cooperation with the so positioned sleeve, whereby the location of the bolt shaft in the cover bore hole determines its compressive contact on the underlying gasket.

  5. Bolt preload selection for pulsed-loaded vessel closures

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Lewis, B.B.; Bowers, S.M.

    1995-02-01

    Bounding, closed-form solutions are developed for selecting the bolt preload for a square, flat plate closure subjected to a pressure pulse load. The solutions consider the limiting case in which preload is primarily dependent on closure bending response as well as the limiting case in which preload depends on elastic bolt response. The selection of bolt preload is illustrated. Also presented in the paper is a detailed finite element analysis of dynamically loaded, bolted circular closure. The responses of the structure, closure, and bolts are included, and results are obtained for various preloads. The analysis illustrates a method of bolt preload modeling for use in general finite element computer programs.

  6. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  7. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  8. DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

    2007-07-03

    This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

  9. Development of a removable closure for large cavities in high temperature reactor prestressed concrete reactor vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, S.R.; Plettenberg, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    In concrete reactor vessels of high temperature reactors many cavities with different diameters are arranged. The design of the closures for such cavities is an important problem in the detail engineering. A draft based on using prestressed concrete as a material is presented for closures with high diameter values. The influence of tendon forces, creep and shrinkage, pressure, etc, on stresses, stress distribution, and deformation are proved by a finite element analysis and the results are pointed out. A short outlook of further development is given. 12 refs.

  10. Structural response of large penetrations and closures for containment vessels subjected to loadings beyond design basis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulak, R.F.; Hsieh, B.J.; Ash, J.E.; Kennedy, J.M.; McLennan, G.A.; Pan, Y.C.

    1985-02-01

    The Reactor Analysis and Safety Division (RAS) and the Components Technology Division (CT) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are performing analytical/numerical simulations of the response of selected large penetrations and closures, which use some type of seal or gasketed joint, for containment vessels subject to pressure and thermal loads that are beyond the design basis (BDB). The objectives of this task were to identify the methodology required to simulate the structural response of selected penetrations/closures to BDB loadings and to apply this methodology to representative penetrations/closures. Section II discusses a detailed study conducted to determine the structural response of an equipment hatch for a PWR with a steel containment vessel. The macro-deformations of the gasketed joint were computed and then used in a leakage analysis. In Section III, the methodology used to assess the structural integrity of a BWR Mark II containment head is presented. Section IV describes the approach used to obtain upper and lower bounds for the maximum allowable internal pressure and deflection for a representative bellows connection.

  11. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  13. Simply actuated closure for a pressure vessel - Design for use to trap deep-sea animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yayanos, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    A pressure vessel is described that can be closed by a single translational motion within 1 sec. The vessel is a key component of a trap for small marine animals and operates automatically on the sea floor. As the vessel descends to the sea floor, it is subjected both internally and externally to the high pressures of the deep sea. The mechanism for closing the pressure vessel on the sea floor is activated by the timed release of the ballast which was used to sink the trap. As it rises to the sea surface, the internal pressure of the vessel remains near the value present on the sea floor. The pressure vessel has been used in simulated ocean deployments and in the deep ocean (9500 m) with a 75%-85% retention of the deep-sea pressure. Nearly 100% retention of pressure can be achieved by using an accumulator filled with a gas.

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption

    MedlinePlus

    ... page It's been added to your dashboard . The placenta attaches to the wall of the uterus (womb) ... abruption is a serious condition in which the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus before ...

  15. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  16. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  17. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division 1, and must have pressure and temperature ratings at least equal to those of the pipe to which the closure...

  18. Assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J. R.; Kleiner, M. T.; Das, R.; Gaughan, J. P.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and vessel loop assisted closure are two common methods used to assist with the closure of fasciotomy wounds. This retrospective review compares these two methods using a primary outcome measurement of skin graft requirement. Methods A retrospective search was performed to identify patients who underwent fasciotomy at our institution. Patient demographics, location of the fasciotomy, type of assisted closure, injury characteristics, need for skin graft, length of stay and evidence of infection within 90 days were recorded. Results A total of 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 underwent vessel loop closure and seven underwent NPWT assisted closure. Patients who underwent NPWT assisted closure were at higher risk for requiring skin grafting than patients who underwent vessel loop closure, with an odds ratio of 5.9 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 31.24). There was no difference in the rate of infection or length of stay between the two groups. Demographic factors such as age, gender, fracture mechanism, location of fasciotomy and presence of open fracture were not predictive of the need for skin grafting. Conclusion This retrospective descriptive case series demonstrates an increased risk of skin grafting in patients who underwent fasciotomy and were treated with NPWT assisted wound closure. In our series, vessel loop closure was protective against the need for skin grafting. Due to the small sample size in the NPWT group, caution should be taken when generalising these results. Further research is needed to determine if NPWT assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds truly leads to an increased requirement for skin grafting, or if the vascular injury is the main risk factor. PMID:23610668

  19. Sonographic spectrum of placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, D A; Cyr, D R; Mack, L A; Wilson, D A; Shuman, W P

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-seven cases of placental abruption detected by sonography were retrospectively reviewed. The location of hemorrhage was subchorionic in 46 cases (81%), retroplacental in nine cases (16%), and preplacental in two cases (4%). Subchorionic hematomas were more frequently shown in the 33 patients presenting before 20 menstrual weeks (91%) than in the 24 patients presenting after 20 weeks (67%). The echogenicity of hemorrhage depended on the time the sonogram was performed relative to the onset of symptoms: Acute hemorrhage was hyperechoic to isoechoic compared with the placenta, while resolving hematomas became hypoechoic within 1 week and sonolucent within 2 weeks. Acute hemorrhage was occasionally difficult to distinguish from the adjacent placenta. This occurred in five retroplacental hematomas that showed only an abnormally thick and heterogeneous placenta. Nine cases of placental abruption were initially confused with other mass lesions. Placental abruption causes a wide spectrum of sonographic findings that may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. PMID:3538831

  20. Implications of abrupt climate change.

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Records of past climates contained in ice cores, ocean sediments, and other archives show that large, abrupt, widespread climate changes have occurred repeatedly in the past. These changes were especially prominent during the cooling into and warming out of the last ice age, but persisted into the modern warm interval. Changes have especially affected water availability in warm regions and temperature in cold regions, but have affected almost all climatic variables across much or all of the Earth. Impacts of climate changes are smaller if the changes are slower or more-expected. The rapidity of abrupt climate changes, together with the difficulty of predicting such changes, means that impacts on the health of humans, economies and ecosystems will be larger if abrupt climate changes occur. Most projections of future climate include only gradual changes, whereas paleoclimatic data plus models indicate that abrupt changes remain possible; thus, policy is being made based on a view of the future that may be optimistic. PMID:17060975

  1. Reactor vessel stud thread protector

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparro, M.R.

    1989-04-04

    This patent describes a stud thread protector for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The vessel has a removable closure head, the closure head being sealingly engaged with the pressure vessel by a plurality of stud bolts, an upper end thereof having a threaded section for threadingly engaging a nut and a vertical bore being disposed within the stud bolt. The stud thread protector encloses the exposed upper portion of the bolt and associated nut projecting above the closure head. The reactor vessel stud thread protector is comprised of: a tubular wall portion being opened at its lower end and substantially closed at its upper end; a drip pan associated with the outer surface of the protector, the drip pan being disposed radially inwardly with respect to the outer periphery of the vessel head, whereby the drip pan collects any fluid being emitted from the reactor vessel; and means for fastening the stud thread protector to an associated stud.

  2. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-05-09

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs.

  3. Analysis of abrupt transitions in ecological systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence and causes of abrupt transitions, thresholds, or regime shifts between ecosystem states are of great concern and the likelihood of such transitions is increasing for many ecological systems. General understanding of abrupt transitions has been advanced by theory, but hindered by the l...

  4. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  5. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  6. Abrupt climate change and extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    There is a growing body of theoretical and empirical support for the concept of instabilities in the climate system, and indications that abrupt climate change may in some cases contribute to abrupt extinctions. Theoretical indications of instabilities can be found in a broad spectrum of climate models (energy balance models, a thermohaline model of deep-water circulation, atmospheric general circulation models, and coupled ocean-atmosphere models). Abrupt transitions can be of several types and affect the environment in different ways. There is increasing evidence for abrupt climate change in the geologic record and involves both interglacial-glacial scale transitions and the longer-term evolution of climate over the last 100 million years. Records from the Cenozoic clearly show that the long-term trend is characterized by numerous abrupt steps where the system appears to be rapidly moving to a new equilibrium state. The long-term trend probably is due to changes associated with plate tectonic processes, but the abrupt steps most likely reflect instabilities in the climate system as the slowly changing boundary conditions caused the climate to reach some threshold critical point. A more detailed analysis of abrupt steps comes from high-resolution studies of glacial-interglacial fluctuations in the Pleistocene. Comparison of climate transitions with the extinction record indicates that many climate and biotic transitions coincide. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is not a candidate for an extinction event due to instabilities in the climate system. It is quite possible that more detailed comparisons and analysis will indicate some flaws in the climate instability-extinction hypothesis, but at present it appears to be a viable candidate as an alternate mechanism for causing abrupt environmental changes and extinctions.

  7. The Science of Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.

    2002-12-01

    The issue of abrupt climate change has been highlighted by a recent National Academy of Sciences (NRC) study as one of the most troubling potential aspects of future global climate change. The science of abrupt climate change originated in the discovery and study of huge climatic shifts during the last glacial period, particularly in and around the North Atlantic. We now know that ocean thermohaline circulation and circum-North Atlantic climate can change in hard-to-anticipate non-linear ways, and that this type of threat is still very real for the future. At the same time, attention is increasingly being focused on other, equally serious, types of potential "warm climate" abrupt climate change. Worldwide, there is abundant paleoenvironmental evidence for decades-long "megadroughts" that, for example, seemingly occurred on average once or twice a millennium in North America. Dramatic shifts in El Nino - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability have also occurred in the past, and could be linked to the occurrence of past megadroughts. Evidence also exists that supports the assertion that the frequency of major floods, and/or landfalls by the largest tropical storms, can change significantly and abruptly. However, as with abrupt shifts in ENSO or drought frequency/duration, we still have only an imperfect observational record, and worse, little proven basis for prediction. This is one reason why abrupt change poses a significant threat to technologically-advanced, as well as developing countries. Major abrupt sea level rise is also a major threat, but again, the paleoclimate record indicates that our understanding of processes related to ice cap melting are not as good as we would like. Given that abrupt climatic changes could occur even in the absence of significant anthropogenic climate change, society should act soon to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the most troubling aspect of the issue is that global warming will likely act to increase the probability of

  8. Prediction of fetal acidemia in placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the major predictive factors for fetal acidemia in placental abruption. Methods A retrospective review of pregnancies with placental abruption was performed using a logistic regression model. Fetal acidemia was defined as a pH of less than 7.0 in umbilical artery. The severe abruption score, which was derived from a linear discriminant function, was calculated to determine the probability of fetal acidemia. Results Fetal acidemia was seen in 43 survivors (43/222, 19%). A logistic regression model showed bradycardia (OR (odds ratio) 50.34, 95% CI 11.07 – 228.93), and late decelerations (OR 15.13, 3.05 – 74.97), but not abnormal ultrasonographic findings were to be associated with the occurrence of fetal acidemia. The severe abruption score was calculated for the occurrence of fetal acidemia, using 6 items including vaginal bleeding, gestational age, abdominal pain, abnormal ultrasonographic finding, late decelerations, and bradycardia. Conclusions An abnormal FHR pattern, especially bradycardia is the most significant risk factor in placental abruption predicting fetal acidemia, regardless of the presence of abnormal ultrasonographic findings or gestational age. PMID:23915223

  9. Abrupt climate change: can society cope?

    PubMed

    Hulme, Mike

    2003-09-15

    Consideration of abrupt climate change has generally been incorporated neither in analyses of climate-change impacts nor in the design of climate adaptation strategies. Yet the possibility of abrupt climate change triggered by human perturbation of the climate system is used to support the position of both those who urge stronger and earlier mitigative action than is currently being contemplated and those who argue that the unknowns in the Earth system are too large to justify such early action. This paper explores the question of abrupt climate change in terms of its potential implications for society, focusing on the UK and northwest Europe in particular. The nature of abrupt climate change and the different ways in which it has been defined and perceived are examined. Using the example of the collapse of the thermohaline circulation (THC), the suggested implications for society of abrupt climate change are reviewed; previous work has been largely speculative and has generally considered the implications only from economic and ecological perspectives. Some observations about the implications from a more social and behavioural science perspective are made. If abrupt climate change simply implies changes in the occurrence or intensity of extreme weather events, or an accelerated unidirectional change in climate, the design of adaptation to climate change can proceed within the existing paradigm, with appropriate adjustments. Limits to adaptation in some sectors or regions may be reached, and the costs of appropriate adaptive behaviour may be large, but strategy can develop on the basis of a predicted long-term unidirectional change in climate. It would be more challenging, however, if abrupt climate change implied a directional change in climate, as, for example, may well occur in northwest Europe following a collapse of the THC. There are two fundamental problems for society associated with such an outcome: first, the future changes in climate currently being

  10. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  11. Fast Flux Test Facility Closure Project - Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BEACH, R.R.

    2002-09-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Closure Project, Project Management Plan, Revision 5, provides the scope, cost, and schedule to achieve the most cost effective and expeditious closure of the FFTF to an assumed final end-state with the reactor vessel and the containment building, below the 5504 grade level, being entombed in place. Closure will be completed by December 2009 at a cost of $547 million.

  12. Detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the basic ideas associated with the detection of abrupt changes in dynamic systems are presented. Multiple filter-based techniques and residual-based method and the multiple model and generalized likelihood ratio methods are considered. Issues such as the effect of unknown onset time on algorithm complexity and structure and robustness to model uncertainty are discussed.

  13. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  14. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  15. Abruptness of Cascade Failures in Power Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results on real, realistic and synthetic networks indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into ``super-grids''.

  16. Abruptness of cascade failures in power grids.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina; Scala, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Electric power-systems are one of the most important critical infrastructures. In recent years, they have been exposed to extreme stress due to the increasing demand, the introduction of distributed renewable energy sources, and the development of extensive interconnections. We investigate the phenomenon of abrupt breakdown of an electric power-system under two scenarios: load growth (mimicking the ever-increasing customer demand) and power fluctuations (mimicking the effects of renewable sources). Our results on real, realistic and synthetic networks indicate that increasing the system size causes breakdowns to become more abrupt; in fact, mapping the system to a solvable statistical-physics model indicates the occurrence of a first order transition in the large size limit. Such an enhancement for the systemic risk failures (black-outs) with increasing network size is an effect that should be considered in the current projects aiming to integrate national power-grids into "super-grids". PMID:24424239

  17. Abrupt percolation in small equilibrated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsoukas, Themis

    2015-05-01

    Networks can exhibit an abrupt transition in the form of a spontaneous self-organization of a sizable fraction of the population into a giant component of connected members. This behavior has been demonstrated in random graphs under suppressive rules that passively or actively attempt to delay the formation of the giant cluster. We show that suppressive rules are not a necessary condition for a sharp transition at the percolation threshold. Rather, a finite system with aggressive tendency to form a giant cluster may exhibit an instability at the percolation threshold that is relieved through an abrupt and discontinuous transition to the stable branch. We develop the theory for a class of equilibrated networks that produce this behavior and find that the discontinuous jump is especially pronounced in small networks but disappears when the size of the system is infinite.

  18. Worsening angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachments subsequent to closure of a carotid cavernous fistula

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the cavernous sinus and the external or internal carotid arteries. Although rare, closure of carotid cavernous fistulas can lead to immediate ocular complications. To our knowledge, our case represents the first report of worsening angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachments over an extended period of two months subsequent to closure of a carotid cavernous fistula. Case presentation A 70-year-old female with a history of primary angle closure glaucoma presented with 4 mm of proptosis, resistance to retropulsion, tortuous corkscrew blood vessels and an orbital bruit of the right eye. Diagnostic cerebral angiogram showed a small indirect Barrow type D right carotid cavernous fistula. Transarterial embolization was planned but repeat cerebral angiography prior to the procedure demonstrated spontaneous partial closure of the carotid cavernous fistula and the procedure was aborted. One month later, our patient was noted to have worsening vision and choroidal detachments of the right eye. She declined further testing and was thus started on self-administered manual carotid jugular compressions. One month later, she developed progressive worsening of her choroidal detachments and angle closure. She eventually opted for surgical intervention but repeat cerebral angiography showed significant thrombosis of the carotid cavernous fistula and no intervention was warranted. Examination two months later showed complete resolution of the choroidal detachments and open angles of both eyes. Conclusions Our patient demonstrated worsening angle closure glaucoma and choroidal detachments after spontaneous closure of her carotid cavernous fistula had been noted. Ocular complications, including acute angle closure, have been reported to occur immediately after closure of carotid cavernous fistulas, but not over months as in our patient. It is imperative that individuals who have undergone apparent closure

  19. Approaching the Edge of Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhin, C.; Yi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of Abrupt Climate Change (ACC) became evident as paleoclimate data analyses began revealing that Earth's climate has the ability to rapidly switch from one state to the next in just a few decades after thresholds are crossed. Previously paleo-climatologists thought these switches were gradual but now there is growing concern to identify thresholds and the dominant feedback mechanisms that propel systems toward thresholds. Current human civilization relies heavily on climate stability and ACC threatens immense disruption with potentially disastrous consequences for all ecosystems. Therefore, prediction of the climate system's approach to threshold values would prove vital for the resilience of civilization through development of appropriate adaptation strategies when that shift occurs. Numerous studies now establish that earth systems are experiencing dramatic changes both by system interactions and anthropogenic sources adding urgency for comprehensive knowledge of tipping point identification. Despite this, predictions are difficult due to the immensity of interactions among feedback mechanisms. In this paper, we attempt to narrow this broad spectrum of critical feedback mechanisms by reviewing several publications on role of feedbacks in initiating past climate transitions establishing the most critical ones and significance in current climate changes. Using a compilation of paleoclimate datasets we compared the rates of deglaciations with that of glacial inceptions, which are approximately 5-10 times slower. We hypothesize that the critical feedbacks are unique to each type of transition such that warmings are dominated by the ice-albedo feedback while coolings are a combination of temperature - CO2 and temperature-precipitation followed by the ice-albedo feedbacks. Additionally, we propose the existence of a commonality in the dominant trigger feedbacks for astronomical and millennial timescale abrupt climate shifts and as such future studies

  20. Diagnosis of Placental Abruption: Relationship between Clinical and Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Elsasser, Denise A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Prasad, Vinay; Vintzileos, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the extent to which histologic lesions bearing a diagnosis of abruption conform to a diagnosis based on established clinical criteria. We further examined the profile of chronic and acute histologic lesions associated with clinical abruption. Methods Data from the New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study – a multi-center, case-control study – were utilized to compare the clinical and histologic criteria for abruption. The study was based on 162 women with clinically diagnosed abruption and 173 controls. We examined the concordance between clinical indicators for abruption with those of a histopathological diagnosis. The clinical criteria for a diagnosis of abruption included (i) evidence of retroplacental clot(s); (ii) abruption diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound; or (iii) vaginal bleeding accompanied by nonreassuring fetal status or uterine hypertonicity. The pathological criteria for abruption diagnosis included hematoma, fibrin deposition, compressed villi, and hemosiderin-laden histiocytes in cases with older hematomas. Acute lesions included chorioamnionitis, funisitis, acute deciduitis, meconium stained membranes, villous stromal hemorrhage, and villous edema. Chronic lesions included chronic deciduitis, decidual necrosis, decidual vasculopathy, placental infarctions, villous maldevelopment (delayed or accelerated maturation), hemosiderin deposition, intervillous thrombus, and chronic villitis. Results Of clinically diagnosed cases, the sensitivity and specificity for a histologic confirmation of abruption were 30.2% and 100%, respectively. Presence of retroplacental clots remained the single most common finding (77.1%) among clinically diagnosed cases. Among the acute lesions, chorioamnionitis and funisitis were associated with abruption. The only chronic histologic lesion associated with abruption was placental infarctions. Conclusions The concordance between clinical and pathologic criteria for abruption diagnosis is poor. The criteria

  1. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 264... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within 90 days after...

  2. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within...

  3. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    PubMed

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar

    2016-08-11

    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time. PMID:27437571

  4. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  5. The effect of closure processing on the microbial inactivation of biological indicators at the closure-container interface.

    PubMed

    Berger, T J; May, T B; Nelson, P A; Rogers, G B; Korczynski, M S

    1998-01-01

    Two biological indicators are routinely used by the Hospital Products Division to demonstrate the sterilization of the closure-container interface. The use of a moist heat (Clostridium sporogenes) and a dry heat (Bacillus subtilis) biological indicator allows a better understanding of the parameters that impact sterilization of the closure-container system. The ability to sterilize a given closure-container interface is defined in large part by closure moisture and product time above 100 degrees C. The data will demonstrate several different means to alter these two key factors, thereby enhancing sterilization of the closure-container interface. A categorization of closure types and processing parameters allows for more efficient cycle development in the R&D facility and a higher success rate for the final subprocess validation in the manufacturing steam vessels. PMID:9610171

  6. Mechanics of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Elber, Wolf (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on plasticity induced crack closure, crack closure in fatigue crack growth, the dependence of crack closure on fatigue loading variables, and a procedure for standardizing crack closure levels. Also considered are a statistical approach to crack closure determination, the crack closure behavior of surface cracks under pure bending, closure measurements on short fatigue cracks, and crack closure under plane strain conditions. Other topics include fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios, the use of acoustic waves for the characterization of closed fatigue cracks, and the influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure.

  7. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Upton, Hubert A.

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  8. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  9. Examining Risks, Extreme Events, and Abrupt Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Julia; Keller, Klaus; Edwards, Tamsin

    2013-08-01

    Climate change research in Japan has shifted focus significantly in the past 2 years, with a greater emphasis on risks, extreme events, and abrupt changes. Two new national government-funded 5-year projects, Integrated Climate Assessment—Risks, Uncertainty and Society (ICA-RUS) and Program for Risk Information on Climate Change (SOUSEI) will focus on climate-induced risks and hazards and the possibility of fast climate changes. In light of the devastating Tohoku earthquake, tsunami, and consequent nuclear accident that occurred 2 years ago in Japan, there is also an increased interest in looking again at risks previously thought to be highly unlikely and in searching for potential risks that have not been considered.

  10. Panic anxiety after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, M; Arikawa, K; Miura, C; Inanaga, K

    1989-06-01

    We observed a case of withdrawal after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin. A 41-year-old woman was treated according to a diagnosis of depression, which was her 6th episode. Mianserin 30 mg/day, etizolam 1 mg/day and flunitrazepam 1 mg/day were administered. When the patient discontinued taking the drugs by herself because of subsiding of these symptoms, severe panic anxiety appeared. This panic anxiety was not relieved by taking etizolam and flunitrazepam again, but subsided rapidly by the re-administration of mianserin 30 mg/day, and because of that the depressive symptom also disappeared. From these experiences panic anxiety seemed to be a withdrawal symptom, and involvement of the noradrenergic system in panic anxiety as well as serotonergic system was suggested. PMID:2796025

  11. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ning; Dumas, Christophe; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille

    2016-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), global annual mean temperature is warmer by 2-3 degree than pre-industrial. Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to be a 50% reduction compared to nowadays [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ~ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, there is already full Greenland Glaciation [Lunt et al. 2008]. How does Greenland ice sheet evolve from a half size to a glaciation level during 3 Ma - 2.5 Ma? Data show that there is a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined to low summer insolation, to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maximum, suggesting a cumulative process. In order to diagnose whether the ice sheet build-up is an abrupt event or a cumulative process, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables to investigate waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. To reach this goal, we use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014) which combines the evolution of CO2 concentration, orbital parameters and Greenland ice sheet sizes in an off-line way by interpolating snapshots simulations. Thanks to this new method, we can build a transient like simulation through asynchronous coupling between GCM and ice sheet model. With this method, we may consistently answer the question of the build-up of Greenland: abrupt or cumulative process.

  12. Stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E. ); Hsu, S.T. )

    1993-01-01

    This report specifies the requirements and criteria for stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks containing nuclear spent fuels or high level radioactive materials. The specification is based on existing information conceming the structural behavior, analysis, and design of bolted joints. The approach taken was to extend the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements and criteria for bolting analysis of nuclear piping and pressure vessels to include the appropriate design and load characteristics of the shipping cask. The characteristics considered are large, flat, closure lids with metal-to-metal contact within the bolted joint; significant temperature and impact loads; and possible prying and bending effects. Specific formulas and procedures developed apply to the bolt stress analysis of a circular, flat, bolted closure. The report also includes critical load cases and desirable design practices for the bolted closure, an in-depth review of the structural behavior of bolted joints, and a comprehensive bibliography of current information on bolted joints.

  13. Cesarean Delivery for a Life-threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, II; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Placental abruption is one of the major life-threatening obstetric conditions. The fetomaternal outcome of a severe placental abruption depends largely on prompt maternal resuscitation and delivery. A case of severe preterm placental abruption with intrauterine fetal death. Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal delivery is not imminent. However, further studies are necessary before this could be recommended for routine clinical practice. PMID:27057388

  14. A GCM study on the mechanism of seasonal abrupt changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijun; Zeng, Qingcun

    1994-02-01

    In this paper the observational studies and some related dynamical and numerical researches on seasonal abrupt changes were reviewed first. Then a speculation that the seasonal variation of insolation and the nonlinear dynamic interaction account for the abrupt changes was put forward and was asserted by a set of GCM sensitivity experiments. The results show that the abrupt changes would exist in case that all the earth surface was grass land and there was no topography. However, many factors may have influences on the abrupt changes. Hence this phenomenon is quite complicated and needs further investigations.

  15. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  16. The Effect of Maternal Thrombophilia on Placental Abruption: Histologic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Kinzler, Wendy L.; Prasad, Vinay; Ananth, Cande V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if the histology of placental abruption differs by maternal thrombophilia status. Study design This was a multicenter, case-control study of women with abruption and delivering at ≥20 weeks’ gestation, collected as part of the ongoing New Jersey-Placental Abruption Study. Women were identified by clinical criteria of abruption. Maternal blood was collected postpartum and tested for anticardiolipin antibodies, and mutations in the Factor V Leiden and prothrombin genes. Cases were comprised of women with an abruption and a positive thrombophilia screen. Controls were comprised of women with an abruption and a negative thrombophilia screen. All placental histology was systematically reviewed by two perinatal pathologists, blinded to the abruption status. Results A total of 135 women with placental abruption were identified, of which 63.0% (n=85) had at least one diagnosed maternal thrombophilia. There were increases in the rates of meconium-stained membranes (7.9% versus 2.1%, P=0.015) and decidual necrosis (4.5% versus 2.1%, P=0.023) when a maternal thrombophilia was diagnosed. Although there was no difference in the overall presence of infarcts between the 2 groups (27.0% versus 38.3%, P=0.064), the presence of an old infarct was more common among women with a positive thrombophilia screen (83.3% versus 44.4%, P=0.003). Conclusion Placental abruption with a positive maternal thrombophilia screen is associated with higher rates of old placental infarcts and decidual necrosis compared with abruption when thrombophilia is not diagnosed. These lesions suggest a chronic etiology of placental abruption in the presence of a maternal thrombophilia. PMID:19330709

  17. Transcatheter device occlusion of a large pulmonary arteriovenous fistula by exit closure: the road less travelled.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Bhavesh M; Shah, Jayal; Shukla, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Large pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) manifests as cyanosis and predisposes to serious complications of right-to-left shunt, and therefore necessitates early treatment. The emergence of antegrade transcatheter closure of feeding arteries as treatment of choice is limited by inherent risk of either recanalization or reappearance of new feeders and potential risk of systemic embolization. Additional closure of the draining vessel by transcatheter device occlusion should overcome the limitations of conventional antegrade technique. We describe two cases of successful transcatheter closure of a large PAVF by antegrade device closure of feeders as well as transseptal retrograde closure of the exiting channel. PMID:24402810

  18. DESIGN OF A ROBOTIC WELDING SYSTEM FOR CLOSURE OF WASTE STORAGE CANISTERS

    SciTech Connect

    H.B. Smartt; A.D. Watkins; D.P. Pace; R.J. Bitsoi; E.D> Larsen T.R. McJunkin; C.R. Tolle

    2005-04-07

    This work reported here was done to provide a conceptual design for a robotic welding and inspection system for the Yucca Mountain Repository waste package closure system. The welding and inspection system is intended to make the various closure welds that seal and/or structurally join the lids to the waste package vessels. The welding and inspection system will also perform surface and volumetric inspections of the various closure welds and has the means to repair closure welds, if required. The system is designed to perform these various activities remotely, without the necessity of having personnel in the closure cell.

  19. Going, Going, Gone: Localizing Abrupt Offsets of Moving Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maus, Gerrit W.; Nijhawan, Romi

    2009-01-01

    When a moving object abruptly disappears, this profoundly influences its localization by the visual system. In Experiment 1, 2 aligned objects moved across the screen, and 1 of them abruptly disappeared. Observers reported seeing the objects misaligned at the time of the offset, with the continuing object leading. Experiment 2 showed that the…

  20. Equations and closure methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.

  1. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... the process of offloading at 12:01 am Pacific Daylight Time on date of closure. DATES: Effective 12:01 am Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) June 12, 2010, through June 30, 2010 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.... Fishing vessels must be at shore and in the process of offloading at the time of closure. From 12:01 am...

  2. 50 CFR 622.491 - Seasonal and area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.491 Seasonal and area closures. (a) No person may fish for or possess on board a fishing vessel a Caribbean queen conch in or... criteria established in the FMP for Queen Conch Resources in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands,...

  3. The Role of the Tropics in Abrupt Climate Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Alexey

    2013-12-07

    Topics addressed include: abrupt climate changes and ocean circulation in the tropics; what controls the ocean thermal structure in the tropics; a permanent El Niño in paleoclimates; the energetics of the tropical ocean.

  4. Status Cataplecticus Precipitated by Abrupt Withdrawal of Venlafaxine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Janice; Greenberg, Harly

    2013-01-01

    Status cataplecticus is a rare manifestation of narcolepsy with cataplexy episodes recurring for hours or days, without a refractory period, in the absence of emotional triggers. This case highlights a narcoleptic patient who developed status cataplecticus after abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. Citation: Wang J; Greenberg H. Status cataplecticus precipitated by abrupt withdrawal of venlafaxine. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):715-716. PMID:23853567

  5. Percutaneous repair of iatrogenic subclavian artery injury by suture-mediated closure device

    PubMed Central

    Chivate, Rahul S; Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin S; Polnaya, Ashwin M; Gala, Kunal B; Patel, Paresh G

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization through internal jugular vein is done routinely in intensive care units. It is generally safe, more so when the procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance. However, there could be inadvertent puncture of other vessels in the neck when the procedure is not performed under real-time sonographic guidance. Closure of this vessel opening can pose a challenge if it is an artery, in a location difficult to compress, and is further complicated by deranged coagulation profile. Here, we discuss the removal of an inadvertently placed catheter from subclavian artery with closure of arteriotomy percutaneously using arterial suture-mediated closure device. PMID:27413277

  6. Percutaneous repair of iatrogenic subclavian artery injury by suture-mediated closure device.

    PubMed

    Chivate, Rahul S; Kulkarni, Suyash S; Shetty, Nitin S; Polnaya, Ashwin M; Gala, Kunal B; Patel, Paresh G

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization through internal jugular vein is done routinely in intensive care units. It is generally safe, more so when the procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance. However, there could be inadvertent puncture of other vessels in the neck when the procedure is not performed under real-time sonographic guidance. Closure of this vessel opening can pose a challenge if it is an artery, in a location difficult to compress, and is further complicated by deranged coagulation profile. Here, we discuss the removal of an inadvertently placed catheter from subclavian artery with closure of arteriotomy percutaneously using arterial suture-mediated closure device. PMID:27413277

  7. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  8. Abrupt changes in rainfall during the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narisma, G.; Foley, J.; Licker, R.; Ramankutty, N.

    2007-12-01

    A sudden change in climate is brought about by complex interactions in the climate system, including interactions between land and atmosphere, that can give rise to strong positive feedback mechanisms. Paleoclimatic studies have shown that abrupt climate changes have happened in the geologic past. Studies of future climate change under global warming scenarios indicate the possibility of the sudden collapse of the thermohaline circulation, which will have major implications for the climate of Europe. However, abrupt climatic changes are not events of the geologic past or a computer-simulated future: they have occurred in recent history and have had serious consequences on society and the environment. The prolonged Sahel drought in the late 1960s and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s are examples of abrupt climatic changes of the twentieth century. Apart from these events, however, there has been no systematic survey of recent climate history to determine the prevalence of abrupt climatic changes. Given the potential cost of these abrupt changes, there is a need to investigate historical records for evidence of other sudden climatic changes in the more recent past. Here we analyze the Climate Research Unit global historical rainfall observations (covering the years 1901-2000) using wavelet analysis to detect regions that have undergone large, sudden decreases in rainfall. We show that in the twentieth century, aside from the Sahel and the US midwest, at least 30 regions in the world have experienced sudden climatic changes. These events are statistically significant at the 99 percent level, are persistent for at least ten years, and most have magnitudes of change that are 10 percent lower than the climatological normal (1901-2000 rainfall average). We also illustrate some of the potential consequences of these abrupt changes and show that these events had major impacts on social and environmental conditions. Interestingly, these regions of abrupt precipitation changes are

  9. Controls on the abruptness of gravel-sand transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Domarad, N.; Rennie, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    As gravel-bedded rivers fine downstream, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bed. This is the only abrupt transition in grain-size that occurs in the fluvial system and has attracted considerable attention. A number of competing theories have been proposed to account for the abruptness of the transition, including base-level control, attrition of ~10mm gravel to produce sand, and sediment sorting processes. The prevailing theory for the emergence of abrupt transitions is size selective sorting of bimodal sediment wherein gravel deposits due to downstream declining shear stress, fining the bedload until a sand-bed emerges. We explored this hypothesis by examining grain-size, shear stress, gravel mobility and sand suspension thresholds through the gravel-sand transition (GST) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. The Fraser GST is an arrested gravel wedge with patches of gravel downstream of the wedge forming a diffuse extension. There is an abrupt change in bed slope through the transition that leads to an abrupt change in shear stress. The GST, bed-slope change and backwater caused by the ocean are all coincident spatially, which enhances the sharpness of the GST. Interestingly, the bimodal reach of the river occurs downstream of the GST and exhibits no downstream gradients in shear stress, suspended sediment flux, gravel mobility or sand suspension thresholds. This calls into question the prevailing theory for the emergence of an abrupt GST by size selective sorting. We provide evidence, both empirical and theoretical, that suggests the emergence of an abrupt GST is caused by rapid deposition of sand when fine gravel deposits. We argue that the emergence of gravel-sand transitions is a consequence of gravel-bedded rivers adopting a steeper slope than sand-bedded rivers. The abruptness arises because the bed slope required to convey the gravel load fixes the distal location of a terminal gravel wedge, and once the river has

  10. 6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  11. 40 CFR 264.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.310... Landfills § 264.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of...) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained...

  12. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.258... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care...

  13. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  14. Sensitivity and Thresholds of Ecosystems to Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Peteet, D. M.

    2001-12-01

    Rapid vegetational change is a hallmark of past abrupt climate change, as evidenced from Younger Dryas records in Europe, eastern North America, and the Pacific North American rim. The potential response of future ecosystems to abrupt climate change is targeted, with a focus on particular changes in the hydrological cycle. The vulnerability of ecosystems is notable when particular shifts cross thresholds of precipitation and temperature, as many plants and animals are adapted to specific climatic "windows". Significant forest species compositional changes occur at ecotonal boundaries, which are often the first locations to record a climatic response. Historical forest declines have been linked to stress, and even Pleistocene extinctions have been associated with human interaction at times of rapid climatic shifts. Environmental extremes are risky for reproductive stages, and result in nonlinearities. The role of humans in association with abrupt climate change suggests that many ecosystems may cross thresholds from which they will find it difficult to recover. Sectors particularly vulnerable will be reviewed.

  15. International policy implications of abrupt climate change scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Molitor, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    New theoretical and empirical evidence supports the view that in the recent past [Holocene] abrupt climate changes occurred over very short [decadal] time periods. One leading possibility of future changes involves the North Atlantic Ocean conveyor that transfers warm surface waters from the equator to northern latitudes and helps maintain Europe`s climate. The predicted abrupt climate change scenario theorizes that the conveyor may be modified as a result of disruption of the thermohaline circulation driving North, Atlantic Deep Water. This would lead, the theory contends, to a rapid cooling of Europe`s climate. In light of the EPCC`s 1995 Second Assessment Report conclusion that there is a {open_quotes}discernible{close_quotes} human influence on the global climate system, there are many emerging questions concerning possible abrupt climate change scenarios.

  16. Sea-ice switches and abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Gildor, Hezi; Tziperman, Eli

    2003-09-15

    We propose that past abrupt climate changes were probably a result of rapid and extensive variations in sea-ice cover. We explain why this seems a perhaps more likely explanation than a purely thermohaline circulation mechanism. We emphasize that because of the significant influence of sea ice on the climate system, it seems that high priority should be given to developing ways for reconstructing high-resolution (in space and time) sea-ice extent for past climate-change events. If proxy data can confirm that sea ice was indeed the major player in past abrupt climate-change events, it seems less likely that such dramatic abrupt changes will occur due to global warming, when extensive sea-ice cover will not be present. PMID:14558902

  17. Abrupt changes in rainfall during the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narisma, Gemma T.; Foley, Jonathan A.; Licker, Rachel; Ramankutty, Navin

    2007-03-01

    Complex interactions in the climate system can give rise to strong positive feedback mechanisms that may lead to sudden climatic changes. The prolonged Sahel drought and the Dust Bowl are examples of 20th century abrupt climatic changes that had serious effects on ecosystems and societies. Here we analyze global historical rainfall observations to detect regions that have undergone large, sudden decreases in rainfall. Our results show that in the 20th century about 30 regions in the world have experienced such changes. These events are statistically significant at the 99% level, are persistent for at least ten years, and most have magnitudes of change that are 10% lower than the climatological normal (1901-2000 rainfall average). This analysis illustrates the extent and magnitude of abrupt climate changes across the globe during the 20th century and may be used for studying the dynamics of and the mechanisms behind these abrupt changes.

  18. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  19. Quick actuating closure and handling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W.; White, Dorsey E., III; Updike, Benjamin T.; Gregory, Peyton B.

    1988-01-01

    A quick activating closure and handling system, which utilizes conical sections for locking, was developed to allow quick access to the combustor internal components of the 8 ft High Temperature Tunnel. These critical components include the existing methane spraybar, a transpiration cooled nozzle and the new liquid oxygen (LOX) injection system housed within the combustor. A substantial cost savings will be realized once the mechanism is installed since it will substantially reduce the access time and increase the time available for conducting wind tunnel tests. A need exists for more frequent inspections when the wind tunnel operates at the more severe conditions generated by using LOX in the combustor. A loads analysis and a structural (finite element) analysis were conducted to verify that the new closure system is compatible with the existing pressure shell. In addition, strain gages were placed on the pressure vessel to verify how the pressure shell reacts to transient pressure loads. A scale model of the new closure system was built to verify the operation of the conical sections in the locking mechanisms.

  20. Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: Mechanisms and predictability

    PubMed Central

    Marotzke, Jochem

    2000-01-01

    The ocean's thermohaline circulation has long been recognized as potentially unstable and has consequently been invoked as a potential cause of abrupt climate change on all timescales of decades and longer. However, fundamental aspects of thermohaline circulation changes remain poorly understood. PMID:10677464

  1. Abrupt Depletion Layer Approximation for the Metal Insulator Semiconductor Diode.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kenneth

    1979-01-01

    Determines the excess surface change carrier density, surface potential, and relative capacitance of a metal insulator semiconductor diode as a function of the gate voltage, using the precise questions and the equations derived with the abrupt depletion layer approximation. (Author/GA)

  2. Abrupt climate change and thermohaline circulation: mechanisms and predictability.

    PubMed

    Marotzke, J

    2000-02-15

    The ocean's thermohaline circulation has long been recognized as potentially unstable and has consequently been invoked as a potential cause of abrupt climate change on all timescales of decades and longer. However, fundamental aspects of thermohaline circulation changes remain poorly understood. PMID:10677464

  3. Abrupt changes in the dynamics of quantum disentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lastra, F.; Romero, G.; Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Franca Santos, M.

    2007-06-15

    The evolution of the lower bound of entanglement proposed by Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 210501 (2005)] in high-dimensional bipartite systems under dissipation is studied. Discontinuities for the time derivative of this bound are found depending on the initial conditions for entangled states. These abrupt changes along the evolution of the entanglement bound appear as precursors of sudden death.

  4. Airway closure in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Dutrieue, Brigitte; Verbanck, Sylvia; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2005-08-25

    Recent single breath washout (SBW) studies in microgravity and on the ground have suggested an important effect of airway closure on gas mixing in the human lung, reflected particularly in the phase III slope of vital capacity SBW and bolus tests. In order to explore this effect, we designed a SBW in which subjects inspired 2-l from residual volume (RV) starting with a 150 ml bolus of He and SF6. In an attempt to vary the pattern of airways closure configuration before the test, the experiments were conducted in 1G and in microgravity during parabolic flight allowing the pre-test expiration to RV to be either in microgravity or at 1.8 G, with the actual test gas inhalation performed entirely in microgravity. Contrary to our expectations, the measured phase III slope and phase IV height and volume obtained from seven subjects in microgravity were essentially identical irrespective of the gravity level during the pre-test expiration to RV. The results suggest that airway closure configuration at RV before the test inspiration has no apparent impact on phases III and IV generation. PMID:15979418

  5. Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gilor; Moshelion, Menachem; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Halperin, Ofer; Wallach, Rony; Attia, Ziv; Belausov, Eduard; Granot, David

    2013-09-01

    Stomata, composed of two guard cells, are the gates whose controlled movement allows the plant to balance the demand for CO2 for photosynthesis with the loss of water through transpiration. Increased guard-cell osmolarity leads to the opening of the stomata and decreased osmolarity causes the stomata to close. The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal aperture. We show here that increased expression of HXK in guard cells accelerates stomatal closure. We further show that this closure is induced by sugar and is mediated by abscisic acid. These findings support the existence of a feedback-inhibition mechanism that is mediated by a product of photosynthesis, namely sucrose. When the rate of sucrose production exceeds the rate at which sucrose is loaded into the phloem, the surplus sucrose is carried toward the stomata by the transpiration stream and stimulates stomatal closure via HXK, thereby preventing the loss of precious water. PMID:23738737

  6. 75 FR 69598 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  7. 75 FR 69599 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch by Vessels in the Amendment 80 Limited Access Fishery in the...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by vessels.... The 2010 Pacific ocean perch TAC specified for vessels participating in the Amendment 80...

  8. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan N.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures.

  9. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  10. Recommended Experimental Procedures for Evaluation of Abrupt Wing Stall Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Hall, R. M.; Owens, D. B.; Lamar, J. E.; McMillin, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the experimental program under the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. Candidate figures of merit from conventional static tunnel tests are summarized and correlated with data obtained in unique free-to-roll tests. Where possible, free-to-roll results are also correlated with flight data. Based on extensive studies of static experimental figures of merit in the Abrupt Wing Stall Program for four different aircraft configurations, no one specific figure of merit consistently flagged a warning of potential lateral activity when actual activity was seen to occur in the free-to-roll experiments. However, these studies pointed out the importance of measuring and recording the root mean square signals of the force balance.

  11. The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter U; Pisias, Nicklas G; Stocker, Thomas F; Weaver, Andrew J

    2002-02-21

    The possibility of a reduced Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to increases in greenhouse-gas concentrations has been demonstrated in a number of simulations with general circulation models of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. But it remains difficult to assess the likelihood of future changes in the thermohaline circulation, mainly owing to poorly constrained model parameterizations and uncertainties in the response of the climate system to greenhouse warming. Analyses of past abrupt climate changes help to solve these problems. Data and models both suggest that abrupt climate change during the last glaciation originated through changes in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation in response to small changes in the hydrological cycle. Atmospheric and oceanic responses to these changes were then transmitted globally through a number of feedbacks. The palaeoclimate data and the model results also indicate that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the mean climate state. PMID:11859359

  12. Abruptly autofocusing terahertz waves with meta-hologram.

    PubMed

    He, Jingwen; Wang, Sen; Xie, Zhenwei; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Xinke; Kan, Qiang; Zhang, Yan

    2016-06-15

    An abruptly autofocusing ring-Airy beam is demonstrated in the terahertz (THz) waveband with a meta-hologram. The designed meta-hologram is composed of gold C-shaped slot antennas, which can realize both phase and amplitude modulation of the incident THz wave. A THz holographic imaging system is utilized to measure the generated ring-Airy beam; an abrupt focus following a parabolic trajectory is subsequently observed. THz ring-Airy beams with different parameters are also generated and investigated. This method can be expanded to other wavebands, such as the visible band, for which the meta-hologram can replace traditional computer-generated holography to avoid undesirable multiple diffraction orders. PMID:27304289

  13. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  14. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  15. Detecting abrupt climate changes on different time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasovszky, István

    2011-10-01

    Two concepts are introduced for detecting abrupt climate changes. In the first case, the sampling frequency of climate data is high as compared to the frequency of climate events examined. The method is based on a separation of trend and noise in the data and is applicable to any dataset that satisfies some mild smoothness and statistical dependence conditions for the trend and the noise, respectively. We say that an abrupt change occurs when the first derivative of the trend function has a discontinuity and the task is to identify such points. The technique is applied to Northern Hemisphere temperature data from 1850 to 2009, Northern Hemisphere temperature data from proxy data, a.d. 200-1995 and Holocene δ18O values going back to 11,700 years BP. Several abrupt changes are detected that are, among other things, beneficial for determining the Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and Holocene Climate Optimum. In the second case, the sampling frequency is low relative to the frequency of climate events studied. A typical example includes Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The methodology used here is based on a refinement of autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic models. The key element of this approach is the volatility that characterises the time-varying variance, and abrupt changes are defined by high volatilities. The technique applied to δ18O values going back to 122,950 years BP is suitable for identifying DO events. These two approaches for the two cases are closely related despite the fact that at first glance, they seem quite different.

  16. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  17. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mLṡL-1 [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  18. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mL⋅L−1 [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems. PMID:25825727

  19. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Roopnarine, Peter D; Kennett, James P

    2015-04-14

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to <0.5 mL⋅L(-1) [O2]) associated with abrupt (<100 y) warming of the eastern Pacific. The biotic turnover and recovery events within the record expand known rates of marine biological recovery by an order of magnitude, from <100 to >1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems. PMID:25825727

  20. A Rare Cause of Placental Abruption: Uterine Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Muhammed Siraç; Kiran, Gürkan; Gülşen, Mehmet Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Uterine torsion is defined as a rotation on its long axis and it is a dangerous, unexpected obstetric emergency. We report a case of uterine torsion at 32 weeks of gestation in a singleton pregnancy. A 37-year-old woman with multiple prior cesarean deliveries referred to emergency unit of our hospital at 32 weeks of gestation with severe abdominal pain and mild vaginal bleeding. Ultrasonography showed a single fetus in vertex position, with a normal amniotic fluid. Fetal biometer was appropriate for 32 weeks of gestation. Placental location was anterior with a subchorionic hypoechogenic small area which was suspected to be a sign of placental abruption. An emergency cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. The 180° uterine torsion was diagnosed and it was not possible to perform detorsion of the gravid uterus by exteriorization by pfannenstiel incision. Posterior hysterotomy was performed and a male baby of 1830 grams weight was delivered. The newborn was transported to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of another hospital and discharged within two weeks. Patient recovered well and was discharged on second postoperation day. Uterine torsion is a very rare and life threatening situation. In unexpected cases posterior low transuerse hysterotomy is generally performed and it is suggested as a safe choice when detorsion was not accomplished. It is not easy to keep in mind the possibility of uterine torsion in cases of abdominal pain during pregnancy. Because it generally causes abruption, management of abruption is vitally important to prevent fetal mortality. PMID:26894131

  1. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  2. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  3. Crashworthy sealed pressure vessel for plutonium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 Kg PuO/sub 2/ in various isotopic forms (not to exceed 25 watts thermal activity), has a positive closure design consisting of a recessed, shouldered lid fastened to the vessel body by twelve stainless-steel bolts; sealing is accomplished by a ductile copper gasket in conjunction with knife-edge sealing beads on both the body and lid. Follow-on applications of this seal in newer, smaller packages for international air shipments of plutonium safeguards samples, and in newer, more optimized packages for greater payload and improved efficiency and utility, are briefly presented.

  4. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  5. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  6. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including...

  7. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  8. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.197... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a containment... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  10. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.258... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  11. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  12. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including...

  13. Closure head for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A closure head for a nuclear reactor includes a stationary outer ring integral with the reactor vessel with a first rotatable plug disposed within the stationary outer ring and supported from the stationary outer ring by a bearing assembly. A sealing system is associated with the bearing assembly to seal the annulus defined between the first rotatable plug and the stationary outer ring. The sealing system comprises tubular seal elements disposed in the annulus with load springs contacting the tubular seal elements so as to force the tubular seal elements against the annulus in a manner to seal the annulus. The sealing system also comprises a sealing fluid which is pumped through the annulus and over the tubular seal elements causing the load springs to compress thereby reducing the friction between the tubular seal elements and the rotatable components while maintaining a gas-tight seal therebetween.

  14. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be...

  15. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  16. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  17. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  18. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  19. CLOSURE WELD DEVELOPMENT FOR 3013 OUTER CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Howard, S.; Peterson, K.; Stokes, M.

    2009-11-10

    Excess plutonium materials in the DOE complex are packaged and stored in accordance with DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies requirements for the stabilization of such materials and subsequent packaging in dual nested seal-welded containers. Austenitic stainless steels have been selected for container fabrication. The inner 3013 container provides contamination control while the outer 3013 container is the primary containment vessel and is the focus of this paper. Each packaging site chose a process for seal welding the outer 3013 containers in accordance with its needs and expertise. The two processes chosen for weld closure were laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Following development efforts, each system was qualified in accordance with DOE-STD-3013 prior to production use. The 3013 outer container closure weld joint was designed to accommodate the characteristics of a laser weld. This aspect of the joint design necessitated some innovative process and equipment considerations in the application of the GTAW process. Details of the weld requirements and the development processes are presented and several potential enhancements for the GTAW system are described.

  20. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  1. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  2. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  3. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  4. Zooplankton patch dynamics: daily gap formation over abrupt topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genin, Amatzia; Greene, Charles; Haury, Loren; Wiebe, Peter; Gal, Gideon; Kaartvedt, Stein; Meir, Eli; Fey, Connie; Dawson, Jim

    1994-05-01

    Net tow and acoustic surveys of zooplankton distributions were made over and around Sixtymile Bank (110 km southwest of San Diego, California). Gaps devoid of vertically migrating zooplankton were formed every evening above the summit of the bank. Interactions between the migrating animals, their predators, physical advection and the local topography appear to determine the gap formation and dynamics. Gaps were transported downstream during the night and appeared to disintegrate slowly through vertical swimming behavior, current shear and mixing processes. Patch dynamics following gap formation, mediated by both ocean currents and animal behavior, should augment the spatial heterogeneity of zooplankton and affect marine food webs in areas where abrupt topography features are common.

  5. Shock wave interaction with an abrupt area change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, Manuel D.

    1991-01-01

    The wave patterns that occur when a shock wave interacts with an abrupt area changed are analyzed in terms of the incident shock wave Mach number and area-jump ratio. The solutions predicted by a semi-similar models are in good agreement with those obtained numerically from the quasi-one-dimensional time-dependent Euler equations. The entropy production for the wave system is defined and the principle of minimum entropy production is used to resolve a nonuniqueness problem of the self-similar model.

  6. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds

    PubMed Central

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Kroon, Dick; Wright, James D.; Swart, Peter K.; Nath, Bejugam Nagender; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Bialik, Or M.; Blättler, Clara L.; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sébastien; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Mee, Anna Ling Hui; Lüdmann, Thomas; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M.; Pratiwi, Santi D.; Reijmer, John J. G.; Reolid, Jesús; Slagle, Angela L.; Sloss, Craig R.; Su, Xiang; Yao, Zhengquan; Young, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most intense climatic elements yet its initiation and variations are not well established. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents in IODP cores from the Maldives yields an age of 12. 9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment’s content of particulate organic matter. A weaker ‘proto-monsoon’ existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system. PMID:27436574

  7. North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming.

    PubMed

    Praetorius, S K; Mix, A C; Walczak, M H; Wolhowe, M D; Addison, J A; Prahl, F G

    2015-11-19

    Marine sediments from the North Pacific document two episodes of expansion and strengthening of the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) accompanied by seafloor hypoxia during the last deglacial transition. The mechanisms driving this hypoxia remain under debate. We present a new high-resolution alkenone palaeotemperature reconstruction from the Gulf of Alaska that reveals two abrupt warming events of 4-5 degrees Celsius at the onset of the Bølling and Holocene intervals that coincide with sudden shifts to hypoxia at intermediate depths. The presence of diatomaceous laminations and hypoxia-tolerant benthic foraminiferal species, peaks in redox-sensitive trace metals, and enhanced (15)N/(14)N ratio of organic matter, collectively suggest association with high export production. A decrease in (18)O/(16)O values of benthic foraminifera accompanying the most severe deoxygenation event indicates subsurface warming of up to about 2 degrees Celsius. We infer that abrupt warming triggered expansion of the North Pacific OMZ through reduced oxygen solubility and increased marine productivity via physiological effects; following initiation of hypoxia, remobilization of iron from hypoxic sediments could have provided a positive feedback on ocean deoxygenation through increased nutrient utilization and carbon export. Such a biogeochemical amplification process implies high sensitivity of OMZ expansion to warming. PMID:26581293

  8. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds.

    PubMed

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P; Kroon, Dick; Wright, James D; Swart, Peter K; Nath, Bejugam Nagender; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Bialik, Or M; Blättler, Clara L; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sébastien; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Mee, Anna Ling Hui; Lüdmann, Thomas; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M; Pratiwi, Santi D; Reijmer, John J G; Reolid, Jesús; Slagle, Angela L; Sloss, Craig R; Su, Xiang; Yao, Zhengquan; Young, Jeremy R

    2016-01-01

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most intense climatic elements yet its initiation and variations are not well established. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents in IODP cores from the Maldives yields an age of 12. 9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment's content of particulate organic matter. A weaker 'proto-monsoon' existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system. PMID:27436574

  9. Usage leading to an abrupt collapse of connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäger, D. V.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Network infrastructures are essential for the distribution of resources such as electricity and water. Typical strategies to assess their resilience focus on the impact of a sequence of random or targeted failures of network nodes or links. Here we consider a more realistic scenario, where elements fail based on their usage. We propose a dynamic model of transport based on the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model where links fail after they have transported more than an amount μ (threshold) of the resource and we investigate it on the square lattice. As we deal with a new model, we provide insight on its fundamental behavior and dependence on parameters. We observe that, for low values of the threshold due to a positive feedback of link failure, an avalanche develops that leads to an abrupt collapse of the lattice. By contrast, for high thresholds the lattice breaks down in an uncorrelated fashion. We determine the critical threshold μ* separating these two regimes and show how it depends on the toppling threshold of the nodes and the mass increment added stepwise to the system. We find that the time of major disconnection is well described with a linear dependence on μ . Furthermore, we propose a lower bound for μ* by measuring the strength of the dynamics leading to abrupt collapses.

  10. Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Cronin, T. M.; Demenocal, P.B.; Okahashi, H.; Linsley, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Aller??d Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until ???8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  11. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Kroon, Dick; Wright, James D.; Swart, Peter K.; Nath, Bejugam Nagender; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Bialik, Or M.; Blättler, Clara L.; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sébastien; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Mee, Anna Ling Hui; Lüdmann, Thomas; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M.; Pratiwi, Santi D.; Reijmer, John J. G.; Reolid, Jesús; Slagle, Angela L.; Sloss, Craig R.; Su, Xiang; Yao, Zhengquan; Young, Jeremy R.

    2016-07-01

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most intense climatic elements yet its initiation and variations are not well established. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents in IODP cores from the Maldives yields an age of 12. 9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment’s content of particulate organic matter. A weaker ‘proto-monsoon’ existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system.

  12. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  13. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  14. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  15. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  16. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  17. Closure in Knee Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Total Knee replacement (TKR) is one of the commonest arthroplasty surgeries performed. Various techniques of closures in TKR are described. This technical note describes an useful technique of achieving water tight closure in TKR. An optimal tension watertight closure also reduces the chances of dead space hematomas and infection. The author has described his technique where the soft tissues are never unduly compromised. In his experience the patient can be mobilized freely in bed and even allowed to sleep prone after first wound check.

  18. Closure report for N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  19. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  20. Photochemical Thrombosis Of Retinal And Choroidal Vessels Using Rose Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mary Lou; Winward, Kirk; Watson, Brant D.; Hernandez, Eleut

    1989-09-01

    Rose bengal is an effective photosensitizing agent which interacts with argon green light to induce photochemical thrombosis of irradiated vessels. We used focal, low energy irradiation to occlude retinal and choroidal vessels in both albino and pigmented rabbits. Immediately after intravenous injection of rose bengal at concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/kg, irradiation was performed via a slit lamp-delivered argon green laser (514.5 nm) with the aid of fundus contact lens. In 11 eyes, arteries were treated with 50-100 interrupted bursts of 75u spot size at 0.2 sec and 40-100 mW (9 closure of retinal vessels for 1-12 days and variable closure of the surrounding capillaris. Eight eyes were treated with continuous irradiation 2-5 minutes at 7.5-40 mW, 75u spot size (35 closure of retinal and choroidal vessels, serous elevation of the retina, and disc neovascularization. In eight eyes choroidal vessels were irradiated with 10-20 mW, 15-60 sec, 500u spot size (31 closure of choroidal vessels. There was minimal damage to surrounding tissue. Control eyes in all three groups irradiated utilizing the same parameters, but without rose bengal, demonstrated no evidence of thermal injury.

  1. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  2. Pinhole closure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Afeyan, B. B.; Boley, C. D.; Estabrook, K. G.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milam, D.; Murray, J. E.; Nielsen, N. D.; Sell, W. D.; Zakharenkov, Y. A.

    1998-07-20

    Spatial-filter pinholes and knife-edge samples were irradiated in vacuum by 1053-nm, 5-20 ns pulses at intensities to 500 GW/cm. The knife-edge samples were fabricated of plastic, carbon, ahnuinum, stainless steel, molybdenum, tantalum, gold and an absorbing glass. Time-resolved two-beam interferometry with a 40-ns probe pulse was used to observe phase shifts in the expanding laser-induced plasma. For all of these materials, at any time during square-pulse irradiation, the phase shift fell exponentially with distance from the edge of the sample. The expansion was characterized by the propagation velocity V2x of the contour for a 2(pi) phase shift. To within experimental error, V2x, was constant during irradiation at a particular intensity, and it increased linearly with intensity for intensities <300 GW/cn2. For metal samples, V, exhibited an approximate M-0.5 dependence where M is the atomic mass. Plasmas of plastic, carbon and absorbing glass produced larger phase shifts, and expanded more rapidly, than plasmas of the heavy metals. The probe beam and interferometer were also used to observe the closing of pinholes. With planar pinholes, accumulation of on-axis plasma was observed along with the advance of plasma away from the edge of the hole. On-axis closure was not observed in square, 4-leaf pinholes.

  3. Per-catheter ASD closure.

    PubMed

    Latson, L A

    1998-01-01

    Per-catheter devices for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure have been evolving since 1974. The four major devices available for use on a limited basis in early 1997 are reviewed. These include (in alphabetical order) the Angel Wing device, the ASDOS device, the Buttoned device, and the CardioSeal device (successor to the Clamshell). Sufficient data have been collected to indicate that transcatheter ASD closure is a viable alternative to surgery in selected patients. The advantages of the concept of per-catheter closure over surgical closure should lead to the continued development of devices and techniques for per-catheter treatment of ASD and other septal defects in the years to come. PMID:9396853

  4. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  5. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  6. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  7. 27 CFR 19.662 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affixing closures. 19.662 Section 19.662 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Closures § 19.662 Affixing closures. Closures...

  8. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  9. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate...

  10. 33 CFR 117.33 - Closure of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of draw for natural... of draw for natural disasters or civil disorders. Drawbridges need not open for the passage of vessels during periods of natural disasters or civil disorders declared by the appropriate...

  11. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... or decontaminated, he or she must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  12. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... practicably removed or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in...

  13. Abrupt rise of new machine ecology beyond human response time

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil; Zhao, Guannan; Hunsader, Eric; Qi, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas; Meng, Jing; Tivnan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Society's techno-social systems are becoming ever faster and more computer-orientated. However, far from simply generating faster versions of existing behaviour, we show that this speed-up can generate a new behavioural regime as humans lose the ability to intervene in real time. Analyzing millisecond-scale data for the world's largest and most powerful techno-social system, the global financial market, we uncover an abrupt transition to a new all-machine phase characterized by large numbers of subsecond extreme events. The proliferation of these subsecond events shows an intriguing correlation with the onset of the system-wide financial collapse in 2008. Our findings are consistent with an emerging ecology of competitive machines featuring ‘crowds' of predatory algorithms, and highlight the need for a new scientific theory of subsecond financial phenomena. PMID:24022120

  14. Intrusion detection robust to slow and abrupt lighting changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Aleksej; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Reymond, Florian

    1996-03-01

    In this communication we present an image based object detection algorithm which is applied to intrusion detection. The algorithm is based on the comparison of input edges and temporally filtered edges of the background. It is characterized by very low computational and memory loads, high sensitivity to the presence of physical intruders and high robustness to slow and abrupt lighting changes. The algorithm is implementable on a cheap digital signal processor. It was tested on a data base of about one thousand gray-level CIF-format frames representing static scenes with various contents (light sources, intruders, lighting changes), and neither false alarm nor detection failure occurred. The number of parameters involved by the algorithm is very low, and their values do not require a fine tuning. The same set of parameters performs equally well in different conditions: different scenes, various lighting changes, various object sizes.

  15. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage.

    PubMed

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-02-01

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound. PMID:25605890

  16. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-01-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected. PMID:26965790

  17. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Bryden, H L; Borghini, M; Ben Ismail, S

    2016-01-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected. PMID:26965790

  18. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-03-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected.

  19. Abrupt tectonics and rapid slab detachment with grain damage

    PubMed Central

    Bercovici, David; Schubert, Gerald; Ricard, Yanick

    2015-01-01

    A simple model for necking and detachment of subducting slabs is developed to include the coupling between grain-sensitive rheology and grain-size evolution with damage. Necking is triggered by thickened buoyant crust entrained into a subduction zone, in which case grain damage accelerates necking and allows for relatively rapid slab detachment, i.e., within 1 My, depending on the size of the crustal plug. Thick continental crustal plugs can cause rapid necking while smaller plugs characteristic of ocean plateaux cause slower necking; oceanic lithosphere with normal or slightly thickened crust subducts without necking. The model potentially explains how large plateaux or continental crust drawn into subduction zones can cause slab loss and rapid changes in plate motion and/or induce abrupt continental rebound. PMID:25605890

  20. Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Purcell, Conor

    2014-08-21

    During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses--including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw--are generally consistent with empirical evidence. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials. PMID:25119027

  1. Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Knorr, Gregor; Purcell, Conor

    2014-08-01

    During glacial periods of the Late Pleistocene, an abundance of proxy data demonstrates the existence of large and repeated millennial-scale warming episodes, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. This ubiquitous feature of rapid glacial climate change can be extended back as far as 800,000 years before present (BP) in the ice core record, and has drawn broad attention within the science and policy-making communities alike. Many studies have been dedicated to investigating the underlying causes of these changes, but no coherent mechanism has yet been identified. Here we show, by using a comprehensive fully coupled model, that gradual changes in the height of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (NHISs) can alter the coupled atmosphere-ocean system and cause rapid glacial climate shifts closely resembling DO events. The simulated global climate responses--including abrupt warming in the North Atlantic, a northward shift of the tropical rainbelts, and Southern Hemisphere cooling related to the bipolar seesaw--are generally consistent with empirical evidence. As a result of the coexistence of two glacial ocean circulation states at intermediate heights of the ice sheets, minor changes in the height of the NHISs and the amount of atmospheric CO2 can trigger the rapid climate transitions via a local positive atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice feedback in the North Atlantic. Our results, although based on a single model, thus provide a coherent concept for understanding the recorded millennial-scale variability and abrupt climate changes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system, as well as their linkages to the volume of the intermediate ice sheets during glacials.

  2. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  3. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  4. An automatic abrupt information extraction method based on singular value decomposition and higher-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tian; Ye, Wu; Pan, Qiang; Liu, Xiandong

    2016-02-01

    One key aspect of local fault diagnosis is how to effectively extract abrupt features from the vibration signals. This paper proposes a method to automatically extract abrupt information based on singular value decomposition and higher-order statistics. In order to observe the distribution law of singular values, a numerical analysis to simulate the noise, periodic signal, abrupt signal and singular value distribution is conducted. Based on higher-order statistics and spectrum analysis, a method to automatically choose the upper and lower borders of the singular value interval reflecting the abrupt information is built. And the selected singular values derived from this method are used to reconstruct abrupt signals. It is proven that the method is able to obtain accurate results by processing the rub-impact fault signal measured from the experiments. The analytical and experimental results indicate that the proposed method is feasible for automatically extracting abrupt information caused by faults like the rotor-stator rub-impact.

  5. VESSELS IN SOME ASLEPIADCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Anita; Kshetrapal, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the present investigation vessels of 16 species of family Asclepiadaceae have been studied. Through a lot of variation exists in the size and shape of vessels, number of perforation plates and intravascular thickening of walls in the taxa, the vessels in asclepiadaceae are found highly specified. PMID:22557694

  6. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Jessica E; deMenocal, Peter B

    2013-11-15

    The timing and abruptness of the initiation and termination of the Early Holocene African Humid Period are subjects of ongoing debate, with direct consequences for our understanding of abrupt climate change, paleoenvironments, and early human cultural development. Here, we provide proxy evidence from the Horn of Africa region that documents abrupt transitions into and out of the African Humid Period in northeast Africa. Similar and generally synchronous abrupt transitions at other East African sites suggest that rapid shifts in hydroclimate are a regionally coherent feature. Our analysis suggests that the termination of the African Humid Period in the Horn of Africa occurred within centuries, underscoring the nonlinearity of the region's hydroclimate. PMID:24114782

  7. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  8. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  9. Design and analysis of lid closure bolts for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Stojimirovic, A.

    1995-07-01

    The design criterion recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for Category I radioactive packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This criterion provides material specifications and allowable stress limits for bolts used to secure lids of containment vessels. This paper describes the design requirements for Category I containment vessel lid closure bolts, and provides an example of a bolting stress analysis. The lid-closure bolting stress analysis compares calculations based on handbook formulas with an analysis performed with a finite-element computer code. The results show that the simple handbook calculations can be sufficiently accurate to evaluate the bolt stresses that occur in rotationally rigid lid flanges designed for metal-to-metal contact.

  10. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay. PMID:27011527

  11. Abrupt Atmospheric Methane Increases Associated With Hudson Strait Heinrich Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R.; Brook, E.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Blunier, T.; Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Romanini, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The drivers of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Period are not well understood. While Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are thought to be linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), it is not clear how or if Heinrich Events—extensive influxes of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean that impacted global climate and biogeochemistry—are related. An enduring problem is the difficultly in dating iceberg rafted debris deposits that typically lack foraminifera. Here we present an ultra-high resolution record of methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core at unprecedented, continuous temporal resolution from 67.2-9.8 ka BP, which we propose constrains the timing of Heinrich events. Our methane record essentially mirrors Greenland ice core stable isotope variability across D-O events, except during Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4 and 5. Partway through these stadials only, methane increases abruptly and rapidly, as at the onset of a D-O event but Greenland temperature exhibits no equivalent response. Speleothem records exhibit signatures of drought in the Northern extra-tropics and intensified monsoonal activity over South America at these times. We use a simple heuristic model to propose that cold air temperatures and extensive sea ice in the North, resulting from Heinrich events, caused extreme reorganization of tropical hydroclimate. This involved curtailment of the seasonal northerly migration of tropical rain belts, leading to intensification of rainfall over Southern Hemisphere tropical wetlands, thus allowing production of excess methane relative to a 'normal' Greenland stadial. We note that this mechanism can operate if AMOC is already in a slowed state when a Heinrich event occurs, as paleo-evidence suggests it was. Heinrich events and associated sea ice cover would therefore act to prolong the duration of this AMOC state. Our findings place the big four Heinrich events of Hudson Strait origin

  12. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  13. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:23430199

  14. Organisational closure in biological organisms.

    PubMed

    Mossio, Matteo; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of this paper consists in arguing that biological organisms realize a specific kind of causal regime that we call "organisational closure"; i.e., a distinct level of causation, operating in addition to physical laws, generated by the action of material structures acting as constraints. We argue that organisational closure constitutes a fundamental property of biological systems since even its minimal instances are likely to possess at least some of the typical features of biological organisation as exhibited by more complex organisms. Yet, while being a necessary condition for biological organization, organisational closure underdetermines, as such, the whole set of requirements that a system has to satisfy in order to be taken as a paradigmatic example of organism. As we suggest, additional properties, as modular templates and control mechanisms via dynamical decoupling between constraints, are required to get the complexity typical of full-fledged biological organisms. PMID:21162371

  15. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  16. 75 FR 56016 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  17. 76 FR 66196 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Harvesting Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels harvesting Pacific...

  18. 75 FR 64956 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  19. 75 FR 10441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (74 FR 7333, February 17, 2010) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68713... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  20. 75 FR 64957 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Offshore...; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific...

  1. 75 FR 63402 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... established by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Catching Pacific Cod for Processing by the Inshore...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels catching Pacific cod...

  2. 76 FR 40838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level...; modification of a closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher... Pacific ocean perch for trawl catcher vessels participating in the rockfish entry level fishery in...

  3. 76 FR 39790 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...). This action is necessary ] to prevent exceeding the 2011 directed fishing allowance of Pacific...

  4. 75 FR 38936 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher vessels...). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 directed fishing allowance of Pacific...

  5. Climate oscillations and abrupt changes in C14 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, T. V.; Tsirulnik, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    The radiocarbon series are analysed by a method of non-linear spectral analysis to detect time intervals of appearance of non-stationary oscillations of large amplitude, and the times of abrupt changes of their oscillation regime. The analysis shows that the most powerful cycles of the spectra can be interpreted in terms of periods (and their respective higher harmonics) of astronomical origin. An intense stationary sinusoid from the spectrum with period T˜6500 yr, the 4th harmonic of the period of equinox precession, correlates with the time variations of the geomagnetic dipole moment. The most powerful non-stationary sinusoid with mean period T=2230 yr, reflects oscillations in C14 data related to the non-dipole part of the geomagnetic field, and correlates with periods of climate warming/cooling. The apparent regularities that can be inferred in the interaction of such two powerful cycles (i.e. stationary and non-stationary parts of the uniform mechanism of the geomagnetic field generation) permit to forecast a tendency of the climate changes. A possible physical mechanism is presented based on a possible transformation, of some signals caused by perturbation of the tidal forces of astronomical origin (that can arise along the orbit of the Earth), into effects that control geophysical systems through small variations of the dissipative parameters of a dynamo system.

  6. Abrupt drainage cycles of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Soulet, Guillaume; Ménot, Guillemette; Bayon, Germain; Rostek, Frauke; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Toucanne, Samuel; Lericolais, Gilles; Bard, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Continental ice sheets are a key component of the Earth’s climate system, but their internal dynamics need to be further studied. Since the last deglaciation, the northern Eurasian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) has been connected to the Black Sea (BS) watershed, making this basin a suitable location to investigate former ice-sheet dynamics. Here, from a core retrieved in the BS, we combine the use of neodymium isotopes, high-resolution elemental analysis, and biomarkers to trace changes in sediment provenance and river runoff. We reveal cyclic releases of meltwater originating from Lake Disna, a proglacial lake linked to the FIS during Heinrich Stadial 1. Regional interactions within the climate–lake–FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. This phenomenon raised the BS water level by ∼100 m until the sill of the Bosphorus Strait was reached, flooding the vast northwestern BS shelf and deeply affecting the hydrology and circulation of the BS and, probably, of the Marmara and Aegean Seas. PMID:23569264

  7. The Magnetospheric Response to Abrupt Variations in the IMF Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    We run the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US global magnetohydrodynamic model at NASA/GSFC's CCMCto study the magnetospheric response to abrupt variations in the IMF orientation but constant solar wind plasmaparameters. IMF rotations from southward to duskward orientations diminish reconnection rates and the flow ofplasma to the dayside magnetopause, launch Alfven waves that carry strong duskward magnetic field perturbationsto the cusp ionosphere, introduce a weak duskward magnetic field perturbation to the outer dayside magnetosphere, twistthe magnetotail current sheet counterclockwise when viewed from the Sun, flatten the north/south dimensions of the distant magnetotail, andgenerate a broad slow-mode fan on the magnetotail flanks. Southward IMF turnings strengthen the Region 1 Birkelandcurrents, prominently depressing magnetic field strengths in the inner dayside magnetosphere and to a lesserdegree those in the outer magnetosphere, consistent with inward dayside magnetopause erosion. The daysidemagnetopause becomes blunter. As evidenced by enhanced magnetosheath thermal and magnetosphericmagnetic pressures, the magnetopause therefore becomes subject to a greater fraction of the incident solar winddynamic pressure at locations away from the subsolar point.

  8. Abrupt drainage cycles of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Soulet, Guillaume; Ménot, Guillemette; Bayon, Germain; Rostek, Frauke; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Toucanne, Samuel; Lericolais, Gilles; Bard, Edouard

    2013-04-23

    Continental ice sheets are a key component of the Earth's climate system, but their internal dynamics need to be further studied. Since the last deglaciation, the northern Eurasian Fennoscandian Ice Sheet (FIS) has been connected to the Black Sea (BS) watershed, making this basin a suitable location to investigate former ice-sheet dynamics. Here, from a core retrieved in the BS, we combine the use of neodymium isotopes, high-resolution elemental analysis, and biomarkers to trace changes in sediment provenance and river runoff. We reveal cyclic releases of meltwater originating from Lake Disna, a proglacial lake linked to the FIS during Heinrich Stadial 1. Regional interactions within the climate-lake-FIS system, linked to changes in the availability of subglacial water, led to abrupt drainage cycles of the FIS into the BS watershed. This phenomenon raised the BS water level by ∼100 m until the sill of the Bosphorus Strait was reached, flooding the vast northwestern BS shelf and deeply affecting the hydrology and circulation of the BS and, probably, of the Marmara and Aegean Seas. PMID:23569264

  9. Detecting and isolating abrupt changes in linear switching systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Sohail; Zhao, Qing; Huang, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a novel fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for switching linear systems is developed. All input and output signals are assumed to be corrupted with measurement noises. In the proposed method, a 'lifted' linear model named as stochastic hybrid decoupling polynomial (SHDP) is introduced. The SHDP model governs the dynamics of the switching linear system with all different modes, and is independent of the switching sequence. The error-in-variable (EIV) representation of SHDP is derived, and is used for the fault residual generation and isolation following the well-adopted local approach. The proposed FDI method can detect and isolate the fault-induced abrupt changes in switching models' parameters without estimating the switching modes. Furthermore, in this paper, the analytical expressions of the gradient vector and Hessian matrix are obtained based on the EIV SHDP formulation, so that they can be used to implement the online fault detection scheme. The performance of the proposed method is then illustrated by simulation examples.

  10. Abrupt shifts in phenology and vegetation productivity under climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xuanlong; Huete, Alfredo; Moran, Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Eamus, Derek

    2015-10-01

    Amplification of the hydrologic cycle as a consequence of global warming is predicted to increase climate variability and the frequency and severity of droughts. Recent large-scale drought and flooding over numerous continents provide unique opportunities to understand ecosystem responses to climatic extremes. In this study, we investigated the impacts of the early 21st century extreme hydroclimatic variations in southeastern Australia on phenology and vegetation productivity using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Enhanced Vegetation Index and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index. Results revealed dramatic impacts of drought and wet extremes on vegetation dynamics, with abrupt between year changes in phenology. Drought resulted in widespread reductions or collapse in the normal patterns of seasonality such that in many cases there was no detectable phenological cycle during drought years. Across the full range of biomes examined, we found semiarid ecosystems to exhibit the largest sensitivity to hydroclimatic variations, exceeding that of arid and humid ecosystems. This result demonstrated the vulnerability of semiarid ecosystems to climatic extremes and potential loss of ecosystem resilience with future mega-drought events. A skewed distribution of hydroclimatic sensitivity with aridity is of global biogeochemical significance because it suggests that current drying trends in semiarid regions will reduce hydroclimatic sensitivity and suppress the large carbon sink that has been reported during recent wet periods (e.g., 2011 La Niña).

  11. Abrupt climate change and the decline of Indus urbanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Dixit, Y.; Petrie, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change has been suggested as a cause for the decline of the cities of the Indus Civilization, which is believed to have begun ~4.0 to 3.9 ky B.P. Previous studies have centered on paleoclimatic records obtained from areas outside the geographic limits of the Indus Civilization, raising questions about their suitability for evaluating past climate-cultural linkages. Here we report a detailed climate record from paleolake Kotla Dahar, Haryana (28°00'095'' N, 76°57'173'' E), located at the eastern edge of the distribution of Indus settlements and ~100km to the east of the city-site of Rakhigarhi in NW India. Regional hydrologic changes are inferred using oxygen-isotope measurements of gastropod aragonite from a 2.88-m sediment section. A permanent ~4‰ increase in δ18O of shell aragonite occurred at ~4.1±0.1 ky B.P., marking an abrupt increase in evaporation/precipitation in the lake catchment. These data provide evidence for a weakening of the monsoon and shift toward drier climate on the plains of northwest (NW) India at ~4.1±0.1 ky B.P. Decreased monsoon rainfall at this time may have been linked to increased ENSO variability, and supports a possible role of climate in the transformation of the Indus Civilization from an urbanized (mature or urban Indus) to a rural (post-urban) society.

  12. Dynamic response of desert wetlands to abrupt climate change

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Kathleen B.; Manker, Craig R.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Desert wetlands are keystone ecosystems in arid environments and are preserved in the geologic record as groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits are inherently discontinuous and stratigraphically complex, which has limited our understanding of how desert wetlands responded to past episodes of rapid climate change. Previous studies have shown that wetlands responded to climate change on glacial to interglacial timescales, but their sensitivity to short-lived climate perturbations is largely unknown. Here, we show that GWD deposits in the Las Vegas Valley (southern Nevada, United States) provide a detailed and nearly complete record of dynamic hydrologic changes during the past 35 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), including cycles of wetland expansion and contraction that correlate tightly with climatic oscillations recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Cessation of discharge associated with rapid warming events resulted in the collapse of entire wetland systems in the Las Vegas Valley at multiple times during the late Quaternary. On average, drought-like conditions, as recorded by widespread erosion and the formation of desert soils, lasted for a few centuries. This record illustrates the vulnerability of desert wetland flora and fauna to abrupt climate change. It also shows that GWD deposits can be used to reconstruct paleohydrologic conditions at millennial to submillennial timescales and informs conservation efforts aimed at protecting these fragile ecosystems in the face of anthropogenic warming. PMID:26554007

  13. Dynamic response of desert wetlands to abrupt climate change.

    PubMed

    Springer, Kathleen B; Manker, Craig R; Pigati, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-24

    Desert wetlands are keystone ecosystems in arid environments and are preserved in the geologic record as groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits are inherently discontinuous and stratigraphically complex, which has limited our understanding of how desert wetlands responded to past episodes of rapid climate change. Previous studies have shown that wetlands responded to climate change on glacial to interglacial timescales, but their sensitivity to short-lived climate perturbations is largely unknown. Here, we show that GWD deposits in the Las Vegas Valley (southern Nevada, United States) provide a detailed and nearly complete record of dynamic hydrologic changes during the past 35 ka (thousands of calibrated (14)C years before present), including cycles of wetland expansion and contraction that correlate tightly with climatic oscillations recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Cessation of discharge associated with rapid warming events resulted in the collapse of entire wetland systems in the Las Vegas Valley at multiple times during the late Quaternary. On average, drought-like conditions, as recorded by widespread erosion and the formation of desert soils, lasted for a few centuries. This record illustrates the vulnerability of desert wetland flora and fauna to abrupt climate change. It also shows that GWD deposits can be used to reconstruct paleohydrologic conditions at millennial to submillennial timescales and informs conservation efforts aimed at protecting these fragile ecosystems in the face of anthropogenic warming. PMID:26554007

  14. Anticipating abrupt shifts in temporal evolution of probability of eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, Jeremy; Loschetter, Annick

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the probability of eruption by jointly accounting for different sources of monitoring parameters over time is a key component for volcano risk management. In the present study, we are interested in the transition from a state of low-to-moderate probability value and to the one of high probability value: the latter value generally supports the call for evacuation. By using the data of MESIMEX exercise at the Vesuvius volcano, we investigated the potential for time-varying indicators related to the correlation structure or to the variability of the probability time series for detecting in advance this critical transition. We found that changes in the power spectra and in the standard deviation estimated over a rolling time window both present an abrupt increase, which marks the approaching shift. Our numerical experiments revealed that the transition from an eruption probability of 10-15% to >70% could be identified up 4 hours in advance, ~2.5 days before the evacuation call (decided for an eruption probability >80% during the MESIMEX exercise). This additional lead time could be useful to place different key services (e.g., emergency services for vulnerable groups, commandeering additional transportation means, etc.) on a higher level of alert before the actual call for evacuation.

  15. Abrupt Schottky Junctions in Al/Ge Nanowire Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we report on the exploration of axial metal/semiconductor (Al/Ge) nanowire heterostructures with abrupt interfaces. The formation process is enabled by a thermal induced exchange reaction between the vapor–liquid–solid grown Ge nanowire and Al contact pads due to the substantially different diffusion behavior of Ge in Al and vice versa. Temperature-dependent I–V measurements revealed the metallic properties of the crystalline Al nanowire segments with a maximum current carrying capacity of about 0.8 MA/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization has confirmed both the composition and crystalline nature of the pure Al nanowire segments. A very sharp interface between the ⟨111⟩ oriented Ge nanowire and the reacted Al part was observed with a Schottky barrier height of 361 meV. To demonstrate the potential of this approach, a monolithic Al/Ge/Al heterostructure was used to fabricate a novel impact ionization device. PMID:26052733

  16. Dynamic response of desert wetlands to abrupt climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, Kathleen; Manker, Craig; Pigati, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Desert wetlands are keystone ecosystems in arid environments and are preserved in the geologic record as groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits are inherently discontinuous and stratigraphically complex, which has limited our understanding of how desert wetlands responded to past episodes of rapid climate change. Previous studies have shown that wetlands responded to climate change on glacial to interglacial timescales, but their sensitivity to short-lived climate perturbations is largely unknown. Here, we show that GWD deposits in the Las Vegas Valley (southern Nevada, United States) provide a detailed and nearly complete record of dynamic hydrologic changes during the past 35 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), including cycles of wetland expansion and contraction that correlate tightly with climatic oscillations recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Cessation of discharge associated with rapid warming events resulted in the collapse of entire wetland systems in the Las Vegas Valley at multiple times during the late Quaternary. On average, drought-like conditions, as recorded by widespread erosion and the formation of desert soils, lasted for a few centuries. This record illustrates the vulnerability of desert wetland flora and fauna to abrupt climate change. It also shows that GWD deposits can be used to reconstruct paleohydrologic conditions at millennial to submillennial timescales and informs conservation efforts aimed at protecting these fragile ecosystems in the face of anthropogenic warming.

  17. Anticipating abrupt shifts in temporal evolution of probability of eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, J.; Loschetter, A.

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the probability of eruption by jointly accounting for different sources of monitoring parameters over time is a key component for volcano risk management. In the present study, we are interested in the transition from a state of low-to-moderate probability value to a state of high probability value. By using the data of MESIMEX exercise at the Vesuvius volcano, we investigated the potential for time-varying indicators related to the correlation structure or to the variability of the probability time series for detecting in advance this critical transition. We found that changes in the power spectra and in the standard deviation estimated over a rolling time window both present an abrupt increase, which marks the approaching shift. Our numerical experiments revealed that the transition from an eruption probability of 10-15% to > 70% could be identified up to 1-3 h in advance. This additional lead time could be useful to place different key services (e.g., emergency services for vulnerable groups, commandeering additional transportation means, etc.) on a higher level of alert before the actual call for evacuation.

  18. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  19. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  20. RCRA post-closure permits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires that hazardous waste management facilities operate in accordance with permits granted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a State authorized to carry out the RCRA Subtitle C program. Several categories of permits (including treatment, storage, and disposal permits; research, development, and demonstration permits; post-closure permits; emergency permits; permits-by-rule; and trial burn and land treatment demonstration permits) are issued under the RCRA Subtitle C program. This Information Brief focuses on post-closure permitting requirements under 40 CFR 270.1(c).

  1. Fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell niches associate with portal vessels

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Jalal A.; Mendelson, Avital; Kunisaki, Yuya; Birbrair, Alexander; Kou, Yan; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Pinho, Sandra; Ciero, Paul; Nakahara, Fumio; Ma’ayan, Avi; Bergman, Aviv; Merad, Miriam; Frenette, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the cellular basis of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow has been characterized, the nature of the fetal liver (FL) niche is not yet elucidated. We show that Nestin+NG2+ pericytes associate with portal vessels, forming a niche promoting HSC expansion. Nestin+NG2+ cells and HSCs scale during development with the fractal branching patterns of portal vessels, tributaries of the umbilical vein. After closure of the umbilical inlet at birth, portal vessels undergo a transition from Neuropilin-1+Ephrin-B2+ artery to EphB4+ vein phenotype, associated with a loss of periportal Nestin+NG2+ cells and emigration of HSCs away from portal vessels. These data support a model in which HSCs are titrated against a periportal vascular niche with a fractal-like organization enabled by placental circulation. PMID:26634440

  2. Abrupt cooling associated with the oceanic Rossby wave and lateral advection during CINDY2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiki, Ayako; Katsumata, Masaki; Horii, Takanori; Hasegawa, Takuya; Richards, Kelvin J.; Yoneyama, Kunio; Shirooka, Ryuichi

    2013-10-01

    The cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) was conducted to capture atmospheric and oceanic characteristics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the central Indian Ocean from late 2011 to early 2012. During CINDY2011, the research vessel (R/V) MIRAI stayed at 8°S, 80.5°E for two months during the special observing period (SOP). Intraseasonal convection associated with the MJO was organized in the central Indian Ocean in late October and late November during the SOP. In the middle of November, both sea surface temperature (SST) and mixed layer temperature decreased suddenly when cold low salinity water intruded into the upper layer around the R/V MIRAI. This intrusion was accompanied by a surface current change from southwestward to westward/west-northwestward associated with the passage of the annual oceanic downwelling Rossby wave. The mixed layer heat budget analysis shows that horizontal advection plays an important role in the abrupt cooling whereas the net surface heat flux cannot account for the cooling. This is an interesting result because the associated downwelling Rossby wave is usually considered to increase SST through a reduction of entrainment cooling. In addition, for the second MJO event convection was activated around 20 November over the central north and equatorial Indian Ocean but not in the south. It is suggested that the cooler surface waters (as seen at the location of the R/V MIRAI) tended to suppress the initial atmospheric convection, resulting in the lagged convective onset in the end of November over the central south Indian Ocean.

  3. Pressure vessel bottle mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A mounting assembly for mounting a composite pressure vessel to a vehicle includes a saddle having a curved surface extending between two pillars for receiving the vessel. The saddle also has flanged portions which can be bolted to the vehicle. Each of the pillars has hole in which is mounted the shaft portion of an attachment member. A resilient member is disposed between each of the shaft portions and the holes and loaded by a tightening nut. External to the holes, each of the attachment members has a head portion to which a steel band is attached. The steel band circumscribes the vessel and translates the load on the springs into a clamping force on the vessel. As the vessel expands and contracts, the resilient members expand and contract so that the clamping force applied by the band to the vessel remains constant.

  4. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  5. Wildfire responses to abrupt climate change in North America

    PubMed Central

    Marlon, J. R.; Bartlein, P. J.; Walsh, M. K.; Harrison, S. P.; Brown, K. J.; Edwards, M. E.; Higuera, P. E.; Power, M. J.; Anderson, R. S.; Briles, C.; Brunelle, A.; Carcaillet, C.; Daniels, M.; Hu, F. S.; Lavoie, M.; Long, C.; Minckley, T.; Richard, P. J. H.; Scott, A. C.; Shafer, D. S.; Tinner, W.; Umbanhowar, C. E.; Whitlock, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted, based on data from the last few decades and on model simulations, that anthropogenic climate change will cause increased fire activity. However, less attention has been paid to the relationship between abrupt climate changes and heightened fire activity in the paleorecord. We use 35 charcoal and pollen records to assess how fire regimes in North America changed during the last glacial–interglacial transition (15 to 10 ka), a time of large and rapid climate changes. We also test the hypothesis that a comet impact initiated continental-scale wildfires at 12.9 ka; the data do not support this idea, nor are continent-wide fires indicated at any time during deglaciation. There are, however, clear links between large climate changes and fire activity. Biomass burning gradually increased from the glacial period to the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Although there are changes in biomass burning during the Younger Dryas, there is no systematic trend. There is a further increase in biomass burning after the Younger Dryas. Intervals of rapid climate change at 13.9, 13.2, and 11.7 ka are marked by large increases in fire activity. The timing of changes in fire is not coincident with changes in human population density or the timing of the extinction of the megafauna. Although these factors could have contributed to fire-regime changes at individual sites or at specific times, the charcoal data indicate an important role for climate, and particularly rapid climate change, in determining broad-scale levels of fire activity. PMID:19190185

  6. Introduction to the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded, transonic lateral motions, such as wing drop, with experimental, computational, and simulation tools. Background to the establishment of the AWS program is given as well as program objectives. In order to understand the fundamental flow mechanisms that caused the undesirable motions for a pre-production version of the F/A-18E, steady and unsteady flow field details were gathered from dedicated transonic wind-tunnel testing and computational studies. The AWS program has also adapted a free-to-roll (FTR) wind-tunnel testing technique traditionally used for low-speed studies of lateral dynamic stability to the transonic flow regime. This FTR capability was demonstrated first in a proof-of -concept study and then applied to an assessment of four different aircraft configurations. Figures of merit for static testing and for FTR testing have been evaluated for two configurations that demonstrated wing drop susceptibility during full-scale flight conditions (the pre-production F/A-18E and the AV-8B at the extremes of its flight envelope) and two configurations that do not exhibit wing drop (the F/A-18C and the F-16C). Design insights have been obtained from aerodynamic computational studies of the four aircraft configurations and from computations quantifying the impact of the various geometric wing differences between the F/A-18C and the F/A-18E wings. Finally, the AWS program provides guidance for assessing, in the simulator, the impact of experimentally determined lateral activity on flight characteristics before going to flight.

  7. Introduction to the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded, transonic lateral motions, such as wing drop, with experimental, computational, and simulation tools. Background to the establishment of the AWS program is given as well as program objectives. In order to understand the fundamental flow mechanisms that caused the undesirable motions for a pre-production version of the F/A-18E, steady and unsteady flow field details were gathered from dedicated transonic wind-tunnel testing and computational studies. The AWS program has also adapted a free-to- roll (FTR) wind-tunnel testing technique traditionally used for low-speed studies of lateral dynamic stability to the transonic flow regime. This FTR capability was demonstrated first in a proof-of-concept study and then applied to an assessment of four different aircraft configurations. Figures of merit for static testing and for FTR testing have been evaluated for two configurations that demonstrated wing drop susceptibility during full-scale flight conditions (the pre-production F/A-l8E and the AV-8B at the extremes of its flight envelope) and two configurations that do not exhibit wing drop (the F/A-l8C and the F-l6C). Design insights have been obtained from aerodynamic computational studies of the four aircraft configurations and from computations quantifying the impact of the various geometric wing differences between the F/A-18C and the F/A-l8E wings. Finally, the AWS program provides guidance for assessing, in the simulator, the impact of experimentally determined lateral activity on flight characteristics before going to flight.

  8. Relaxation Oscillations as a Mechanism of Abrupt Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, O.; Jackson, C.; Nilsson, J.; Paul, A.; Stocker, T.

    2007-12-01

    Climate variability at the millennial time scale is difficult to rationalize, as the frequency 0.001 1/yr falls near the middle of a wide gap in the spectrum of external forcing on the climate system (between the low-frequency orbital components and the high-frequency tidal components). This situation prompted interest in the possibility for the climate system to undergo self-sustained or self-excited oscillations. Our contribution will comprise two parts. First, we will review elements from the theory of non-linear vibrations that provide a framework for the discussion of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for millennial-scale climate variability. Particular emphasis will be put on the self-sustained oscillations that occur in physical systems with one degree of freedom. In such systems self-sustained oscillations arise from the nonlinear dependence of the damping force on velocity. In the limit of very large nonlinearity, the oscillator stores energy for a relatively long period of time and releases this energy in a relatively short time, i.e., the oscillations are strongly asymmetric (relaxation oscillations). Second, we will examine the self-sustained oscillations of the meridional overturning circulation simulated by an ocean circulation model when subject to large freshwater forcing (salt addition at low latitudes and salt extraction at high latitudes). A scaling analysis provides evidence that these oscillations can be fundamentally interpreted as relaxation oscillations : the model ocean stores potential energy in the form of an unstable vertical temperature gradient for a relatively long period of time (phase of reduced MOC) and converts this potential energy into kinetic energy (phase of intense MOC) when the unstable vertical temperature gradient dominates the stable vertical salinity gradient in the density stratification. The merits and weaknesses of the hypothesis of relaxation oscillations as a mechanism of abrupt climate change will be discussed.

  9. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  10. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  11. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  12. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  13. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  14. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  15. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  16. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  17. REUSABLE REACTION VESSEL

    DOEpatents

    Soine, T.S.

    1963-02-26

    This patent shows a reusable reaction vessel for such high temperature reactions as the reduction of actinide metal chlorides by calcium metal. The vessel consists of an outer metal shell, an inner container of refractory material such as sintered magnesia, and between these, a bed of loose refractory material impregnated with thermally conductive inorganic salts. (AEC)

  18. VESSELS IN SOME APOCYNACEAE

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Anita; Kshetrapal, Shashikala

    1988-01-01

    In the present investigation vessels of 24 species of the family Apocynaceae have been studied. Lot of variation exist in the size and shape of vessels, number of perforation plates and intervascular thickening of walls in the taxa of Apocynaceae. PMID:22557619

  19. Gradual and abrupt changes during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Heather L.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Rosenthal, Yair; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2016-09-01

    During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), the dominant glacial-interglacial cyclicity as inferred from the marine δ18O records of benthic foraminifera (δ18Obenthic) changed from 41 kyr to 100 kyr years in the absence of a comparable change in orbital forcing. Currently, only two Mg/Ca-derived, high-resolution bottom water temperature (BWT) records exist that can be used with δ18Obenthic records to separate temperature and ice volume signals over the Pleistocene. However, these two BWT records suggest a different pattern of climate change occurred over the MPT-a record from North Atlantic DSDP Site 607 suggests BWT decreased with no long-term trend in ice volume over the MPT, while South Pacific ODP Site 1123 suggests that BWT has been relatively stable over the last 1.5 Myr but that there was an abrupt increase in ice volume at ∼900 kyr. In this paper we attempt to reconcile these two views of climate change across the MPT. Specifically, we investigated the suggestion that the secular BWT trend obtained from Mg/Ca measurements on Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi and Oridorsalis umbonatus species from N. Atlantic Site 607 is biased by the possible influence of Δ[CO32-] on Mg/Ca values in these species by generating a low-resolution BWT record using Uvigerina spp., a genus whose Mg/Ca values are not thought to be influenced by Δ[CO32-]. We find a long-term BWT cooling of ∼2-3°C occurred from 1500 to ∼500 kyr in the N. Atlantic, consistent with the previously generated C. wuellerstorfi and O. umbonatus BWT record. We also find that changes in ocean circulation likely influenced δ18Obenthic, BWT, and δ18Oseawater records across the MPT. N. Atlantic BWT cooling starting at ∼1.2 Ma, presumably driven by high-latitude cooling, may have been a necessary precursor to a threshold response in climate-ice sheet behavior at ∼900 ka. At that point, a modest increase in ice volume and thermohaline reorganization may have caused enhanced sensitivity to the 100 kyr

  20. Arctic Ocean freshwater as a trigger for abrupt climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Raymond; Condron, Alan; Coletti, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    The cause of the Younger Dryas cooling remains unresolved despite decades of debate. Current arguments focus on either freshwater from Glacial Lake Agassiz drainage through the St Lawrence or the MacKenzie river systems. High resolution ocean modeling suggests that freshwater delivered to the North Atlantic from the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait would have had more of an impact on Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) than freshwater from the St Lawrence. This has been interpreted as an argument for a MacKenzie River /Lake Agassiz freshwater source. However, it is important to note that although the modeling identifies Fram Strait as the optimum location for delivery of freshwater to disrupt the AMOC, this does not mean the freshwater source came from Lake Agassiz. Another potential source of freshwater is the Arctic Ocean ice cover itself. During the LGM, ice cover was extremely thick - many tens of meters in the Canada Basin (at least), resulting in a hiatus in sediment deposition there. Extreme ice thickness was related to a stagnant circulation, very low temperatures and continuous accumulation of snow on top of a base of sea-ice. This resulted in a large accumulation of freshwater in the Arctic Basin. As sea-level rose and a more modern circulation regime became established in the Arctic, this freshwater was released from the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait, leading to extensive sea-ice formation in the North Atlantic (Greenland Sea) and a major reduction in the AMOC. Here we present new model results and a review of the paleoceanographic evidence to support this hypothesis. The bottom line is that the Arctic Ocean was likely a major player in causing abrupt climate change in the past, via its influence on the AMOC. Although we focus here on the Younger Dryas, the Arctic Ocean has been repeatedly isolated from the world ocean during glacial periods of the past. When these periods of isolation ended, it is probable that there were significant

  1. Response of dominant wind wave fields to abrupt wind increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulliez, Guillemette

    2013-04-01

    Over the last decades, significant progress has been made in modelling wave field development by wind observed at sea, based on more elaborated numerical schemes and refined parametrizations of wind energy input and wave dissipation. In such models, the wind wave growth in space or time is generally governed by the average wind speed evaluated at one reference level and the natural wind speed variability is neglected. However, the impact of this assumption is not really known, mainly because of the lack of appropriate observations. To revisit this question, we report a detailed laboratory investigation aimed at describing the dominant wave field evolution resulting from an abrupt local wind speed increase. The experiments were conducted in the large Marseille-Luminy wind wave tank for moderate to high wind conditions. At 23 m fetch, a contraction of the wind tunnel section by a convergent profile created a spatial wind speed acceleration over a distance of about 2 m. Downwind, the wind speed, enhanced by a factor 1.4, was kept constant up to the end of the water tank. The wind wave field development induced by such a "wind gust" was investigated at successive fetches by wave probes and compared to those observed at similar fetches for homogeneous wind conditions. When wind increases, these observations first revealed no dramatic change in the evolution of the dominant spectral peak with fetch. The dominant wave energy which increases slowly for constant wind conditions, follows the wind speed but with a significant space lag. For well-established gravity wave fields, the space relaxation scales which describe this evolution do not depend noticeably on wind, all the curves collapse into a single one when wave quantities are normalized by their value observed just upstream the convergent profile. The wave growth rate observed for the new equilibrium state can be described by the Hasselman et al. (1973) relationship but with an "equivalent'' shorter fetch since, in

  2. Maternal Sleep Duration and Complaints of Vital Exhaustion during Pregnancy is Associated with Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Sleep disorders are associated with cardiovascular complications and preterm delivery (PTD). Insufficient sleep results in metabolic alterations and increased inflammation, both known to contribute to placental abruption (abruption), a determinant of PTD. We examined associations of abruption with sleep duration and complaints of vital exhaustion. METHODS The study included 164 abruption cases and 160 controls in a multicenter study in Peru. Data on habitual sleep duration and vital exhaustion during the first 6 months of pregnancy were elicited during interviews conducted following delivery. Women were categorized according to short, normal and long sleep duration (≤6, 7-8 and ≥9 h); and frequency of feeling exhausted. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS Short and long sleep durations were associated with increased odds of abruption. The ORs of abruption in relation to short (≤6 h) and long (≥9 h) sleep duration were 2.0 (95%CI 1.1-3.7) and 2.1 (95%CI 1.1-4.1), compared with normal sleep duration (7-8 h). Complaints of vital exhaustion were also associated with abruption (OR=2.37; 95%CI 1.46-3.85), and were independent of sleep duration. CONCLUSION We extend the existing literature and support the thesis that maternal sleep habits and disorders should be assessed among pregnant women. PMID:24749793

  3. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  4. Atrioventricular block after ASD closure

    PubMed Central

    Asakai, Hiroko; Weskamp, Sofia; Eastaugh, Lucas; d'Udekem, Yves; Pflaumer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart defect. There is limited data on both early and late atrioventricular (AV) block post ASD closure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of AV block associated with ASD closure. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent ASD closure either with a device or surgical method at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne between 1996 and 2010 was performed. Baseline demographics, procedural details and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results A total of 378 patients were identified; 242 in the device group and 136 in the surgical group. Fourteen patients (3.7%) had AV block (1 with second degree and 13 with first degree) at a median follow-up of 28 months; 11/242 (4.5%) in the device group and 3/135 (2.2%) in the surgical group (p=0.39). Six patients had new-onset AV block after ASD closure. In the device subgroup, patients with AV block at follow-up had a larger indexed device size compared with those without (22 (15–31) vs 18(7–38), p=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of AV block either pre procedure or post procedure to be the only variables associated with late AV block. Conclusions Late AV block in patients with repaired ASD is rare and most likely independent of the technique used. In the device subgroup, the only risk factor identified to be associated with late AV block was the presence of either preprocedural or postprocedural AV block, so long-term follow-up for these patients should be provided. PMID:27540418

  5. Particle Deposition During Airway Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Cheng-Feng; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Inhaled aerosol particles deposit in the lung and may be from environmental, toxic, or medical therapy sources. While much research focuses on inspiratory deposition, primarily at airway bifurcations due to inertial impaction, there are other mechanisms that allow the particles to reach the airway surface, such as gravitational settling and diffusion depending on particle size. We introduce a new mechanism not previously studied, i.e. aerosol deposition from airway closure. The airways are lined with a liquid layer. Due to the surface tension driven instability, a liquid plug can form from this layer which blocks the airway. This process of airway closure tends to occur toward the end of expiration. In this study, the efficiency of the impaction of the particles during airway closure will be investigated. The particles will be released from the upstream of the airway and convected by the air flow and deposited onto the closing liquid layer. We solve the governing equations using a finite volume approach in conjunction with a sharp interface method for the interfaces. Once the velocity field of the gas flow is obtained, the path of the particles will be calculated and the efficiency of the deposition can be estimated. We acknowledge support from the National Institutes of Health grant number NIH HL85156.

  6. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  7. Pressure vessel flex joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

  8. Transposition of the great vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Transposition of the great vessels is a heart defect that occurs from birth (congenital). The two major vessels that carry blood ... nutrition) Rubella or other viral illness during pregnancy ... the great vessels is a cyanotic heart defect. This means there ...

  9. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  10. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  11. Is the Perinatal Outcome of Placental Abruption Modified by Clinical Presentation?

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Ohashi, Masanao; Nagai, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of the clinical presentation on perinatal outcome in placental abruption. Study Design. A retrospective study was performed in 97 placental abruptions. Placental abruptions were classified according to clinical presentation: pregnancy-induced hypertension (HT, n = 22), threatened premature labor and/or premature rupture of membranes (TPL/ROM, n = 35), clinically low risk (LR, n = 27), and others (n = 13). Perinatal outcomes were compared among the HT, TPL/ROM, and LR groups. Results. The HT had significantly higher incidence of IUGR, IFUD, and low fibrinogen. The TPL/ROM had less severe disease. However, the LR had significantly higher incidence of IUFD, low UA pH < 7.1, low Apgar score of <7 at 5 min, and low fibrinogen. Conclusion. Disease severity in placental abruption is likely to depend on the clinical presentation. PMID:21490793

  12. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  13. The applicability of research on moving cut data-approximate entropy on abrupt climate change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hongmei; He, Wenping; Liu, Qunqun; Wang, Jinsong; Feng, Guolin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the performance of moving cut data-approximate entropy (MC-ApEn) to detect abrupt dynamic changes was investigated. Numerical tests in a time series model indicate that the MC-ApEn method is suitable for the detection of abrupt dynamic changes for three types of meteorological data: daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, and daily precipitation. Additionally, the MC-ApEn method was used to detect abrupt climate changes in daily precipitation data from Northwest China and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The results show an abrupt dynamic change in precipitation in 1980 and in the PDO index in 1976. The times indicated for the abrupt changes are identical to those from previous results. Application of the analysis to observational data further confirmed the performance of the MC-ApEn method. Moreover, MC-ApEn outperformed the moving t test (MTT) and the moving detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) methods for the detection of abrupt dynamic changes in a simulated 1000-point daily precipitation dataset.

  14. Abrupt spatiotemporal land and water changes and their potential drivers in Poyang Lake, 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lifan; Michishita, Ryo; Xu, Bing

    2014-12-01

    Driven by various natural and anthropogenic factors, Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has experienced significant land use/cover changes in the past few decades. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial-temporal patterns of abrupt changes and detect their potential drivers in Poyang Lake, using time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day maximum value composite vegetation indices between 2000 and 2012. The breaks for additive seasonal and trend (BFAST) method was applied to the smoothed time-series normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to detect the timing and magnitude of abrupt changes in the trend component. Large part of Poyang Lake (98.9% for trend component) has experienced abrupt changes in the past 13 years, and the change patterns, including the distributions in timing and magnitudes of major abrupt trend changes between water bodies and land areas were clearly differentiated. Most water bodies had abrupt increasing NDVI changes between 2010 and 2011, caused by the sequential severe flooding and drought in the two years. In contrast, large parts of the surrounding land areas had abrupt decreasing NDVI changes. Large decreasing changes occurred around 2003 at the city of Nanchang, which were driven by urbanization. These results revealed spatial-temporal land cover changing patterns and potential drivers in the wetland ecosystem of Poyang Lake.

  15. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to...

  16. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to...

  17. 50 CFR 648.262 - Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accountability measures for red crab... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery § 648.262 Accountability measures for red crab limited access vessels. (a) Closure authority. NMFS shall close the EEZ to...

  18. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  19. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  20. Large vessel sealing with the argon laser.

    PubMed

    White, R A; Kopchok, G; Donayre, C; Lyons, R; White, G; Klein, S R; Pizzurro, D; Abergel, R P; Dwyer, R M; Uitto, J

    1987-01-01

    This study compared the histology, biochemistry, and tensile strength of laser-welded and sutured canine venotomies, arteriotomies, and arteriovenous fistulas. Twelve animals had bilateral femoral vessels studied, with one repair (control) closed with interrupted 6-0 polypropylene sutures, and the contralateral repair (experimental) welded with the argon laser. Specimens were examined at weekly intervals from 1 to 4 weeks (four animals for each type of repair), and were evaluated histologically by hematoxylin and eosin, elastin, and trichrome stains; biochemically by the formation of [3H]hydroxyproline as an index of collagen synthesis; and mechanically by tensile strength determinations. At removal, all experimental closures were patent without hematomas, aneurysms, or luminal dilatation. Histologic and biochemical examination and tensile strength determinations suggest that laser welding may be an alternative to sutures for repair of large-diameter venotomies, arteriotomies, and arteriovenous fistulas, as healing is comparable to that seen with suture repairs up to 4 weeks postoperatively. PMID:3306233

  1. Percutaneous transluminal radiofrequency closure of the coronary artery in animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenyun; Yi, Wei; Cai, Yunchang; Fang, Shounian; Jiang, Xinan; Wen, Anzhi; Wu, Qiang

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of a novel method for the selective transcoronary closure of small coronary arteries by the intraluminal application of radiofrequency (RF) energy. Twenty-six small (diameter of 1-2 mm) coronary artery branches were selected in 13 dogs. An RF electrode wire (CRW-Zcy) was placed into the target vessel and a coronary balloon was used to transiently block the blood flow and limit damage to the proximal vessel. A therapeutic dosage of 20-30 W of RT energy every 10-30 sec (selected according the diameter of the target artery) was discharged via the CRW-Zcy inside a microcatheter two or three times in order to achieve arterial closure. A high dosage of 60 W every 120 sec of RF energy was used to conduct the safety study. All 26 branches were successfully closed resulting in the complete blockage of the antegrade and retrograde flows. The area of injury was limited to the target artery and the supplied myocardium. High-dose RF did not cause injury to the adjacent vessels and myocardium. The animals tolerated the procedure well without any untoward systemic effects. A follow-up angiography at two weeks revealed no evidence of recanalization or retrograde filling of the target artery. Percutaneous transluminal radiofrequency closure is a safe and effective interventional approach for closing the small coronary arteries, and is potentially valuable for further investigation. PMID:24137313

  2. Percutaneous transluminal radiofrequency closure of the coronary artery in animal studies

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHENYUN; YI, WEI; CAI, YUNCHANG; FANG, SHOUNIAN; JIANG, XINAN; WEN, ANZHI; WU, QIANG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of a novel method for the selective transcoronary closure of small coronary arteries by the intraluminal application of radiofrequency (RF) energy. Twenty-six small (diameter of 1–2 mm) coronary artery branches were selected in 13 dogs. An RF electrode wire (CRW-Zcy) was placed into the target vessel and a coronary balloon was used to transiently block the blood flow and limit damage to the proximal vessel. A therapeutic dosage of 20–30 W of RT energy every 10–30 sec (selected according the diameter of the target artery) was discharged via the CRW-Zcy inside a microcatheter two or three times in order to achieve arterial closure. A high dosage of 60 W every 120 sec of RF energy was used to conduct the safety study. All 26 branches were successfully closed resulting in the complete blockage of the antegrade and retrograde flows. The area of injury was limited to the target artery and the supplied myocardium. High-dose RF did not cause injury to the adjacent vessels and myocardium. The animals tolerated the procedure well without any untoward systemic effects. A follow-up angiography at two weeks revealed no evidence of recanalization or retrograde filling of the target artery. Percutaneous transluminal radiofrequency closure is a safe and effective interventional approach for closing the small coronary arteries, and is potentially valuable for further investigation. PMID:24137313

  3. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  7. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  8. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  9. Spontaneous closure of a dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Afif, Shadi; Nakamura, Makoto; Götz, Friedrich; Krauss, Joachim K

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous closure of a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is a rare condition and only a few cases have been reported since its first description in 1976. We report delayed and progressive spontaneous closure of a dAVF after massive intracerebral hemorrhage documented by angiographic studies before and after bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document gradual closure of a dAVF by serial angiographic studies. The mechanism of spontaneous closure of dAVFs has not been fully elucidated. We suggest different factors for consideration from previously published data and show how each of these factors can influence the others. PMID:25053666

  10. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-02-28

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers.

  11. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  12. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  13. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  14. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  15. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  16. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  17. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  18. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners,...

  19. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  20. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  1. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners,...

  2. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support final cover; and (iii) Cover the...

  3. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... cover; and (iii) Cover the surface impoundment with a final cover designed and constructed to:...

  4. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  5. HWMA closure plan for the Waste Calcining Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) calcined and evaporated aqueous wastes generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The calciner operated from 1963 to 1981, primarily processing high level waste from the first cycle of spent fuel extraction. Following the calciner shutdown the evaporator system concentrated high activity aqueous waste from 1983 until 1987. In 1988, US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) requested interim status for the evaporator system, in anticipation of future use of the evaporator system. The evaporator system has not been operated since it received interim status. At the present time, DOE-ID is completing construction on a new evaporator at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) and the evaporator at the WCF is not needed. The decision to not use the WCF evaporator requires Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) and DOE-ID to close these units. After a detailed evaluation of closure options, LITCO and DOE-ID have determined the safest option is to fill the voids (grout the vessels, cells and waste pile) and close the WCF to meet the requirements applicable to landfills. The WCF will be covered with a concrete cap that will meet the closure standards. In addition, it was decided to apply these closure standards to the calcining system since it is contained within the WCF building. The paper describes the site, waste inventory, closure activities, and post-closure care plans.

  6. Clinical utility of the Covidien Closure Fast™ Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Simon A; Braithwaite, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    The Closure Fast™ Endovenous Radiofrequency Ablation Catheter is the latest version of a minimally invasive system for the treatment of patients with superficial venous disease. The Closure Fast™ catheter heats the vein wall to 120°C, causing denaturation of the collagen of the vein wall and contraction of the vessel such that no blood can flow through it. Nearly one million systems have been sold since the product was launched. Many, if not all, patients can be treated under local anesthesia with the Closure Fast™ catheter. Duplex ultrasound reports occlusion rates for the treated vein of 94%–98% at 1 year and 85%–93% at 3 years. The system produces average postoperative pain scores of less than 2 out of 10 on a visual analog score. In the first postoperative week, 76% of patients do not require analgesia. Some 45% of patients return to normal activity on the first postoperative day. Serious complications appear to be rare following the Closure Fast™ procedure. Transient paresthesia occurs in 0.2% of cases, thrombophlebitis in 1%–10%, and thromboembolic events in up to 1.4%, mainly heat-induced thrombosis. Closure Fast™ adds significant costs to treating superficial venous disease but studies have shown it to be cost-effective when used in an office setting. PMID:24940086

  7. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-10-06

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted.

  8. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  9. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  10. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  11. Organizational closure and conceptual coherence

    PubMed

    Scott

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews ideas developed by the late Gordon Pask as part of this conversation theory (CT). CT uses theories of the dynamics of complex, self-organizing systems, in conjunction with models of conceptual structures, in order to give an account of conceptual coherence (for example, of a theory or a belief system) as a form of organizational closure. In Pask's own terms, CT is concerned both with the kinematics of knowledge structures and the kinetics of knowing and coming to know. The main features of modelling conceptual structures and processes used by Pask are presented. We continue by presenting a summary two-cycle model of learning, aimed to capture some of Pask's key insights with respect to conceptual coherence and the organizational closure of conceptual systems. Parallels are drawn with other work in epistemology, classic cybernetic studies of self-organization, and the concept of autopoiesis. The two-cycle model is then applied recursively to generate learning cycles and conceptual structures at different levels of abstraction, as a contribution to the work of Pask on the topology of thought. Finally, the model is applied reflexively. That is, its own form is considered as a topic for conversation and conceptualization. Carrying out such a reflection provides a coherent way of characterizing epistemological limits, while retaining a clear sense of there being an (in principle) unlimited praxeology of awareness. PMID:10818581

  12. The Meio 1498 earthquake and tsunami : driving force of abrupt environmental change in the Hamana floodplain, Shizuoka prefecture, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Fujiwara, Osamu; Umitsu, Masatomo; Sato, Yoshiki; Ono, Einsuke; Yata, Toshifumi

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the role of a tsunami, generated by the 1498 Meio earthquake (M8.2 - 8.4) along the eastern Nankai on the geomorphological evolution of the Hamana river floodplain, located along the Pacific coastline of Central Japan (Shizuoka prefecture). Historical sources document a sudden decline at the end of the 15th century of the harbour town Hashimoto, located along the river Hamana. Before the 15th century, this river connected the Pacific Ocean with an enclosed coastal embayment separated by a sand barrier (i.e. the present-day Hamana lake) from the Pacific. The reconstruction of the palaeocourse of the Hamana river was carried out on the basis of detailed facies and diatom analyses of undisturbed sediment cores (geoslicer and drilling). The palaeochannel was detected along the western side of the present-day coastal embayment. It seems that the river's mouth was abruptly sealed off due to the migration of huge volumes of sand that initiated the development of a marsh environment upstream along the channel. The identification and radiocarbon dating of these sandy high-energy flow deposits in several cores (thick sand bed of marine origin intercalated at the estuarine - marsh environmental change boundary) suggests that the river mouth closure was initated by mass sediment transport by a storm surge or tsunami (1498 Meio tsunami and/or 1498 and 1499 large storm surges along the Hamana coastline). The same process, of sudden river mouth sealing by tsunami-transported sediments, was recently observed in the northeast of Japan during the great 2011 Sendai tsunami (Uda, T., 2011). Historical sources document that after the 1498 Meio tsunami, the Hamana back-barrier sheltered environment was reconnected to the Pacific Ocean due to breaching of its sand barrier. Both environmental changes (river mouth closure and barrier breaching)are synchronous with the sudden decline of the harbour town Hashimoto. These data suggest that disruption

  13. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  14. Reactor vessel annealing system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Phillip E.; Katz, Leonoard R.; Nath, Raymond J.; Blaushild, Ronald M.; Tatch, Michael D.; Kordalski, Frank J.; Wykstra, Donald T.; Kavalkovich, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

  15. Catalogue of abrupt shifts in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate models.

    PubMed

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Bathiany, Sebastian; Beaulieu, Claudie; Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin; Huntingford, Chris; Scheffer, Marten; Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-10-27

    Abrupt transitions of regional climate in response to the gradual rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are notoriously difficult to foresee. However, such events could be particularly challenging in view of the capacity required for society and ecosystems to adapt to them. We present, to our knowledge, the first systematic screening of the massive climate model ensemble informing the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, and reveal evidence of 37 forced regional abrupt changes in the ocean, sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, and terrestrial biosphere that arise after a certain global temperature increase. Eighteen out of 37 events occur for global warming levels of less than 2°, a threshold sometimes presented as a safe limit. Although most models predict one or more such events, any specific occurrence typically appears in only a few models. We find no compelling evidence for a general relation between the overall number of abrupt shifts and the level of global warming. However, we do note that abrupt changes in ocean circulation occur more often for moderate warming (less than 2°), whereas over land they occur more often for warming larger than 2°. Using a basic proportion test, however, we find that the number of abrupt shifts identified in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios is significantly larger than in other scenarios of lower radiative forcing. This suggests the potential for a gradual trend of destabilization of the climate with respect to such shifts, due to increasing global mean temperature change. PMID:26460042

  16. Catalogue of abrupt shifts in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate models

    PubMed Central

    Drijfhout, Sybren; Bathiany, Sebastian; Beaulieu, Claudie; Brovkin, Victor; Claussen, Martin; Huntingford, Chris; Scheffer, Marten; Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt transitions of regional climate in response to the gradual rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are notoriously difficult to foresee. However, such events could be particularly challenging in view of the capacity required for society and ecosystems to adapt to them. We present, to our knowledge, the first systematic screening of the massive climate model ensemble informing the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, and reveal evidence of 37 forced regional abrupt changes in the ocean, sea ice, snow cover, permafrost, and terrestrial biosphere that arise after a certain global temperature increase. Eighteen out of 37 events occur for global warming levels of less than 2°, a threshold sometimes presented as a safe limit. Although most models predict one or more such events, any specific occurrence typically appears in only a few models. We find no compelling evidence for a general relation between the overall number of abrupt shifts and the level of global warming. However, we do note that abrupt changes in ocean circulation occur more often for moderate warming (less than 2°), whereas over land they occur more often for warming larger than 2°. Using a basic proportion test, however, we find that the number of abrupt shifts identified in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenarios is significantly larger than in other scenarios of lower radiative forcing. This suggests the potential for a gradual trend of destabilization of the climate with respect to such shifts, due to increasing global mean temperature change. PMID:26460042

  17. Relative effectiveness of central, peripheral, and abrupt-onset cues in visual attention.

    PubMed

    Koshino, H; Warner, C B; Juola, J F

    1992-11-01

    The relative effectiveness of central arrow, peripheral arrow, and abrupt-onset cues was assessed in a character recognition task. On each trial, either a central or a peripheral arrow cue was presented 0, 100, or 200 msec before the appearance of a three-digit display. Two of the digits were "uncamouflaged" from previous figure-eight masks, whereas the third digit appeared abruptly in a previously empty space. Four different groups of subjects were run in factorial combinations of high or low expected validities for arrow and onset cues. In Experiment 1, arrow cues were located centrally, near the fixation point. Abrupt onsets showed larger cost-plus benefits than central arrows, except when subjects expected the central cues to have higher validity than the onsets. In Experiment 2, arrow cues were located peripherally, near the display digits, and abrupt onsets were again more effective in capturing attention except when peripheral cues had higher validity and led the onsets by 100 msec or more. In both experiments, the relative effectiveness of abrupt onsets decreased with arrow SOA. The results were consistent with a model in which automatic and voluntary processes interact in their control of attentional resources. PMID:1484975

  18. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment....

  19. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  20. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure. 146.71 Section 146.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure....

  1. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure. 146.71 Section 146.71 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and Standards Applicable to Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure....

  2. Social Network Closure and Child Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Newsome, Deborah; Nickerson, Pamela; Bazley, Ronda

    2001-01-01

    Identified fourth graders' peer groups and measured social network closure--extent to which meaningful social relationships exist between children and their friends' parents and among parents whose children are friends. Found that higher social network closure related to higher academic achievement and lower parent-reported externalizing…

  3. 40 CFR 265.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.351 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including but not limited to ash, scrubber -waters, and scrubber sludges) from...

  4. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.575 Closure. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues... equipment contaminated with waste and leakage, and manage them as hazardous waste. (b) If, after removing...

  5. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and...

  6. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed... with hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues must be decontaminated or removed. ....

  7. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and...

  8. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the...

  9. 40 CFR 265.445 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.445 Closure. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues... equipment contaminated with waste and leakage, and manage them as hazardous waste. (b) If, after removing...

  10. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed... with hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues must be decontaminated or removed. ....

  11. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and...

  12. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and...

  13. 40 CFR 265.445 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 265.445 Closure. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues... equipment contaminated with waste and leakage, and manage them as hazardous waste. (b) If, after removing...

  14. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed... with hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues must be decontaminated or removed. ....

  15. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the...

  16. 40 CFR 265.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.351 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including but not limited to ash, scrubber -waters, and scrubber sludges) from...

  17. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the...

  18. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment....

  19. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Drip Pads § 264.575 Closure. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues... equipment contaminated with waste and leakage, and manage them as hazardous waste. (b) If, after removing...

  20. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment....

  1. 40 CFR 264.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.351 Closure. At closure the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash, scrubber waters, and scrubber sludges) from the...

  2. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment....

  3. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed... with hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues must be decontaminated or removed. ....

  4. 40 CFR 265.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.351 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including but not limited to ash, scrubber -waters, and scrubber sludges) from...

  5. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment....

  6. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed... with hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues must be decontaminated or removed. ....

  7. 40 CFR 265.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.351 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including but not limited to ash, scrubber -waters, and scrubber sludges) from...

  8. 40 CFR 265.351 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 265.351 Closure. At closure, the owner or operator must remove all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues (including but not limited to ash, scrubber -waters, and scrubber sludges) from...

  9. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  10. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  11. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.21 Emergency closures....

  12. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  13. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures. 665.666 Section 665.666 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the harvest quota for any...

  14. 50 CFR 635.28 - Fishery closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishery closures. 635.28 Section 635.28 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.28 Fishery closures....

  15. School Closures in Rural Finnish Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autti, Outi; Hyry-Beihammer, Eeva Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    The network of small rural schools in Finland has been radically weakened since the global recession of the 1990s. This article focuses on the social role of rural schools and the phenomenon of school closures. Our aim is to look at rural schools from the viewpoint of local residents and examine how they experience school closures. We seek to hear…

  16. 50 CFR 665.268 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 665.268 Section 665.268 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.268 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator...

  17. 50 CFR 665.268 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures. 665.268 Section 665.268 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.268 Closures. (a) If the Regional...

  18. 50 CFR 665.268 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closures. 665.268 Section 665.268 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.268 Closures. (a) If the Regional...

  19. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  20. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures. 665.666 Section 665.666 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the harvest quota for any...

  1. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closures. 665.666 Section 665.666 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the harvest quota for any...

  2. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 665.666 Section 665.666 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the harvest quota for any...

  3. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 665.666 Section 665.666 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the harvest quota for any...

  4. Quick release storage battery closure assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell, R.R.

    1984-10-16

    A quick release storage battery closure assembly for removably engaging the inspection opening defining bosses on a storage battery, the one that replaces the individual caps that normally are used for closing the inspection openings. The closure assembly is particularly adapted for use where the storage batteries are arranged as a group, such as on a golf cart or industrial vehicle.

  5. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  6. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  7. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  8. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  9. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  10. 27 CFR 26.231 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.231 Section 26.231 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures...

  11. 33 CFR 155.805 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure devices. 155.805 Section 155.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.805 Closure devices. (a) Each end of each transfer hose on...

  12. 33 CFR 155.805 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure devices. 155.805 Section 155.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.805 Closure devices. (a) Each end of each transfer hose on...

  13. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 679.22 Section 679.22 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Management Measures § 679.22 Closures. (a) BSAI—(1) Zone 1...

  14. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Outwater, J.O.

    2000-05-23

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  15. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  16. Color Doppler imaging of the retrobulbar vessels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Walasik-Szemplińska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose level due to impaired insulin secretion and activity. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to functional disorders of numerous organs and to their damage. Vascular lesions belong to the most common late complications of diabetes. Microangiopathic lesions can be found in the eyeball, kidneys and nervous system. Macroangiopathy is associated with coronary and peripheral vessels. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microangiopathic complication characterized by closure of slight retinal blood vessels and their permeability. Despite intensive research, the pathomechanism that leads to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood. The examinations used in assessing diabetic retinopathy usually involve imaging of the vessels in the eyeball and the retina. Therefore, the examinations include: fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography of the retina, B-mode ultrasound imaging, perimetry and digital retinal photography. There are many papers that discuss the correlations between retrobulbar circulation alterations and progression of diabetic retinopathy based on Doppler sonography. Color Doppler imaging is a non-invasive method enabling measurements of blood flow velocities in small vessels of the eyeball. The most frequently assessed vessels include: the ophthalmic artery, which is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, as well as the central retinal vein and artery, and the posterior ciliary arteries. The analysis of hemodynamic alterations in the retrobulbar vessels may deliver important information concerning circulation in diabetes and help to answer the question whether there is a relation between the progression of diabetic retinopathy and the changes observed in blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball. This paper presents the overview of literature regarding studies on blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball in patients with diabetic

  17. Closure models for turbulent reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Tarbell, J.M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    In this paper, a simple procedure based on fast and slow reaction asymptotics has been employed to drive first-order closure models for the nonlinear reaction terms in turbulent mass balances from mechanistic models of turbulent mixing and reaction. The coalescence-redispersion (CRD) model, the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the three-environment (3E) model, and the four-environment (4E) model have been used to develop closure equations. The closure models have been tested extensively against experimental data for both single and multiple reactions. The closures based on slow asymptotics for the CRD, 3E and 4E models provide very good predictions of all of the experimental data, while other models available either in the literature or derived here are not adequate. The simple new closure equations developed in this paper may be useful in modeling systems involving turbulent mixing and complex chemical reactions.

  18. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  19. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  20. Abrupt Climate Change: the View from the Past, the Present and the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is changing as humans put more and more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. With CO2 levels today around 400ppm, we are clearly committed to far more climate change, both in the near term, and well beyond our children's future. A key question is how that change will occur. Abrupt climate changes are those that exceed our expectations, preparedness, and ability to adapt. Such changes challenge us economically, physically, and socially. This talk will draw upon results from ice core research over the past twenty years, as well as a new NRC report on abrupt climate change in order to address abrupt change, as seen in the past in ice cores, as seen today in key environmental systems upon which humans depend, and what is may be coming in the future.

  1. Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Partin, J.W.; Quinn, T.M.; Shen, C.-C.; Okumura, Y.; Cardenas, M.B.; Siringan, F.P.; Banner, J.L.; Lin, K.; Hu, H.-M.; Taylor, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    Proxy records of temperature from the Atlantic clearly show that the Younger Dryas was an abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation, but records of hydroclimate are underutilized in defining the event. Here we combine a new hydroclimate record from Palawan, Philippines, in the tropical Pacific, with previously published records to highlight a difference between hydroclimate and temperature responses to the Younger Dryas. Although the onset and termination are synchronous across the records, tropical hydroclimate changes are more gradual (>100 years) than the abrupt (10–100 years) temperature changes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt recovery of Greenland temperatures likely reflects changes in regional sea ice extent. Proxy data and transient climate model simulations support the hypothesis that freshwater forced a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thereby causing the Younger Dryas. However, changes in ocean overturning may not produce the same effects globally as in Greenland. PMID:26329911

  2. Conclusive evidence of abrupt coagulation inside the void during cyclic nanoparticle formation in reactive plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we present scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results that confirm in a direct way our earlier explanation of an abrupt coagulation event as the cause for the void hiccup. In a recent paper, we reported on the fast and interrupted expansion of voids in a reactive dusty argon-acetylene plasma. The voids appeared one after the other, each showing a peculiar, though reproducible, behavior of successive periods of fast expansion, abrupt contraction, and continued expansion. The abrupt contraction was termed "hiccup" and was related to collective coagulation of a new generation of nanoparticles growing in the void using relatively indirect methods: electron density measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. In this letter, we present conclusive evidence using SEM of particles collected at different moments in time spanning several growth cycles, which enables us to follow the nanoparticle formation process in great detail.

  3. Microscopic Approaches to Decomposition and Burning Processes of a Micro Plastic Resin Particle under Abrupt Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohiwa, Norio; Ishino, Yojiro; Yamamoto, Atsunori; Yamakita, Ryuji

    To elucidate the possibility and availability of thermal recycling of waste plastic resin from a basic and microscopic viewpoint, a series of abrupt heating processes of a spherical micro plastic particle having a diameter of about 200 μm is observed, when it is abruptly exposed to hot oxidizing combustion gas. Three ingenious devices are introduced and two typical plastic resins of polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene are used. In this paper the dependency of internal and external appearances of residual plastic embers on the heating time and the ingredients of plastic resins is optically analyzed, along with appearances of internal micro bubbling, multiple micro explosions and jets, and micro diffusion flames during abrupt heating. Based on temporal variations of the surface area of a micro plastic particle, the apparent burning rate constant is also evaluated and compared with those of well-known volatile liquid fuels.

  4. Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, J. W.; Quinn, T. M.; Shen, C.-C.; Okumura, Y.; Cardenas, M. B.; Siringan, F. P.; Banner, J. L.; Lin, K.; Hu, H.-M.; Taylor, F. W.

    2015-09-01

    Proxy records of temperature from the Atlantic clearly show that the Younger Dryas was an abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation, but records of hydroclimate are underutilized in defining the event. Here we combine a new hydroclimate record from Palawan, Philippines, in the tropical Pacific, with previously published records to highlight a difference between hydroclimate and temperature responses to the Younger Dryas. Although the onset and termination are synchronous across the records, tropical hydroclimate changes are more gradual (>100 years) than the abrupt (10-100 years) temperature changes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt recovery of Greenland temperatures likely reflects changes in regional sea ice extent. Proxy data and transient climate model simulations support the hypothesis that freshwater forced a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thereby causing the Younger Dryas. However, changes in ocean overturning may not produce the same effects globally as in Greenland.

  5. Formation of compositionally abrupt axial heterojunctions in silicon-germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wen, C-Y; Reuter, M C; Bruley, J; Tersoff, J; Kodambaka, S; Stach, E A; Ross, F M

    2009-11-27

    We have formed compositionally abrupt interfaces in silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) and Si-SiGe heterostructure nanowires by using solid aluminum-gold alloy catalyst particles rather than the conventional liquid semiconductor-metal eutectic droplets. We demonstrated single interfaces that are defect-free and close to atomically abrupt, as well as quantum dots (i.e., Ge layers tens of atomic planes thick) embedded within Si wires. Real-time imaging of growth kinetics reveals that a low solubility of Si and Ge in the solid particle accounts for the interfacial abruptness. Solid catalysts that can form functional group IV nanowire-based structures may yield an extended range of electronic applications. PMID:19965471

  6. Abrupt climate change in southeast tropical Africa influenced by Indian monsoon variability and ITCZ migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Russell, James M.

    2007-08-01

    The timing and magnitude of abrupt climate change in tropical Africa during the last glacial termination remains poorly understood. High-resolution paleolimnological data from Lake Tanganyika, Southeast Africa show that wind-driven seasonal mixing in the lake was reduced during the Younger Dryas, Inter-Allerød Cool Period, Older Dryas, and Heinrich Event 1, suggesting a weakened southwest Indian monsoon and a more southerly position of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over Africa during these intervals. These events in Lake Tanganyika, coeval with millennial and centennial-scale climate shifts in the high latitudes, suggest that changes in ITCZ location and Indian monsoon strength are important components of abrupt global climate change and that their effects are felt south of the equator in Africa. However, we observe additional events in Lake Tanganyika of equal magnitude that are not correlated with high-latitude changes, indicating the potential for abrupt climate change to originate from within tropical systems.

  7. Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Partin, J W; Quinn, T M; Shen, C-C; Okumura, Y; Cardenas, M B; Siringan, F P; Banner, J L; Lin, K; Hu, H-M; Taylor, F W

    2015-01-01

    Proxy records of temperature from the Atlantic clearly show that the Younger Dryas was an abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation, but records of hydroclimate are underutilized in defining the event. Here we combine a new hydroclimate record from Palawan, Philippines, in the tropical Pacific, with previously published records to highlight a difference between hydroclimate and temperature responses to the Younger Dryas. Although the onset and termination are synchronous across the records, tropical hydroclimate changes are more gradual (>100 years) than the abrupt (10-100 years) temperature changes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt recovery of Greenland temperatures likely reflects changes in regional sea ice extent. Proxy data and transient climate model simulations support the hypothesis that freshwater forced a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thereby causing the Younger Dryas. However, changes in ocean overturning may not produce the same effects globally as in Greenland. PMID:26329911

  8. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  9. Myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular thrombus and fatal thromboembolism following abrupt cessation of dabigatran

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Bethany; Marciniak, Ellen T; Reed, Robert M; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Novel anticoagulants are increasingly utilised in lieu of warfarin to treat non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Their clinical use in other non-FDA approved settings is also increasing. We present a case in which a patient abruptly stopped taking dabigatran due to a small bowel obstruction and shortly thereafter suffered a myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular thrombosis with fatal embolisation to the superior mesenteric artery. In this context, we discuss the possibility of a rebound phenomenon of hypercoagulability with abrupt cessation of novel anticoagulants. PMID:25100807

  10. Analysis of mode scattering from an abruptly ended dielectric slab waveguide by an accelerated iteration technique.

    PubMed

    Tigelis, I G; Manenkov, A B

    2000-12-01

    A new modification of the integral equation method using an iteration technique with "accelerating" parameters is presented to solve the problem of guided-mode scattering from an abruptly ended asymmetrical slab waveguide. The optimal choice of the parameters is shown to be closely connected with the variational principle. The electric-field distribution at the terminal plane, the reflection coefficient of the guided mode, and the far-field radiation pattern are computed. Numerical results are presented for several cases of abruptly ended waveguides, including the systems with constant and variable profiles of the refractive indices. The phenomenon of the radiation pattern rotation is examined in detail. PMID:11140485

  11. New evidence from the South China Sea for an abrupt termination of the last glacial period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.; Klas, M.; Andree, M.; Bonani, G.; Wolfli, W.

    1988-01-01

    Results demonstrating an abrupt change in the rate and character of sedimentation in the South China Sea at the close of the last glacial period are presented. Radiocarbon dating and its position in the oxygen isotope shift suggest that this change may be coincident with the abrupt change in climatic conditions seen at high latitudes in the North Atlantic and the Antarctic at 13 kyr BP. These results support the contention that a major global climatic change occurred between 14 and 13 kyr BP.

  12. Factors Associated with Increasing Nursing Home Closures

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John; Lave, Judith; Fisher, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We determine the rate of nursing home closures for 7 years (1999–2005) and examine internal (e.g., quality), organizational (e.g., chain membership), and external (e.g., competition) factors associated with these closures. Design and Method The names of the closed facilities and dates of closure from state regulators in all 50 states were obtained. This information was linked to the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data, which contains information on internal, organizational, and market factors for almost all nursing homes in the United States. Results One thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine facilities closed over this time period (1999–2005). The average annual rate of closure was about 2 percent of facilities, but the rate of closure was found to be increasing. Nursing homes with higher rates of deficiency citations, hospital-based facilities, chain members, small bed size, and facilities located in markets with high levels of competition were more likely to close. High Medicaid occupancy rates were associated with a high likelihood of closure, especially for facilities with low Medicaid reimbursement rates. Implications As states actively debate about how to redistribute long-term care services/dollars, our findings show that they should be cognizant of the potential these decisions have for facilitating nursing home closures. PMID:19674434

  13. Nonlocal Closures for Plasma Fluid Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Eric

    2003-10-01

    Theoretical tools applied to lab and astrophysical plasmas tend toward two extremes: kinetic models rife with physics but operating for short times and fluid models employing simplified closure relations but operating for long times. Until computers are fast enough to calculate kinetic physics over resistive times, efforts to extend plasma fluid models to handle a wider range of physics are critical. In this work, we generalize the program of fluid closure to capture kinetic effects in nonlocal, integral forms for higher-order fluid moments. These closures embody collisional, particle-trapping and Landau physics by integrating the fluid drives and closure moments along characteristics of the distribution function, F. The inversion of an operator that includes these physical effects begins with an expansion in eigenfunctions of the collision operator. Next, the characteristics of F are identified by diagonalizing the resultant system of hyperbolic equations. Integrating and taking the closure moments of F results in coupled Volterra equations involving the fluid drives and closures. It is shown that the collisional and nearly collisionless limits of these integral equations match onto previous expressions. In addition to significantly advancing the realism of previous fluid closures, integration along comparatively few ( ˜ 100)characteristics represents a significant reduction in work compared to kinetic treatments that follow millions of particles. These characteristics uncover the essential velocity-space dependence of F and hence render this closure scheme suitable for simulation of long time scale behavior. As a specific example, we conclude this talk by discussing the incorporation of these closures in plasma fluid simulations of neoclassical tearing modes in ITER-relevant discharges.

  14. CLOSURE OF LARYNGECTOMY DEFECTS IN THE AGE OF CHEMORADIATION THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.; Lin, Derrick; Wax, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    The use of chemoradiation therapy in laryngeal cancer has resulted in significant reconstructive challenges. Although reconstruction of salvage laryngectomy defects remains controversial, current literature supports aggressive management of these defects with vascularized tissue, even when there is sufficient pharyngeal tissue present for primary closure. Significant advancement in reconstructive techniques has permitted improved outcomes in patients with advanced disease who require total laryngopharyngectomy or total laryngoglossectomy. Use of enteric and fasciocutaneous flaps result in good patient outcomes. Finally, wound complication rates after salvage surgery approach 60% depending on comorbid conditions such as cardiac insufficiency, hypothyroidism, or extent of previous treatment. Neck dehiscence, great vessel exposure, fistula formation, or cervical skin necrosis results in complex wounds that can often be treated initially with negative pressure dressings followed by definitive reconstruction. The timing of repair and approach to the vessel-depleted neck also present challenges in this patient population. Currently, there is significant institutional bias in the management of the patient with postchemoradiation salvage laryngectomy. Future prospective multi-institutional studies are certainly needed to more clearly define optimal treatment of these difficult patients. PMID:21416549

  15. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  16. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  17. Closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean: Insights from seismic tomography and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzell, E. H.; Bull, A. L.; Shephard, G. E.

    2016-07-01

    The existence of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean is evident from the Mongol-Okhotsk suture, which stretches from central Mongolia to the Sea of Okhotsk. A lack of sufficient palaeomagnetic data and an otherwise diffuse suture with an abrupt termination to the west has led to difficulties in reconstructing the history, geometry and closure of this ocean. Both the timing and style of the ocean's closure are unclear and have led to several alternative reconstructions. Closure timing ranges between the Late Jurassic (∼155 Ma) and beginning of the Early Cretaceous (∼120 Ma), and the proposed kinematics include contemporaneous subduction along two opposite margins, subduction along only one margin or with a component of left-lateral shear. In the present study, numerical models of mantle convection are coupled with global plate reconstructions to investigate ambiguities regarding the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. In order to decipher the tectonic history of this enigmatic region, two end-member scenarios of subduction location - either along the present-day northern or the southern margins of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean - are imposed as kinematic surface boundary conditions for the past 230 Myrs. Through a comparison to seismic tomography, the results indicate a preferred subduction history along the Siberian margin (relative northern margin) of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. At present-day, the slab remnant is predicted to be located farther west than previously proposed. Furthermore, we find that the subducting slabs in this region generate a hot, dense pile at the same location and with a similar shape as the Perm Anomaly.

  18. Attachment Fitting for Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Carrigan, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    This invention provides sealed access to the interior of a pressure vessel and consists of a tube. a collar, redundant seals, and a port. The port allows the seals to be pressurized and seated before the pressure vessel becomes pressurized.

  19. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  20. [Noise in fishing vessels].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Nataletti, Pietro; Bonfiglio, Paolo; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua

    2013-01-01

    The present research concerns the noise analysis of five vessels during navigation and fishing activities. In locations where staff operates, sound levels (produced substantially by the engine) were close to 90 dB(A); within the rest areas the noise is also quite significant. On the basis of working time, exposure levels ranged between 80 and 90 dB(A). In order to identify interventions able to reduce the risk, reverberation times, sound insulation of the different areas and the vibrations produced by the engine were measured on the same vessels docked in port. Noise level reduction as a result of sound absorptive treatments were estimated using an analytical model. PMID:24303698

  1. Dynamics of climate and ecosystem coupling: abrupt changes and multiple equilibria.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Paul A T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Schneider, Stephen H

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between subunits of the global climate-biosphere system (e.g. atmosphere, ocean, biosphere and cryosphere) often lead to behaviour that is not evident when each subunit is viewed in isolation. This newly evident behaviour is an emergent property of the coupled subsystems. Interactions between thermohaline circulation and climate illustrate one emergent property of coupling ocean and atmospheric circulation. The multiple thermohaline circulation equilibria that result caused abrupt climate changes in the past and may cause abrupt climate changes in the future. Similarly, coupling between the climate system and ecosystem structure and function produces complex behaviour in certain regions. For example, atmosphere-biosphere interactions in the Sahel region of West Africa lead to multiple stable equilibria. Either wet or dry climate equilibria can occur under otherwise identical forcing conditions. The equilibrium reached is dependent on past history (i.e. initial conditions), and relatively small perturbations to either climate or vegetation can cause switching between the two equilibria. Both thermohaline circulation and the climate-vegetation system in the Sahel are prone to abrupt changes that may be irreversible. This complicates the relatively linear view of global changes held in many scientific and policy communities. Emergent properties of coupled socio-natural systems add yet another layer of complexity to the policy debate. As a result, the social and economic consequences of possible global changes are likely to be underestimated in most conventional analyses because these nonlinear, abrupt and irreversible responses are insufficiently considered. PMID:12079526

  2. Dynamics of climate and ecosystem coupling: abrupt changes and multiple equilibria.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Paul A T; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Schneider, Stephen H

    2002-05-29

    Interactions between subunits of the global climate-biosphere system (e.g. atmosphere, ocean, biosphere and cryosphere) often lead to behaviour that is not evident when each subunit is viewed in isolation. This newly evident behaviour is an emergent property of the coupled subsystems. Interactions between thermohaline circulation and climate illustrate one emergent property of coupling ocean and atmospheric circulation. The multiple thermohaline circulation equilibria that result caused abrupt climate changes in the past and may cause abrupt climate changes in the future. Similarly, coupling between the climate system and ecosystem structure and function produces complex behaviour in certain regions. For example, atmosphere-biosphere interactions in the Sahel region of West Africa lead to multiple stable equilibria. Either wet or dry climate equilibria can occur under otherwise identical forcing conditions. The equilibrium reached is dependent on past history (i.e. initial conditions), and relatively small perturbations to either climate or vegetation can cause switching between the two equilibria. Both thermohaline circulation and the climate-vegetation system in the Sahel are prone to abrupt changes that may be irreversible. This complicates the relatively linear view of global changes held in many scientific and policy communities. Emergent properties of coupled socio-natural systems add yet another layer of complexity to the policy debate. As a result, the social and economic consequences of possible global changes are likely to be underestimated in most conventional analyses because these nonlinear, abrupt and irreversible responses are insufficiently considered. PMID:12079526

  3. High pressure storage vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  4. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  5. Intermittent acute angle closure glaucoma and chronic angle closure following topiramate use with plateau iris configuration

    PubMed Central

    Rajjoub, Lamise Z; Chadha, Nisha; Belyea, David A

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report describing recurrent intermittent acute angle closure episodes in the setting of topiramate use in a female suffering from migraines. Despite laser peripheral iridotomy placement for the pupillary block component, and the discontinuation of topiramate, the acute angle closure did not resolve in the left eye with chronic angle closure and the patient required urgent trabeculectomy. The right eye responded to laser peripheral iridotomy immediately and further improved after the cessation of topiramate. While secondary angle closure glaucoma due to topiramate use has been widely reported, its effects in patients with underlying primary angle closure glaucoma have not been discussed. Our report highlights the importance of recognizing the often multifactorial etiology of angle closure glaucoma to help guide clinical management. PMID:25114497

  6. A study of the early warning signals of abrupt change in the Pacific decadal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Hou, Wei; Yan, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Sen; Wang, Kuo

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the phenomenon of a critical slowing down has demonstrated its major potential in discovering whether a complex dynamic system tends to abruptly change at critical points. This research on the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index has been made on the basis of the critical slowing down principle in order to analyze its early warning signal of abrupt change. The chaotic characteristics of the PDO index sequence at different times are determined by using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). The relationship between the regional sea surface temperature (SST) background field and the early warning signal of the PDO abrupt change is further studied through calculating the variance of the SST in the PDO region and the spatial distribution of the autocorrelation coefficient, thereby providing the experimental foundation for the extensive application of the method of the critical slowing down phenomenon. Our results show that the phenomenon of critical slowing down, such as the increase of the variance and autocorrelation coefficient, will continue for six years before the abrupt change of the PDO index. This phenomenon of the critical slowing down can be regarded as one of the early warning signals of an abrupt change. Through calculating the LLE of the PDO index during different times, it is also found that the strongest chaotic characteristics of the system occurred between 1971 and 1975 in the early stages of an abrupt change (1976), and the system was at the stage of a critical slowing down, which proves the reliability of the early warning signal of abrupt change discovered in 1970 from the mechanism. In addition, the variance of the SST, along with the spatial distribution of the autocorrelation coefficient in the corresponding PDO region, also demonstrates the corresponding relationship between the change of the background field of the SST and the change of the PDO. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos

  7. Imaging blood vessels and lymphatic vessels in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jung, H M; Isogai, S; Kamei, M; Castranova, D; Gore, A V; Weinstein, B M

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessels supply tissues and organs with oxygen, nutrients, cellular, and humoral factors, while lymphatic vessels regulate tissue fluid homeostasis, immune trafficking, and dietary fat absorption. Understanding the mechanisms of vascular morphogenesis has become a subject of intense clinical interest because of the close association of both types of vessels with pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of human diseases. The zebrafish provides a powerful animal model to study vascular morphogenesis because of their small, accessible, and transparent embryos. These unique features of zebrafish embryos permit sophisticated high-resolution live imaging of even deeply localized vessels during embryonic development and even in adult tissues. In this chapter, we summarize various methods for blood and lymphatic vessel imaging in zebrafish, including nonvital resin injection-based or dye injection-based vessel visualization, and alkaline phosphatase staining. We also provide protocols for vital imaging of vessels using microangiography or transgenic fluorescent reporter zebrafish lines. PMID:27263409

  8. Extender for securing a closure

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  9. Percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Surmely, J-F; Meier, B

    2007-10-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common finding present in 25% of the population. A relationship between PFO and several clinical conditions such as stroke, migraine, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, neurological decompression illness in divers, high altitude pulmonary edema, sleep apnea, and economy class syndrome have been documented. Observational non-randomized studies have shown percutaneous PFO closure more effective than medical treatment for stroke prevention, in particular in patients with complete closure as well as in patients with more than one cerebrovascular event at baseline. In the case of migraine, PFO closure has been shown to result in a marked reduction in migraine burden or migraine days. PFO anatomy, epidemiological data on associated clinical conditions, comparison between percutaneous closure and medical treatment, as well as the technical aspect of the procedure are described in this review. PMID:17912171

  10. Options for Closure of the Infected Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Chris A.; Rosenberger, Laura H.; Politano, Amani D.; Davies, Stephen W.; Riccio, Lin M.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The infected abdomen poses substantial challenges to surgeons, and often, both temporary and definitive closure techniques are required. We reviewed the options available to close the abdominal wall defect encountered frequently during and after the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Methods A comprehensive review was performed of the techniques and literature on abdominal closure in the setting of intra-abdominal infection. Results Temporary abdominal closure options include the Wittmann Patch, Bogota bag, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), the AbThera™ device, and synthetic or biologic mesh. Definitive reconstruction has been described with mesh, components separation, and autologous tissue transfer. Conclusion Reconstructing the infected abdomen, both temporarily and definitively, can be accomplished with various techniques, each of which is associated with unique advantages and disadvantages. Appropriate judgment is required to optimize surgical outcomes in these complex cases. PMID:23216525

  11. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  12. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and... comply with the liner requirements of § 264.573(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the...

  13. 40 CFR 264.575 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., contaminated containment system components (pad, liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and... comply with the liner requirements of § 264.573(b)(1) must: (i) Include in the closure plan for the...

  14. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  15. 50 CFR 679.22 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... § 679.20(i). (d) Groundfish as prohibited species closures. See § 679.20(d). (e) Overfishing...

  16. Tuff reaction vessel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, F.; Rego, J.H.

    1986-06-01

    A laboratory leaching test has been performed as part of a project to evaluate the suitability of tuff rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Glass samples of the kind that will be used to store nuclear waste were placed in water inside tuff vessels, and then the tuff vessels were placed in water inside Teflon containers. Glass-component leach rates and migration through the tuff were measured for samples of the ATM-8 actinide glass, which is a PNL 76-68 based glass with low levels of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu to simulate wastes. Disc samples of this glass were leached at 90{sup 0}C to 30, 90, and 1983 days inside tuff vessels using a natural groundwater (J-13 well-water) as the leachant. Some samples were held by 304L stainless steel supports to evaluate the effect of this metal on the release rate of glass constituents. At the end of each leaching interval, the J-13 water present inside and outside the rock vessel was analyzed for glass components in solution. On the basis of these analyses, B, Mo, and Tc, appear to migrate through the rock at rates that depend on the porosity of each vessel and the time of reaction. U, Np, and Pu were found only in the inner leachate. Na, Si, and Sr are present in the rock as well as in the J-13 water, and the addition of these elements from the glass could not be determined. Normalized elemental mass loss values for B, Mo, and Tc were calculated using the combined concentrations of the inner and outer leachates and assuming a negligible retention on the rock. The maximum normalized release was 2.3 g/m{sup 2} for Tc. B, Mo, Tc, and Np were released linearly with respect to each other, with B and Mo released at about 85% of the Tc rate, and Np at 5-10% of the Tc rate. Plutonium was found at low levels in the inner leachate but was strongly sorbed on the steel and Teflon supports. Neptunium was sorbed to a lesser extent.

  17. Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Valle, Gerard D.; Edeen, Gregg; DeLaFuente, Horacio M.; Schneider, William C.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Pandya, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a prototype of a large pressure vessel under development for eventual use as a habitable module for long spaceflight (e.g., for transporting humans to Mars). The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid central structural core. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. On Earth, pressure vessels like this could be used, for example, as portable habitats that could be set up quickly in remote locations, portable hyperbaric chambers for treatment of decompression sickness, or flotation devices for offshore platforms. In addition, some aspects of the design of the fabric straps could be adapted to such other items as lifting straps, parachute straps, and automotive safety belts. Figure 2 depicts selected aspects of the design of a vessel of this type with a toroidal configuration. The bladder serves as an impermeable layer to keep air within the pressure vessel and, for this purpose, is sealed to the central structural core. The web includes longitudinal and circumferential straps. To help maintain the proper shape upon inflation after storage, longitudinal and circumferential straps are indexed together at several of their intersections. Because the web is not required to provide a pressure seal and the bladder is not required to sustain structural loads, the bladder and the web can be optimized for their respective functions. Thus, the bladder can be sealed directly to the rigid core without having to include the web in the seal substructure, and the web can be designed for strength. The ends of the longitudinal straps are attached to the ends of the rigid structural core by means of clevises. Each clevis pin is surrounded by a roller, around which a longitudinal strap is wrapped to form a lap seam with itself. The roller is of a large diameter chosen to reduce bending of the fibers in

  18. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility design affect the closure plan, or (ii) There is a change in the expected year of closure, if... extension to this one-year limit. (3) The owner or operator must submit his closure plan to the Regional... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan....

  19. 21 CFR 211.94 - Drug product containers and closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug product containers and closures. 211.94... Components and Drug Product Containers and Closures § 211.94 Drug product containers and closures. (a) Drug product containers and closures shall not be reactive, additive, or absorptive so as to alter the...

  20. [Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus: results and costs compared to surgical closure].

    PubMed

    Vieu, T; Beaurain, S; Angel, C; Leriche, H; Petit, J; Conso, J F; Planché, C; Losay, J

    1995-10-01

    The comparison of the clinical results and costs of the two methods of closure of patient ductus arteriosus was undertaken in two comparable groups of 40 patients treated in the same period in the same hospital. After transcatheter closure there was a 9% residual shunt rate at 3 years, the 2 patients with a residual continuous murmur being operated secondarily. The only complication was severe haemolysis which regressed after transcatheter ablation of the prosthesis. After surgical closure, there were no residual shunt. Some postoperative complications were observed in 20% of cases, usually benign (ventilatory problems, dysphonia or urinary infection), but occasionally more serious (peroperative lesion of the pulmonary artery). Morbidity, inherent to the technique of closure, was very different and much less in catheter closure. The average cost (daily cost x average length of hospital stay) was much less with transcatheter closure 38,558 francs versus 11,240 francs. On the other hand, the direct cost of transcatheter closure was greater than that of surgery: 32,798 francs versus 20,903 francs, the difference being related to the actual price of the prosthesis. The authors conclude that the 3 year results of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arterious make this technique a reasonable therapeutic alternative to surgery. From the safety point of view, the two techniques are comparable bu patient confort is greater with transcatheter closure for an increase in cost of the initial procedure which should decrease in relation to the types and prices of the prosthesis used. PMID:8745615

  1. Moment closure and the stochastic logistic model.

    PubMed

    Nåsell, Ingemar

    2003-03-01

    The quasi-stationary distribution of the stochastic logistic model is studied in the parameter region where its body is approximately normal. Improved asymptotic approximations of its first three cumulants are derived. It is shown that the same results can be derived with the aid of the moment closure method. This indicates that the moment closure method leads to expressions for the cumulants that are asymptotic approximations of the cumulants of the quasi-stationary distribution. PMID:12615498

  2. Delayed cutaneous wound closure in HO-2 deficient mice despite normal HO-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lundvig, Ditte M S; Scharstuhl, Alwin; Cremers, Niels A J; Pennings, Sebastiaan W C; te Paske, Jeroen; van Rheden, René; van Run-van Breda, Coby; Regan, Raymond F; Russel, Frans G M; Carels, Carine E; Maltha, Jaap C; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing can lead to scarring, and aesthetical and functional problems. The cytoprotective haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes degrade haem into iron, biliverdin and carbon monoxide. HO-1 deficient mice suffer from chronic inflammatory stress and delayed cutaneous wound healing, while corneal wound healing in HO-2 deficient mice is impaired with exorbitant inflammation and absence of HO-1 expression. This study addresses the role of HO-2 in cutaneous excisional wound healing using HO-2 knockout (KO) mice. Here, we show that HO-2 deficiency also delays cutaneous wound closure compared to WT controls. In addition, we detected reduced collagen deposition and vessel density in the wounds of HO-2 KO mice compared to WT controls. Surprisingly, wound closure in HO-2 KO mice was accompanied by an inflammatory response comparable to WT mice. HO-1 induction in HO-2 deficient skin was also similar to WT controls and may explain this protection against exaggerated cutaneous inflammation but not the delayed wound closure. Proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation were similar in both two genotypes. Next, we screened for candidate genes to explain the observed delayed wound closure, and detected delayed gene and protein expression profiles of the chemokine (C-X-C) ligand-11 (CXCL-11) in wounds of HO-2 KO mice. Abnormal regulation of CXCL-11 has been linked to delayed wound healing and disturbed angiogenesis. However, whether aberrant CXCL-11 expression in HO-2 KO mice is caused by or is causing delayed wound healing needs to be further investigated. PMID:25224969

  3. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  4. 75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels Using Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is rescinding the trawl closure in the Chiniak Gully Research Area. This... in the Chiniak Gully Research Area. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), August...

  5. 78 FR 7280 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... established by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment to the final 2013 harvest specifications for Pacific cod (78 FR 267... a timely fashion and would delay the directed fishing closure of Pacific cod for vessels using...

  6. 75 FR 41999 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher Vessels Participating in the Rockfish Entry Level...; modification of closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is reopening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by trawl catcher... Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 directed fishing allowance of Pacific...

  7. Mediterranean-style closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, A.; Kapp, P.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Alpine-Himalayan belt expresses lateral variations in the architecture of continent-continent collisions and includes two end-member examples. One end-member, the Mediterranean, formed from a complex interaction between the Eurasian and Africa-Apulian plates which initiated rollback of Alpine-Tethys lithosphere and opened new ocean basins coeval with plate convergence. As the other end-member, the India-Asia collision is generally considered to have initiated following the closure of a single large ocean basin through the subduction of Neo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere beneath Eurasia. We propose that Mediterranean-style tectonics may have dominated during the closure of the Paleo-Tethys in central Asia based on new and previous observations. These include: (1) coeval Mid-Triassic HP-UHP metamorphism within the Qinling-Dabie orogen, Qiangtang metamorphic belt, and Indochina block; (2) coeval Late Triassic exhumation of the Qinling-Dabie orogen and Qiangtang metamorphic belt and accumulation of vast volumes of Upper Triassic flysch within the Paleo-Tethys ocean; (3) the north-south orientation of the Longman Shan thrust belt, the triangular map pattern of the Hoh-Xil-Songpan-Ganzi flysch complex, the oroclinal map patterns of Paleo-Tethys arc terranes, and the abrupt eastern termination of the Kunlun; (4) wide distribution of 224-210 Ma adakitic rocks; and (5) evidence for Late Triassic extension within terranes adjacent to the Paleo-Tethys. We propose near synchronous Mid-Triassic continent-continent collisions between the Qiangtang terrane of western Cimmerian-Gondwanan affinity and a Paleo-Tethys arc terrane or the Kunlun terrane, eastern Cimmeria-Indochina and South China block, and the South China and North China blocks. Resistance to continental subduction and oceanic slab breakoff led to a decrease in the northward drift of Gondwana-derived terranes and promoted rollback of subducting remnant Paleo-Tethys oceanic lithosphere. In particular, we suggest that

  8. Carbon fiber internal pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Internal pressure vessels were designed; the filament was wound of carbon fibers and epoxy resin and tested to burst. The fibers used were Thornel 400, Thornel 75, and Hercules HTS. Additional vessels with type A fiber were made. Polymeric linears were used, and all burst testing was done at room temperature. The objective was to produce vessels with the highest attainable PbV/W efficiencies. The type A vessels showed the highest average efficiency: 2.56 x 10 to the 6th power cm. Next highest efficiency was with Thornel 400 vessels: 2.21 x 10 to the 6th power cm. These values compare favorably with efficiency values from good quality S-glass vessels, but strains averaged 0.97% or less, which is less than 1/3 the strain of S-glass vessels.

  9. Vessel Noise Promotes Hull Fouling.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jenni A; Wilkens, Serena; McDonald, Justin I; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Fouling of submerged vessel hulls due to the rapid settlement of algae and invertebrates is a longstanding and costly problem. It is widely thought that the presence of extensive vacant surfaces on vessel hulls is responsible for the rapid attachment and growth of biofouling. We investigated whether noise from vessels in port could also be involved in promoting the settlement and growth of common biofouling organisms on vessel hulls. Three important biofouling species exhibited significantly faster development and settlement and better survival when exposed to vessel noise compared with control species. The extent of these responses appeared to vary in relation to the intensity of the vessel noise and may help to explain differences in biofouling observed on vessel hulls. PMID:26611073

  10. Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho Cleanup Project

    2006-06-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1998, the WCF was closed under an approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Closure Plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a final HWMA/RCRA post-closure permit on September 15, 2003, with an effective date of October 16, 2003. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the WCF to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment. The post-closure permit also includes semiannual reporting requirements under Permit Conditions III.H. and I.U. These reporting requirements have been combined into this single semiannual report.

  11. [Vacuum-assisted Closure Therapy for Residual Space after Open Window Thoracotomy for Pleural Empyema due to Bronchopleural Fistula].

    PubMed

    Togo, Takeo; Hasumi, Tohru; Hoshi, Fumihiko; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Okada, Yoshinori; Saito, Yasuki

    2016-05-01

    A 73-year-old man underwent right middle-lower bilobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma. He suffered from pneumonia followed by empyema due to bronchopleural fistula. On day 19 after the operation, an open window thoracostomy was created. Then the pleural space was treated conservatively with saline irrigation and petrolatum gauze packing. Progressive formation of healthy granulation tissue was observed around the bronchopleural fistula and the adjacent pulmonary artery, resulting in a complete closure of the bronchopleural fistula. And then we applied vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy to the residual pleural cavity. At 4 weeks after the initiation of VAC therapy, the pleural cavity was completely filled with granulation tissue and re-expanded residual lung. In conclusion, VAC therapy is a safe and effective treatment for residual space after open window thoracostomy for empyema due to bronchopleural fistula, if it is applied after closure of bronchopleural fistula and adequate granulation tissue formation on the great vessels. PMID:27220922

  12. Tracking Vessels to Illegal Pollutant Discharges Using Multisource Vessel Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busler, J.; Wehn, H.; Woodhouse, L.

    2015-04-01

    Illegal discharge of bilge waters is a significant source of oil and other environmental pollutants in Canadian and international waters. Imaging satellites are commonly used to monitor large areas to detect oily discharges from vessels, off-shore platforms and other sources. While remotely sensed imagery provides a snap-shot picture useful for detecting a spill or the presence of vessels in the vicinity, it is difficult to directly associate a vessel to an observed spill unless the vessel is observed while the discharge is occurring. The situation then becomes more challenging with increased vessel traffic as multiple vessels may be associated with a spill event. By combining multiple sources of vessel location data, such as Automated Information Systems (AIS), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) and SAR-based ship detection, with spill detections and drift models we have created a system that associates detected spill events with vessels in the area using a probabilistic model that intersects vessel tracks and spill drift trajectories in both time and space. Working with the Canadian Space Agency and the Canadian Ice Service's Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution (ISTOP) program, we use spills observed in Canadian waters to demonstrate the investigative value of augmenting spill detections with temporally sequenced vessel and spill tracking information.

  13. NPAR- products, applications and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    Almost a decade ago the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) developed and implemented a comprehensive research program (NUREG-1144) widely known as NPAR or Nuclear Plant Aging Research. The NPAR program is a structured research program specifically oriented to understanding significant age-related degradation mechanisms and their long term effects on properties and performance of important components and systems and ways to mitigate detrimental effects of aging. It provided a road map and a phased approach to research that is applicable to any structure, system, or component of interest. This hardware-oriented engineering research program led the industry worldwide and communicated a need to understand and manage age-related degradation effects in selected but important structures and components. At the conclusion (1995) of the NPAR program, 22 electrical and mechanical components, 13 safety-related systems, and 10 special topics will have been studied and results summarized in 160 technical reports. This reference library of information listed and summarized in NUREG-1377, Rev. No. 4 provides a foundation upon which individual programs can be built for the specific needs of a utility, a regulator, or equipment manufacturers. During the life of the NPAR program, it has provided technical bases and support for license renewal, codes and standards, resolution of generic safety issues, information notices, regulatory guides and the standard Review Plan, as well as the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and The NRC Regions. All ongoing NPAR activities will either be completed or terminated by the end of 1995. No new initiative will be undertaken. This paper summarizes NPAR products and accomplishments, application of the research results, and its status and closure.

  14. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  15. Transseptal Guidewire Stabilization for Device Closure of a Large Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George Kunwar, Brajesh Kumar

    2013-06-15

    A 46-year-old man presenting with massive hemoptysis was found to have a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) in the right lung. Closure of the PAVM with an Amplatzer-type duct occluder was hampered by inability to advance the device delivery sheath into the PAVM due to vessel tortuosity and inadequate guidewire support. Atrial septal puncture was performed and a femorofemoral arteriovenous guidewire loop through the right pulmonary artery, PAVM, and left atrium was created. Traction on both ends of the guidewire loop allowed advancement of the device delivery sheath into the PAVM and successful completion of the procedure. Transseptal guidewire stabilization can be a valuable option during device closure of large PAVMs when advancement, stability, or kinking of the device delivery sheath is an issue.

  16. Vessel enhancing diffusion: a scale space representation of vessel structures.

    PubMed

    Manniesing, Rashindra; Viergever, Max A; Niessen, Wiro J

    2006-12-01

    A method is proposed to enhance vascular structures within the framework of scale space theory. We combine a smooth vessel filter which is based on a geometrical analysis of the Hessian's eigensystem, with a non-linear anisotropic diffusion scheme. The amount and orientation of diffusion depend on the local vessel likeliness. Vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) is applied to patient and phantom data and compared to linear, regularized Perona-Malik, edge and coherence enhancing diffusion. The method performs better than most of the existing techniques in visualizing vessels with varying radii and in enhancing vessel appearance. A diameter study on phantom data shows that VED least affects the accuracy of diameter measurements. It is shown that using VED as a preprocessing step improves level set based segmentation of the cerebral vasculature, in particular segmentation of the smaller vessels of the vasculature. PMID:16876462

  17. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Germer, J.H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

  18. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D

    2009-01-01

    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  19. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ..., the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components, contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them...

  3. Vessel structural support system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenko, J.X.; Ott, H.L.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1992-10-06

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon is disclosed. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of flat'' attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator. 19 figs.

  4. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  5. Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. N.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. The period was chosen to include a high-velocity solar wind stream and low-velocity wind. Abrupt events were accepted for study if the sum of the energy density in the magnetic field and velocity changes was above a specified minimum. A statistical analysis of the events in the high-velocity solar wind stream shows that Alfvenic changes predominate. This conclusion is independent of whether steady state requirements are imposed on conditions before and after the event. Alfvenic changes do not dominate in the lower-speed wind. This study extends the plasma field evidence for outwardly propagating Alfvenic changes to time scales as small as 1 min (scale lengths on the order of 20,000 km).

  6. Does the trigger for abrupt climate change reside in the ocean or in the atmosphere?

    PubMed

    Broecker, W S

    2003-06-01

    Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain the large and abrupt climate changes that punctuated glacial time. One attributes such changes to reorganizations of the ocean's thermohaline circulation and the other to changes in tropical atmosphere-ocean dynamics. In an attempt to distinguish between these hypotheses, two lines of evidence are examined. The first involves the timing of the freshwater injections to the northern Atlantic that have been suggested as triggers for the global impacts associated with the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events. The second has to do with evidence for precursory events associated with the Heinrich ice-rafted debris layers in the northern Atlantic and with the abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings recorded in the Santa Barbara Basin. PMID:12791974

  7. Agulhas salt-leakage oscillations during abrupt climate changes of the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Gianluca; Zahn, Rainer; Ziegler, Martin; Purcell, Conor; Knorr, Gregor; Hall, Ian R.; Ziveri, Patrizia; Elderfield, Henry

    2013-09-01

    An ensemble of new, high-resolution records of surface ocean hydrography from the Indian-Atlantic oceanic gateway, south of Africa, demonstrates recurrent and high-amplitude salinity oscillations in the Agulhas Leakage area during the penultimate glacial-interglacial cycle. A series of millennial-scale salinification events, indicating strengthened salt leakage into the South Atlantic, appear to correlate with abrupt changes in the North Atlantic climate and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). This interhemispheric coupling, which plausibly involved changes in the Hadley Cell and midlatitude westerlies that impacted the interocean transport at the tip of Africa, suggests that the Agulhas Leakage acted as a source of negative buoyancy for the perturbed AMOC, possibly aiding its return to full strength. Our finding points to the Indian-to-Atlantic salt transport as a potentially important modulator of the AMOC during the abrupt climate changes of the Late Pleistocene.

  8. Globally synchronous ice core volcanic tracers and abrupt cooling during the last glacial period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bay, R.C.; Bramall, N.E.; Price, P.B.; Clow, G.D.; Hawley, R.L.; Udisti, R.; Castellano, E.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo pattern recognition analysis of the coincidence between three regional volcanic histories from ice coring of Greenland and Antarctica over the period 2 to 45 ka, using SO4 anomalies in Greenland and East Antarctica determined by continuous core chemistry, together with West Antarctic volcanic ash layers determined by remote optical borehole logging and core assays. We find that the Antarctic record of volcanism correlates with Glacial abrupt climate change at a 95% to >99.8% (???3??) significance level and that volcanic depositions at the three locations match at levels exceeding 3??, likely indicating that many common horizons represent single eruptive events which dispersed material world wide. These globally coincident volcanics were associated with abrupt cooling, often simultaneous with onsets or sudden intensifications of millennial cold periods. The striking agreement between sites implies that the consistency of current timescales obtained by isotopic and glaciological dating methods is better than estimated. Copyright 2006 by the American Geogphysical Union.

  9. Characterizing abrupt changes in the stock prices using a wavelet decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi

    2007-09-01

    Abrupt changes in the stock prices, either upwards or downwards, are usually preceded by an oscillatory behavior with frequencies that tend to increase as the moment of transition becomes closer. The wavelet decomposition methods may be useful for analysis of this oscillations with varying frequencies, because they provide simultaneous information on the frequency (scale) and localization in time (translation). However, in order to use the wavelet decomposition, certain requirements have to be satisfied, so that the linear and cyclic trends are eliminated by standard least squares techniques. The coefficients obtained by the wavelet decomposition can be represented in a graphical form. A threshold can then be established to characterize the likelihood of a short-time abrupt change in the stock prices. Actual data from the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo) were used in this work to illustrate the proposed method.

  10. Abrupt GaP/Si hetero-interface using bistepped Si buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Wang, Y. Kuyyalil, J.; Nguyen Thanh, T.; Almosni, S.; Bernard, R.; Tremblay, R.; Da Silva, M.; Létoublon, A.; Rohel, T.; Tavernier, K.; Le Corre, A.; Cornet, C.; Durand, O.; Stodolna, J.; Ponchet, A.; Bahri, M.; Largeau, L.; Patriarche, G.; Magen, C.

    2015-11-09

    We evidence the influence of the quality of the starting Si surface on the III-V/Si interface abruptness and on the formation of defects during the growth of III-V/Si heterogeneous crystal, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. GaP layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal Si (001). The strong effect of the Si substrate chemical preparation is first demonstrated by studying structural properties of both Si homoepitaxial layer and GaP/Si heterostructure. It is then shown that choosing adequate chemical preparation conditions and subsequent III-V regrowth conditions enables the quasi-suppression of micro-twins in the epilayer. Finally, the abruptness of GaP/Si interface is found to be very sensitive to the Si chemical preparation and is improved by the use of a bistepped Si buffer prior to III-V overgrowth.

  11. Abrupt shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and rainfall patterns in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Lopez, B.; Garcia, C. Gay

    2010-03-01

    Abrupt shutdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and rainfall patterns in Mexico. Model simulations agree that the warming and the resulting freshening of the surface waters will significantly reduce deep water formation in the Labrador Sea during the next decades. A complete collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) would be associated with a strong cooling of several degrees in the North Atlantic region (Winton 2003). The future response of the AMOC, however, is predictable only within a broad range due to the existence of a critical threshold in the system and the large uncertainty about both the location of this threshold on the freshwater axis and the freshwater forcing (Zickfeld et al., 2007). According to Meehl et al. (2007), the probability of an abrupt slowdown or shutdown of the AMOC triggered by greenhouse gas forcing is low, but it is considered a high-impact event (Wood et al., 2003). An abrupt change in the AMOC could occur so unexpectedly and quickly that natural systems would have difficulty adapting to them (NRC, 2002). In this work we use coupled ocean-atmosphere models to asses the response of rainfall patterns in Mexico to an abrupt shutdown of the AMOC. First, a cooling pattern, triggered by a freshwater flux perturbation in the North Atlantic, is simulated by an isopycnic ocean model coupled to an atmospheric energy balance model. Then, this anomalous surface temperature pattern is used as a surface boundary condition for a numerical experiment performed using the simplified global atmospheric circulation model PUMA (Portable University Model of the Atmosphere; Fraedrich et al., 1998), which compute the perturbed rainfall patterns in Mexico.

  12. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    WAIS Divide Project Members; Buizert, Christo; Adrian, Betty M.; Ahn, Jinho; Albert, Mary; Alley, Richard B.; Baggenstos, Daniel; Bauska, Thomas K.; Bay, Ryan C.; Bencivengo, Brian B.; Bentley, Charles R.; Brook, Edward J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Clow, Gary D.; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Conway, Howard; Cravens, Eric; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Edwards, Jon S.; Fegyveresi, John M.; Ferris, Dave G.; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Fudge, T. J.; Gibson, Chris J.; Gkinis, Vasileios; Goetz, Joshua J.; Gregory, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Geoffrey Mill; Iverson, Nels; Johnson, Jay A.; Jones, Tyler R.; Kalk, Michael L.; Kippenhan, Matthew J.; Koffman, Bess G.; Kreutz, Karl; Kuhl, Tanner W.; Lebar, Donald A.; Lee, James E.; Marcott, Shaun A.; Markle, Bradley R.; Maselli, Olivia J.; McConnell, Joseph R.; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Mitchell, Logan E.; Mortensen, Nicolai B.; Neff, Peter D.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Nunn, Richard M.; Orsi, Anais J.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Pedro, Joel B.; Pettit, Erin C.; Price, P. Buford; Priscu, John C.; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Rosen, Julia L.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Schoenemann, Spruce W.; Sendelbach, Paul J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Shturmakov, Alexander J.; Sigl, Michael; Slawny, Kristina R.; Souney, Joseph M.; Sowers, Todd A.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Steig, Eric J.; Taylor, Kendrick C.; Twickler, Mark S.; Vaughn, Bruce H.; Voigt, Donald E.; Waddington, Edwin D.; Welten, Kees C.; Wendricks, Anthony W.; White, James W. C.; Winstrup, Mai; Wong, Gifford J.; Woodruff, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard–Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives1. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard–Oeschger cycle and vice versa2, 3, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw4, 5, 6. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events7, 8, 9. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision2, 3,10. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2σ) for Dansgaard–Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard–Oeschger dynamics.

  13. Flow Regime Study in a High Density Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser with an Abrupt Exit

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Shadle, L.J.; Yue, P.C.; Monazam, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Flow regime study was conducted in a 0.3 m diameter, 15.5 m height circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser with an abrupt exit at the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. Local particle velocities were measured at various radial positions and riser heights using an optical fiber probe. On-line measurement of solid circulating rate was continuously recorded by the Spiral. Glass beads of mean diameter 61 μm and particle density of 2,500 kg/m3 were used as bed material. The CFB riser was operated at various superficial gas velocities ranging from 3 to 7.6 m/s and solid mass flux from 20 to 550 kg/m2-s. At a constant riser gas velocity, transition from fast fluidization to dense suspension upflow (DSU) regime started at the bottom of the riser with increasing solid flux. Except at comparatively low riser gas velocity and solid flux, the apparent solid holdup at the top exit region was higher than the middle section of the riser. The solid fraction at this top region could be much higher than 7% under high riser gas velocity and solid mass flux. The local particle velocity showed downward flow near the wall at the top of the riser due to its abrupt exit. This abrupt geometry reflected the solids and, therefore, caused solid particles traveling downward along the wall. However, at location below, but near, the top of the riser the local particle velocities were observed flowing upward at the wall. Therefore, DSU was identified in the upper region of the riser with an abrupt exit while the fully developed region, lower in the riser, was still exhibiting core-annular flow structure. Our data were compared with the flow regime boundaries proposed by Kim et al. [1] for distinguishing the dilute pneumatic transport, fast fluidization, and DSU.

  14. Precise Interhemispheric Phasing of the Bipolar Seesaw during Abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, C.; Baggenstos, D.; Brook, E.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fudge, T. J.; Markle, B. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Rhodes, R.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Sowers, T. A.; Steig, E. J.; Taylor, K.

    2014-12-01

    Late Pleistocene glacial periods exhibit abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of northern hemisphere (NH) palaeoclimatic archives. Ice cores show Antarctica is cooling during the warm phases of the Greenland DO cycle and vice versa, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism dubbed the bipolar seesaw. While it is generally accepted that variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength play an important role, great uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of the abrupt events. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large and poorly constrained ice age-gas age difference (Dage) in Antarctic ice cores has precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision. Here we present a new high accumulation deep Antarctic ice core, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS)-Divide core, that is used to resolve the timing of the bipolar seesaw at unprecedented temporal resolution. We find that the abrupt Greenland warming phase leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling by 195 ± 59 years for DO-events, including the Bølling period; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding Antarctic warming by 179 ± 61 years. The centennial NH lead time shows that the abrupt phases of the DO cycle are initiated in the NH, after which the temperature anomaly is propagated to the southern hemisphere (SH) high latitudes via an oceanic teleconnection. The similar phasing of warming and cooling events suggests that to first order the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm the central role ocean circulation plays in the seesaw, and provide a clear criterion for testing hypotheses and model simulations of DO dynamics.

  15. Precise interpolar phasing of abrupt climate change during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    2015-04-30

    The last glacial period exhibited abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger climatic oscillations, evidence of which is preserved in a variety of Northern Hemisphere palaeoclimate archives. Ice cores show that Antarctica cooled during the warm phases of the Greenland Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle and vice versa, suggesting an interhemispheric redistribution of heat through a mechanism called the bipolar seesaw. Variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) strength are thought to have been important, but much uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics and trigger of these abrupt events. Key information is contained in the relative phasing of hemispheric climate variations, yet the large, poorly constrained difference between gas age and ice age and the relatively low resolution of methane records from Antarctic ice cores have so far precluded methane-based synchronization at the required sub-centennial precision. Here we use a recently drilled high-accumulation Antarctic ice core to show that, on average, abrupt Greenland warming leads the corresponding Antarctic cooling onset by 218 ± 92 years (2σ) for Dansgaard-Oeschger events, including the Bølling event; Greenland cooling leads the corresponding onset of Antarctic warming by 208 ± 96 years. Our results demonstrate a north-to-south directionality of the abrupt climatic signal, which is propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes by oceanic rather than atmospheric processes. The similar interpolar phasing of warming and cooling transitions suggests that the transfer time of the climatic signal is independent of the AMOC background state. Our findings confirm a central role for ocean circulation in the bipolar seesaw and provide clear criteria for assessing hypotheses and model simulations of Dansgaard-Oeschger dynamics. PMID:25925479

  16. Abrupt PN junctions: Analytical solutions under equilibrium and non-equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani, Sina

    2016-08-01

    We present an explicit solution of carrier and field distributions in abrupt PN junctions under equilibrium. An accurate logarithmic numerical method is implemented and results are compared to the analytical solutions. Analysis of results shows reasonable agreement with numerical solution as well as the depletion layer approximation. We discuss extensions to the asymmetric junctions. Approximate relations for differential capacitance C-V and current-voltage I-V characteristics are also found under non-zero external bias.

  17. Abrupt increase in east Indonesian rainfall from flooding of the Sunda Shelf ˜9500 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Michael L.; Drysdale, Russell N.; Gagan, Michael K.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Hellstrom, John C.; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.

    2013-08-01

    We present a precisely dated, multi-proxy stalagmite record from Liang Luar Cave, Flores (southeast Indonesia) that reveals a rapid increase in Indonesian monsoon rainfall at ˜9.5 ka. A "ramp-fitting" method for detecting statistically significant inflections in a time-series was applied to the stalagmite δ18O, Mg/Ca, and Sr/Ca profiles to quantify the precise timing and magnitude of an abrupt increase in monsoon strength over a period of ˜350 years. Previously published lake-level records from the monsoon-affected Australian interior show a sudden intensification of the Australian monsoon at ˜14 ka. However, our records indicate that monsoon intensification in Flores occured ˜4-5 kyr later. The timing of the monsoon shift in Flores is synchronous with the rapid expansion of rainforest in northeast Australia and regional freshening of the southern Makassar Strait which, under present-day conditions, is sensitive to monsoon variability. The freshening of southern Makassar was coeval with an abrupt ˜1.5 °C cooling in the upper thermocline of the Timor Sea ˜9.5 ka, indicative of reduced surface heat transport by the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) when the Java Sea opened during postglacial sea-level rise. This suggests that the abrupt increase in monsoon rainfall on Flores was not due to a change in the ITF - because a decrease in rainfall would be expected to accompany cooler local sea surface temperatures (SSTs) - but rather by the sudden increase in ocean surface area and/or temperature in the monsoon source region as the Sunda Shelf flooded during deglaciation. We propose that it was the abrupt intensification of the monsoon through the late deglaciation that maintained the subsequent structure of the ITF following the flooding of the Sunda Shelf at ˜9.5 ka.

  18. The abrupt changes in the yellowed fibril density in the Linen of Turin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V.; Fazio, G.; Mandaglio, G.

    2012-03-01

    The present investigation is an attempt to explain the abrupt changes in the yellowed fibril density (or image intensity) values in the dorsal part of the Shroud of Turin body image. The interested areas are the ones at the base of the shoulders and the buttocks. These rapid changes in the body image intensity are not anomalies of the linen manufacture. They can be explained with the original presence of aromas and/or burial ointments.

  19. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  20. Taking Closure to the Next Level - 13030

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, E.T.

    2013-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP) is the Hanford Site's first closure project and when it is complete, in 2015, it will have cleaned up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land adjacent to the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the DOE to manage the removal and cleanup of Hanford's nuclear legacy along the River Corridor. Work began in 2005 and is now more than 85% complete with more than 2 years left in the contract. A Closure Team was commissioned in December 2009 and has since issued a closure strategy and a disciplined three-phase approach to transition land parcels to DOE, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) as cleanup is completed. This process supports DOE-RL objectives for progressive footprint reduction based on the division of the River Corridor into geographical land parcels. It also allows for incremental area-by-area transition and turnover to the Long-Term Stewardship program. Several important milestones stand between now and the successful end of the RCCP. They include overall funding impacts, working with DOE-RL on new scope additions, meeting regulatory milestones, and maintaining a strong safety performance. (authors)

  1. Primary angle-closure glaucoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Wright, Carrie; Tawfik, Mohammed A; Waisbourd, Michael; Katz, Leslie J

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma is potentially a devastating disease, responsible for half of glaucoma-related blindness worldwide. Angle closure is characterized by appositional approximation or contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork. It tends to develop in eyes with shallow anterior chambers, anteriorly positioned or pushed lenses, and angle crowding. Risk of primary angle-closure glaucoma is high among women, the elderly and the hyperopic, and it is most prevalent in Asia. Investigation into genetic mechanisms of glaucoma inheritance is underway. Diagnosis relies on gonioscopy and may be aided by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Treatment is designed to control intraocular pressure while monitoring changes to the angle and optic nerve head. Treatment typically begins with medical management through pressure-reducing topical medications. Peripheral iridotomy is often performed to alleviate pupillary block, while laser iridoplasty has been found effective for mechanisms of closure other than pupillary block, such as plateau iris syndrome. Phacoemulsification, with or without goniosynechialysis, both in eyes with existing cataracts and in those with clear lenses, is thus far a viable treatment alternative. Long-term research currently underway will examine its efficacy in cases of angle closure in early stages of the disease. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation is another treatment option, which can be combined with cataract surgery. Trabeculectomy remains effective therapy for more advanced cases. PMID:26119516

  2. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364

  3. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate and the influence of the Indian Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and abruptness with which Northeast Africa transitioned into and out of the Early Holocene African Humid Period is a subject of ongoing debate, with direct consequences for our understanding of climate stability and paleoenvironments. Here we present a new proxy record of regional hydroclimate, based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes, from a marine core in the Gulf of Aden that documents rapid, century-scale transitions into and out of the African Humid Period across the Horn of Africa. The Gulf of Aden record also documents large drying events during the last deglacial, synchronous with Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas. Similar and generally synchronous abrupt transitions at other East African sites suggest that rapid shifts in hydroclimate are regionally coherent. In addition, the termination of the African Humid Period in East Africa is synchronous with the termination along the western Saharan margin. A probabilistic analysis of the abruptness of the transitions in East Africa suggests that they likely occurred within centuries, underscoring the sensitivity of northeast African hydroclimate to external forcings. We speculate that the non-linear behavior of hydroclimate in the Horn of Africa is related to convection thresholds in the western Indian Ocean, and test this hypothesis with preliminary SST proxy data.

  4. Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event.

    PubMed

    LeGrande, A N; Schmidt, G A; Shindell, D T; Field, C V; Miller, R L; Koch, D M; Faluvegi, G; Hoffmann, G

    2006-01-24

    Isotope, aerosol, and methane records document an abrupt cooling event across the Northern Hemisphere at 8.2 kiloyears before present (kyr), while separate geologic lines of evidence document the catastrophic drainage of the glacial Lakes Agassiz and Ojibway into the Hudson Bay at approximately the same time. This melt water pulse may have been the catalyst for a decrease in North Atlantic Deep Water formation and subsequent cooling around the Northern Hemisphere. However, lack of direct evidence for ocean cooling has lead to speculation that this abrupt event was purely local to Greenland and called into question this proposed mechanism. We simulate the response to this melt water pulse using a coupled general circulation model that explicitly tracks water isotopes and with atmosphere-only experiments that calculate changes in atmospheric aerosol deposition (specifically (10)Be and dust) and wetland methane emissions. The simulations produce a short period of significantly diminished North Atlantic Deep Water and are able to quantitatively match paleoclimate observations, including the lack of isotopic signal in the North Atlantic. This direct comparison with multiple proxy records provides compelling evidence that changes in ocean circulation played a major role in this abrupt climate change event. PMID:16415159

  5. Parameter estimation on compact binary coalescences with abruptly terminating gravitational waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Ilya; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Ohme, Frank; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Will M.

    2014-08-01

    Gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy seeks to extract information about astrophysical systems from the GW signals they emit. For coalescing compact-binary sources this requires accurate model templates for the inspiral and, potentially, the subsequent merger and ringdown. Models with frequency-domain waveforms that terminate abruptly in the sensitive band of the detector are often used for parameter-estimation studies. We show that the abrupt waveform termination contains significant information that affects parameter-estimation accuracy. If the sharp cutoff is not physically motivated, this extra information can lead to misleadingly good accuracy claims. We also show that using waveforms with a cutoff as templates to recover complete signals can lead to biases in parameter estimates. We evaluate when the information content in the cutoff is likely to be important in both cases. We also point out that the standard Fisher matrix formalism, frequently employed for approximately predicting parameter-estimation accuracy, cannot properly incorporate an abrupt cutoff that is present in both signals and templates; this observation explains some previously unexpected results found in the literature. These effects emphasize the importance of using complete waveforms with accurate merger and ringdown phases for parameter estimation.

  6. Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: fear of teratogenic risk and impact of counselling.

    PubMed Central

    Einarson, A; Selby, P; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the consequences to mother and baby of abruptly discontinuing antidepressant or benzodiazepine medication during pregnancy and to assess the impact of our counselling. PARTICIPANTS: All women who consulted the Motherisk Program between November 1996 and December 1997 and who stopped taking antidepressant or benzodiazepine medication when pregnancy was confirmed agreed to participate in the study. DESIGN AND INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were interviewed, received counselling, and completed a questionnaire 1 month after their initial call and after the birth of their baby. RESULTS: Of 36 women who completed the study, 34 discontinued their medication abruptly for fear of harming the fetus, 28 on the advice of their physician; 26 (70.3%) women reported physical and psychological adverse effects, 11 reported psychological effects only, and 11 reported suicidal ideation (4 were admitted to hospital). After counselling, 22 of 36 (61.1%) women resumed taking their medication, and 4 found that they no longer required it. One woman had a therapeutic abortion and 2 experienced spontaneous abortions; there were therefore 35 healthy babies (including 2 sets of twins) born to 33 women; 14 of 21 mothers breast-fed their babies while taking their psychotropic medication, with no adverse effects reported. CONCLUSIONS: When assessing the risks and benefits of taking psychotropic medication during pregnancy, women and their physicians should be aware that the abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs can lead to serious adverse effects. Counselling is effective in reassuring women to adhere to therapy. PMID:11212593

  7. Abrupt intensification of ENSO forced by deglacial ice-sheet retreat in CCSM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhengyao; Liu, Zhengyu; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    The influence of ice-sheet retreat on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability is studied using a transient simulation in NCAR-CCSM3 forced only by variations in continental ice sheets during the last deglaciation. The most striking feature is an abrupt strengthening of ENSO (by ~25 %) at 14 thousand years before present (ka BP) in response to a significant retreat (an equivalent ~25 m sea-level rise) of the Laurentide ice sheet (LIS). This abrupt intensification of ENSO is caused mainly by a sudden weakening of the equatorial annual cycle through the nonlinear mechanism of frequency entrainment, rather than an increase in the coupled ocean-atmosphere instability. The weakened annual cycle corresponds to a reduced north-south cross-equatorial annual mean SST contrast in the eastern Pacific. This reduced interhemispheric SST gradient—significant cooling north of the equator—is forced predominantly by an anomalous easterly from an abrupt polarward shift of the jet stream in the Northern Hemisphere, which extends to the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean surface and is reinforced by the wind-evaporation-SST feedback then propagates equatorward; it could also be contributed by a fast sea-ice expansion and a consequent cooling in the North Pacific and North Atlantic that is induced by the retreat of the LIS.

  8. A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364

  9. The grain size gap and abrupt gravel-sand transitions in rivers due to suspension fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Venditti, Jeremy G.

    2016-04-01

    Median grain sizes on riverbeds range from boulders in uplands to silt in lowlands; however, rivers with ~1-5 mm diameter bed sediment are rare. This grain size gap also marks an abrupt transition between gravel- and sand-bedded reaches that is unlike any other part of the fluvial network. Abrupt gravel-sand transitions have been attributed to rapid breakdown or rapid transport of fine gravel, or a bimodal sediment supply, but supporting evidence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that rivers dramatically lose the ability to transport sand as wash load where bed shear velocity drops below ~0.1 m/s, forcing an abrupt transition in bed-material grain size. Using thresholds for wash load and initial motion, we show that the gap emerges only for median bed-material grain sizes of ~1-5 mm due to Reynolds number dependencies in suspension transport. The grain size gap, therefore, is sensitive to material properties and gravity, with coarser gaps predicted on Mars and Titan.

  10. Rebound insomnia induced by abrupt withdrawal of hypnotics in sleep-disturbed rats.

    PubMed

    Hirase, Masahiro; Ishida, Takayuki; Kamei, Chiaki

    2008-11-12

    The present study was performed to examine whether or not rebound insomnia is caused by an abrupt withdrawal of benzodiazepine hypnotics and tandospirone in rats. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency, increase in non-REM sleep time, and decrease in wake time in a dose-dependent manner. Etizolam and triazolam caused a significant shortening of sleep latency during drug administration (for 7 days), whereas a significant prolongation of sleep latency was observed by the abrupt withdrawal of these drugs. Tandospirone caused a shortening of sleep latency, whereas no effect was observed on non-REM sleep time and wake time during drug administration (for 7 days). On the other hand, tandospirone showed no significant effect on sleep latency through its abrupt withdrawal, differing from etizolam and triazolam. From these findings, a rebound phenomenon in terms of sleep latency was confirmed with etizolam and triazolam in rats. Furthermore, the 5-HT(1A) agonist, tandospirone, caused no rebound phenomenon regarding sleep latency in rats. PMID:18789918

  11. Top-hat beam Tm3+-doped fiber laser using an intracavity abrupt taper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Zhong, F. F.; Wang, Y. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The top-hat beam clad-pumped Tm3+-doped fiber laser was realized simply using an intracavity multi-mode abrupt taper. The ratio of the flat-top diameter to the spot diameter reaches 53%, with a small intensity variation less than 6%, and the top-hat beam's half-divergence angle is only 5.3°. The fiber laser has a maximal output power of 5 W with slope efficiency of 39.7%, pumped by the 792 nm diode laser (LD). The abrupt taper is directly made on the multi-mode double-clad Tm3+-doped fiber near the fiber laser output end with the 0.45 ratio of taper waist diameter to fiber clad diameter, and this fiber end 4% Fresnel reflection is used to be the output coupler. The fiber laser's high reflective coupler is an intracore multi-mode FBG, which is directly written into the multi-mode Tm3+-doped fiber core using femtosecond laser and phase mask, at the other fiber end. The abrupt taper has no obviously influence on the fiber laser output power, and the output laser spectrum.

  12. An abrupt change in the African monsoon at the end of the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Michael R.; Filippi, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Niels Bo; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-03-01

    High-resolution studies of variations in the elemental and stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope composition of organic matter in cores from Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika, and Bosumtwi (tropical Africa) indicate an abrupt change in the wind-driven circulation of these lakes that, within the limits of available chronologies, was contemporaneous with the end of the Younger Dryas in the northern hemisphere. The change was also coincident with shifts in surface winds recorded in cores from off the west and northeast coasts of Africa. A range of other proxies indicate that these changes in wind regime were accompanied by a marked increase in precipitation in the northern tropics. Africa south of ˜5°-10°S, on the other hand, initially suffered drought conditions. Together, the evidence suggests an abrupt northward translation of the African monsoon system at circa 11.5 ± 0.25 ka B.P. The data assembled here contribute to a growing body of work showing that the Younger Dryas was a major climatic excursion in tropical Africa. Furthermore, they add substance to recent suggestions that climatic events in the southern hemisphere may have played a significant role in the abrupt demise of the Younger Dryas.

  13. Apollo experience report: Pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo spacecraft pressure vessels, associated problems and resolutions, and related experience in evaluating potential problem areas are discussed. Information is provided that can be used as a guideline in the establishment of baseline criteria for the design and use of lightweight pressure vessels. One of the first practical applications of the use of fracture-mechanics technology to protect against service failures was made on Apollo pressure vessels. Recommendations are made, based on Apollo experience, that are designed to reduce the incidence of failure in pressure-vessel operation and service.

  14. Graphite filament wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Damico, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Filament wound NOL rings, 4-inch and 8-inch diameter closed-end vessels involving three epoxy resin systems and three graphite fibers were tested to develop property data and fabrication technology for filament wound graphite/epoxy pressure vessels. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst tests at room temperature. Manufacturing parameters were established for tooling, winding, and curing that resulted in the development of a pressure/vessel performance factor (pressure x volume/weight) or more than 900,000 in. for an oblate spheroid specimen.

  15. Vessel segmentation in screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordang, J. J.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessels are a major cause of false positives in computer aided detection systems for the detection of breast cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a framework for the segmentation of blood vessels in screening mammograms. The proposed framework is based on supervised learning using a cascade classifier. This cascade classifier consists of several stages where in each stage a GentleBoost classifier is trained on Haar-like features. A total of 30 cases were included in this study. In each image, vessel pixels were annotated by selecting pixels on the centerline of the vessel, control samples were taken by annotating a region without any visible vascular structures. This resulted in a total of 31,000 pixels marked as vascular and over 4 million control pixels. After training, the classifier assigns a vesselness likelihood to the pixels. The proposed framework was compared to three other vessel enhancing methods, i) a vesselness filter, ii) a gaussian derivative filter, and iii) a tubeness filter. The methods were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics curves, the Az values. The Az value of the cascade approach is 0:85. This is superior to the vesselness, Gaussian, and tubeness methods, with Az values of 0:77, 0:81, and 0:78, respectively. From these results, it can be concluded that our proposed framework is a promising method for the detection of vessels in screening mammograms.

  16. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels

  17. Design and Rationale of the Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Behnes, Michael; Ünsal, Melike; Hoffmann, Ursula; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Lang, Siegfried; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Lehmann, Ralf; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are associated with patients’ age, gender, and the presence of chronic kidney disease, antithrombotic treatment, as well as arterial access site. Patients being treated by PCI using radial access site are associated with an improved prognosis. However, the safety of femoral closure devices has never been compared to radial compression devices following PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of femoral closure compared to radial compression devices in patients treated by PCI envisaging access site bleedings as well as short- and long-term prognostic outcomes. METHODS The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study is a single-center observational study comparing 400 consecutive patients undergoing PCI either using radial compression devices (TR Band™) or femoral closure devices (Angio-Seal™) at the corresponding access site. The primary outcome consists of the occurrence of vascular complications at the arterial access site, including major bleedings as defined by common classification systems. Secondary outcomes consist of the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, including all-cause mortality, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel revascularization during 30 days and 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS Study enrollment was initiated in February 2014. The enrollment phase is expected to last until May 2015. CONCLUSIONS The FERARI study intends to comparatively evaluate the safety and prognostic outcome of patients being treated by radial or femoral arterial closure devices following PCI during daily clinical practice. PMID:26568686

  18. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  19. APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR WELDING END CLOSURE TO CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Correy, T.B.

    1959-08-01

    A semi-automatic apparatus is described for welding a closure to the open end of a can containing a nuclear fuel slug. An arc is struck at the center of the closure and is shifted to a region near its periphery. Then the assembly of closure, can, and fuel slug is rotated so that the peripheral region of the closure is preheated. Next the arc is shifted to the periphery itself of the closure, and the assembly is rotated so that the closure is welded to the can.

  20. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  1. Closure device for lead-acid batteries

    DOEpatents

    Ledjeff, Konstantin

    1983-01-01

    A closure device for lead-acid batteries includes a filter of granulated activated carbon treated to be hydrophobic combined with means for preventing explosion of emitted hydrogen and oxygen gas. The explosion prevention means includes a vertical open-end tube within the closure housing for maintaining a liquid level above side wall openings in an adjacent closed end tube. Gases vent from the battery through a nozzle directed inside the closed end tube against an impingement surface to remove acid droplets. The gases then flow through the side wall openings and the liquid level to quench any possible ignition prior to entering the activated carbon filter. A wick in the activated carbon filter conducts condensed liquid back to the closure housing to replenish the liquid level limited by the open-end tube.

  2. Independently owned pharmacy closures in rural America.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kaitlin; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2012-07-01

    The closure of rural independently owned pharmacies, including pharmacies that are the sole source of access to local pharmacy services, from 2003 through 2011 coincides with the implementation of two major policies related to payment for prescription medications: (1) Medicare prescription drug discount cards were introduced on January 1, 2004; and (2) the Medicare prescription drug benefit (Part D) began on January 1, 2006. In this brief, we focus on rural pharmacy closure because of the potential threat such closures present to access to any local pharmacy services in a community. Services include providing medications from local stock without delay or travel, overseeing administration of medications to nursing homes and hospitals, and patient consultation. PMID:22830100

  3. Intramammary infections and milk leakage following gradual or abrupt cessation of milking.

    PubMed

    Gott, P N; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M; Proudfoot, K L; Hogan, J S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milking cessation method (abrupt or gradual) and daily milk yield before dry-off on milk leakage following dry-off and intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. Data from 1,086 quarters of 285 cows from 5 Ohio dairy herds were analyzed. All cows that were due to be dried off within a week were assigned to the same study group to facilitate management. Abrupt-cessation cows kept the farm's regular milking schedule through dry-off, and gradual-cessation cows were milked once daily for the final week of lactation. Aseptic technique was used to collect quarter foremilk samples at the time of enrollment (7 to 14 d before expected dry-off), the final milking before dry-off (D-O), and within 7 d of calving. Cows in the gradual-cessation group were observed for milk leakage during the period of once-daily milking. In the only herd that did not use internal teat sealants at dry-off, milk leakage after dry-off was recorded in both abrupt and gradual groups. Gradual cessation decreased milk production by 33.4% during the final week of lactation, causing milk yield at D-O to be lower for these cows compared with abrupt-cessation cows (13.2 vs. 19.8kg/d, respectively). Logistic regression models were used to model the probability of a quarter being infected at calving with any pathogen, accounting for clustering of quarters within cows and cows within herds. The final model investigating the probability of IMI at calving was stratified by parity of cows at the time of dry-off (primiparous and multiparous). Among quarters of cows that ended their first lactation, abrupt cessation of milking before dry-off and milk leakage after dry-off were associated with an increased risk of IMI at calving. Among quarters of multiparous cows, on the other hand, gradual cessation of milking before dry-off, presence of IMI at D-O, and thrice-daily milking during lactation increased the odds of IMI at calving. These results indicate that

  4. LPT. EBOR reactor vessel in TAN 646. Pressure vessel head ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR reactor vessel in TAN 646. Pressure vessel head being installed in vault. Refueling port extension (right) and control rod nozzles (center). Camera facing northwest. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-241 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 2401-W Waste storage building closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUKE, S.M.

    1999-07-15

    This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

  6. Final Clean Closure Report Site 300 Surface Impoundments Closure Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, K

    2006-02-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory operated two Class II surface impoundments that stored wastewater that was discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater was the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners were nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project was to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks were installed and put into service prior to closure of the impoundments. This Clean Closure Report (Closure Report) complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR section 21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Closure Report provides the following information: (1) a brief site description; (2) the regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) the closure procedures; and (4) the findings and documentation of clean closure.

  7. Patent Foramen Ovale: Stroke and Device Closure.

    PubMed

    Suradi, Hussam S; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2016-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common finding in healthy adults and has long been implicated in cryptogenic stroke. The pathogenesis is hypothesized to be caused by microemboli gaining access into the systemic circulation via a PFO. Proposed treatment options include medical therapy and/or PFO closure. Despite numerous studies and several randomized trials, much debate persists regarding the efficacy of this approach in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke in cryptogenic stroke patients. This article reviews the association between PFO and cryptogenic stroke, as well as current evidence for PFO device closure. PMID:27150171

  8. Ion closure theory for high collisionality revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young Held, Eric D.

    2015-06-15

    According to analytical calculations of the ion collision operator, the ion-electron collision terms could be larger than the ion-ion collision terms. In the previous work [J.-Y. Ji and E. D. Held, Phys. Plasmas 20, 042114 (2013)], the ion-electron collision effects are diminished by the ion temperature change terms introduced from unlikely assumptions. In this work, the high-collisionality closures for ions are calculated without the temperature change terms. The ion-electron collision terms significantly modify existing closure coefficients.

  9. Electron parallel closures for arbitrary collisionality

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young Held, Eric D.

    2014-12-15

    Electron parallel closures for heat flow, viscosity, and friction force are expressed as kernel-weighted integrals of thermodynamic drives, the temperature gradient, relative electron-ion flow velocity, and flow-velocity gradient. Simple, fitted kernel functions are obtained for arbitrary collisionality from the 6400 moment solution and the asymptotic behavior in the collisionless limit. The fitted kernels circumvent having to solve higher order moment equations in order to close the electron fluid equations. For this reason, the electron parallel closures provide a useful and general tool for theoretical and computational models of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  10. Electrochemical cell having a safety vent closure

    SciTech Connect

    Zupancic, R.L.

    1982-05-11

    A safety blow-out vent closure for galvanic cells, such as nonaqueous oxyhalide cells, which comprises the employment of a conductive tubular member secured to the cell's housing and surrounding a vent orifice in the cell's housing and wherein a deformable member is force-fitted in said vent orifice and adapted to at least partially be ejected from the vent orifice upon the build up of a predetermined internal gas pressure within the cell. The invention is also directed to a method for assembling an electrochemical cell with the above-described safety vent closure.

  11. Detection of the closure-burst transitions of stops and affricates in continuous speech using the plosion index.

    PubMed

    Ananthapadmanabha, T V; Prathosh, A P; Ramakrishnan, A G

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of the closure-burst transition events of stops and affricates serves many applications in speech processing. A temporal measure named the plosion index is proposed to detect such events, which are characterized by an abrupt increase in energy. Using the maxima of the pitch-synchronous normalized cross correlation as an additional temporal feature, a rule-based algorithm is designed that aims at selecting only those events associated with the closure-burst transitions of stops and affricates. The performance of the algorithm, characterized by receiver operating characteristic curves and temporal accuracy, is evaluated using the labeled closure-burst transitions of stops and affricates of the entire TIMIT test and training databases. The robustness of the algorithm is studied with respect to global white and babble noise as well as local noise using the TIMIT test set and on telephone quality speech using the NTIMIT test set. For these experiments, the proposed algorithm, which does not require explicit statistical training and is based on two one-dimensional temporal measures, gives a performance comparable to or better than the state-of-the-art methods. In addition, to test the scalability, the algorithm is applied on the Buckeye conversational speech corpus and databases of two Indian languages. PMID:24437786

  12. 50 CFR 648.231 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish... fishing for spiny dogfish on that date for the remainder of that semi-annual period by publishing a... period, no vessel may fish for or possess spiny dogfish in the EEZ, nor may vessels issued a...

  13. A prototype vessel compressor helps efficient laser treatment of small leg veins.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Calderhead, R Glen

    2004-11-01

    The eradication of small leg veins with lasers continue to present problems. Visible light lasers (488 nm approximately 595 nm) are well absorbed in haemoglobin but melanin is also a target, necessitating aggressive skin cooling to prevent damage to the epidermis and adding to the expense of these laser systems. A new generation of much less expensive semiconductor-based lasers operating in the near infrared offers a different approach, with protein as the main target rather than pigment. For visible light lasers, compression of the target vessels is a contraindication, since the target pigment is removed. For near IR diode lasers, however, compression of the vessels is a benefit, as the cooling effect of the blood flow is removed and the highly proteinous vessel walls are coapted which encourages efficient coagulative vessel closure. The prototype of a simple vessel compressor is presented, which first compresses vessels and coapts the walls, and then presents the coapted vessels as a target for a laser of an appropriate wavelength. PMID:15545100

  14. Scalping of light volatile sulfur compounds by wine closures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria A; Jourdes, Michaël; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-11-01

    Closures have an important influence on wine quality during aging in a bottle. Closures have a direct impact on oxygen exposure and on volatiles scavenging in wine. Model wine solution soaking assays of several types of closures (i.e., natural and technical cork stoppers, synthetic closures, screw caps) with two important wine volatile sulfur compounds led to a considerable reduction in their levels. After 25 days, cork closures and synthetic closures, to a lesser extent, have significantly scavenged hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. These compounds have a determinant impact on wine aging bouquet, being largely responsible for "reduced off-flavors". Hydrogen sulfide levels are often not well correlated with the exposure of wine to oxygen or with the permeability of the closure. Its preferential sorption by some types of closures may explain that behavior. Scalping phenomenon should be taken into account when studying wine post-bottling development. PMID:23072649

  15. The determinants of fishing vessel accident severity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Di

    2014-05-01

    The study examines the determinants of fishing vessel accident severity in the Northeastern United States using vessel accident data from the U.S. Coast Guard for 2001-2008. Vessel damage and crew injury severity equations were estimated separately utilizing the ordered probit model. The results suggest that fishing vessel accident severity is significantly affected by several types of accidents. Vessel damage severity is positively associated with loss of stability, sinking, daytime wind speed, vessel age, and distance to shore. Vessel damage severity is negatively associated with vessel size and daytime sea level pressure. Crew injury severity is also positively related to the loss of vessel stability and sinking. PMID:24473412

  16. Definition of Mutually Optimum NDI and Proof Test Criteria for 2219 Aluminum Pressure Vessels. Volume 2: Optimization and Fracture Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Toth, C., Jr.; King, R. G.; Todd, P. H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Certain behavioral aspects associated with fracture and crack extension that cannot be studied using other techniques were evaluated with the ultrasonic method. Characterization of collimated beam techniques showed that significant beam width reduction could be accomplished. Techniques for collimation are given. The crack-opening displacement-gage correction-factor study showed that displacement resulting from crack opening and that from plasticity could be readily differentiated. Crack closure studies using both ultrasonic and crack-opening displacement measurements showed an opening and closing behavior associated with load-unload curves. The results of this work were in general agreement with the closure concepts of Elber. Ultrasonic measurements used to study the nature of flaw extension characteristics associated with failure of the ligament between the flaw front and back surface showed that penetration could occur by an abrupt fracturing after subcritical growth or by continuous growth.

  17. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  18. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salvage vessels. 4.97 Section 4.97 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.97 Salvage vessels. (a) Only a vessel of the United States, a numbered motorboat owned by a citizen, or a vessel operating within the purview of paragraph...

  19. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salvage vessels. 4.97 Section 4.97 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.97 Salvage vessels. (a) Only a vessel of the United States, a numbered motorboat owned by a citizen, or a vessel operating within the purview of paragraph...

  20. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  1. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salvage vessels. 4.97 Section 4.97 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.97 Salvage vessels. (a) Only a vessel of the United States, a numbered motorboat owned by a citizen, or a vessel operating within the purview of paragraph...

  2. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  3. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  4. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  5. 19 CFR 4.97 - Salvage vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salvage vessels. 4.97 Section 4.97 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.97 Salvage vessels. (a) Only a vessel of the United States, a numbered motorboat owned by a citizen, or a vessel operating within the purview of paragraph...

  6. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels included. 289.2 Section 289.2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS INSURANCE OF CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD...

  7. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce....

  8. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce....

  9. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce....

  10. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce....

  11. 46 CFR 169.119 - Vessel status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel status. 169.119 Section 169.119 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS General.... 883 a sailing school vessel is not deemed a merchant vessel or a vessel engaged in trade or commerce....

  12. 50 CFR 635.28 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... swordfish per trip may be possessed in or from the Atlantic Ocean north of 5° N. lat. or landed in an... closure may be possessed in the Atlantic Ocean north of 5 N. lat. or landed in an Atlantic coastal...

  13. Mechanics of Blastopore Closure during Amphibian Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Feroze, Rafey; Shawky, Joseph H.; von Dassow, Michelangelo; Davidson, Lance A.

    2014-01-01

    Blastopore closure in the amphibian embryo involves large scale tissue reorganization driven by physical forces. These forces are tuned to generate sustained blastopore closure throughout the course of gastrulation. We describe the mechanics of blastopore closure at multiple scales and in different regions around the blastopore by characterizing large scale tissue deformations, cell level shape change and subcellular F-actin organization and by measuring tissue force production and structural stiffness of the blastopore during gastrulation. We find that the embryo generates a ramping magnitude of force until it reaches a peak force on the order of 0.5 μ Newtons. During this time course, the embryo also stiffens 1.5 fold. Strain rate mapping of the dorsal, ventral and lateral epithelial cells proximal to the blastopore reveals changing patterns of strain rate throughout closure. Cells dorsal to the blastopore, which are fated to become neural plate ectoderm, are polarized and have straight boundaries. In contrast, cells lateral and ventral to the blastopore are less polarized and have tortuous cell boundaries. The F-actin network is organized differently in each region with the highest percentage of alignment occurring in the lateral region. Interestingly F-actin was consistently oriented toward the blastopore lip in dorsal and lateral cells, but oriented parallel to the lip in ventral regions. Cell shape and F-actin alignment analyses reveal different local mechanical environments in regions around the blastopore, which was reflected by the strain rate maps. PMID:25448691

  14. 50 CFR 622.246 - Area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.246 Area closures. (a) Golden crab trap closed areas. In the golden crab northern zone, a golden crab trap may not be deployed in waters less than 900 ft (274 m) deep....

  15. 50 CFR 622.246 - Area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.246 Area closures. (a) Golden crab trap closed areas. In the golden crab northern zone, a golden crab trap may not be deployed in waters less than 900 ft (274 m) deep....

  16. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  17. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-08-15

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ``co-operator.`` The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit.

  18. Measuring Need for Closure in Classroom Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Need for closure, as formulated by Kruglanski and colleagues [Kruglanski, A. W. (1990). Lay epistemic theory in social-cognitive psychology. "Psychological Inquiry," 1(3), 181-197; Kruglanski, A. W., & Webster, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: Seizing and freezing. "Psychological Review," 103, 263-283; Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A.…

  19. 36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... available for inspection at the park visitor center. Notice will also be posted near or within the facility... Section 13.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority....

  20. 36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... available for inspection at the park visitor center. Notice will also be posted near or within the facility... Section 13.50 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority....

  1. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD...

  2. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  3. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  4. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  5. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD...

  6. 50 CFR 92.21 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., posting of the areas affected, notifying the State wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency closures. 92.21 Section 92.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  7. Recent Progress in DOE Waste Tank Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, Ch.H.; Cook, J.R.

    2008-07-01

    The US DOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four US DOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews. (authors)

  8. Fostering career resilience amid a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2015-01-01

    Resilience involves fostering a positive response or outcome when one faces adverse circumstances. This article provides a personal account of the closure of a public hospital and the resilience the nursing staff and chief nurse found to go forward in their nursing careers. Three major aspects are explored: professional identity, confidence/courage, and a sense of caring or concern. PMID:25714954

  9. Rural Primary School Closures in England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Richard C.

    A three-phase interdisciplinary effort between educators and environmental planners is focusing on the social effects of rural primary school reorganization now occuring in England as a result of a declining birth rate and the resulting need for school closure. A questionnaire mailed nationally to rural Local Education Authorities, cross-community…

  10. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  11. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  12. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure records. 280.74 Section 280.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)...

  13. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  14. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  15. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure records. 280.74 Section 280.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)...

  16. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  17. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure records. 280.74 Section 280.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)...

  18. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure records. 280.74 Section 280.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)...

  19. 40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure records. 280.74 Section 280.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST)...

  20. RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-02-01

    The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.