Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...
The tissue of the brain is supplied by a network of cerebral arteries. If the wall of a cerebral artery becomes weakened, a portion of the wall may balloon out forming an aneurysm. A cerebral aneurysm may enlarge until it bursts, sending blood ...
... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ... Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and fronto-temporal dementia cerebral palsy , in which lesions (damaged areas) may impair motor ...
... her strength. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a ... ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. ...
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Cattaneo, A D
Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... Ahead Print en español Parálisis cerebral What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder that affects ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...
Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P
The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.
Resources - cerebral palsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cerebral palsy : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope- ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Kids / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... the things that kids do every day. What's CP? Some kids with CP use wheelchairs and others ...
AVM - cerebral; Arteriovenous hemangioma; Stroke - AVM; Hemorrhagic stroke - AVM ... The cause of cerebral AVM is unknown. An AVM occurs when arteries in the brain connect directly to nearby veins without having the ...
This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…
Lee, Reggie H. C.; Lee, Michelle H. H.; Wu, Celeste Y. C.; Couto e Silva, Alexandre; Possoit, Harlee E.; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Minagar, Alireza; Lin, Hung Wen
Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although stroke (a form of cerebral ischemia)-related costs are expected to reach 240.67 billion dollars by 2030, options for treatment against cerebral ischemia/stroke are limited. All therapies except anti-thrombolytics (i.e., tissue plasminogen activator) and hypothermia have failed to reduce neuronal injury, neurological deficits, and mortality rates following cerebral ischemia, which suggests that development of novel therapies against stroke/cerebral ischemia are urgently needed. Here, we discuss the possible mechanism(s) underlying cerebral ischemia-induced brain injury, as well as current and future novel therapies (i.e., growth factors, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, melatonin, resveratrol, protein kinase C isozymes, pifithrin, hypothermia, fatty acids, sympathoplegic drugs, and stem cells) as it relates to cerebral ischemia. PMID:29623912
The "perinatal asphyxia" is regarded to be one of the causes of cerebral palsy, though in the very most of the children with cerebral palsy there is found no hypoxia during labour. It should be mentioned, that the definition of "perinatal" and "asphyxia" neither are unic nor concret. And also there is no correlation between nonreassuring fetal heart rate patterns and acidosis in fetal blood with the incidence of cerebral palsy. Numerous studies in pregnant animals failed in proving an acute intrapartal hypoxia to be the origin of the cerebral palsy. Myers (1975) describes four patterns of anatomic brain damage after different injuries. Only his so called oligo-acidotic hypoxia, which is protracted and lasts over a longer time is leading to brain injury, which can be regarded in analogy to the injury of children with cerebral palsy. Summarising the update publications about the causes of cerebral palsy and the studies in pregnant animals there is no evidence that hypoxia during labour may be the cause of cerebral palsy. There is a great probability of a pre(and post-)natal origin of brain injury (for instance a periventricular leucomalacia found after birth) which leads to cerebral palsy. Short after labour signs of a so called "asphyxia" may occur in addition to this preexisting injury and misrepresent the cause of cerebral palsy. Finally the prepartal injury may cause both: Cerebral palsy and hypoxia.
Hillbrand, Marc; And Others
A resurgence of interest in the relationship between cerebral lateralization (the functional asymmetry of the cerebral cortex) and aggression has occurred. Most recent studies have found that individuals with abnormal patterns of lateralization are overrepresented among violent individuals. Intervening variables (such as drug and alcohol abuse)…
Hurelbrink, Carrie B; Barnett, Yael; Buckland, Michael E; Wilkinson, Mark; Leicester, Jon; Anderson, Craig; Brennan, Jeffrey; Barnett, Michael
We describe a 56-year-old patient with progressive cognitive decline in the context of heavy tobacco use and migraine, and imaging evidence of an occlusive terminal cerebral vasculopathy. The results of brain biopsy recapitulated the pathological features described by Lindenberg and Spatz in their classic 1939 treatise on cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans, or cerebral Buerger's disease. Although the condition is associated with heavy smoking, the identification of a hypercoagulable state in our patient suggests a multifactorial pathogenesis. The diagnosis of cerebral thromboangiitis obliterans in life is facilitated by modern neuroimaging and should prompt immediate cessation of smoking and a search for an underlying prothrombotic tendency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel
Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405
described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One
Sartwelle, Thomas P.
The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds’ labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule—the Daubert doctrine that excludes “junk science” from the courtroom—as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring’s 40-year masquerade as science. PMID:25183322
Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…
McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.
Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.
Morris, A A M
Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.
Káposzta, Zoltán; Rácz, Klára
Insomnia is defined as difficulty with the initiation, maintenance, duration, or quality of sleep that results in the impairment of daytime functioning, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In most countries approximately every third inhabitant has insomnia. Insomnia can be classified as primary and secondary. The pathogenesis of primary insomnia is unknown, but available evidence suggests a state of hyperarousal. Insomnia secondary to other causes is more common than primary insomnia. Cerebral hypoperfusion can be the cause of insomnia in some cases. In such patients the cerebral blood flow should be improved using parenteral vascular therapy. If insomnia persists despite treatment, then therapy for primary insomnia should be instituted using benzodiazepine-receptor agonists such as Zolpidem, Zopiclone, or Zaleplon. In those cases Midazolam cannot be used for the treatment of insomnia due to its marked negative effect on cerebral blood flow. In Hungary there is a need to organize multidisciplinary Insomnia Clinics because insomnia is more than a disease, it is a public health problem in this century.
Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc
Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240
Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H; van Lieshout, J J
This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2 the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established.
Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Passariello, Roberto
Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization.
Patel, Dilip R
Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.
Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan
The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056
Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan
The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.
Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. PMID:25823870
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Sherman, Jay L.; And Others
Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)
Schwan, E V; de Scally, M P; van Rensburg, C L; Durand, D T
The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.
Kern, F H; Schell, R M; Greeley, W J
Although cerebral monitoring during CPB remains primarily investigational, recent data support its clinical utility. In particular, it is cerebral metabolic monitoring that provides meaningful information in terms of preparing the brain for dhCPB and dhCA. Cerebral blood flow or cerebral blood flow velocity monitoring is less beneficial due to the presence of luxuriant cerebral blood flow at deep hypothermic temperatures. Conventional temperature monitoring can be improved upon by adding jugular venous oxygen saturation monitoring to satisfy the primary goal of cerebral protection--uniform cerebral cooling and metabolic suppression. Although online measures of cerebral cellular metabolism are not widely available, early experience with near infrared technology suggests that it is a feasible and reliable monitor of cerebral metabolic activity and is likely to represent an important noninvasive continuous monitor in the near future. CMRO2 recovery data have suggested that cerebral metabolic suppression is more severe the longer the period of dhCA. Cerebral protection strategies, such as intermittent cerebral perfusion have demonstrated less metabolic suppression of dhCA in animal models and are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in our institution. Finally, the postoperative period remains a high-risk period for neurologic injury because temperatures are normothermic, cardiac output is reduced, cerebral autoregulation is impaired, and management strategies, such as hyperventilation, are commonly used to increase pulmonary blood flow with little knowledge on its effects on cerebral perfusion.
Glaser, Nicole; Ngo, Catherine; Anderson, Steven; Yuen, Natalie; Trifu, Alexandra; O'Donnell, Martha
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) may cause brain injuries in children. The mechanisms responsible are difficult to elucidate because DKA involves multiple metabolic derangements. We aimed to determine the independent effects of hyperglycemia and ketosis on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and water distribution. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure ratios of cerebral metabolites (ATP to inorganic phosphate [Pi], phosphocreatine [PCr] to Pi, N-acetyl aspartate [NAA] to creatine [Cr], and lactate to Cr) and diffusion-weighted imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging to assess cerebral water distribution (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] values) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in three groups of juvenile rats (hyperglycemic, ketotic, and normal control). ATP-to-Pi ratio was reduced in both hyperglycemic and ketotic rats in comparison with controls. PCr-to-Pi ratio was reduced in the ketotic group, and there was a trend toward reduction in the hyperglycemic group. No significant differences were observed in NAA-to-Cr or lactate-to-Cr ratio. Cortical ADC was reduced in both groups (indicating brain cell swelling). Cortical CBF was also reduced in both groups. We conclude that both hyperglycemia and ketosis independently cause reductions in cerebral high-energy phosphates, CBF, and cortical ADC values. These effects may play a role in the pathophysiology of DKA-related brain injury.
Mysak, Edward D.
Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…
Vardakis, John C; Chou, Dean; Tully, Brett J; Hung, Chang C; Lee, Tsong H; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Ventikos, Yiannis
Cerebral oedema can be classified as the tangible swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume. Hydrocephalus can be succinctly described as the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain which ultimately leads to oedema within specific sites of parenchymal tissue. Using hydrocephalus as a test bed, one is able to account for the necessary mechanisms involved in the interaction between oedema formation and cerebral fluid production, transport and drainage. The current state of knowledge about integrative cerebral dynamics and transport phenomena indicates that poroelastic theory may provide a suitable framework to better understand various diseases. In this work, Multiple-Network Poroelastic Theory (MPET) is used to develop a novel spatio-temporal model of fluid regulation and tissue displacement within the various scales of the cerebral environment. The model is applied through two formats, a one-dimensional finite difference - Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework, as well as a two-dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) formulation. These are used to investigate the role of endoscopic fourth ventriculostomy in alleviating oedema formation due to fourth ventricle outlet obstruction (1D coupled model) in addition to observing the capability of the FEM template in capturing important characteristics allied to oedema formation, like for instance in the periventricular region (2D model). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D
A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.
Tucker, Don M.; And Others
Examines the effect of stressful and nonstressful experimental situations upon the processing capacity of each cerebral hemisphere, through observing the differential performance tasks presented to right and left visual half-fields (VHFs). Also examines attentional bias and lateral eye movements. (Author/RK)
Wang, Fang-Fang; Luo, Rong; Qu, Yi; Mu, De-Zhi
Cerebral palsy is a group of syndromes caused by non-progressive brain injury in the fetus or infant and can cause disabilities in childhood. Etiology of cerebral palsy has always been a hot topic for clinical scientists. More and more studies have shown that genetic factors are closely associated with the development of cerebral palsy. With the development and application of various molecular and biological techniques such as chromosome microarray analysis, genome-wide association study, and whole exome sequencing, new achievements have been made in the genetic research of cerebral palsy. Chromosome abnormalities, copy number variations, susceptibility genes, and single gene mutation associated with the development of cerebral palsy have been identified, which provides new opportunities for the research on the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. This article reviews the advances in the genetic research on cerebral palsy in recent years.
Vijay, Anantha; Santhanam, R; Katusic, Zvonimir S
Genetic modification of cerebral vessels represents a promising and novel approach for prevention and/or treatment of various cerebral vascular disorders, including cerebral vasospasm. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the use of gene transfer to the cerebral arteries for prevention and/or treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We also discuss the recent developments in vascular therapeutics, involving the autologous use of progenitor cells for repair of damaged vessels, as well as a cell-based gene delivery approach for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.
Schejbalová, A; Chládek, P
Acetabuloplasty as an isolated surgical procedure is one of the options allowing for hip joint realignment in cerebral palsy patients. Also, it is often involved in combined techniques used for hip joint reconstruction. In the years 2004-2005, 20 cerebral palsy patients, aged from 4 to 13 years, were indicated for acetabuloplasty. The group included children with varying degrees of locomotor disability, ranging from inability even to crawl to ability to move without support (stages 2 to 7 on the Vojta scale). Clinical and X-ray findings were evaluated at 2 and 6 months after surgical treatment and then every 6 months of follow- up. The X-ray finding was described by means of CE angle (Wiberg) values and hip migration percentage. Of 21 hips (in 20 patients) treated by acetabuloplasty in our modification during the two years, one developed recurrent dorsal dislocation which was possible to deal with by conservative treatment. All hips pre-operatively categorized as group B or group C were post-operatively assessed as group A hips. Subsequent migration of the acetabulum occurred within a year in two patients with distinct original asymmetry. Surgery on bones comprising the hip joint in cerebral palsy patients is indicated according to the degree of lateral migration and changes in hip joint geometry involving the proximal femur or pelvis, or in combination with open reduction. Acetabuloplasty is indicated as an isolated procedure or as part of combined techniques leading to a better coverage of the hip joint. It is recommended for children up to 10 years of age, but also older ones, in whom the flexibility of child bones enables us to do without internal osteosynthesis. Acetabuloplasty is indicated as an isolated surgical procedure for hip joint subluxation in cerebral palsy children. It has no adverse effects on hip abductors that, in cerebral palsy patients, are 85 % insufficient. It improves hip joint symmetry and helps to avoid more demanding reconstructive or
Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.
Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.
to simulate flow and pressure interaction between the cerebral and the body systems. its objective is to study the dynamic interaction between the...single model. The objective is to enable the study of the dynamic interaction between these two systems. In this model, relevant parts of the brain and of...34blackout, can also be investigated. For example, the effect can be studied of different inhale/exhale and/or different relative positioning betwoen head-body
Miranda, Eduardo Régis de Alencar Bona; Palmieri, Maurício D'arc; de Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma César; Yamada, Helder Henzo; Rancan, Daniela Regina; Fucs, Patrícia Maria de Moraes Barros
Objective To compare the chronological age and bone age among cerebral palsy patients in the outpatient clinic and its correlation with the type of neurological involvement, gender and functional status. Methods 401 patients with spastic cerebral palsy, and ages ranging from three months to 20 years old, submitted to radiological examination for bone age and analyzed by two independent observers according Greulich & Pyle. Results In the topographic distribution, there was a significant delay (p<0.005) in tetraparetic (17.7 months), hemiparetic (10.1 months), and diparetic patients (7.9 months). In the hemiparetic group, the mean bone age in the affected side was 96.88 months and the uncompromised side was 101.13 months (p<0.005). Regarding functional status, the ambulatory group showed a delay of 18.73 months in bone age (p<0.005). Comparing bone age between genders, it was observed a greater delay in males (13.59 months) than in females (9.63 months), but not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusion There is a delay in bone age compared to chronological age influenced by the topography of spasticity, functional level and gender in patients with cerebral palsy. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453693
After a brief clinical and pathophysiological approach, the papers presented in this book are devoted to CT and angiography. Concerning CT, a particular study has been made of cerebral arterial territories on cuts parallel to the orbito-meatal line: these are very important in making the differential diagnosis from some tumors. Also concerning CT, a paper has been devoted to cerebral ''lacunae.'' The term ''lacuna'' as far as CT imaging is concerned, should be reserved only for those hypodense areas corresponding to small cavities containing fluid, which are sequelae of infarcts in the territory of penetrating arteries. Before this sequellar statemore » come all the evolutive states of a small deep infarct. The angiographic study specifies the indications of angiography in the study of cerebral ischemia, and the techniques to be used. It shows the main etiologic aspects. Because of the important place of vascular surgery today, it seemed necessary to show also the main post operative angiographic aspects. After CT and angiography, some pages are reserved to more modern techniques. Finally, some pages are devoted to certain particular associations and etiologies: childhood, cardiopathies, migraine, oral contraception and end with venous infarction.« less
Manchanda, S.; Connolly, M. J.
A previously fit 35 year old man presented with a right hemiparesis and dysphasia 36 hours after abuse of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Computerized axial tomography scan demonstrated an extensive acute left cerebral infarction and carotid digital subtraction angiogram, 2 days after admission, revealed left middle cerebral artery occlusion. There were no other known risk factors and all other investigations were negative. The patient made a partial recovery. We propose an association between Ecstasy abuse and cerebral infarction. PMID:7904748
Manchanda, S; Connolly, M J
A previously fit 35 year old man presented with a right hemiparesis and dysphasia 36 hours after abuse of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Computerized axial tomography scan demonstrated an extensive acute left cerebral infarction and carotid digital subtraction angiogram, 2 days after admission, revealed left middle cerebral artery occlusion. There were no other known risk factors and all other investigations were negative. The patient made a partial recovery. We propose an association between Ecstasy abuse and cerebral infarction.
National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.
This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…
Zonana, J; Sotos, J F; Romshe, C A; Fisher, D A; Elders, M J; Rimoin, D L
Cerebral gigantism is a syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, accelerated growth in early childhood, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Its etiology and pathogenesis have not been defined. Three families are presented with multiple affected members. The vertical transmission of the trait and equal expression in both sexes in these families indicates a genetic etiology with a dominant pattern of inheritance, probably autosomal. As in previously reported cases, extensive endocrine evaluation failed to define the pathogenesis of the accelerated growth present in this disorder.
Mouton, S; Nighoghossian, N; Berruyer, M; Derex, L; Philippeau, F; Cakmak, S; Honnorat, J; Hermier, M; Trouillas, P
The demonstration of an underlying prothrombotic condition in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may have important practical consequences in terms of prevention. Thyrotoxicosis through a hypercoagulable state may be a predisposing factor for CVT. The authors present the cases of 4 patients who developed CVT and hyperthyroidism. At the acute stage, hyperthyroidism was associated with an increase in factor VIII (FVIII). At follow-up, FVIII level remained increased in 2 patients. Hyperthyroidism may have an impact on FVIII level. Accordingly in patients with hyperthyroidism and neurological symptoms, the diagnosis of CVT should be considered and an exhaustive coagulation screening may be appropriate. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hirsch, A.E. (1971) Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. J. Biomech. 4:13-21. Pamidi, M.R. and Advani, S.H. (1978...elastic element (PAMIDI and ADVANI, 1978). In the literature on the mechanics of head impacts, the skull was ide- alized to be a rigid sphere with an...of the living cranium. J. Amer. Osteo. Assoc., 70, 928-945. GOLDSMITH, W. (1972) Biomechanics of head injuries. In Biomechanics: Its Foundations and
Sherman, J L; Kulhavy, R W; Burns, K
Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionallly separate coding systems. The localization of these two processing systems appears to be somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, which has been shown to vary in right-handed and left-handed persons. To test the dual coding model, right-handed and left-handed subjects learned lists of abstract and concrete words under various conditions of visual and tactile interference. Right-handed subjects showed a significant superiority in the remembering of highly concrete items, while total recall did not differ reliably between groups.
Palisano, Robert J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Stewart, Debra; Lawless, John J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.
The purpose of this study was to describe how youth with cerebral palsy experience mobility in their daily lives using a phenomenological approach. The participants were 10 youth with cerebral palsy, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling with maximum variation strategies. A total of 14 interviews were completed. Transcripts…
Obringer, S. John
This paper explains the use of a unique experimental therapy for students with a type of cerebral palsy specifically called Botox. Botulinum Toxin Type A has been tried on a sizable number of students with cerebral palsy in clinical settings to reduce spastic and dystonic movements. By injecting Botox into overly tight heel cords, a normal or near…
Iliff, L. D.; Boulay, G. H. Du; Marshall, John; Russell, R. W. Ross; Symon, Lindsay
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured before and after intravenous injection of the cerebral vasodilator nicergoline in 13 patients with cerebrovascular disease. CBF increased in seven. The possibility that the effect of the drug in the remainder may have been masked by a fall of CBF which occurs during sequential measurement of patients at rest is discussed. PMID:925694
Frost, Elizabeth A M
Cerebral oximetry has been around for some 3 decades but has had a somewhat checkered history regarding application and reliability. More recently several monitors have been approved in the United States and elsewhere and the technique is emerging as a useful tool for assessing not only adequate cerebral oxygenation but also tissue oxygenation and perfusion in other organs.
Mathew, R.J.; Wilson, W.H.
While the caffeine induced cerebral vasoconstriction is well documented, the effects of oral ingestion of the drug in a dose range comparable to the quantities in which it is usually consumed and the intensity and duration of the associated reduction in cerebral circulation are unknown. Cerebral blood flow was measured via the TTXenon inhalation technique before and thirty and ninety minutes after the oral administration of 250 mg of caffeine or a placebo, under double-blind conditions. Caffeine ingestion was found to be associated with significant reductions in cerebral perfusion thirty and ninety minutes later. The placebo group showed no differencesmore » between the three sets of cerebral blood flow values.« less
Batubara, C. A.
Cerebral abscess is a focal intracerebral infection that begins as a localized area of cerebritis and develops into a collection of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. Patients typically present with varying combinations of aheadache, progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, and evidence of infection. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imagingare the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosing cerebral abscess. The treatment of cerebral abscess has been a challenge. Small cerebralabscesses (< 2.5 cm) have been treated empirically with antibiotics. Elevation of intracranial pressure and threatening herniation can be managed by the use of intravenous mannitol (or hypertonic saline) and dexamethasone. Acute seizures should be terminated with the administration of intravenous benzodiazepines or by intravenous fosphenytoin. Anticonvulsants prophylaxis must be initiated immediately and continued at least one year due to high risk in the cerebral abscesses. Easier detection of underlying conditions, monitoring of the therapeutic progress, and recognition of complications have probably contributed to the improved prognosis.
Milojević, T M; Baljozović, B V; Rakić, M Lj; Nestorović, B D; Dostanić, M M; Milaković, B D; Kojić, Z Z; Repac, N R; Cvrkota, I S
Cerebral vasospasm causes permanent neurolological deficit or death occurance in 13% of clinical cases. Peak frequency is from 8-10th day after SAH. The purpose of this study is factor analysis that may have influence on vasospasm development , as well as predictor determination. The study is prospective and analysis 192 patients treated in Institute of Neurosurgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. The majority of patients were admitted in hospital in first four days after SAH, and 184 had GCS over 7. Univariate methods of factor analysis were used, and for significance of predictors influence testing multivariante regression analysis was used. Vasospasm occurred in 22,40% of all cases. No relationships have been found between sex, age, previous hypertension, timing of surgery, appearance of hydrocephalus and intracerebral hematoma, hypertermia or mean arterial blood pressure, with occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. Factors with significantly associated with the occurance of vasospasm were: hearth disease, hypernatriemia, Hct, clinical grade on admission as well as preoperative clinical grade and Fisher CT scan grade. In the first four days after SAH, Fisher scan grade, preoperative clinical grade and Hct, appeared as predictors. After four days, clinical grade on admission and hypernatiemia, showed as poredictors.
Semenov, S.; Portnov, Yu; Semenov, A.; Korotkevich, A.; Kokov, A.
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after revascularization is a rare phenomenon associated with post-ischemic (reactive) hyperemia and acute pathological hyperperfusion. First described on perfusion CT as a very often moderate CBF increase, MTT/TTP decrease within 30% like a temporary effect, according to a short-time deterioration of neurological symptoms (vestibular ataxia - 58%, vegetative dysfunction - 100%, asthenic syndrome - 100%) in early postoperative period in patients with cardiac ischemia who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. The acute pathological hyperperfusion carotid revascularization is a casuistic phenomenon with two- or three-fold CBV and MTT/TTP increase and high hemorrhage risk. Besides, we detected similar exchanges via perfusion CT called benign hyperemia, which marks extension of MTT/TTP and an increase of CBV from 27% to 48% (average 30%), but with normal CBF-parameters, indicating that venous stasis in acute venous ischemic stroke due cerebral venous sinus-trombosis (68%), only 6% in cardioembolic stroke and appears never in arterial stroke. Territorial coincidence registered for perifocal of necrosis zones of benign hyperemia and vasogenic edema accompanied on MRI (DWI, ADC). Secondary hemorrhagic transformation registered for primary non-hemorrhagic venous stroke in 27%, only in 9% for arterial stroke and in 60% for cardioembolic stroke. Probably, congestion is an increasingly predisposing factor secondary hemorrhaging than necrosis.
St Louis, Myron; Park, Brian D; Dahn, Michael; Bozeman, Patricia
The use of flow arrest as a means of providing cerebral protection during carotid angioplasty offers the advantages of improved efficiency of debris removal and the ability to provide protection under unfavorable (tortuous) anatomic circumstances. However, in contrast to the filtration methods of cerebral protection, this modality requires complete interruption of antegrade carotid artery flow during balloon angioplasty and stent deployment. We report our experience with 9 patients undergoing carotid angioplasty with the Mo.Ma device, which utilizes common and external carotid artery balloon occlusion during the angioplasty procedure. We assessed the clinical outcomes and intraprocedural hemodynamic data. The average duration of carotid occlusion was 8.3 minutes. Of the 9 patients, 2 patients (22%) experienced cerebral intolerance. No stroke occurred in this patient cohort. There appeared to be a poor relationship between procedure intolerance and the presence of significant contralateral stenosis or low carotid back pressure. Furthermore, the incidence of postangioplasty hypotension was not clearly related to cerebral intolerance. Carotid angioplasty with stenting can be safely conducted with flow arrest as an alternative to filter-type cerebral protection devices. However, because cerebral intolerance is not an infrequent occurrence with this approach, clinicians must be cognizant of management strategies for transient cerebral intolerance.
Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.
Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.
TUGUI, Raluca Dana; ANTONESCU, Dinu
ABSTRACT Cerebral palsy refers to a lesion on an immature brain, that determines permanent neurological disorders. Knowing the exact cause of the disease does not alter the treatment management. The etiology is 2-2.5/1000 births and the rate is constant in the last 40-50 years because advances in medical technologies have permitted the survival of smaller and premature new born children. Gait analysis has four directions: kinematics (represents body movements analysis without calculating the forces), kinetics (represents body moments and forces), energy consumption (measured by oximetry), and neuromuscular activity (measured by EMG). Gait analysis can observe specific deviations in a patient, allowing us to be more accurate in motor diagnoses and treatment solutions: surgery intervention, botulinum toxin injection, use of orthosis, physical kinetic therapy, oral medications, baclofen pump. PMID:24790675
Charco Roca, L M; Ortiz Sanchez, V E; Hernandez Gutierrez-Manchon, O; Quesada Villar, J; Bonmatí García, L; Rubio Postigo, G
A 28 year old woman, ASA I, who, in the final stages of her pregnancy presented with signs of neural deficit that consisted of distortion of the oral commissure, dysphagia, dysarthria, and weakness on the left side of the body. She was diagnosed with thrombosis in a segment of the right middle cerebral artery which led to an ischemic area in the right frontal lobe. Termination of pregnancy and conservative treatment was decided, with good resolution of the symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Miller, J. D.; Ledingham, I. McA.; Jennett, W. B.
Increased intracranial pressure was induced in anaesthetized dogs by application of liquid nitrogen to the dura mater. Intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow were measured, together with arterial blood pressure and arterial and cerebral venous blood gases. Carbon dioxide was administered intermittently to test the responsiveness of the cerebral circulation, and hyperbaric oxygen was delivered at intervals in a walk-in hyperbaric chamber, pressurized to two atmospheres absolute. Hyperbaric oxygen caused a 30% reduction of intracranial pressure and a 19% reduction of cerebral blood flow in the absence of changes in arterial PCO2 or blood pressure, but only as long as administration of carbon dioxide caused an increase in both intracranial pressure and cerebral blood flow. When carbon dioxide failed to influence intracranial pressure or cerebral blood flow then hyperbaric oxygen had no effect. This unresponsive state was reached at high levels of intracranial pressure. Images PMID:5497875
Christodoulopoulos, Georgios; Dinkel, Anke; Romig, Thomas; Ebi, Dennis; Mackenstedt, Ute; Loos-Frank, Brigitte
We characterised the causative agents of cerebral and non-cerebral coenurosis in livestock by determining the mitochondrial genotypes and morphological phenotypes of 52 Taenia multiceps isolates from a wide geographical range in Europe, Africa, and western Asia. Three studies were conducted: (1) a morphological comparison of the rostellar hooks of cerebral and non-cerebral cysts of sheep and goats, (2) a morphological comparison of adult worms experimentally produced in dogs, and (3) a molecular analysis of three partial mitochondrial genes (nad1, cox1, and 12S rRNA) of the same isolates. No significant morphological or genetic differences were associated with the species of the intermediate host. Adult parasites originating from cerebral and non-cerebral cysts differed morphologically, e.g. the shape of the small hooks and the distribution of the testes in the mature proglottids. The phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial haplotypes produced three distinct clusters: one cluster including both cerebral isolates from Greece and non-cerebral isolates from tropical and subtropical countries, and two clusters including cerebral isolates from Greece. The majority of the non-cerebral specimens clustered together but did not form a monophyletic group. No monophyletic groups were observed based on geography, although specimens from the same region tended to cluster. The clustering indicates high intraspecific diversity. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that all variants of T. multiceps can cause cerebral coenurosis in sheep (which may be the ancestral phenotype), and some variants, predominantly from one genetic cluster, acquired the additional capacity to produce non-cerebral forms in goats and more rarely in sheep.
Eoh, Eun J; Derrick, Bruce; Moon, Richard
Arterial gas embolism can be caused by direct entry of gas into systemic arteries or indirectly by venous-to-arterial shunting. Although arterial gas embolism is rare, most documented cases are iatrogenic, resulting from the entry of gas during procedures that involve direct vascular cannulation or intracavitary air insufflation. Of the 18 identified case reports of air embolism during endoscopy, 11 cases describe findings of cerebral arterial gas embolism during upper endoscopy. Only 1 of these occurred during endoscopic balloon dilation of an esophageal stricture. We report a rare case of cerebral arterial gas embolism in a 64-year-old woman, which occurred during endoscopic dilation of an esophageal stricture and was subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In this case report, we explore the possible etiologies, clinical workup, and therapeutic management of cerebral artery gas embolisms. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of choice for cerebral arterial gas embolism, with earlier treatments resulting in better outcomes.
... uncommon in individuals with the Iowa type. This type is characterized by memory loss, problems with vocabulary and the production of speech, personality changes, and involuntary muscle twitches (myoclonus). Two types of hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy , known as familial ...
Mehdi, Ali; Hajj-Ali, Rula A
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by recurrent thunderclap headache, with or without neurologic symptoms, and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. RCVS affects patients in various racial and ethnic groups and in all age groups, although most commonly in the fourth decade of life. Many conditions and exposures have been linked to RCVS, including vasoactive drugs and the peripartum period. Disturbance of the cerebral vascular tone is thought to contribute to the disease's pathophysiology. RCVS generally follows a monophasic course. Associated strokes and cerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon. In this review we will attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of RCVS, with emphasis on the controversies in the field and the newest findings in the reported literature.
Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch
The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717
... Button Past Emails 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and families living with CP. Early Signs of CP From birth to 5 years of age, a ...
Dugbartey, A T; Spellacy, F J; Dugbartey, M T
Pathologic studies of central nervous system damage in human falciparum malaria indicate primary localization in the cerebral white matter. We report a sensory-perceptual investigation of 20 Ghanaian children with a recent history of cerebral malaria who were age-, gender-, and education-matched with 20 healthy control subjects. Somatosensory examinations failed to show any evidence of hemianesthesia, pseudohemianesthesia, or extinction to double simultaneous tactile stimulation. While unilateral upper limb testing revealed intact unimanual tactile roughness discrimination, bimanual tactile discrimination, however, was significantly impaired in the cerebral malaria group. A strong negative correlation (r = -0.72) between coma duration and the bimanual tactile roughness discrimination test was also found. An inefficiency in the integrity of callosal fibers appear to account for our findings, although alternative subcortical mechanisms known to be involved in information transfer across the cerebral hemispheres may be compromised as well.
Miyazaki, M H; Lourenção, M I; Ribeiro Sobrinho, J B; Battistella, L R
Our study concerns a patient with cerebral palsy, submitted to conventional occupational therapy and functional electrical stimulation. The results as to manual ability, spasticity, sensibility and synkinesis were satisfactory.
Bellapart, Judith; Cuthbertson, Kylie; Dunster, Kimble; Diab, Sara; Platts, David G.; Raffel, O. Christopher; Gabrielian, Levon; Barnett, Adrian; Paratz, Jenifer; Boots, Rob; Fraser, John F.
Anemia is accepted among critically ill patients as an alternative to elective blood transfusion. This practice has been extrapolated to head injury patients with only one study comparing the effects of mild anemia on neurological outcome. There are no studies quantifying microcirculation during anemia. Experimental studies suggest that anemia leads to cerebral hypoxia and increased rates of infarction, but the lack of clinical equipoise, when testing the cerebral effects of transfusion among critically injured patients, supports the need of experimental studies. The aim of this study was to quantify cerebral microcirculation and the potential presence of axonal damage in an experimental model exposed to normovolaemic anemia, with the intention of describing possible limitations within management practices in critically ill patients. Under non-recovered anesthesia, six Merino sheep were instrumented using an intracardiac transeptal catheter to inject coded microspheres into the left atrium to ensure systemic and non-chaotic distribution. Cytometric analyses quantified cerebral microcirculation at specific regions of the brain. Amyloid precursor protein staining was used as an indicator of axonal damage. Animals were exposed to normovolaemic anemia by blood extractions from the indwelling arterial catheter with simultaneous fluid replacement through a venous central catheter. Simultaneous data recording from cerebral tissue oxygenation, intracranial pressure, and cardiac output was monitored. A regression model was used to examine the effects of anemia on microcirculation with a mixed model to control for repeated measures. Homogeneous and normal cerebral microcirculation with no evidence of axonal damage was present in all cerebral regions, with no temporal variability, concluding that acute normovolaemic anemia does not result in short-term effects on cerebral microcirculation in the ovine brain. PMID:26869986
Sanborn, Matthew R; Edsell, Mark E; Kim, Meeri N; Mesquita, Rickson; Putt, Mary E; Imray, Chris; Yow, Heng; Wilson, Mark H; Yodh, Arjun G; Grocott, Mike; Martin, Daniel S
Alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygenation are implicated in altitude-associated diseases. We assessed the dynamic changes in CBF and peripheral and cerebral oxygenation engendered by ascent to altitude with partial acclimatization and hyperventilation using a combination of near-infrared spectroscopy, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. Peripheral (Spo2) and cerebral (Scto2) oxygenation, end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), and cerebral hemodynamics were studied in 12 subjects using transcranial Doppler and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) at 75 m and then 2 days and 7 days after ascending to 4559 m above sea level. After obtaining baseline measurements, subjects hyperventilated to reduce baseline ETCO2 by 50%, and a further set of measurements were obtained. Cerebral oxygenation and peripheral oxygenation showed a divergent response, with cerebral oxygenation decreasing at day 2 and decreasing further at day 7 at altitude, whereas peripheral oxygenation decreased on day 2 before partially rebounding on day 7. Cerebral oxygenation decreased after hyperventilation at sea level (Scto2 from 68.8% to 63.5%; P<.001), increased after hyperventilation after 2 days at altitude (Scto2 from 65.6% to 69.9%; P=.001), and did not change after hyperventilation after 7 days at altitude (Scto2 from 62.2% to 63.3%; P=.35). An intensification of the normal cerebral hypocapnic vasoconstrictive response occurred after partial acclimatization in the setting of divergent peripheral and cerebral oxygenation. This may help explain why hyperventilation fails to improve cerebral oxygenation after partial acclimatization as it does after initial ascent. The use of DCS is feasible at altitude and provides a direct measure of CBF indices with high temporal resolution. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina; Bost, Jeffrey
No topic in sports has gathered more attention and publicity than the diagnosis, management, and long-term effects of cerebral concussion. The relevant history of concussion starts in 1905 when President Theodore Roosevelt drew attention to the football 'death harvest'. Soon after, rules started to change to reduce the amount and severity of head injuries in football. Up until 1980, the primary focus regarding concussions was to diagnose a potentially fatal intracranial hemorrhage. While aware of long-term consequences of concussions, the perception at the time was that virtually all concussions would 'clear' with time and rest. Concussion management guidelines gave way to objective neuropsychological testing in the early 1990s with the development of the ImPACT™ (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) neurocognitive test. Led by organized football, in 1994 the National Football League (NFL) formed the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee which began to investigate the cause of concussions, evaluate equipment (particularly helmets), and recommend methods for prevention. In 2005, the first case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy was described in a deceased football player, raising concerns about the long-term consequences of head injuries and concussions. Major advancements in contact sports and the military are underway to reduce the incidence of concussions and subconcussive blows to the head. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
West, Bruce J.; Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz
Scale invariance, the property relating time series across multiple scales, has provided a new perspective of physiological phenomena and their underlying control systems. The traditional “signal plus noise” paradigm of the engineer was first replaced with a model in which biological time series have a fractal structure in time (Fractal Physiology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994). This new paradigm was subsequently shown to be overly restrictive when certain physiological signals were found to be characterized by more than one scaling parameter and therefore to belong to a class of more complex processes known as multifractals (Fractals, Plenum Press, New York, 1988). Here we demonstrate that in addition to heart rate (Nature 399 (1999) 461) and human gait (Phys. Rev. E, submitted for publication), the nonlinear control system for cerebral blood flow (CBF) (Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication; Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3492) is multifractal. We also find that this multifractality is greatly reduced for subjects with “serious” migraine and we present a simple model for the underlying control process to describe this effect.
Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hui-Chul; Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong Hee; Kim, Heung Cheol
Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft tissue infection that is characterized by extensive necrosis of the subcutaneous fat, neurovascular structures, and fascia. Cerebral infarction after facial necrotizing fasciitis has been rarely reported. A 61-year-old woman with diabetes was admitted with painful swelling of her right cheek. One day later, she was stuporous and quadriplegic. A computed tomographic scan of her face revealed right facial infection in the periorbital soft tissue, parotid, buccal muscle, and maxillary sinusitis. A computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed cerebral infarction in the right hemisphere, left frontal area, and both cerebellum. Four days later, she died from cerebral edema and septic shock. Involvement of the cerebral vasculature, such as the carotid or vertebral artery by necrotizing fasciitis, can cause cerebral infarction. Facial necrotizing fasciitis should be treated early with surgical treatment and the appropriate antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bansal, Neha; Aggarwal, Anju; Faridi, M. M. A.; Sharma, Tusha; Baneerjee, B. D.
Background: Cerebral palsy is a common motor disability in childhood. Raised lead levels affect cognition. Children with cerebral palsy may have raised lead levels, further impairing their residual cognitive motor and behavioral abilities. Environmental exposure and abnormal eating habits may lead to increased lead levels. Aims and Objectives: To measure blood lead levels in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with healthy neurologically normal children. To correlate blood lead levels with environmental factors. Material and Methods: Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Cases comprised 34 children with cerebral palsy, and controls comprised 34 neurologically normal, age- and sex-matched children. Methods: Clinical and demographic details were recorded as per proforma. Detailed environmental history was recorded to know the source of exposure to lead. These children were investigated and treated as per protocol. Venous blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid vials for analysis of blood lead levels. Lead levels were estimated by Schimadzu Flame AA-6800 (atomic absorption spectrophotometer). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. P < .05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean blood lead levels were 9.20 ± 8.31 µg/dL in cerebral palsy cases and 2.89 ± 3.04 µg/dL in their controls (P < .001). Among children with cerebral palsy, 19 (55.88%) children had blood lead levels ≥5 µg/dL. Lead levels in children with pica were 12.33 ± 10.02 µg/dL in comparison to children with no history of pica, 6.70 ± 4.60 µg/dL (P = .029). No correlation was found between hemoglobin and blood lead levels in cases and controls. Conclusion: In our study, blood lead levels are raised in children with cerebral palsy. However, further studies are required to show effects of raised levels in these children. PMID:28491920
Bolduc, Marie-Eve; Du Plessis, Adre J; Evans, Alan; Guizard, Nicolas; Zhang, Xun; Robertson, Richard L; Limperopoulos, Catherine
The aim of this study was to compare total and regional cerebral volumes in children with isolated cerebellar malformations (CBMs) with those in typically developing children, and to examine the extent to which cerebellar volumetric reductions are associated with total and regional cerebral volumes. This is a case-control study of children diagnosed with isolated CBMs. Each child was matched on age and sex to two typically developing children. Using advanced three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, the cerebrum was segmented into tissue classes and partitioned into eight regions. Analysis of variance was used to compare cerebral volumes between children with CBMs and control children, and linear regressions to examine the impact of cerebellar volume reduction on cerebral volumes. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at a mean age of 27 months in 20 children (10 males, 10 females) with CBMs and 40 typically developing children. Children with CBMs showed significantly smaller deep grey matter nuclei (p < 0.001), subgenual white matter (p = 0.03), midtemporal white matter (p = 0.02), and inferior occipital grey matter (p = 0.03) volumes than typically developing children. Greater cerebellar volumetric reduction in children with CBMs was associated with decreased total cerebral volume and deep grey matter nuclei (p = 0.02), subgenual white/grey matter (p = 0.001), midtemporal white (p = 0.02) and grey matter (p = 0.01), and parieto-occipital grey matter (p = 0.004). CBMs are associated with impaired regional cerebral growth, suggesting deactivation of principal cerebello-cerebral pathways. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.
Brain protection during aortic arch surgery by perfusing cold oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava was first reported by Lemole et al. In 1990 Ueda and associates first described the routine use of continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in thoracic aortic surgery for the purpose of cerebral protection during the interval of obligatory interruption of anterograde cerebral flow. The beneficial effects of RCP may be its ability to sustain brain hypothermia during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and removal of embolic material from the arterial circulation of the brain. RCP can offer effective brain protection during HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes. Animal experiments revealed that RCP provided inadequate cerebral perfusion and that neurological recovery was improved with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP), however, both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates by risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study. RCP still remains a valuable adjunct for brain protection during aortic arch repair in particular pathologies and patients.
Brain protection during aortic arch surgery by perfusing cold oxygenated blood into the superior vena cava was first reported by Lemole et al. In 1990 Ueda and associates first described the routine use of continuous retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) in thoracic aortic surgery for the purpose of cerebral protection during the interval of obligatory interruption of anterograde cerebral flow. The beneficial effects of RCP may be its ability to sustain brain hypothermia during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and removal of embolic material from the arterial circulation of the brain. RCP can offer effective brain protection during HCA for about 40 to 60 minutes. Animal experiments revealed that RCP provided inadequate cerebral perfusion and that neurological recovery was improved with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP), however, both RCP and ACP provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding both the mortality and stroke rates by risk-adjusted and case-matched comparative study. RCP still remains a valuable adjunct for brain protection during aortic arch repair in particular pathologies and patients. PMID:23977600
Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon
Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Neumann, Jake T.; Cohan, Charles H.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Wright, Clinton B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.
Cardiopulmonary arrest is one of the leading causes of death and disability, primarily occurring in the aged population. Numerous global cerebral ischemia animal models induce neuronal damage similar to cardiac arrest. These global cerebral ischemia models range from vessel occlusion to total cessation of cardiac function, both of which have allowed for the investigation of this multifaceted disease and detection of numerous agents that are neuroprotective. Synapses endure a variety of alterations after global cerebral ischemia from the resulting excitotoxicity and have been a major target for neuroprotection; however, neuroprotective agents have proven unsuccessful in clinical trials, as neurological outcomes have not displayed significant improvements in patients. A majority of these neuroprotective agents have specific neuronal targets, where the success of future neuroprotective agents may depend on non-specific targets and numerous cognitive improvements. This review focuses on the different models of global cerebral ischemia, neuronal synaptic alterations, synaptic neuroprotection and behavioral tests that can be used to determine deficits in cognitive function after global cerebral ischemia. PMID:23170794
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Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Tokuyama, Shogo
We recently demonstrated that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is involved in postischaemic hyperglycaemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischaemia. However, the associated SGLT-mediated mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT-induced excessive sodium ion influx in the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. [Na+]i was estimated according to sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate fluorescence. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were prepared from fetuses of ddY mice. Primary cortical neurons were cultured for 5 days before each treatment with reagents, and these survival rates were assessed using biochemical assays. In in vivo study, a mouse model of focal ischaemia was generated using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In these experiments, treatment with high concentrations of glucose induced increment in [Na+]i, and this phenomenon was suppressed by the SGLT-specific inhibitor phlorizin. SGLT-specific sodium ion influx was induced using a-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (a-MG) treatments, which led to significant concentration-dependent declines in neuronal survival rates and exacerbated hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, phlorizin ameliorated these effects. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of a-MG exacerbated the development of neuronal damage induced by MCAO, and these effects were ameliorated by the administration of phlorizin. Hence, excessive influx of sodium ions into neuronal cells through cerebral SGLT may exacerbate the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Milner, Eric; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Johnson, Andrew W; Vellimana, Ananth K; Greenberg, Jacob K; Holtzman, David M; Han, Byung Hee; Zipfel, Gregory J
We and others have shown that soluble amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) cause significant cerebrovascular dysfunction in mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice, and that these deficits are greater in aged APP mice having CAA compared with young APP mice lacking CAA. Amyloid β-peptide in young APP mice also increases infarction after focal cerebral ischemia, but the impact of CAA on ischemic brain injury is unknown. To determine this, we assessed cerebrovascular reactivity, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and extent of infarction and neurological deficits after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged APP mice having extensive CAA versus young APP mice lacking CAA (and aged-matched littermate controls). We found that aged APP mice have more severe cerebrovascular dysfunction that is CAA dependent, have greater CBF compromise during and immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and develop larger infarctions after middle cerebral artery occlusion. These data indicate CAA induces a more severe form of cerebrovascular dysfunction than amyloid β-peptide alone, leading to intra- and postischemic CBF deficits that ultimately exacerbate cerebral infarction. Our results shed mechanistic light on human studies identifying CAA as an independent risk factor for ischemic brain injury. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Smoliński, Łukasz; Członkowska, Anna
Small-caliber cerebral vessels change their diameters in response to alterations of key metabolite concentrations such as carbon dioxide or oxygen. This phenomenon, termed the cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR), is the basis for blood flow regulation in the brain in accordance with its metabolic status. Typically, CVMR is determined as the amount of change in cerebral blood flow in response to a vasodilating stimulus, which can be measured by various neuroimaging methods or by transcranial Doppler. It has been shown that CVMR is impaired in cerebrovascular diseases, but there is also evidence of a similar dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we review studies that have investigated CVMR in the common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, we discuss potential neurodegenerative mechanisms responsible for the impairment of CVMR. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Neilson, P D; O'Dwyer, N J
Electromyograms were recorded with hooked-wire electrodes from sixteen lip, tongue and jaw muscles in six normal and seven cerebral palsied adult subjects during a variety of speech and non-speech tasks. The recorded patterns of muscle activity fail to support a number of theories concerning the pathophysiology of dysarthria in cerebral palsy. There was no indication of weakness in individual articulator muscles. There was no evidence of uncontrolled sustained background activity or of abnormal tonic stretch reflex responses in lip or tongue muscles. Primitive or pathological reflexes could not be elicited by orofacial stimulation. No imbalance between positive and negative oral responses was observed. The view that random involuntary movement disrupts essentially normal voluntary control in athetosis was not supported. Each cerebral palsied subject displayed an idiosyncratic pattern of abnormal muscle activity which was reproduced across repetitions of the same phrase, indicating a consistent defect in motor programming. PMID:7334387
Battikh, R; M'Sadek, F; Bougrine, F; Madhi, W; Ben Abdelhafidh, N; Bouziani, A; Yedeas, M; Othmani, S
Cerebral actinomycosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 45-year-old man hospitalized for seizures associated with fever and left hemiparesis. The white cell count and C-reactive protein were elevated. HIV serology was negative. Blood cultures remained sterile. The CT scan revealed hyperdense nodular lesions in the occipital area, with annular contrast uptake and peripheral edema causing a mass effect, suggestive of brain metastasis. The pathology examination of a surgical specimen disclosed cerebral actinomycosis. A dental origin of the infection was suspected. Hemiparesis remained after a 12-month antibiotic regimen associated with dental care and short-term corticosteroid therapy. Actinomycosis should be discussed as a possible diagnosis for all cerebral lesions, particularly in patients with a potential dental infection. Histology is required for positive diagnosis. Antibiotic therapy alone is generally sufficient; surgery is often performed for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sorond, Farzaneh A.; Schnyer, D.M.; Serrador, J.M.; Milberg, W.P.; Lipsitz, L.A.
Aging is associated with frontal subcortical microangiopathy and executive cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that elderly individuals may have impaired metabolic activation of cerebral blood flow to the frontal lobes. We used transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound to examine the cerebral blood flow response to executive control and visual tasks in the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations and to determine the effects of healthy aging on cerebral blood flow regulation during cognitive tasks. Continuous simultaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) blood flow velocities (BFVs) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured in response to word stem completion (WSC) and a visual search (VS) task in 29 healthy subjects (14 young, 30 ± 1.5 years; 15 old, 74 ± 1.4 years). We found that: (1) ACA and PCA blood flow velocities are both significantly increased during WSC and VS cognitive tasks, (2) ACA and PCA activations were task specific in our young volunteers, with ACA > PCA BFV during the WSC task and PCA > ACA BFV during the VS task, (3) while healthy elderly subjects also had PCA > ACA BFV during the VS task, they did not have ACA > PCA activation during the WSC task, and (4) healthy elderly subjects tend to have overall greater increases in BFV during both cognitive tasks. We conclude that TCD can be used to monitor cerebrovascular hemodynamics during the performance of cognitive tasks. Our data suggest that there is differential blood flow increase in the ACA and PCA in young versus elderly subjects during cognitive tasks. PMID:18387547
Moskalenko, Y. Y.
The functional stability of the cerebral circulation system seems to be based on the active mechanisms and on those stemming from specific of the biophysical structure of the system under study. This latter parameter has some relevant criteria for its quantitative estimation. The data obtained suggest that the essential part of the mechanism for active responses of cerebral vessels which maintains the functional stability of this portion of the vascular system, consists of a neurogenic component involving central nervous structures localized, for instance, in the medulla oblongata.
Cuéllar-Herrera, M.; Rocha, L.
Electrical stimulation of the nervous tissue has been proposed as a method to treat some neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. Epileptic seizures result from excessive, synchronous, abnormal firing patterns of neurons that are located predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Many people with epilepsy continue presenting seizures even though they are under regimens of antiepileptic medications. An alternative therapy for treatment resistant epilepsy is cerebral electrical stimulation. The present study is focused to review the effects of different types of electrical stimulation and specifically changes in amino acids.
Huser, Aaron; Mo, Michelle; Hosseinzadeh, Pooya
The hip is the second most common involved joint in cerebral palsy. Hip displacement occurs in more than 33% of children with cerebral palsy, with a higher prevalence in nonambulatory children. Hip displacement in this population is typically progressive. Hip dislocation can result in pain and difficulty with sitting and perineal care. Since early stage of hip displacement can be silent, and hip surveillance programs are recommended. Most programs use the degree of hip dysplasia and Growth Motor Function Classification System level for screening recommendations. Treatment depends on the degree of dysplasia, functional status of the patient, and patient's age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Courbois, Yanick; Coello, Yann; Bouchart, Isabelle
Four visual imagery tasks were presented to three groups of adolescents with or without spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. The first group was composed of six adolescents with cerebral palsy who had associated visual-perceptual deficits (CP-PD), the second group was composed of five adolescents with cerebral palsy and no associated visual-perceptual…
Tanaka, Akiko; Estrera, Anthony L
Cerebral complication is a major concern after aortic arch surgery, which may lead to death. Thus, cerebral protection strategy plays the key role to obtain respectable results in aortic arch repair. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was introduced in 1970s to decrease the ischemic insults to the brain. However, safe duration of circulatory arrest time was limited to 30 minutes. The 1990s was the decade of evolution for cerebral protection, in which two adjuncts for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest were introduced: retrograde and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) techniques. These two cerebral perfusion techniques significantly decreased incidence of postoperative neurological dysfunction and mortality after aortic arch surgery. Although there are no large prospective studies that demonstrate which perfusion technique provide better outcomes, multiple retrospective studies implicate that ACP may decrease cerebral complications compared to retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) when a long circulatory arrest time is required during aortic arch reconstructions. To date, many surgeons favor ACP over RCP during a complex aortic arch repair, such as total arch replacement and hybrid arch replacement. However, the question is whether the use of ACP is necessary during a short, limited circulatory arrest time, such as hemiarch replacement? There is a paucity of data that proves the advantages of a complex ACP over a simple RCP for a short circulatory arrest time. RCP with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is the simple, efficient cerebral protection technique with minimal interference to the surgical field-and it potentially allows to flush atheromatous debris out from the arch vessels. Thus, it is the preferred adjunct to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest during hemiarch replacement in our institution.
Cerebral complication is a major concern after aortic arch surgery, which may lead to death. Thus, cerebral protection strategy plays the key role to obtain respectable results in aortic arch repair. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was introduced in 1970s to decrease the ischemic insults to the brain. However, safe duration of circulatory arrest time was limited to 30 minutes. The 1990s was the decade of evolution for cerebral protection, in which two adjuncts for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest were introduced: retrograde and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) techniques. These two cerebral perfusion techniques significantly decreased incidence of postoperative neurological dysfunction and mortality after aortic arch surgery. Although there are no large prospective studies that demonstrate which perfusion technique provide better outcomes, multiple retrospective studies implicate that ACP may decrease cerebral complications compared to retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) when a long circulatory arrest time is required during aortic arch reconstructions. To date, many surgeons favor ACP over RCP during a complex aortic arch repair, such as total arch replacement and hybrid arch replacement. However, the question is whether the use of ACP is necessary during a short, limited circulatory arrest time, such as hemiarch replacement? There is a paucity of data that proves the advantages of a complex ACP over a simple RCP for a short circulatory arrest time. RCP with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is the simple, efficient cerebral protection technique with minimal interference to the surgical field—and it potentially allows to flush atheromatous debris out from the arch vessels. Thus, it is the preferred adjunct to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest during hemiarch replacement in our institution. PMID:29682460
Pichiorri, Floriana; Vicenzini, Edoardo; Gilio, Francesca; Giacomelli, Elena; Frasca, Vittorio; Cambieri, Chiara; Ceccanti, Marco; Di Piero, Vittorio; Inghilleri, Maurizio
To determine whether intermittent theta burst stimulation influences cerebral hemodynamics, we investigated changes induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation on the middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in healthy participants. The middle cerebral artery flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity were monitored by continuous transcranial Doppler sonography. Changes in cortical excitability were tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation. In 11 healthy participants, before and immediately after delivering intermittent theta burst stimulation, we tested cortical excitability measured by the resting motor threshold and motor evoked potential amplitude over the stimulated hemisphere and vasomotor reactivity to CO(2) bilaterally. The blood flow velocity was monitored in both middle cerebral arteries throughout the experimental session. In a separate session, we tested the effects of sham stimulation under the same experimental conditions. Whereas the resting motor threshold remained unchanged before and after stimulation, motor evoked potential amplitudes increased significantly (P = .04). During and after stimulation, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocities also remained bilaterally unchanged, whereas vasomotor reactivity to CO(2) increased bilaterally (P = .04). The sham stimulation left all variables unchanged. The expected intermittent theta burst stimulation-induced changes in cortical excitability were not accompanied by changes in cerebral blood flow velocities; however, the bilateral increased vasomotor reactivity suggests that intermittent theta burst stimulation influences the cerebral microcirculation, possibly involving subcortical structures. These findings provide useful information on hemodynamic phenomena accompanying intermittent theta burst stimulation, which should be considered in research aimed at developing this noninvasive, low-intensity stimulation technique for safe
Davie, Sophie N; Grocott, Hilary P
Cerebral oximetry is a noninvasive technology using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Although NIRS cerebral oximetry is being increasingly used in many clinical settings, interdevice technologic differences suggest potential variation in the ability to accurately acquire brain oxygenation signals. The primary objective of this study was to determine if NIRS-derived regional cerebral oxygen saturation measurements accurately account for oxygen saturation contamination from extracranial tissue. Twelve healthy volunteers had each of three NIRS devices (FORE-SIGHT [CAS Medical Systems Inc; Brandford, CT], INVOS 5100C-PB [Covidien; Boulder, CO], and EQUANOX Classic 7600 [Nonin Medical Inc; Plymouth, MN]) randomly applied to the forehead. After this, a circumferential pneumatic head cuff was positioned such that when inflated, hypoxia-ischemia would be produced in the extracranial scalp tissue beneath the NIRS cerebral oximeters. Comparisons among the three devices were made of the NIRS measurements before and following hypoxia-ischemia produced in the scalp tissue with inflation of the head cuff. The induction of extracranial hypoxia-ischemia resulted in a significant reduction in regional cerebral oxygen saturation measurements in all three NIRS devices studied. At 5 min postinflation of the pneumatic head cuff, the INVOS demonstrated a 16.6 ± 9.6% (mean ± SD) decrease from its baseline (P = 0.0001), the FORE-SIGHT an 11.8 ± 5.3% decrease from its baseline (P < 0.0001), and the EQUANOX a 6.8 ± 6.0% reduction from baseline (P = 0.0025). Extracranial contamination appears to significantly affect NIRS measurements of cerebral oxygen saturation. Although the clinical implications of these apparent inaccuracies require further study, they suggest that the oxygen saturation measurements provided by cerebral oximetry do not solely reflect that of the brain alone.
Weinstein, J M; Bresnick, G H; Bell, C L; Roschmann, R A; Brooks, B R; Strother, C M
Acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an unusual self-limited retinal disorder that has been associated with various systemic complications. To our knowledge, three prior cases associated with cerebral vasculitis have been described. This article describes a patient with APMPPE and angiographically documented cerebral vasculitis who was notable because of (a) the presence of two different cerebral ischemic events, occurring 1 month apart, and (b) the long latency (3 months) between the onset of ocular symptoms and the second cerebral ischemic event. Recognition of the association between APMPPE and cerebral vasculitis may permit early treatment of CNS involvement and prevention of morbidity.
Taplin, Craig E; Cowell, Christopher T; Silink, Martin; Ambler, Geoffrey R
Cerebral salt wasting is an increasingly recognized condition in pediatrics and is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy challenging. A few single case reports of the successful use of fludrocortisone exist. We report 4 patients with cerebral salt wasting, all of whom presented with hyponatremia in the presence of known intracerebral pathology. All had clinically significant hyponatremia, and 3 had hyponatremic seizures. Two of the patients also satisfied clinical criteria for diabetes insipidus. They all were treated with regimens using increased sodium and fluid administration but experienced ongoing salt wasting. Fludrocortisone was instituted in all 4 patients and in 3 resulted in rapid improvement in net sodium balance, enabling the weaning of hypertonic fluids and stabilization of serum electrolytes. In 3 patients, fludrocortisone treatment was complicated by hypokalemia, and in 1 patient by hypertension, which necessitated a dose reduction or brief cessation of therapy. Duration of therapy was 4 to 125 days. Cerebral salt wasting presents considerable management challenges; however, fludrocortisone therapy can be an effective adjunct to treatment.
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010
Cerebral palsy--also known as CP--is a condition caused by injury to the parts of the brain that control the body's ability to use muscles effectively. Often the injury happens before birth, sometimes during delivery or soon after birth. The symptoms will differ from person to person and change as children and their nervous systems mature. This…
Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat
Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…
Driver, Lynn; Omichinski, Donna Riccio; Miller, Nicole; Sandella, Danielle; Warschausky, Seth
This paper characterizes educational strengths and needs of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and connects research findings from the University of Michigan's Adapted Cognitive Assessment Lab (ACAL) to current special educational requirements. It acknowledges the uniqueness of educating a child with significant motor and communication disabilities…
Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; Pacciulio, Amanda Mota; dos Santos, Camila Abrao; dos Santos, Jair Licio; Stagnitti, Karen Ellen
Background and Purpose: Evaluate self-initiated pretend play of children with cerebral palsy. Method: Twenty preschool children participated in the study. Pretend play ability was measured by using the child-initiated pretend play assessment culturally adapted to Brazil. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the children's…
Liptak, Gregory S.
The optimal practice of medicine includes integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research. This article reviews nine treatment modalities used for children who have cerebral palsy (CP), including hyperbaric oxygen, the Adeli Suit, patterning, electrical stimulation, conductive education,…
Racle, Gabriel L.
Research conducted by Tadanobu Tsunoda on auditory and visual sensation, designed to test and understand the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, is discussed. Tsunoda discovered that the Japanese responses to sounds by the left and the right sides of the brain are very different from the responses obtained from people from other countries. His…
Yeh, H; Price, R L; Lonsdale, D
A five-year-old girl with cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome) and cataracts is described. Sotos' syndrome, characterized by generalized gigantism with normal endocrine studies has rarely been reported with ocular abnormalities and never with cataracts. It is important to study any child with cataracts for systemic disease.
Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H; Lent, Roberto
Evolutionary changes in the size of the cerebral cortex, a columnar structure, often occur through the addition or subtraction of columnar modules with the same number of neurons underneath a unit area of cortical surface. This view is based on the work of Rockel et al. [Rockel AJ, Hiorns RW, Powell TP (1980) The basic uniformity in structure of the neocortex. Brain 103:221-244], who found a steady number of approximately 110 neurons underneath a surface area of 750 microm(2) (147,000 underneath 1 mm(2)) of the cerebral cortex of five species from different mammalian orders. These results have since been either corroborated or disputed by different groups. Here, we show that the number of neurons underneath 1 mm(2) of the cerebral cortical surface of nine primate species and the closely related Tupaia sp. is not constant and varies by three times across species. We found that cortical thickness is not inversely proportional to neuronal density across species and that total cortical surface area increases more slowly than, rather than linearly with, the number of neurons underneath it. The number of neurons beneath a unit area of cortical surface varies linearly with neuronal density, a parameter that is neither related to cortical size nor total number of neurons. Our finding of a variable number of neurons underneath a unit area of the cerebral cortex across primate species indicates that models of cortical organization cannot assume that cortical columns in different primates consist of invariant numbers of neurons.
Glucksman, Aaron; Naut, Edgar
A 43-year-old male with a history of bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement and tricuspid valve annuloplasty presented with vertigo and was found to have an acute infarct in the left superior cerebellum, as well as a left-middle cerebral artery mycotic aneurysm. Blood cultures grew Cardiobacterium hominis and bioprosthetic aortic valve vegetation was found on transthoracic echocardiogram.
Polson, Martha C.; And Others
A study involved the development and testing of a theoretical framework of cerebral specialization in which each hemisphere of the brain is viewed as an independent information processing system. During the study, four sets of experiments were conducted. These involved behavioral as well as electrophysiological measures. According to the…
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Zavoreo, Iris; Basić-Kes, Vanja; Zadro-Matovina, Lucija; Lisak, Marijana; Corić, Lejla; Cvjeticanin, Timon; Ciliga, Dubravka; Bobić, Tatjana Trost
Venous system can be classified as pulmonary veins, systemic veins and venous sinuses that are present only within the skull. Cerebral venous system is divided into two main parts, the superficial and the deep system. The main assignment of veins is to carry away deoxygenated blood and other maleficient materials from the tissues towards the heart. Veins have thinner walls and larger lumina than arteries. Between 60% and 70% of the total blood volume is found in veins. The major factors that influence venous function are the respiratory cycle, venous tone, the function of the right heart, gravity, and the muscle pump. Venous system, in general, can be presented by selective venography, Doppler sonography, computed tomography (CT) venography and magnetic resonance (MR) venography, and cerebral venous system can be displayed by selective venography, cerebral CT venography, cerebral MR venography, and specialized extracranial and transcranial Doppler sonography. The aim of this paper is to show the possibilities of intracranial and extracranial ultrasound evaluation of the head and neck venous circulation and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency as one of the most common pathologies evaluated as part of neurodegenerative processes in the central nervous system.
Monson, Kenneth L.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Manley, Geoffrey T.
The cerebral circulation is fundamental to the health and maintenance of brain tissue, but injury and disease may result in dysfunction of the vessels. Characterization of cerebral vessel mechanical response is an important step toward a more complete understanding of injury mechanisms and disease development in these vessels, paving the way for improved prevention and treatment. We recently reported a large series of uniaxial tests on fresh human cerebral vessels, but the multi-axial behavior of these vessels has not been previously described. Twelve arteries were obtained from the surface of the temporal lobe of patients undergoing surgery and were subjected to various combinations of axial stretch and pressure around typical physiological conditions before being stretched to failure. Axial and circumferential responses were compared, and measured data were fit to a four parameter, Fung-type hyperelastic constitutive model. Artery behavior was nonlinear and anisotropic, with considerably greater resistance to deformation in the axial direction than around the circumference. Results from axial failure tests of pressurized vessels resulted in a small shift in stress-stretch response compared to previously reported data from unpressurized specimens. These results further define the biaxial response of the cerebral arteries and provide data required for more rigorous study of head injury mechanisms and development of cerebrovascular disease. PMID:18855141
Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong
Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.
Yadav, P; Sharma, R; Kumar, S; Kumar, U
Cerebral malaria is a major health hazard, with a high incidence of mortality. The disease is endemic in many developing countries, but with a greater increase in tourism, occasional cases may be detected in countries where the disease in not prevalent. Early diagnosis and evaluation of cerebral involvement in malaria utilizing modern imaging modalities have an impact on the treatment and clinical outcome. To evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) features of patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. We present the findings in three patients with cerebral malaria presenting with altered sensorium. MR imaging using a 1.5-Tesla unit was carried out. The sequences performed were 5-mm-thick T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), and T2-weighted gradient-echo axial sequences, and sagittal and coronal FLAIR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were obtained. Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum. No enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted MR images was observed. There was no evidence of restricted diffusion on the diffusion-weighted sequence and ADC map. MR is a sensitive imaging modality, with a role in the assessment of cerebral lesions in malaria. Focal white matter and corpus callosal lesions without any restricted diffusion were the key findings in our patients.
Portnow, Leah H.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Okun, Michael S.
Objective: To review the discoveries underpinning the introduction of cerebral PET scanning and highlight its modern applications. Background: Important discoveries in neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and radiotracer development in the post–World War II period provided the necessary infrastructure for the first cerebral PET scan. Methods: A complete review of the literature was undertaken to search for primary and secondary sources on the history of PET imaging. Searches were performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, and select individual journal Web sites. Written autobiographies were obtained through the Society for Neuroscience Web site at www.sfn.org. A reference book on the history of radiology, Naked to the Bone, was reviewed to corroborate facts and to locate references. The references listed in all the articles and books obtained were reviewed. Results: The neurophysiologic sciences required to build cerebral PET imaging date back to 1878. The last 60 years have produced an evolution of technological advancements in brain metabolism and radiotracer development. These advancements facilitated the development of modern cerebral PET imaging. Several key scientists were involved in critical discoveries and among them were Angelo Mosso, Charles Roy, Charles Sherrington, John Fulton, Seymour Kety, Louis Sokoloff, David E. Kuhl, Gordon L. Brownell, Michael Ter-Pogossian, Michael Phelps, and Edward Hoffman. Conclusions: Neurophysiology, metabolism, and radiotracer development in the postwar era synergized the development of the technology necessary for cerebral PET scanning. Continued use of PET in clinical trials and current developments in PET-CT/MRI hybrids has led to advancement in diagnosis, management, and treatment of neurologic disorders. PMID:23460618
Iwata, Tomonori; Mori, Takahisa; Tajiri, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yuichi; Nakazaki, Masahito; Mizokami, Koji
The transfemoral approach is a common technique for coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms in the anterior cerebral circulation. However, it is difficult to advance a guiding catheter into the carotid artery via the femoral route in patients with a tortuous aortic arch, an unfavorable supra-aortic takeoff, aortic diseases, or occlusion of the femoral artery. To report our initial experiences of coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms in the anterior cerebral circulation with a novel sheath guide for transbrachial carotid cannulation. A sheath guide designed specifically for transbrachial carotid cannulation was developed; transbrachial coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms began in May 2011. Included for analysis were patients who underwent transbrachial coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms in the anterior cerebral circulation from May 2011 to January 2012. Adjuvant techniques, angiographic results, procedural success, and periprocedural complications were investigated. Ten patients underwent transbrachial coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms in the anterior cerebral circulation. All procedures were successful using the brachial route. No periprocedural complications occurred. Patients were permitted to get seated immediately after coil embolization even during hemostasis. The sheath guide specifically designed for transbrachial carotid cannulation was useful for coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms in the anterior cerebral circulation.
Spray, S; Johansson, S E; Radziwon-Balicka, A; Haanes, K A; Warfvinge, K; Povlsen, G K; Kelly, P A T; Edvinsson, L
Delayed cerebral hypoperfusion is a secondary complication found in the days after transient global cerebral ischaemia that worsens the ischaemic damage inflicted by the initial transient episode of global cerebral ischaemia. A recent study demonstrated increased cerebral vasoconstriction in the large arteries on the brain surface (pial arteries) after global cerebral ischaemia. However, smaller arterioles inside the brain (parenchymal arterioles) are equally important in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and yet their pathophysiology after global cerebral ischaemia is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether increased contractility occurs in the intraparenchymal arterioles. Global cerebral ischaemia was induced in male Wistar rats by bilateral common carotid occlusion for 15 min combined with hypovolaemia. Regional cerebral blood flow was determined by quantitative autoradiography. Intraparenchymal arterioles were isolated and pressurized, and concentration-response curves to endothelin-1 with and without the endothelin B receptor-selective antagonist BQ788 was generated. Endothelin B receptor expression was investigated by quantitative flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. We observed increased endothelin-1-mediated contractility of parenchymal arterioles correlating with reduced cerebral blood flow of the cortex, hippocampus and caudate nucleus 48 h after global cerebral ischaemia. The increased endothelin-1-mediated contractility was abolished by BQ788, and the vascular smooth muscle cell-specific expression of endothelin B receptors was significantly increased after global cerebral ischaemia. Increased endothelin-1-mediated contractility and expression of endothelin B receptors in the intraparenchymal vasculature contributes to the development of delayed cerebral hypoperfusion after global cerebral ischaemia in combination with vascular changes of the pial vasculature. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley
Dorrance, Anne M; Rupp, Nikki C; Nogueira, Edson F
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists protect against ischemic cerebrovascular disease; this appears to be caused by changes in cerebral vessel structure that would promote blood flow. Therefore, we hypothesized that mineralocorticoid receptor activation with deoxycorticosterone acetate would cause deleterious remodeling of the cerebral vasculature and exacerbate the damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were treated with deoxycorticosterone acetate (200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats had elevated systolic blood pressure compared with age-matched controls (157+/-5.9 versus 124+/-3.1 mm Hg deoxycorticosterone acetate versus control; P<0.05). The area of ischemic damage resulting from middle cerebral artery occlusion was greater in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats than control (63.5+/-3.72 versus 46.6+/-5.52% of the hemisphere infarcted, deoxycorticosterone acetate versus control; P<0.05). Middle cerebral artery structure was assessed using a pressurized arteriograph under calcium-free conditions. Over a range of intralumenal pressures, the lumen and ODs of the middle cerebral arteries were smaller in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats than the control rats (P<0.05). There was also an increase in the wall thickness and wall:lumen ratio in the vessels from deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats (P<0.05). The vessels from the deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats were stiffer than those from control rats as evidenced by a leftward shift in the stress/strain curve. These novel data suggest that mineralocorticoid receptor activation without salt loading and nephrectomy is sufficient to elicit deleterious effects on the cerebral vasculature that lead to inward hypertrophic remodeling and an increase in the ischemic damage in the event of a stroke.
Petrov, Irene Y.; Wynne, Karon E.; Petrov, Yuriy; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Richardson, C. Joan; Prough, Donald S.
Cerebral ischemia after birth and during labor is a major cause of death and severe complications such as cerebral palsy. In the USA alone, cerebral palsy results in permanent disability of 10,000 newborns per year and approximately 500,000 of the total population. Currently, no technology is capable of direct monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. This study proposes the use of an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral ischemia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral ischemia in newborns with normal weight (NBW), low birth-weight (LBW, 1500 - 2499 g) and very low birth-weight (VLBW, < 1500 g). The system was capable of detecting SSS signals through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as through the skull. We tested the system in NBW, LBW, and VLBW newborns (weight range: from 675 g to 3,000 g) admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. We performed single and continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation. The data acquisition, processing and analysis software developed by our group provided real-time, absolute SSS blood oxygenation measurements. The SSS blood oxygenation ranged from 60% to 80%. Optoacoustic monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation provides valuable information because adequate cerebral oxygenation would suggest that no therapy was necessary; conversely, evidence of cerebral ischemia would prompt therapy to increase cerebral blood flow.
Jin, De-xin; Chen, Xiu-yun; Huang, He; Zhang, Xu
To investigate the cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). The blood flow velocity of cerebral arteries was measured by using transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) in 6 cases with CADASIL and a quite number of age and sex matched control subjects. All patients (4 were symptomatic and 2 asymptomatic), being an established CADASIL family with the diagnosis confirmed by clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, pathology and molecular genetics, had abnormal mark signals on MR imagining and no history of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and migraine. A routinely TCD detection, including peak-systolic velocity (Vp), end-diastolic velocity (Vd), mean velocity (Vm) and pulsatility index (PI), was carried out on the bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCA), anterior cerebral arteries (ACA), posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) and vertebral arteries (VA) as well as the basilar artery (BA). A comparison between the cases and controls was made. Then, the changes of flow velocity in middle cerebral arteries (MCA) of the patients with CADASIL were observed before and after breathholding tests. In addition, brain CT perfusion imaging (CTP) was carried out in all the cases by using 16-slice spiral CT. The appearances of frequency spectrum were nearly normal in all the cases and there was no abnormality between the two sides on velocity (P > 0.05). As compared with the controls, the bilateral Vp, Vd and Vm in ACA and PCA were decreased obviously (P < 0.05). The velocity parameters of MCA with the exception of left Vm and right PI showed changes (P < 0.05) and there were no changes of PI in the bilateral ACA, PCA and Left MCA (P > 0.05). Moreover, there were marked changes in MCA (including Vm, Vd and PI) of all the cases as compared with the controls after breathholding (P < 0.01). Brain perfusion imaging showing the regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume in frontal
Rüffer, André; Tischer, Philip; Münch, Frank; Purbojo, Ariawan; Toka, Okan; Rascher, Wolfgang; Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Jüngert, Jörg
Cerebral protection during aortic arch repair can be provided by regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) through the innominate artery. This study addresses the question of an adequate bilateral blood flow in both hemispheres during RCP. Fourteen infants (median age 11 days [range, 3 to 108]; median weight, 3.6 kg [range, 2.8 to 6.0 kg]) undergoing RCP (flow rate 54 to 60 mL · kg -1 · min -1 ) were prospectively included. Using combined transfontanellar/transtemporal two- and three-dimensional power/color Doppler sonography, cerebral blood flow intensity in the main cerebral vessels was displayed. Mean time average velocities were measured with combined pulse-wave Doppler in the basilar artery, and both sides of the internal carotid, anterior, and medial cerebral arteries. In addition, bifrontal regional cerebral oximetry (rSO 2 ) was assessed. Comparing both hemispheres, measurements were performed at target temperature (28°C) during full-flow total body perfusion (TBP) and RCP. A regular circle of Willis with near-symmetric blood flow intensity to both hemispheres was visualized in all infants during both RCP and TBP. In the left internal carotid artery, blood flow direction was mixed (retrograde, n = 5; antegrade, n = 8) during TBP and retrograde during RCP. Comparison between sides showed comparable cerebral time average velocities and rSO 2 , except for higher time average velocities in the right internal carotid artery (TBP p = 0.019, RCP p = 0.09). Unilateral comparison between perfusion methods revealed significantly higher rSO 2 in the right hemisphere during TBP (82% ± 9%) compared with RCP (74% ± 11%, p = 0.036). Bilateral assessment of cerebral rSO 2 and time average velocity in the main great cerebral vessels suggests that RCP is associated with near-symmetric blood flow intensity to both hemispheres. Further neurodevelopmental studies are necessary to verify RCP for neuroprotection during aortic arch repair. Copyright © 2017 The Society of
An impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance has been suggested in Alzheimer's disease. Perivascular drainage along cerebrovascular vessels is considered an important amyloid clearance pathway. This study examined the effect of reduced arterial pulsation that could cause an impairment in cerebral amyloid drainage on the prevalence of cortical microbleeds (CMBs), a surrogate marker for cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Patients who lost depiction of either side of the carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery on magnetic resonance angiography were studied. Those who showed acute cerebral infarction or a previous cortical cerebral infarction were excluded. The number of CMBs was counted on the occluded and non-occluded sides of the brain in each subject. The number of subjects who showed more CMBs on the occluded side of the brain was compared with the number of subjects who showed more CMBs on the non-occluded side of the brain. Twenty-eight patients were studied. The extent of lacunar infarction and white matter lesions was not different, irrespective of the occluded vessels or the distribution of CMBs. The prevalence of CMBs was not different between the occluded and non-occluded sides of the brain. In this cross-sectional study, reduction of arterial pulsation was not associated with a higher prevalence of CAA. Therefore, reduced arterial pulsation alone may not be enough to promote CAA.
Ricarte, Irapuá Ferreira; Funchal, Bruno F; Miranda Alves, Maramélia A; Gomes, Daniela L; Valiente, Raul A; Carvalho, Flávio A; Silva, Gisele S
Vasospasm has been rarely described as a complication associated with craniopharyngioma surgery. Herein we describe a patient who developed symptomatic vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia after transsphenoidal surgery for a craniopharyngioma. A 67-year-old woman became drowsy 2 weeks after a transsphenoidal resection of a craniopharyngioma. A head computed tomography (CT) was unremarkable except for postoperative findings. Electroencephalogram and laboratory studies were within the normal limits. A repeated CT scan 48 hours after the initial symptoms showed bilateral infarcts in the territory of the anterior cerebral arteries (ACA). Transcranial Doppler (TCD) showed increased blood flow velocities in both anterior cerebral arteries (169 cm/second in the left ACA and 145 cm/second in the right ACA) and right middle cerebral artery (164 cm/second) compatible with vasospasm. A CT angiography confirmed the findings. She was treated with induced hypertension and her level of consciousness improved. TCD velocities normalized after 2 weeks. Cerebral vasospasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with altered neurologic status in the postoperative period following a craniopharyngioma resection. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chi, O Z; Barsoum, S; Vega-Cotto, N M; Jacinto, E; Liu, X; Mellender, S J; Weiss, H R
Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) leads to cell growth and survival. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR would increase infarct size and decrease microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1h and reperfusion for 2h with and without rapamycin (20mg/kg once daily for two days prior to ischemia). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C(14)-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique. Regional small-vessel arterial and venous oxygen saturations were determined microspectrophotometrically. The control ischemic-reperfused cortex had a similar blood flow and O2 consumption to the contralateral cortex. However, microregional O2 supply/consumption balance was significantly reduced in the ischemic-reperfused cortex. Rapamycin significantly increased cerebral O2 consumption and further reduced O2 supply/consumption balance in the reperfused area. This was associated with an increased cortical infarct size (13.5±0.8% control vs. 21.5±0.9% rapamycin). We also found that ischemia-reperfusion increased AKT and S6K1 phosphorylation, while rapamycin decreased this phosphorylation in both the control and ischemic-reperfused cortex. This suggests that mTOR is important for not only cell survival, but also for the control of oxygen balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bertsch, Katja; Hagemann, Dirk; Hermes, Michael; Walter, Christof; Khan, Robina; Naumann, Ewald
Aging is accompanied by a decline of fluid cognitive functions, e.g., a slowing of information processing, working memory, and division of attention. This is at least partly due to structural and functional changes in the aging brain. Although a decrement of resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been positively associated with cognitive functions in patients with brain diseases, studies with healthy participants have revealed inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated the relation between resting cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions (tonic and phasic alertness, selective and divided attention) in two samples of healthy young and older participants. We found higher resting CBF and better cognitive performances in the young than in the older sample. In addition, resting CBF was inversely correlated with selective attention in the young and with tonic alertness in the elderly participants. This finding is discussed with regard to the neural efficiency hypothesis of human intelligence.
Talman, William T.; Corr, Julie; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke; Wang, DeQiang
Forebrain arteries receive nitroxidergic input from parasympathetic ganglionic fibers that arise from the pterygopalatine ganglia. Previous studies have shown that ganglionic stimulation in some species led to cerebral vasodilatation while interruption of those fibers interfered with vasodilatation seen during acute hypertension. Because the ganglionic fibers are quite delicate and are easily damaged when the ganglia are approached with published techniques we sought to develop a method that allowed clear exposure of the ganglia and permitted demonstration of cerebral vasodilatation with electrical stimulation of the ganglia in the rat. We had found that an orbital approach during which the eye was retracted for visualization of the ganglion precluded eliciting vasodilatation with ganglionic stimulation. In the current study approaching the ganglion through an incision over the zygomatic arch provided clear exposure of the ganglion and stimulation of the ganglion with that approach led to vasodilatation. PMID:17275420
Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao
Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.
Kushner, M.J.; Tobin, M.; Fazekas, F.
We studied the patterns of cerebral blood flow (CBF), over time, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and varying neurologic manifestations including headache, stroke, psychosis, and encephalopathy. For 20 paired xenon-133 CBF measurements, CBF was normal during CNS remissions, regardless of the symptoms. CBF was significantly depressed during CNS exacerbations. The magnitude of change in CBF varied with the neurologic syndrome. CBF was least affected in patients with nonspecific symptoms such as headache or malaise, whereas patients with encephalopathy or psychosis exhibited the greatest reductions in CBF. In 1 patient with affective psychosis, without clinical or CT evidence of cerebralmore » ischemia, serial SPECT studies showed resolution of multifocal cerebral perfusion defects which paralleled clinical recovery.« less
González, Jully; Atehortúa, Angélica; Moncayo, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a large group of motion and posture disorders caused during the fetal or infant brain development. Sensorial impairment is commonly found in children with CP, i.e., between 40-75 percent presents some form of vision problems or disabilities. An automatic characterization of the cerebral palsy is herein presented by estimating the ocular motion during a gaze pursuing task. Specifically, After automatically detecting the eye location, an optical flow algorithm tracks the eye motion following a pre-established visual assignment. Subsequently, the optical flow trajectories are characterized in the velocity-acceleration phase plane. Differences are quantified in a small set of patients between four to ten years.
Yanamandra, Uday; Gupta, Amul; Patyal, Sagarika; Varma, Prem Prakash
High-altitude cerebral oedema (HACO) is the most fatal high-altitude illness seen by rural physicians practising in high-altitude areas. HACO presents clinically with cerebellar ataxia, features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and coma. Early identification is important as delay in diagnosis can be fatal. We present two cases of HACO presenting with focal deficits mimicking stroke. The first patient presented with left-sided hemiplegia associated with the rapid deterioration in the sensorium. Neuroimaging revealed features suggestive of vasogenic oedema. The second patient presented with monoplegia of the lower limb. Neuroimaging revealed perfusion deficit in anterior cerebral artery territory. Both patients were managed with dexamethasone and they improved dramatically. Clinical picture and neuroimaging closely resembled acute ischaemic stroke in both cases. Thrombolysis in these patients would have been disastrous. Recent travel to high altitude, young age, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors and features of raised ICP concomitantly directed the diagnosis to HACO.
Gates, G.F.; Fishman, L.S.; Segall, H.D.
Thirty-three children who had strokes were studied by dynamic and static scintigraphy, 29 by CT scanning, and 10 by cerebral angiography. The accuracy of dynamic scintigraphy in stroke detection during the first week of clinical symptoms was 94% while CT scanning was 60% accurate and static scintigraphy 11% accurate. During the second week the accuracy of CT scanning increased to 100%, but static scintigraphy improved to only 50%. Fifty percent of scintiangiograms performed during the first week showed either luxuriant perfusion or flip-flop patterns. In some patients these two flow patterns changed to that of cerebral hemispheric ischemia after goingmore » through a phase during which perfusion appeared to be equal in the two hemispheres. Dynamic scintigraphy is believed to be the test of choice for stroke detection in children during the first week.« less
Manzouri, Amirhossein; Savic, Ivanka
The neurobiology of sexual orientation is frequently discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism (defining both functional and structural sex differences). Yet, the information about possible cerebral differences between sex-matched homo and heterosexual persons is limited, particularly among women. In this multimodal MRI study, we addressed these issues by investigating possible cerebral differences between homo and heterosexual persons, and by asking whether there is any sex difference in this aspect. Measurements of cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and functional and structural resting-state connections among 40 heterosexual males (HeM) and 40 heterosexual females (HeF) were compared with those of 30 homosexual males (HoM) and 30 homosexual females (HoF). Congruent with previous reports, sex differences were detected in heterosexual controls with regard to fractional anisotropy (FA), Cth, and several subcortical volumes. Homosexual groups did not display any sex differences in FA values. Furthermore, their functional connectivity was significantly less pronounced in the mesial prefrontal and precuneus regions. In these two particular regions, HoM also displayed thicker cerebral cortex than other groups, whereas HoF did not differ from HeF. In addition, in HoM the parietal Cth showed "sex-reversed" values, not observed in HoF. Homosexual orientation seems associated with a less pronounced sexual differentiation of white matter tracts and a less pronounced functional connectivity of the self-referential networks compared to heterosexual orientation. Analyses of Cth suggest that male and female homosexuality are not simple analogues of each other and that differences from heterosexual controls are more pronounced in HoM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.; Lent, Roberto
Evolutionary changes in the size of the cerebral cortex, a columnar structure, often occur through the addition or subtraction of columnar modules with the same number of neurons underneath a unit area of cortical surface. This view is based on the work of Rockel et al. [Rockel AJ, Hiorns RW, Powell TP (1980) The basic uniformity in structure of the neocortex. Brain 103:221–244], who found a steady number of approximately 110 neurons underneath a surface area of 750 μm2 (147,000 underneath 1 mm2) of the cerebral cortex of five species from different mammalian orders. These results have since been either corroborated or disputed by different groups. Here, we show that the number of neurons underneath 1 mm2 of the cerebral cortical surface of nine primate species and the closely related Tupaia sp. is not constant and varies by three times across species. We found that cortical thickness is not inversely proportional to neuronal density across species and that total cortical surface area increases more slowly than, rather than linearly with, the number of neurons underneath it. The number of neurons beneath a unit area of cortical surface varies linearly with neuronal density, a parameter that is neither related to cortical size nor total number of neurons. Our finding of a variable number of neurons underneath a unit area of the cerebral cortex across primate species indicates that models of cortical organization cannot assume that cortical columns in different primates consist of invariant numbers of neurons. PMID:18689685
Serdaru, M; Chiras, J; Cujas, M; Lhermitte, F
A 39-year-old woman experienced severe headache, epilepsy and rapidly progressive aphasia and hemianopia. Carotid angiograms displayed segmentary narrowing of intracranial arteries as previously described in benign cerebral vasculitis. Her superficial temporal artery was also involved, allowing a biopsy of the abnormal part of the vessel. Microscopical study of this artery was normal. A second carotid angiogram, 14 days later, showed normal intracranial arteries. These findings suggest arterial spasm rather than distal arteritis. Images PMID:6693916
Louis, Elie; Cret, Corina; Poirier, Jacques; Cornu, Philippe; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Sanson, Marc
An intra-cerebral schwannoma, presenting as a cystic, calcified, enhancing frontal mass, arising in a 52-year-old woman was misdiagnosed as a glioma and treated with radiotherapy. This observation emphasizes the importance of careful histological reexamination of all brain tumors when a discrepancy appears between the initial histological diagnosis and the clinical evolution, in order to recognize rare curable entities and to avoid potentially toxic treatment.
Srikanth, KP; Sundararajan, SR; Rajasekaran, S
Fat embolism syndrome presenting primarily with cerebral manifestations is rarely reported. We report here two such patients who showed complete recovery following initial deterioration. The aim of these reports is to highlight that prolonged intensive care and good rehabilitation can lead to normal neurologic recovery despite poor clinical picture initially. The importance of adequate oxygenation to prevent secondary brain damage is emphasized during prolonged recovery. PMID:24600071
Hansen, F J; Friis, B
Since the original description of cerebral gigantism, about 85 cases have been reported. Four papers comment on familial occurrence but never in parents and their children. This paper describes the syndrome in a mother and her child, which, together with facts pointing towards prenatal etiology, such as excessive birthweight, striking mutual resemblance and abnormal dermatoglyphics, points to a genetic defect. Previous endocrine studies are enlarged by the findings of normal serum somatomedin and serum prolactin.
Uday, Suma; Shaw, Nick; Krone, Ruth; Kirk, Jeremy
Poor growth and delayed puberty in children with cerebral palsy is frequently felt to be related to malnutrition. Although growth hormone deficiency is commonly described in these children, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD) has not been previously reported. We present a series of four children with cerebral palsy who were born before 29 weeks gestation who were referred to the regional endocrinology service, three for delayed puberty and one for short stature, in whom investigations identified MPHD. All patients had a height well below -2 standard deviation score (2nd centile) at presentation and three who had MRI scans had an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We therefore recommend that the possibility of MPHD should be considered in all children with cerebral palsy and poor growth or delayed puberty. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to maximise growth and prevent associated morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Cerebral activity was measured using the free-fatty acid (1-/sup 14/C) octanoate as a fast functional tracer in conscious, unrestrained rats 5 minutes after intravenous injection of heroin, cocaine or saline vehicle. Regional changes of octanoate labeling density in the autoradiograms relative to saline-injected animals were used to determine the functional activity effects of each drug. Heroin and cocaine each produced a distinctive pattern of activity increases and suppression throughout the rat brain. Similar regional changes induced by both drugs were found in limbic brain regions implicated in drug reinforcement. Labeled octanoate autoradiography was used to measure the cerebral functional responsemore » to a tone that had previously been paired to heroin injections. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administration animal, and two animals receiving yoked infusion of heroin or saline. A tone was paired with each infusion during training. Behavioral experiments in similarly trained rats demonstrated that these training conditions impart secondary reinforcing properties to the tone in animals previously self-administering heroin, while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion rats. Cerebral functional activity was measured during presentation of the tone without drug infusion. Octanoate labeling density changed in fifteen brain areas in response to the tone previously paired to heroin without response contingency. Labeling density was significantly modified in sixteen regions as a result of previously pairing the tone to response-contingent heroin infusions.« less
Monteiro, Regina; Carneiro, José Carlos; Costa, Claúdia; Duarte, Raquel
Cerebral tuberculomas are a rare and serious form of tuberculosis (TB) due to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MT). Symptoms and radiologic features are nonspecific, leading sometimes to misdiagnosis. Anti-TB drugs are essential for the successful treatment of cerebral tuberculomas but there is no agreement regarding the duration of therapy. The authors present a case of a 55 years old male, presented to the emergency room with sudden onset of diplopia. Cerebral computerized tomography revealed multiple brain lesions, with contrast enhancement and peri-lesional oedema. The patient was HIV negative and because of previous malignancy the first suspicion was metastatic disease. Cultural exam of the bronchial wash showed MT sensitive to all first-line drugs. The patient started antituberculosis treatment with 4 drugs (HRZE) for 2 months, followed by maintenance therapy (HR). Treatment was prolonged for 24 months because at 12th and 18th months of treatment one of the brain lesions, although significantly smaller, still showed contrast enhancement. Even though it is not clear if contrast enhancement lesions represent active lesions or just inflammation, continuing treatment until total resolution of the tuberculomas is probably prudent. PMID:26029627
Humle, Nanna; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Arendt, Gitte Abildgaard; Nielsen, Rikke Paludan; Moos, Torben; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn
This review presents the present-day literature on the anatomy and physiological mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier and the problematic of cerebral drug delivery in relation to malignant brain tumors. First step in treatment of malignant brain tumors is resection, but there is a high risk of single remnant infiltrative tumor cells in the outer zone of the brain tumor. These infiltrative single-cells will be supplied by capillaries with an intact BBB as opposed to the partly leaky BBB found in the tumor tissue before resection. Even though BBB penetrance of a chemotherapeutic agent is considered irrelevant though the limited success rate for chemotherapeutic treatability of GBM tumors indicate otherwise. Therefore drug delivery strategies to cerebral cancer after resection should be tailored to being able to both penetrate the intact BBB and target the cancer cells. In this review the intact bloodbrain barrier and cerebral cancer with main focus on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is introduced. The GBM induced formation of a blood-tumor barrier and the consequences hereof is described and discussed with emphasis on the impact these changes of the BBB has on drug delivery to GBM. The most commonly used drug carriers for drug delivery to GBM is described and the current drug delivery strategies for glioblastoma multiforme including possible routes through the BBB and epitopes, which can be targeted on the GBM cells is outlined. Overall, this review aims to address targeted drug delivery in GBM treatment when taking the differing permeability of the BBB into consideration.
Chabrier, S; Roubertie, A; Allard, D; Bonhomme, C; Gautheron, V
Hemiplegic (or spastic unilateral) cerebral palsy accounts for about 30% of all cases of cerebral palsy. With a population prevalence of 0.6 per 1000 live births, it is the most common type of cerebral palsy among term-born children and the second most common type after diplegia among preterm infants. Many types of prenatal and perinatal brain injury can lead to congenital hemiplegia and brain MRI is the most useful tool to classify them with accuracy and to provide early prognostic information. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke thus appears as the leading cause in term infants, whereas encephalopathy of prematurity is the most common cause in premature babies. Other causes include brain malformations, neonatal sinovenous thrombosis, parenchymal hemorrhage (for example due to coagulopathy or alloimmune thrombocytopenia) and the more recently described familial forms of porencephaly associated with mutations in the COL4A1 gene. In adjunction with pharmacologic treatment (botulinium neurotoxin injection), new evidence-based rehabilitational interventions, such as constraint-induced movement therapy and mirror therapy, are increasingly being used.
Nie, Jingxin; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Faraco, Carlos; Stephen Miller, L; Liu, Tianming
The geometric complexity and variability of the human cerebral cortex have long intrigued the scientific community. As a result, quantitative description of cortical folding patterns and the understanding of underlying folding mechanisms have emerged as important research goals. This paper presents a computational 3D geometric model of cerebral cortex folding initialized by MRI data of a human fetal brain and deformed under the governance of a partial differential equation modeling cortical growth. By applying different simulation parameters, our model is able to generate folding convolutions and shape dynamics of the cerebral cortex. The simulations of this 3D geometric model provide computational experimental support to the following hypotheses: (1) Mechanical constraints of the skull regulate the cortical folding process. (2) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the global cell growth rate of the whole cortex. (3) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on relative rates of cell growth in different cortical areas. (4) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the initial geometry of the cortex. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jun; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong
Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency. Furthermore, we also found that white matter network hub regions were located in the left cuneus, precuneus, and left posterior cingulate gyrus. However, some abnormal nodes existed in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes of cerebral palsy infants. These results indicated that the white matter networks for cerebral palsy infants were disrupted, which was consistent with previous studies about the abnormal brain white matter areas. This work could help us further study the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy infants.
Roujas, F; Bertrand, C; Hrouda, P; Laborit, G; Lang, G; Rivet, P
The Monitor of Cerebral Function enables continuous monitoring of the cerebral electrical activity and this over long periods due to the slow recording speeds. The cerebral electrical signals picked up by the electrodes attached to the scalp are registered in the form of a curve which fluctuates to a greater or lesser extent depending on the recording speed. The examination of the height of the curve with respect to zero and its amplitude indicates the voltage of the cerebral activity and yields information regarding polymorphism. It is thus possible to monitor variations in cerebral activity over a prolonged period during anaesthesia as well as during the revival phase with the Monitor of Cerebral Function, the electroencephalogram being reserved as an aid to precise diagnosis and for localization and close scruting of the anomalies.
Bakker, S L M; Boon, A J W; Wijnhoud, A D; Dippel, D W J; Delwel, E J; Koudstaal, P J
To study the relationship between cerebral hemodynamics and clinical performance in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), before and after surgery. Ten patients were studied prospectively before and 3 months after shunt surgery by means of transcranial Doppler (TCD). Clinical performance was scored by means of an NPH scale and the modified Rankin scale. Peak systolic and mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCV) were lower and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity was higher after shunt surgery. The three patients with clinical improvement had higher preoperative end diastolic cerebral blood flow velocity and MCV. All postoperative cerebral blood flow velocities were higher in patients with clinical improvement. Our data suggest that higher cerebral blood flow velocity before surgery in patients with NPH is related to clinical improvement after shunt surgery. Cerebral hemodynamic parameters may develop into predictors of successful shunt surgery in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Charidimou, Andreas; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Perry, Luke A; Sheth, Kevin N; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common hemorrhagic small vessel disease of the brain, often associated with high risk of spontaneous lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. When the suspicion of cerebral amyloid angiopathy is raised, clinicians are hesitant in prescribing oral anticoagulation in patients in whom it is otherwise indicated, including the case of non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This is one of the thorniest clinical dilemmas in the field currently. In this short Leading Opinion piece by an international panel of clinicians-researchers active in the field, we present our consistent approach and future outlook on oral anticoagulation post intracerebral hemorrhage and in the setting of clinical-radiologic evidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We discuss recent advances and support a more balanced approach with implications for the wider neurological clinical community in regards to successful recruiting this patient population in ongoing and future randomized trials.
Feeley, Brian T; Gollapudi, Kiran; Otsuka, Norman Y
Malnutrition is a common problem in children with cerebral palsy. Although malnutrition is often recognized in patients with severe cerebral palsy, it can be unrecognized in less severely affected patients. The consequences of malnutrition are serious, and include decreased muscle strength, poor immune status, and depressed cerebral functioning. Low body mass index has been used as a marker for malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine which patients in an ambulatory cerebral palsy patient population were at risk for low body mass index. A retrospective chart review was performed on 75 patients. Age, sex, height, weight, type of cerebral palsy, and functional status [gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS) level] was recorded from the chart. Descriptive statistics with bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Thirty-eight boys and 37 girls with an average age of 8.11 years were included in the study. Unique to our patient population, all cerebral palsy patients were independent ambulators. Patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy had a significantly lower body mass index than those with diplegic and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Patients with a GMFCS III had significantly lower body mass index than those with GMFCS I and II. When multivariate regression analysis to control for age and sex was performed, low body mass index remained associated with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and GMFCS III. Malnutrition is a common health problem in patients with cerebral palsy, leading to significant morbidity in multiple organ systems. We found that in an ambulatory cerebral palsy population, patients with lower functional status or quadriplegia had significantly lower body mass index, suggesting that even highly functioning ambulatory cerebral palsy patients are at risk for malnutrition.
Yuen, Natalie; Anderson, Steven E.; Glaser, Nicole; Tancredi, Daniel J.; O'Donnell, Martha E.
OBJECTIVE— Cerebral edema (CE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. Osmotic fluctuations during DKA treatment have been considered responsible, but recent data instead suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion may be involved and that activation of cerebral ion transporters may occur. Diminished cerebral blood flow (CBF) during DKA, however, has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated CBF and edema formation in a rat model of DKA and determined the effects of bumetanide, an inhibitor of Na-K-Cl cotransport. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Juvenile rats with streptozotocin-induced DKA were treated with intravenous saline and insulin, similar to human treatment protocols. CBF was determined by magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion–weighted imaging before and during treatment, and CE was assessed by determining apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) using MR diffusion–weighted imaging. RESULTS— CBF was significantly reduced in DKA and was responsive to alterations in pCO2. ADC values were reduced, consistent with cell swelling. The reduction in ADCs correlated with dehydration, as reflected in blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Bumetanide caused a rapid rise in ADCs of DKA rats without significantly changing CBF, while saline/insulin caused a rapid rise in CBF and a gradual rise in ADCs. DKA rats treated with bumetanide plus saline/insulin showed a trend toward more rapid rise in cortical ADCs and a larger rise in striatal CBF than those observed with saline/insulin alone. CONCLUSIONS— These data demonstrate that CE in DKA is accompanied by cerebral hypoperfusion before treatment and suggest that blocking Na-K-Cl cotransport may reduce cerebral cell swelling. PMID:18633109
Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua
Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [3H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling, edema, and ischemia in cerebral tissue were attenuated in puerarin-treated SHRs. Microvessel density in cerebral tissue was greater with puerarin than with vehicle treatment. Puerarin-treated MECs showed greater proliferation and p42/44 MAPKs activities than vehicle treatment. Conclusions. Puerarin possesses effects of antihypertension and stroke prevention by improved microcirculation in SHRs, which results from the increase in cerebral blood perfusion both by arteriole
Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Ai; Washio, Takuro; Ogoh, Shigehiko
Drinking coffee causes caffeine-induced physiological alterations such as increases in arterial blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, cerebral vasoconstriction, etc., and these physiological alterations may be associated with a reduced risk of cerebral vascular disease. However, the effect of coffee drinking on dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that coffee drinking enhances dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Twelve healthy young subjects participated in the present study. After a 5 min baseline measurement in a semi-recumbent position on the hospital bed, each subject drank water (CON) as a placebo condition or coffee beverage (Coffee INT). Arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) were measured continuously throughout the experiment. At 30 min after the intake of either water or coffee, dynamic cerebral autoregulation was examined using a thigh cuffs occlusion and release technique. Each condition was randomly performed on a different day. Under Coffee INT condition, mean arterial blood pressure was increased (P = 0.01) and mean MCAv was decreased (P = 0.01) from the baseline. The rate of regulation (RoR), as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, during coffee condition was significantly higher than that during CON (P = 0.0009). The findings of the present study suggest that coffee drinking augments dynamic CBF regulation with cerebral vasoconstriction. This phenomenon may be associated with a reduction in the risk of cerebral vascular disease.
Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.
Ictal patterns of local cerebral metabolic rate have been studied in epileptic patients by positron computed tomography with /sup 18/F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Partial seizures were associated with activation of anatomic structures unique to each patient studied. Ictal increases and decreases in local cerebral metabolism were observed. Scans performed during generalized convulsions induced by electroshock demonstrated a diffuse ictal increase and postictal decrease in cerebral metabolism. Petit mal absences were associated with a diffuse increase in cerebral metabolic rate. The ictal fluorodeoxyglucose patterns obtained from patients do not resemble autoradiographic patterns obtained from common experimental animal models of epilepsy.
Kim, K-K; Kim, D G; Ku, Y H; Lee, Y J; Kim, W-C; Kim, O J; Kim, H S
Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) is one of the frequently prescribed drugs for men with erectile dysfunction. We describe a 52-year-old man with bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction after sildenafil use. He ingested 100 mg of sildenafil and about 1 h later, he complained of chest discomfort, palpitation and dizziness followed by mental obtundation, global aphasia and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging documented acute bilateral hemispheric infarction, and cerebral angiography showed occluded bilateral MCA. Despite significant bilateral MCA stenosis and cerebral infarction, systemic hypotension persisted for a day. We presume that cerebral infarction was caused by cardioembolism with sildenafil use.
Kliegman, R M
The effect of intrauterine growth retardation and neonatal hypoglycemia on cerebral metabolic intermediates were determined in newborn dogs subjected to 5 days of maternal canine starvation (MCS) before birth. Birth weight was reduced 23% (232 +/- 6 versus 300 +/- 10 g). Circulating blood glucose was reduced after 3 h of neonatal fasting in MCS pups (2.7 +/- 0.4 +/- versus 5.7 +/- 1.1 mM). Cerebral cortical levels of glucose were also reduced at this time. Cerebral glucose-6-phosphate was not altered; nonetheless fructose-6-phosphate was lower in MCS pups at 6 and 9 h, while fructose 1,6-diphosphate appeared elevated at 3 h. These data suggest that cerebral glycolytic activity may be increased by increased activity of phosphofructokinase. Cerebral glutamine appeared reduced in fasting MCS pups at 3, 6, and 8 h of age. A considerable disturbance of the adenine nucleotide pool was noted between 3-9 h in MCS pups; while the cerebral energy reserve was diminished in MCS pups between 3-24 h. The data of reduced cerebral energy status and reserve suggest that cerebral energy production was diminished. Although glucose levels were low at 3 h, subsequent recovery was not immediate as adenine-nucleotides remained low beyond the period of hypoglycemia. The combined effects of intrauterine growth retardation and transient neonatal hypoglycemia appear to result in reduced cerebral oxidative metabolism; this occurs despite an apparent enhanced utilization of alternate fuels.
Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.
Ogul, Hayri; Kantarci, Mecit
Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a common type of cerebral vascular malformation. The imaging findings are enlarged vessels, thrombosed sinuses, and hemorrhage or gliosis on adjacent brain parenchyma. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used safely for diagnosis. Chiari type I malformation is characterized by a caudal descent of the cerebellar tonsil. Coincidence of cerebral AVM and Chiari type I malformation is very rare. In this paper, the authors report MR imaging findings of a patient with coincidence of cerebral AVM and Chiari type I malformation.
Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Sakai, Asao; Fujita, Kentaro; Katayama, Nobuyuki
A 36-year-old woman was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for the treatment of severe asthma exacerbation. Her condition of asthma improved with systemic glucocorticosteroids, inhaled beta2-agonist, intravenous theophylline and inhaled anesthesia (isoflurane) under mechanical ventilation. Her consciousness was disturbed even after terminating isoflurane. Brain CT and MRI scan showed cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral micro-bleeds. Glyceol, a hyperosmotic diuretic solution consisting of 10% glycerol and 5% fructose in saline, was administered to decrease cerebral edema. Her consciousness disturbance gradually recovered. Cerebral edema and hemorrhage improved. On the 69th hospital day, she was discharged from hospital without sequelae. This case is a rare one in which severe asthma exacerbation was complicated with cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral hemorrhage. Inhaled anesthesia for asthma exacerbation should be used carefully to avoid delay of diagnosis of central nervous system complications.
Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Hu, Kun; Stanley, Eugene; Novak, Vera
Cerebral vasoregulation involves several complex mechanisms adapting blood flow to fluctuations of systemic blood pressure (BP). Autonomic BP and metabolic vasoregulation are impaired after stroke and cerebral blood flow depends on systemic BP. To probe the mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation we study levels of nonlinear synchronization between cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and peripheral BP. We quantify the instantaneous phase of each signal employing analytic signal approach and Hilbert transform. As a marker of synchronization, we introduce a measure of cross-correlation between the instantaneous phase increments of the BFV and BP signals at different time lags. We have studied 12 subjects with minor chronic ischemic stroke and 11 matched normotensive controls (age<65years). BFV and BP of these subjects are continuously recorded during supine baseline, head-up tilt, hyperventilation and CO2 rebreathing. For control subjects we find significant synchronization between cerebral BFV and peripheral BP only for short time lags of up to 5-6 seconds, suggesting a rapid return to a steady cerebral blood flow after initial blood pressure perturbations. In contrast, for stroke subjects BFV/BP we find enhanced synchronization over longer time lags of up to 20 seconds, suggesting entrainment of cerebral blood flow velocity by slow vasomotor rhythms. These findings suggest that cerebral vasoregulation is impaired and cerebral blood flow follows the fluctuations of systemic BP in a synchronous manner. Our analysis shows that cerebral autoregulation is impaired in 10 out of the 12 stroke subjects, which is typically difficult to diagnose with conventional methods. Thus, our novel synchronization approach offers a new tool sensitive for evaluation of changes in the dynamics of cerebral autoregulation under stroke.
Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Sonntag, Hans; Stolker, Robert Jan; Weyland, Andreas
Hyperventilation is known to decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF) and to impair cerebral metabolism, but the threshold in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia is unknown. The authors hypothesized that reduced CBF associated with moderate hyperventilation might impair cerebral aerobic metabolism in patients undergoing intravenous anesthesia. Thirty male patients scheduled for coronary surgery were included in a prospective, controlled crossover trial. Measurements were performed under fentanyl-midazolam anesthesia in a randomized sequence aiming at partial pressures of carbon dioxide of 30 and 50 mmHg. Endpoints were CBF, blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery, and cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen, glucose, and lactate. Global CBF was measured using a modified Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as inert gas tracer. CBF velocity of the middle cerebral artery was recorded by transcranial Doppler sonography. Data were presented as mean (SD). Two-sided paired t tests and one-way ANOVA for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Moderate hyperventilation significantly decreased CBF by 60%, blood flow velocity by 41%, cerebral oxygen delivery by 58%, and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb by 45%. Cerebral metabolic rates for oxygen and glucose remained unchanged; however, net cerebral lactate efflux significantly increased from -0.38 (2.18) to -2.41(2.43) µmol min 100 g. Moderate hyperventilation, when compared with moderate hypoventilation, in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing intravenous anesthesia increased net cerebral lactate efflux and markedly reduced CBF and partial pressure of oxygen of the jugular venous bulb, suggesting partial impairment of cerebral aerobic metabolism at clinically relevant levels of hypocapnia.
Cerebral Hemorrhage; Stroke; Hypertension; Diabetes; Anticoagulant-induced Bleeding; Cerebral Vascular Disorder; Brain Disorder; Hemorrhage; Intracranial Hemorrhages; Cardiovascular Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases
Shono, Naoyuki; Kin, Taichi; Nomura, Seiji; Miyawaki, Satoru; Saito, Toki; Imai, Hideaki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito
A virtual reality simulator for aneurysmal clipping surgery is an attractive research target for neurosurgeons. Brain deformation is one of the most important functionalities necessary for an accurate clipping simulator and is vastly affected by the status of the supporting tissue, such as the arachnoid membrane. However, no virtual reality simulator implementing the supporting tissue of the brain has yet been developed. To develop a virtual reality clipping simulator possessing interactive brain deforming capability closely dependent on arachnoid dissection and apply it to clinical cases. Three-dimensional computer graphics models of cerebral tissue and surrounding structures were extracted from medical images. We developed a new method for modifiable cerebral tissue complex deformation by incorporating a nonmedical image-derived virtual arachnoid/trabecula in a process called multitissue integrated interactive deformation (MTIID). MTIID made it possible for cerebral tissue complexes to selectively deform at the site of dissection. Simulations for 8 cases of actual clipping surgery were performed before surgery and evaluated for their usefulness in surgical approach planning. Preoperatively, each operative field was precisely reproduced and visualized with the virtual brain retraction defined by users. The clear visualization of the optimal approach to treating the aneurysm via an appropriate arachnoid incision was possible with MTIID. A virtual clipping simulator mainly focusing on supporting tissues and less on physical properties seemed to be useful in the surgical simulation of cerebral aneurysm clipping. To our knowledge, this article is the first to report brain deformation based on supporting tissues.
Cao, Wenzhai; Liu, Weimin; Wu, Taixiang; Zhong, Dechao; Liu, Guanjian
Dengzhanhua preparations are widely used in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate the efficacy of dengzhanhua preparations in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. To assess whether dengzhanhua preparations are effective and safe at improving outcomes in patients with acute cerebral infarction. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched October 2007), the Chinese Stroke Trials Register (last searched June 2006), the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field (last searched June 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 2006), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2006), EMBASE (1980 to June 2006), AMED (the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to June 2006), the China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc, 1979 to June 2006), and Chinese Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI,1994 to October 2007). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials of dengzhanhua preparations regardless of duration, dosage and route of administration in patients with confirmed acute cerebral infarction. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed trial quality, and extracted the data. We included nine trials, all conducted in China, involving 723 participants. The method of randomisation and concealment was poorly described. The included trials compared dengzhanhua injection plus routine therapy with routine therapy alone. Patients were enrolled up to one week after the onset of stroke. No trials reported data on the pre-specified primary or secondary outcomes. In a post-hoc comparison of dengzhanhua injection plus routine therapy versus routine therapy alone, dengzhanhua injection showed a statistically significant benefit on the outcome 'marked neurologic improvement' (relative risk 1.53; 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.72). No serious adverse effects were
Musolino, Patricia L; Gong, Yi; Snyder, Juliet M T; Jimenez, Sandra; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Moser, Ann B; Grabowski, Eric F; Frosch, Matthew P; Eichler, Florian S
See Aubourg (doi:10.1093/awv271) for a scientific commentary on this article.X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene leading to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Its most severe neurological manifestation is cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we demonstrate that progressive inflammatory demyelination in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy coincides with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased MMP9 expression, and changes in endothelial tight junction proteins as well as adhesion molecules. ABCD1, but not its closest homologue ABCD2, is highly expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, far exceeding its expression in the systemic vasculature. Silencing of ABCD1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells causes accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, but much later than the immediate upregulation of adhesion molecules and decrease in tight junction proteins. This results in greater adhesion and transmigration of monocytes across the endothelium. PCR-array screening of human brain microvascular endothelial cells after ABCD1 silencing revealed downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor c-MYC (encoded by MYC). Interestingly, MYC silencing mimicked the effects of ABCD1 silencing on CLDN5 and ICAM1 without decreasing the levels of ABCD1 protein itself. Together, these data demonstrate that ABCD1 deficiency induces significant alterations in brain endothelium via c-MYC and may thereby contribute to the increased trafficking of leucocytes across the blood-brain barrier as seen in cerebral adrenouleukodystrophy. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Manousakis, Georgios; Han, Dong Y; Backonja, Miroslav
Cerebral fat embolism is an uncommon but serious complication of long-bone fracture. We report a young adult patient who sustained fat embolism after a femoral fracture. He developed stupor and coma within 24 hours from his injury. His acute recovery was characterized by marked frontal dysfunction. A comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation 4 months later revealed overall normal cognitive function, except for mild residual frontal dysfunction and weakness of verbal memory. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; McPhee, B. R.; Rummans, T. A.; Low, P. A.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). METHODS: Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. RESULTS: The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by
Novak, V; Spies, J M; Novak, P; McPhee, B R; Rummans, T A; Low, P A
Orthostatic and other stresses trigger tachycardia associated with symptoms of tremulousness, shortness of breath, dizziness, blurred vision, and, often, syncope. It has been suggested that paradoxical cerebral vasoconstriction during head-up tilt might be present in patients with orthostatic intolerance. We chose to study middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebral vasoregulation during tilt in patients with orthostatic intolerance (OI). Beat-to-beat BFV from the MCA, heart rate, CO2, blood pressure (BP), and respiration were measured in 30 patients with OI (25 women and 5 men; age range, 21 to 44 years; mean age, 31.3+/-1.2 years) and 17 control subjects (13 women and 4 men; age range, 20 to 41 years; mean age, 30+/-1.6 years); ages were not statistically different. These indices were monitored during supine rest and head-up tilt (HUT). We compared spontaneous breathing and hyperventilation and evaluated the effect of CO2 rebreathing in these 2 positions. The OI group had higher supine heart rates (P<0.001) and cardiac outputs (P<0.01) than the control group. In response to HUT, OI patients underwent a greater heart rate increment (P<0.001) and greater reductions in pulse pressure (P<0.01) and CO2 (P<0.001), but total systemic resistance failed to show an increment. Among the cerebrovascular indices, all BFVs (systolic, diastolic, and mean) decreased significantly more, and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was increased in OI patients (P<0.01) compared with control subjects. In both groups, hyperventilation induced mild tachycardia (P<0.001), a significant reduction of BFV, and a significant increase of CVR associated with a fall in CO2. Hyperventilation during HUT reproduced hypocapnia, BFV reduction, and tachycardia and worsened symptoms of OI; these symptoms and indices were improved within 2 minutes of CO2 rebreathing. The relationships between CO2 and BFV and heart rate were well described by linear regressions, and the slope was not
Prins, Mayumi L.
Cerebral metabolism of ketones is a normal part of the process of brain development. While the mature brain relies on glucose as a primary fuel source, metabolism of ketone bodies remains an alternative energy source under conditions of starvation. The neuroprotective properties of brain ketone metabolism make this alternative substrate a viable therapeutic option for various pathologies. Since the ability to revert to utilizing ketones as an alternative substrate is greatest in the younger post-weaned brain, this particular therapeutic approach remains an untapped resource particularly for pediatric pathological conditions. PMID:22104087
Pasha, Evan P; Tarumi, Takashi; Haley, Andreana P; Tanaka, Hirofumi
We determined if transcranial color-coded Doppler derived hemodynamics are associated with MRI-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) in regions clinically important to dementia in healthy middle-aged adults. In 30 subjects (18m/12f; age = 52 ± 1 years), blood flow velocity (BFV) and cerebrovascular conductance (CVC) were measured with transcranial color-coded Doppler (TCCD) at the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed with arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI. BFV and CVC were associated with hippocampus (r = 0.58 and r = 0.61, both p < 0.01) and occipitoparietal (r = 0.50 and r = 0.58, both p < 0.01) CBF. CVC was further associated with posterior cingulate CBF (r = 0.58 p < 0.01). Independent of age and sex, BFV and CVC were associated with hippocampus (r = 0.59 and r = 0.55, both p < 0.003) and occipitoparietal (r = 0.50 and r = 0.57, both p < 0.01) CBF. CVC was independently associated with posterior cingulate CBF (r = 0.38, p = 0.049). TCCD-measured BFV and CVC of the MCA are indicators of cerebral perfusion to clinically valuable brain regions in healthy middle-aged adults. TCCD may not be a good indicator of blood flow to cerebral white matter.
Tan, Xiaoping; Guo, Yang; Dun, Saihong; Sun, Hongzan
Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference. We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI). Brain MRI at 24 h after admission showed a large cerebral infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, including the posteroinferior part of Broca's area in the right frontal lobe, the right temporal lobe, and the right occipital lobe. The patient exhibited a non-fluent aphasia on a standard language test (the Aphasia Battery of Chinese [ABC]) performed on the 7th day after onset. Thus, atypical language dominance was suspected. One week after admission, ASL imaging showed high perfusion in the infarct core zone and low perfusion in the left cerebellar hemisphere. Two months later, PET/MRI demonstrated low metabolism in the posterior frontal lobe, temporal lobe, temporal occipital junction area, and the right basal ganglia. The findings suggest that the patient has right-sided cerebral language dominance, or that both hemispheres have linguistic functions. Not all patients show linguistic capabilities on the side opposite hand preference. The language dominance should be predicted by a combination of clinical manifestations and functional imaging techniques.
Song, Jin-Ning; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Yong-Lin; Ma, Xu-Dong
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the cerebral metabolism and energy metabolism measurements can be used to assess blood flow of brain cells and to detect cell activity. Changes of rCBF in the cerebral microcirculation and energy metabolism were determined in an experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model in 56 large-eared Japanese rabbits about 12 to 16-month old. Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to detect the blood supply to brain cells. Internal carotid artery and vein blood samples were used for duplicate blood gas analysis to assess the energy metabolism of brain cells. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) as an imaging reagent. The percentage of injected dose per gram of brain tissue was calculated and analyzed. There were positive correlations between the percentage of radionuclide injected per gram of brain tissue and rCBF supply and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (P < 0.05). However, there was a negative correlation between radioactivity counts per unit volume detected on the SPECT rheoencephalogram and lactic acid concentration in the homolateral internal carotid artery and vein. In summary, this study found abnormal CBF in metabolism and utilization of brain cells after SAH, and also found that deterioration of energy metabolism of brain cells played a significant role in the development of SAH. There are matched reductions in CBF and metabolism. Thus, SPECT imaging could be used as a noninvasive method to detect CBF.
Rudolph, A M
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn infants is generally considered to result from decreased arterial oxygen content or cerebral blood flow. Cerebral injury similar to that of HIE has been noted with hypoglycemia. Studies in fetal lambs have shown that ventilation with 3% oxygen did not change cerebral blood flow, but ventilation with 100% oxygen resulted in marked reduction in cerebral blood flow, glucose delivery and glucose consumption. Blood glucose concentration falls markedly after birth; this, associated with the fall in cerebral blood flow, greatly reduces glucose supply to the brain. In preterm infants, blood glucose levels tend to be very low. Also persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus may reduce cerebral flow in diastole, thus exaggerating the decrease in glucose supply. I propose that glycopenic-ischemic encephalopathy is a more appropriate term for the cerebral insult. We should consider more aggressive management of the low blood glucose concentrations in the neonate, and particularly in preterm infants. Administration of high levels of oxygen in inspired air should be avoided to reduce the enhancement of cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased flow that normally occurs after birth.
Jenks, Kathleen M.; de Moor, Jan; van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.; Withagen, Floortje
The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the quality of arithmetic education for children with cerebral palsy. The use of individual educational plans, amount of arithmetic instruction time, arithmetic instructional grouping, and type of arithmetic teaching method were explored in three groups: children with cerebral palsy (CP) in…
Shekhar, Shashank; Liu, Ruen; Travis, Olivia K; Roman, Richard J; Fan, Fan
Aging and chronic hypertension are associated with dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle, endothelial cells, and neurovascular coupling. These dysfunctions induce impaired myogenic response and cerebral autoregulation, which diminish the protection of cerebral arterioles to the cerebral microcirculation from elevated pressure in hypertension. Chronic hypertension promotes cerebral focal ischemia in response to reductions in blood pressure that are often seen in sedentary elderly patients on antihypertensive therapy. Cerebral autoregulatory dysfunction evokes Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) leakage, allowing the circulating inflammatory factors to infiltrate the brain to activate glia. The impaired cerebral autoregulation-induced inflammatory and ischemic injury could cause neuronal cell death and synaptic dysfunction which promote cognitive deficits. In this brief review, we summarize the pathogenesis and signaling mechanisms of cerebral autoregulation in hypertension and ischemic stroke-induced cognitive deficits, and discuss our new targets including 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), Gamma-Adducin (Add3) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that may contribute to the altered cerebral vascular function. PMID:29333537
Bearden, David R.; Monokwane, Baphaleng; Khurana, Esha; Baier, James; Baranov, Esther; Westmoreland, Kate; Mazhani, Loeto; Steenhoff, Andrew P.
BACKGROUND Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor dysfunction in children worldwide and is often accompanied by multiple comorbidities. Although cerebral palsy has been studied extensively in high-resource settings, there are few published studies on cerebral palsy etiology, outcomes and comorbidities in low-resource settings. METHODS Children with cerebral palsy were prospectively enrolled from inpatient and outpatient settings at a referral center in Gaborone, Botswana, in a cross-sectional study conducted from 2013 to 2014. Cerebral palsy etiology, outcomes, and comorbidities were determined through caregiver interviews, review of medical records, and direct physical examination. RESULTS Sixty-eight children with cerebral palsy were enrolled. Subjects were 41% male, with a median age of 4 years (interquartile range = 2 to 7). The most common etiologies for cerebral palsy in our cohort were intrapartum hypoxic events (18%), postnatal infections (15%), prematurity (15%), focal ischemic strokes (10%), and prenatal infections (10%). Severe motor impairment was common, with the most severe category present in 41%. The predominant comorbidities were cognitive impairment (84%), epilepsy (77%), and visual impairment (46%). CONCLUSIONS Cerebral palsy in Botswana has different etiologies and is associated with poorer outcomes and higher prevalence of comorbidities than what has been reported in high-resource settings. Further studies are necessary to determine optimal preventative and treatment strategies in this population. PMID:27114082
Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.
Noninvasive, transcranial mapping, monitoring, and imaging are highly important for detection and management of cerebral abnormalities and neuroscience research. Mapping, imaging, and monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation are necessary for diagnostics and management of patients with traumatic brain injury, stroke, and other neurological conditions. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for noninvasive, transcranial monitoring and imaging. In this work, we developed optoacoustic systems for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation in humans and tested them in adults and neonates. The systems provide noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic measurements in the transmission (forward) and reflection (backward) modes in the near infrared spectral range. Novel, ultra-sensitive probes were built for detection of optoacoustic signals and measurement of blood oxygenation in neonates and adults. Cerebral oxygenation was measured at different lateral sites from the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein, located immediately beneath the midline of the human skull. In neonates, cerebral oxygenation was measured through open anterior and posterior fontanelles. Optoacoustic signal detection at different locations allowed for mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation. Our future studies will be focused on 3D mapping of cerebral blood oxygenation.
Moss, Heather E.
The retinal circulation is a potential marker of cerebral vascular disease because it shares origin and drainage with the intracranial circulation and because it can be directly visualized using ophthalmoscopy. Cross sectional and cohort studies have demonstrated associations between chronic retinal and cerebral vascular disease, acute retinal and cerebral vascular disease and chronic retinal vascular disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. In particular, certain qualitative features of retinopathy, retinal artery occlusion and increased retinal vein caliber are associated with concurrent and future cerebrovascular events. These associations persist after accounting for confounding variables known to be disease-causing in both circulations, which supports the potential use of retinal vasculature findings to stratify individuals with regards to cerebral vascular disease risk. PMID:26008809
Cohan, S.L.; Mun, S.K.; Petite, J.
Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 washout in 13 patients 6-46 hours after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Patients regaining consciousness had relatively normal cerebral blood flow before regaining consciousness, but all patients who died without regaining consciousness had increased cerebral blood flow that appeared within 24 hours after resuscitation (except in one patient in whom the first measurement was delayed until 28 hours after resuscitation, by which time cerebral blood flow was increased). The cause of the delayed-onset increase in cerebral blood flow is not known, but the increase may have adverse effects on brain function and maymore » indicate the onset of irreversible brain damage.« less
Pizza, Fabio; Biallas, Martin; Kallweit, Ulf; Wolf, Martin; Bassetti, Claudio L
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) negatively impacts stroke outcome. Near-infrared spectroscopy showed the acute cerebral hemodynamic effects of SDB. Eleven patients (7 men, age 61±13 years) with acute/subacute middle cerebral artery stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 10±7) and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index 32±28/hour) were assessed with nocturnal polysomnography and bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy recording. Cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration changes during obstructive and central apneas were analyzed. During SDB, near-infrared spectroscopy showed asymmetrical patterns of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentrations with changes significantly larger on the unaffected compared with the affected hemisphere. Brain tissue hypoxia was more severe during obstructive compared with central apneas. Profound cerebral deoxygenation effects of SDB occurred in acute/subacute stroke. These changes may contribute to poor outcome, arising in the possibility of a potential benefit of SDB treatment in stroke management.
Nemkova, S A
The article covers the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mental impairment in children with cerebral palsy. Mental disorders in cerebral palsy include cognitive impairment (disorders of perception, memory, attention, motor-visual coordination, intelligence and speech), border disorders (cerebral/asthenic, neurosis-like, psychopathic-like syndromes) and personality disorders (accentuation of character, mental infantilism). Diagnosis of mental disorders in patients with cerebral palsy is a challenging task, due to various combinations of them with physical, speech and sensory disorders, which requires a differentiated approach. Current trends in comprehensive system of rehabilitation, including medical and social, and psychological-pedagogical correction of cognitive, emotional and behavioral disorders, in cerebral palsy are reviewed. Experience of using cortexin, which compensates for cognitive impairment and improves social adaptation, is discussed.
Schmid, Manuel B; Hopfner, Reinhard J; Lenhof, Susanne; Hummler, Helmut D; Fuchs, Hans
Episodes of hypoxemia and bradycardia frequently occur with apnea of prematurity in preterm infants. Little is known about the impact of different event types on the brain. To describe the influence of hypoxemia and bradycardia, either isolated or in combination, on cerebral oxygenation. In 16 preterm infants with intermittent hypoxemia and/or bradycardia, cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StO2, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy), heart rate and pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) were recorded simultaneously for 16 h. Events were classified as isolated bradycardia (type 1), isolated hypoxemia (type 2) or combined (simultaneous, type 3; bradycardia first, type 4; hypoxemia first, type 5). Primary outcome was a score representing the area below baseline for cerebral StO2 desaturation during an event. Secondary outcomes were duration and depth of cerebral desaturation. Patients had a median (range) gestational age of 25.9 (22.6-30.4) weeks and a postnatal age of 32.5 (7-58) days. The median (quartiles) number of events was 49 (34-58). Isolated hypoxemias were the most frequent events (24; 9-36) and isolated bradycardias the least common (0; 0-1). Cerebral StO2 baseline was not different between event types. Cerebral desaturation score, duration of event and depth of cerebral desaturation were smallest for isolated bradycardias and largest for combined events, especially for those starting with hypoxemia followed by bradycardia. Regardless of event type, 12/16 infants maintained cerebral StO2 >60% despite severe SpO2 desaturations. Isolated bradycardias had the lowest impact on cerebral desaturation, and combined events had the highest. Most infants preserved cerebral oxygenation >60% during events. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Fan, Jingjing; Li, Yi; Fu, Xinyu; Li, Lijuan; Hao, Xiaoting; Li, Shasha
Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model. PMID:28400817
Corballis, Michael C.
Handedness and cerebral asymmetry are commonly assumed to be uniquely human, and even defining characteristics of our species. This is increasingly refuted by the evidence of behavioural asymmetries in non-human species. Although complex manual skill and language are indeed unique to our species and are represented asymmetrically in the brain, some non-human asymmetries appear to be precursors, and others are shared between humans and non-humans. In all behavioural and cerebral asymmetries so far investigated, a minority of individuals reverse or negate the dominant asymmetry, suggesting that such asymmetries are best understood in the context of the overriding bilateral symmetry of the brain and body, and a trade-off between the relative advantages and disadvantages of symmetry and asymmetry. Genetic models of handedness, for example, typically postulate a gene with two alleles, one disposing towards right-handedness and the other imposing no directional influence. There is as yet no convincing evidence as to the location of this putative gene, suggesting that several genes may be involved, or that the gene may be monomorphic with variations due to environmental or epigenetic influences. Nevertheless, it is suggested that, in behavioural, neurological and evolutionary terms, it may be more profitable to examine the degree rather than the direction of asymmetry. PMID:19064358
Uclés, P; Almárcegui, C; Lorente, S; Romero, F; Marco, M
Neuroimaging methods have failed to disclose correlation between degree of cerebral atrophy and blood flow in carotid artery stenosis patients. Moreover, intellectual improvement after carotid endarterectomy does not correlate fully with neuroimaging data in such patients. We performed brain electrical activity mapping and psychological testing before and 4 weeks after operation in 28 patients with symptomatic, high-grade, carotid stenosis. Postoperatively, electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and absolute theta power improved significantly (p < 0.01). Mean frequency increased >1 Hz in most areas while power decreased dramatically, mainly because of resolution of high-voltage foci in 8 patients. Differences were conspicuous in both frontal lobes irrespective of the operated side, which suggests changes in perfusion affecting the whole brain. This is a positive effect of endarterectomy. Mini-Mental test and Set Test for verbal fluency had a positive correlation with the qEEG changes. Quantitative EEG as a measure of cerebral function has disclosed discriminative improvement in the early postoperative period. Our results support the thesis of improvement subsequent to endarterectomy.
Fan, Chia-Kwung; Holland, Celia V; Loxton, Karen; Barghouth, Ursula
Toxocara canis and T. cati are highly prevalent nematode infections of the intestines of dogs and cats. In paratenic hosts, larvae do not mature in the intestine but instead migrate through the somatic tissues and organs of the body. The presence of these migrating larvae can contribute to pathology. Toxocara larvae can invade the brains of humans, and while case descriptions of cerebral toxocariasis are historically rare, improved diagnosis and greater awareness have contributed to increased detection. Despite this, cerebral or neurological toxocariasis (NT) remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, our understanding of cognitive deficits due to toxocariasis in human populations remains particularly deficient. Recent data describe an enhanced expression of biomarkers associated with brain injury, such as GFAP, AβPP, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), NF-L, S100B, tTG, and p-tau, in mice receiving even low doses of Toxocara ova. Finally, this review outlines a hypothesis to explore the relationship between the presence of T. canis larvae in the brain and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to enhanced AD-associated neurodegenerative biomarker expression. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
van Veluw, Susanne J; Greenberg, Steven M
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common form of cerebral small vessel disease and an important risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment. While the majority of research has focused on the hemorrhagic manifestation of CAA, its ischemic manifestations appear to have substantial clinical relevance as well. Findings from imaging and pathologic studies indicate that ischemic lesions are common in CAA, including white-matter hyperintensities, microinfarcts, and microstructural tissue abnormalities as detected with diffusion tensor imaging. Furthermore, imaging markers of ischemic disease show a robust association with cognition, independent of age, hemorrhagic lesions, and traditional vascular risk factors. Widespread ischemic tissue injury may affect cognition by disrupting white-matter connectivity, thereby hampering communication between brain regions. Challenges are to identify imaging markers that are able to capture widespread microvascular lesion burden in vivo and to further unravel the etiology of ischemic tissue injury by linking structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities to their underlying pathophysiology and histopathology. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ischemic brain injury in CAA will be a key step toward new interventions to improve long-term cognitive outcomes for patients with CAA. PMID:25944592
Armand, Stéphane; Decoulon, Geraldo; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice
Cerebral palsy (CP) children present complex and heterogeneous motor disorders that cause gait deviations.Clinical gait analysis (CGA) is needed to identify, understand and support the management of gait deviations in CP. CGA assesses a large amount of quantitative data concerning patients' gait characteristics, such as video, kinematics, kinetics, electromyography and plantar pressure data.Common gait deviations in CP can be grouped into the gait patterns of spastic hemiplegia (drop foot, equinus with different knee positions) and spastic diplegia (true equinus, jump, apparent equinus and crouch) to facilitate communication. However, gait deviations in CP tend to be a continuum of deviations rather than well delineated groups. To interpret CGA, it is necessary to link gait deviations to clinical impairments and to distinguish primary gait deviations from compensatory strategies.CGA does not tell us how to treat a CP patient, but can provide objective identification of gait deviations and further the understanding of gait deviations. Numerous treatment options are available to manage gait deviations in CP. Generally, treatments strive to limit secondary deformations, re-establish the lever arm function and preserve muscle strength.Additional roles of CGA are to better understand the effects of treatments on gait deviations. Cite this article: Armand S, Decoulon G, Bonnefoy-Mazure A. Gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:448-460. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000052.
Holland, Celia V.; Loxton, Karen; Barghouth, Ursula
SUMMARY Toxocara canis and T. cati are highly prevalent nematode infections of the intestines of dogs and cats. In paratenic hosts, larvae do not mature in the intestine but instead migrate through the somatic tissues and organs of the body. The presence of these migrating larvae can contribute to pathology. Toxocara larvae can invade the brains of humans, and while case descriptions of cerebral toxocariasis are historically rare, improved diagnosis and greater awareness have contributed to increased detection. Despite this, cerebral or neurological toxocariasis (NT) remains a poorly understood phenomenon. Furthermore, our understanding of cognitive deficits due to toxocariasis in human populations remains particularly deficient. Recent data describe an enhanced expression of biomarkers associated with brain injury, such as GFAP, AβPP, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), NF-L, S100B, tTG, and p-tau, in mice receiving even low doses of Toxocara ova. Finally, this review outlines a hypothesis to explore the relationship between the presence of T. canis larvae in the brain and the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to enhanced AD-associated neurodegenerative biomarker expression. PMID:26062575
Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.
This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is offered in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy: spastic, athetoid,…
Hu, Kun; Peng, C K; Czosnyka, Marek; Zhao, Peng; Novak, Vera
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is an most important mechanism responsible for the relatively constant blood flow supply to brain when cerebral perfusion pressure varies. Its assessment in nonacute cases has been relied on the quantification of the relationship between noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and blood flow velocity (BFV). To overcome the nonstationary nature of physiological signals such as BP and BFV, a computational method called multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis was recently developed to study the nonlinear BP-BFV relationship during the Valsalva maneuver (VM). The present study aimed to determine (i) whether this method can estimate autoregulation from spontaneous BP and BFV fluctuations during baseline rest conditions; (ii) whether there is any difference between the MMPF measures of autoregulation based on intra-arterial BP (ABP) and based on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP); and (iii) whether the MMPF method provides reproducible and reliable measure for noninvasive assessment of autoregulation. To achieve these aims, we analyzed data from existing databases including: (i) ABP and BFV of 12 healthy control, 10 hypertensive, and 10 stroke subjects during baseline resting conditions and during the Valsalva maneuver, and (ii) ABP, CPP, and BFV of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were being paralyzed, sedated, and ventilated. We showed that autoregulation in healthy control subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between BP and BFV oscillations during the Valsalva maneuver, and the BP-BFV phase shifts were reduced in hypertensive and stroke subjects (P < 0.01), indicating impaired autoregulation. Similar results were found during baseline condition from spontaneous BP and BFV oscillations. The BP-BFV phase shifts obtained during baseline and during VM were highly correlated (R > 0.8, P < 0.0001), showing no statistical difference (paired-t test P > 0.47). In TBI patients there were strong correlations
Peng, C. K.; Czosnyka, Marek; Zhao, Peng
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is an most important mechanism responsible for the relatively constant blood flow supply to brain when cerebral perfusion pressure varies. Its assessment in nonacute cases has been relied on the quantification of the relationship between noninvasive beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and blood flow velocity (BFV). To overcome the nonstationary nature of physiological signals such as BP and BFV, a computational method called multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis was recently developed to study the nonlinear BP–BFV relationship during the Valsalva maneuver (VM). The present study aimed to determine (i) whether this method can estimate autoregulation from spontaneous BP and BFV fluctuations during baseline rest conditions; (ii) whether there is any difference between the MMPF measures of autoregulation based on intra-arterial BP (ABP) and based on cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP); and (iii) whether the MMPF method provides reproducible and reliable measure for noninvasive assessment of autoregulation. To achieve these aims, we analyzed data from existing databases including: (i) ABP and BFV of 12 healthy control, 10 hypertensive, and 10 stroke subjects during baseline resting conditions and during the Valsalva maneuver, and (ii) ABP, CPP, and BFV of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who were being paralyzed, sedated, and ventilated. We showed that autoregulation in healthy control subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between BP and BFV oscillations during the Valsalva maneuver, and the BP–BFV phase shifts were reduced in hypertensive and stroke subjects (P < 0.01), indicating impaired autoregulation. Similar results were found during baseline condition from spontaneous BP and BFV oscillations. The BP–BFV phase shifts obtained during baseline and during VM were highly correlated (R > 0.8, P < 0.0001), showing no statistical difference (paired-t test P > 0.47). In TBI patients there were strong
Rescoe, Erin; Tang, Xiaoqi; Perry, Dorothy Alison; Sleeper, Lynn A; DiNardo, James A; Kussman, Barry D; Kheir, John N
Measurement of cerebral venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (ScvO 2 ) is considered a gold standard in assessing the adequacy of tissue oxygen delivery (DO 2 ) after the stage 1 palliation (S1P), with SvO 2 <30% often representing severely compromised DO 2 . Regional oxygenation index (rSO 2 ) based on near-infrared resonance spectroscopy (NIRS) frequently is used to screen for compromised DO 2 , although its sensitivity to detect severe abnormalities in SvO 2 is uncertain. ScvO 2 was measured by co-oximetry from the internal jugular vein as clinically indicated in 73 neonates after S1P. These values were compared with cerebral rSO 2 (FORE-SIGHT; CASMED) via mixed effects model linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Because NIRS devices measure a composite of arterial and venous blood, we calculated an rSO 2 -based ScvO 2 designed to remove arterial contamination from the rSO 2 signal: rSO 2 -based ScvO 2 = (rSO 2 - arterial oxygen saturation × 0.3)/0.7. Among 520 time-matched pairs of ScvO 2 and cerebral rSO 2 , the slope of the relationship between rSO 2 and ScvO 2 (after we adjusted for effects of hemoglobin) was 0.37 ± 0.04 with only modest correlation (r 2 = 0.39), and mean bias of +8.26. When ScvO 2 was <30%, cerebral rSO 2 was <30 in less than 1%, <40 less than 1%, and <50 in 45.7% of data points; specificity of rSO 2 in the same range is >99%. Correction of rSO 2 for arterial contamination significantly decreased mean bias (+3.03) and improved the sensitivity of rSO 2 to detect ScvO 2 <30 to 6.5% for rSO 2 <30, 29% for rSO 2 <40, and 77.4% for rSO 2 <50. Cerebral rSO 2 in isolation should not be used to detect low ScvO 2 , because its sensitivity is low, although correction of rSO 2 for arterial contamination may improve sensitivity. Cerebral rSO 2 of 50 or greater should not be considered reassuring, though values below 30 are specific for low ScvO 2 . Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic
Rickards, Caroline A; Sprick, Justin D; Colby, Hannah B; Kay, Victoria L; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh
We tested the hypothesis that transmission of arterial pressure to brain tissue oxygenation is low under conditions of arterial pressure instability. Two experimental models of hemodynamic instability were used in healthy human volunteers; (1) oscillatory lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) (N = 8; 5 male, 3 female), and; (2) maximal LBNP to presyncope (N = 21; 13 male, 8 female). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (ScO2) were measured non-invasively. For the OLBNP protocol, between 0 and -60 mmHg negative pressure was applied for 20 cycles at 0.05 Hz, then 20 cycles at 0.1 Hz. For the maximal LBNP protocol, progressive 5 min stages of chamber decompression were applied until the onset of presyncope. Spectral power of MAP, mean MCAv, and ScO2 were calculated within the VLF (0.04-0.07 Hz), and LF (0.07-0.2 Hz) ranges, and cross-spectral coherence was calculated for MAP-mean MCAv, MAP-ScO2, and mean MCAv-ScO2 at baseline, during each OLBNP protocol, and at the level prior to pre-syncope during maximal LBNP (sub-max). The key findings are (1) both 0.1 Hz OLBNP and sub-max LBNP elicited increases in LF power for MAP, mean MCAv, and ScO2 (p ≤ 0.08); (2) 0.05 Hz OLBNP increased VLF power in MAP and ScO2 only (p ≤ 0.06); (3) coherence between MAP-mean MCAv was consistently higher (≥0.71) compared with MAP-ScO2, and mean MCAv-ScO2 (≤0.43) during both OLBNP protocols, and sub-max LBNP (p ≤ 0.04). These data indicate high linearity between pressure and cerebral blood flow variations, but reduced linearity between cerebral tissue oxygenation and both arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow. Measuring arterial pressure variability may not always provide adequate information about the downstream effects on cerebral tissue oxygenation, the key end-point of interest for neuronal viability.
Liu, Jie; Tseng, Benjamin Y; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Tarumi, Takashi; Hill, Candace; Mirshams, Niki; Hodics, Timea M; Hynan, Linda S; Zhang, Rong
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is a key mechanism to protect brain perfusion in the face of changes in arterial blood pressure, but little is known about individual variability of CA and its relationship to the presence of brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in older adults, a type of white matter lesion related to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). This study demonstrated the presence of large individual variability of CA in healthy older adults during vasoactive drug-induced changes in arterial pressure assessed at the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. We also observed, unexpectedly, that it was the 'over-' rather than the 'less-reactive' CA measured at the vertebral artery that was associated with WMH severity. These findings challenge the traditional concept of CA and suggest that the presence of cerebral SVD, manifested as WMH, is associated with posterior brain hypoperfusion during acute increase in arterial pressure. This study measured the individual variability of static cerebral autoregulation (CA) and determined its associations with brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in older adults. Twenty-seven healthy older adults (13 females, 66 ± 6 years) underwent assessment of CA during steady-state changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and phenylephrine. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using colour-coded duplex ultrasonography at the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries (VA). CA was quantified by a linear regression slope (CA slope) between percentage changes in cerebrovascular resistance (CVR = MAP/CBF) and MAP relative to baseline values. Periventricular and deep WMH volumes were measured with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. MAP was reduced by -11 ± 7% during SNP, and increased by 21 ± 8% during phenylephrine infusion. CA demonstrated large individual variability with the CA slopes ranging from 0.37 to 2.20 at the ICA and from 0.17 to 3.18 at the
Passerini, Tiziano; Veneziani, Alessandro; Sangalli, Laura; Secchi, Piercesare; Vantini, Simone
In cerebral blood circulation, the interplay of arterial geometrical features and flow dynamics is thought to play a significant role in the development of aneurysms. In the framework of the Aneurisk project, patient-specific morphology reconstructions were conducted with the open-source software VMTK (www.vmtk.org) on a set of computational angiography images provided by Ospedale Niguarda (Milano, Italy). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed with a software based on the library LifeV (www.lifev.org). The joint statistical analysis of geometries and simulations highlights the possible association of certain spatial patterns of radius, curvature and shear load along the Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) with the presence, position and previous event of rupture of an aneurysm in the entire cerebral vasculature. Moreover, some possible landmarks are identified to be monitored for the assessment of a Potential Rupture Risk Index.
Gärtner, Friederike; Forstenpointner, Julia; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Hooshmand, Babak; Riedel, Christian; Jansen, Olav
Purpose Invasive aspergillosis usually affects immunocompromised patients. It carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality and usually has a nonspecific clinical presentation. Early diagnosis is essential in order to start effective treatment and improve clinical outcome. Materials and Methods In a retrospective search of the PACS databases from two medical centers, we identified 9 patients with histologically proven cerebral aspergilloma. We systematically analyzed CT and MRI imaging findings to identify typical imaging appearances of cerebral aspergilloma. Results CT did not show a typical appearance of the aspergillomas. In 100 % (9/9) there was a rim-attenuated diffusion restriction on MRI imaging. Multiple hypointense layers in the aspergillus wall, especially on the internal side, were detected in 100 % on T2-weighted imaging (9/9). Aspergillomas were T1-hypointense in 66 % of cases (6/9) and partly T1-hyperintense in 33 % (3/9). In 78 % (7/9) of cases, a rim-attenuated diffusion restriction was detected after contrast agent application. Conclusion Nine cases were identified. Whereas CT features were less typical, we observed the following imaging features on MRI: A strong, rim-attenuated diffusion restriction (9/9); onion layer-like hypointense zones, in particular in the innermost part of the abscess wall on T2-weighted images (9/9). Enhancement of the lesion border was present in the majority of the cases (7/9). Key points · There are typical MRI imaging features of aspergillomas.. · However, these findings could be affected by the immune status of the patient.. · Swift identification of aspergilloma imaging patterns is essential to allow for adequate therapeutic decision making.. Citation Format · Gärtner F, Forstenpointner J, Ertl-Wagner B et al. CT and MRI Findings in Cerebral Aspergilloma. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-120766. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Panerai, Ronney B; Moody, Michelle; Eames, Penelope J; Potter, John F
Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) describes the transient response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to rapid changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP). We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of dynamic CA is increased by brain activation paradigms designed to induce hemispheric lateralization. CBF velocity [CBFV; bilateral, middle cerebral artery (MCA)], ABP, ECG, and end-tidal Pco(2) were continuously recorded in 14 right-handed healthy subjects (21-43 yr of age), in the seated position, at rest and during 10 repeated presentations (30 s on-off) of a word generation test and a constructional puzzle. Nonstationarities were not found during rest or activation. Transfer function analysis of the ABP-CBFV (i.e., input-output) relation was performed for the 10 separate 51.2-s segments of data during activation and compared with baseline data. During activation, the coherence function below 0.05 Hz was significantly increased for the right MCA recordings for the puzzle tasks compared with baseline values (0.36 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.13, P < 0.05) and for the left MCA recordings for the word paradigm (0.48 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.29 +/- 0.16, P < 0.05). In the same frequency range, significant increases in gain were observed during the puzzle paradigm for the right (0.69 +/- 0.37 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.32 cm.s(-1).mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) and left (0.61 +/- 0.29 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.24 cm.s(-1).mmHg(-1), P < 0.05) hemispheres and during the word tasks for the left hemisphere (0.66 +/- 0.31 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.15 cm.s(-1).mmHg(-1), P < 0.01). Significant reductions in phase were observed during activation with the puzzle task for the right (-0.04 +/- 1.01 vs. 0.80 +/- 0.86 rad, P < 0.01) and left (0.11 +/- 0.81 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.51 rad, P < 0.05) hemispheres and with the word paradigm for the right hemisphere (0.05 +/- 0.87 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.59 rad, P < 0.05). Brain activation also led to changes in the temporal pattern of the CBFV step response. We conclude that transfer function analysis suggests
Chen, Xiaofang; Bi, Hongye; Zhang, Meiyun; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Xueying; Zu, Ruonan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of sleep disorders (SD), characteristic of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected. The research selected 101 patients with a first occurrence of acute cerebral infarction as the experimental group, and 86 patients without cerebral infarction as controls. Polysomnography, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and US National Stroke Scale were assessed. Compared with control group, the incidence of SD was higher in experimental group (P < .05), and the incidence of SD in women was more frequent in experimental group (P < .05). There was no significant difference in the types of SD patients with acute cerebral infarction. In addition, the sleep quality of cerebral infarction patients with different parts affected was different: the sleep quality of left hemisphere infarction patients was poor compared with the right one, and the sleep quality of anterior circulation patients was poor compared with posterior circulation patients. Patients with thalamus infarction had a longer sleep time and a shorter sleep latency and stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with non-thalamus infarction group. The prevalence of SD was relatively high in acute cerebral infarction patients, and the detailed classification of acute cerebral infarction may provide a more effective therapeutic method and therefore relieve patients' pain and supply a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Le; Ke, Zheng; Tong, Kai Yu; Ying, Michael
Ischemic stroke is typically characterized by the disruption of cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to consecutively evaluate the cerebral blood flow changes in a focal ischemia rat model during the occlusion-reperfusion procedure and along the recovery stage after stroke. In 12 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAo/r) surgery was conducted, which combines a permanent occlusion of the right common carotid artery (CCA), external carotid artery (ECA) and a transient occlusion of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) with a monofilament introduced from the proximal ICA towards the distal right ICA then removed after 90 min. Blood flow velocity (BFV) from the concerned arteries were measured using ultrasonography (13-4 MHz) at the basal stage before the surgery, after the reperfusion stage and during the post-stroke status. At reperfusion stage and after, BFV increased significantly in the left ICA and in the basilar artery (BA) (starting from post-24 h, p < 0.05 vs. basal). Moreover, BFV were reversed in the distal right ICA and reflow was recorded in the right MCA. Time-average maximum BFV in the right MCA at reperfusion and post-stroke 24-96 h was decreased significantly (p < 0.05 vs. basal). The reversed flow in the right ICA was enabled by the settlement of the collateral supply through the circle of Willis which consisted in higher BFV in the opposite ICA and in the BA still 24 h, although the proximal right ICA remain occluded. Ultrasound measurement of BFV helps to provide information on the redistribution of the blood flow supply after the onset of stroke. Copyright 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jahan, Israt; Muhit, Mohammad; Karim, Tasneem; Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Novak, Iona; Jones, Cheryl; Badawi, Nadia; Khandaker, Gulam
To assess the nutritional status and underlying risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy in rural Bangladesh. We used data from the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register; a prospective population based surveillance of children with cerebral palsy aged 0-18 years in a rural subdistrict of Bangladesh (i.e., Shahjadpur). Socio-demographic, clinical and anthropometric measurements were collected using Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register record form. Z scores were calculated using World Health Organization Anthro and World Health Organization AnthroPlus software. A total of 726 children with cerebral palsy were registered into the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register (mean age 7.6 years, standard deviation 4.5, 38.1% female) between January 2015 and December 2016. More than two-third of children were underweight (70.0%) and stunted (73.1%). Mean z score for weight for age, height for age and weight for height were -2.8 (standard deviation 1.8), -3.1 (standard deviation 2.2) and -1.2 (standard deviation 2.3) respectively. Moderate to severe undernutrition (i.e., both underweight and stunting) were significantly associated with age, monthly family income, gross motor functional classification system and neurological type of cerebral palsy. The burden of undernutrition is high among children with cerebral palsy in rural Bangladesh which is augmented by both poverty and clinical severity. Enhancing clinical nutritional services for children with cerebral palsy should be a public health priority in Bangladesh. Implications for Rehabilitation Population-based surveillance data on nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy in Bangladesh indicates substantially high burden of malnutrition among children with CP in rural Bangladesh. Children with severe form of cerebral palsy, for example, higher Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, tri/quadriplegic cerebral palsy presents the highest proportion of severe malnutrition; hence, these
Duebener, Lennart F; Hagino, Ikuo; Schmitt, Katharina; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Stamm, Christof; Zurakowski, David; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Jonas, Richard A
Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used in some centers during aortic arch surgery for brain protection during hypothermic circulatory arrest. It is still unclear however whether RCP provides adequate microcirculatory blood flow at a capillary level. We used intravital microscopy to directly visualize the cerebral capillary blood flow in a piglet model of RCP. Twelve pigs (weight 9.7 +/- 0.9 kg) were divided into two groups (n = 6 each): deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and RCP. After the creation of a window over the parietal cerebral cortex, pigs underwent 10 minutes of normothermic bypass and 40 minutes of cooling to 15 degrees C on cardiopulmonary bypass ([CPB] pH-stat, hemocrit 30%, pump flow 100 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). This was followed by 45 minutes of DHCA and rewarming on CPB to 37 degrees C. In the RCP group the brain was retrogradely perfused (pump flow 30 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during DHCA through the superior vena cava after inferior vena cava occlusion. Plasma was labeled with fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran for assessing microvascular diameter and functional capillary density (FCD), defined as total length of erythrocyte-perfused capillaries per observation area. Cerebral tissue oxygenation was determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) autofluorescence, which increases during tissue ischemia. During normothermic and hypothermic antegrade cerebral perfusion the FCD did not significantly change from base line (97% +/- 14% and 96% +/- 12%, respectively). During retrograde cerebral perfusion the FCD decreased highly significantly to 2% +/- 2% of base line values (p < 0.001). Thus there was no evidence of significant capillary blood flow during retrograde cerebral perfusion. The microvascular diameter of cerebral arterioles that were slowly perfused significantly decreased to 27% +/- 6% of base line levels during RCP. NADH fluorescence progressively and significantly increased during RCP, indicating poorer tissue
Bear, Joshua J.; Wu, Yvonne W.
INTRODUCTION Chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for cerebral palsy. The relationship between extra-amniotic infections and cerebral palsy is less well studied. We examined maternal intra- and extra-amniotic infections and risk of cerebral palsy in the child. METHODS Among a retrospective cohort of six million Californian births, 1991–2001, we analyzed administrative maternal and newborn hospital discharge abstracts linked to records of all children receiving services for cerebral palsy at the California Department of Developmental Services. We identified maternal hospital diagnoses of intra-amniotic (chorioamnionitis) and extra-amniotic (other genitourinary and respiratory) infections occurring up to twelve months before delivery. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the independent association between maternal infections and cerebral palsy, adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, race, education, socioeconomic status, and obesity. RESULTS 5.5% of mothers had a hospital discharge diagnosis of at least one of the following: chorioamnionitis (2.0%), other genitourinary (3.1%), and respiratory infection (0.6%). An infection diagnosis was more common in mothers of the 8,473 infants with cerebral palsy than in mothers of unaffected children (13.7% vs. 5.5%, P<0.001). All three types of maternal infections (chorioamnionitis, OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.9–3.4; other genitourinary infection, OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6; and respiratory infection, OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.2) were associated with cerebral palsy in multivariable analyses. Maternal extra-amniotic infections, whether diagnosed during prenatal or birth hospitalizations, conferred an increased risk of cerebral palsy. CONCLUSIONS Maternal extra-amniotic infections diagnosed in the hospital during pregnancy are associated with a modestly increased risk of cerebral palsy in the child. PMID:26857522
Doorenweerd, Nathalie; Dumas, Eve M; Ghariq, Eidrees; Schmid, Sophie; Straathof, Chiara S M; Roest, Arno A W; Wokke, Beatrijs H; van Zwet, Erik W; Webb, Andrew G; Hendriksen, Jos G M; van Buchem, Mark A; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Asllani, Iris; Niks, Erik H; van Osch, Matthias J P; Kan, Hermien E
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by dystrophin gene mutations which lead to the absence of the protein dystrophin. A significant proportion of patients suffer from learning and behavioural disabilities, in addition to muscle weakness. We have previously shown that these patients have a smaller total brain and grey matter volume, and altered white matter microstructure compared to healthy controls. Patients with more distal gene mutations, predicted to affect dystrophin isoforms Dp140 and Dp427, showed greater grey matter reduction. Now, we studied if cerebral blood flow in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients is altered, since cerebral expression of dystrophin also occurs in vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes associated with cerebral vasculature. T1-weighted anatomical and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow images were obtained from 26 patients and 19 age-matched controls (ages 8-18 years) on a 3 tesla MRI scanner. Group comparisons of cerebral blood flow were made with and without correcting for grey matter volume using partial volume correction. Results showed that patients had a lower cerebral blood flow than controls (40.0 ± 6.4 and 47.8 ± 6.3 mL/100 g/min respectively, p = 0.0002). This reduction was independent of grey matter volume, suggesting that they are two different aspects of the pathophysiology. Cerebral blood flow was lowest in patients lacking Dp140. There was no difference in CBF between ambulant and non-ambulant patients. Only three patients showed a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. No correlation between cerebral blood flow and age was found. Our results indicate that cerebral perfusion is reduced in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients independent of the reduced grey matter volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kwon, Osun; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kwon Sam; Bae, Jong Hoa; Kim, Myung Shick; Song, Jung Sang
To evaluate the significance of episodes of cerebral embolism in patients with mitral valve disease in Korea, 128 patients with echocardiographic diagnosis of mitral valve disease were examined. Among these, 82 patients had predominant mitral stenosis. The clinical features of 82 patients with mitral stenosis have been reviewed to elucidate the factors favoring cerebral embolism which occurred in 19 patients, i.e., incidence of 23.2%.Atrial fibrillation was present in 16 of 19 patients with cerebral embolism (84.2%). Cerebral embolic episodes occurred in 16 of 47 patients with atrial fibrillation (34.0%).The mean age (55.3 ± 12.1 years) of patients without cerebral embolism was significantly older than that (43.2 ± 14.6 years) of patients without cerebral embolism (P<0.005).There was no significant relationship between the incidence of embolism and sex, left atrial thrombi, left atrium/aortic root diameter, mitral valvular orifice area, mitral valvular vegetation or calcification, left ventricular enddiastolic dimension or left ventricular posterior wall thickness. Cerebral embolism is common in patients with mitral stenosis in our country. The presence of atrial fibrillation and low cardiac output increase the attack of cerebral emboli whereas the severity of mitral stenosis, as judged by valve area, may not correlate with the occurrence of emboli. The best treatment for cerebral embolism is prevention. Therefore, we believe that more vigorous treatment of patients with mitral valve disease who are old or associated with atrial fibrillation as well as previous embolic history is indicated. PMID:15759378
Park, Chang Sub; Payne, Stephen J
The cerebral microvasculature plays a vital role in adequately supplying blood to the brain. Determining the health of the cerebral microvasculature is important during pathological conditions, such as stroke and dementia. Recent studies have shown the complex relationship between cerebral metabolic rate and transit time distribution, the transit times of all the possible pathways available dependent on network topology. In this paper, we extend a recently developed technique to solve for residue function, the amount of tracer left in the vasculature at any time, and transit time distribution in an existing model of the cerebral microvasculature to calculate cerebral metabolism. We present the mathematical theory needed to solve for oxygen concentration followed by results of the simulations. It is found that oxygen extraction fraction, the fraction of oxygen removed from the blood in the capillary network by the tissue, and cerebral metabolic rate are dependent on both mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution. For changes in cerebral blood flow, a positive correlation can be observed between mean transit time and oxygen extraction fraction, and a negative correlation between mean transit time and metabolic rate of oxygen. A negative correlation can also be observed between transit time heterogeneity and the metabolic rate of oxygen for a constant cerebral blood flow. A sensitivity analysis on the mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution was able to quantify their respective contributions to oxygen extraction fraction and metabolic rate of oxygen. Mean transit time has a greater contribution than the heterogeneity for oxygen extraction fraction. This is found to be opposite for metabolic rate of oxygen. These results provide information on the role of the cerebral microvasculature and its effects on flow and metabolism. They thus open up the possibility of obtaining additional valuable clinical information for diagnosing and treating
Madsen, P L; Sperling, B K; Warming, T; Schmidt, J F; Secher, N H; Wildschiødtz, G; Holm, S; Lassen, N A
Results obtained by the 133Xe clearance method with external detectors and by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) suggest that dynamic exercise causes an increase of global average cerebral blood flow (CBF). These data are contradicted by earlier data obtained during less-well-defined conditions. To investigate this controversy, we applied the Kety-Schmidt technique to measure the global average levels of CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during rest and dynamic exercise. Simultaneously with the determination of CBF and CMRO2, we used TCD to determine mean maximal flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean). For values of CBF and MCA Vmean a correction for an observed small drop in arterial PCO2 was carried out. Baseline values for global CBF and CMRO2 were 50.7 and 3.63 ml.100 g-1.min-1, respectively. The same values were found during dynamic exercise, whereas a 22% (P < 0.0001) increase in MCA Vmean was observed. Hence, the exercise-induced increase in MCA Vmean is not a reflection of a proportional increase in CBF.
Jan, Basil M.; Jan, Mohammed M.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common chronic motor disorder with associated cognitive, communicative, and seizure disorders. Children with CP have a higher risk of dental problems creating significant morbidity that can further affect their wellbeing and negatively impact their quality of life. Screening for dental disease should be part of the initial assessment of any child with CP. The objective of this article is to present an updated overview of dental health issues in children with CP and outline important preventative and practical strategies to the management of this common comorbidity. Providing adequate oral care requires adaptation of special dental skills to help families manage the ongoing health issues that may arise. As oral health is increasingly recognized as a foundation for general wellbeing, caregivers for CP patients should be considered an important component of the oral health team and must become knowledgeable and competent in home oral health practices. PMID:27744459
Serratrice, G; Gastaut, J L; Pellissier, J F; Baret, J; Roux, H; Cartouzou, G
Amyotrophy of cerebral origin was analyzed in 12 hemiplegics by means of comparative histological, histoenzymological, histographic and biochemical analysis of biopsies carried out in symmetrical zones. In the 6 cases in which atrophy predominated on the paralyzed side, it occurred early, the deficiency affecting the upper limb in particular and the sensory disturbance being irregular. Attempted numeration of the motor units remaining, according to the "incremential" method of stimulation, suggests a numerical reduction on the hemipelgic side. Despite reservations and general criticisms of this method, its comparative value, although approximate, must be acknowledged. However, although amyotrophy presumes a transsynaptic change in trophic function to have taken place in the peripheral neurone, neuronal depopulation--if one accepts it--cannot be other than functional.
Abraham, R; Irwin, R B; Kannappan, D; Isalska, B; Koroma, M; Younis, N
We present a case of aortic and tricuspid native valve endocarditis in which Cardiobacterium valvarum was isolated from the blood culture of a 65-year-old man. Cardiobacterium valvarum is a fastidious, Gram-negative bacillus. The genus Cardiobacterium encompasses two species - Cardiobacterium valvarum and Cardiobacterium hominis. Although both species rarely feature as the aetiological agent of endocarditis, Cardiobacterium hominis has a higher incidence than Cardiobacterium valvarum. For this causative organism, we believe this is the first report of fatality prior to surgical intervention and the first clinical course to be complicated by cerebral vasculitis. Native valve endocarditis caused by Gram-negative bacilli is extremely rare and identification of isolates may require the use of reference laboratories with molecular identification techniques.
Mrugacz, Małgorzata; Bandzul, Krzysztof; Kułak, Wojciech; Poppe, Ewa; Jurowski, Piotr
Ocular changes are common in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and they exist in about 50% of cases. The most common are refractive errors and strabismus disease. The aim of the paper was to estimate the relativeness between refractive errors and neurological pathologies in patients with selected types of CP. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The subject of the analysis was showing refractive errors in patients within two groups of CP: diplegia spastica and tetraparesis, with nervous system pathologies taken into account. Results. This study was proven some correlations between refractive errors and type of CP and severity of the CP classified in GMFCS scale. Refractive errors were more common in patients with tetraparesis than with diplegia spastica. In the group with diplegia spastica more common were myopia and astigmatism, however in tetraparesis - hyperopia.
Hwang, Eui Ho; Ahn, Poong Gi; Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Hyeok Su
A 24-year-old man presented with mental change, fever, abdominal pain, tenderness and palpable mass on the lower abdomen. He was a non-Korean engineer and did not accompany a legal guardian, so medical history taking was difficult due to his mental status. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple rim-enhanced lesions of the brain, and abdominal computed tomography showed huge paraspinal abscess. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed poorly defined nodular opacities. We initially thought that this patient was infected with toxoplasmosis with typical cerebral image finding and immunoglobulin laboratory finding of cerebrospinal fluid and serum study. The abdominal abscess was confirmed as tuberculosis through the pathologic finding of caseous necrosis. We used anti-tuberculosis medication and anti-toxoplasmosis medication for almost 4 months, and then his clinical state and radiological findings were considerably improved.
Luo, Qingming; Jiang, Chao; Li, Pengcheng; Cheng, Haiying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Tuchin, Valery V.
Monitoring the spatio-temporal characteristics of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is crucial for studying the normal and pathophysiologic conditions of brain metabolism. By illuminating the cortex with laser light and imaging the resulting speckle pattern, relative CBF images with tens of microns spatial and millisecond temporal resolution can be obtained. In this chapter, a laser speckle imaging (LSI) method for monitoring dynamic, high-resolution CBF is introduced. To improve the spatial resolution of current LSI, a modified LSI method is proposed. To accelerate the speed of data processing, three LSI data processing frameworks based on graphics processing unit (GPU), digital signal processor (DSP), and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) are also presented. Applications for detecting the changes in local CBF induced by sensory stimulation and thermal stimulation, the influence of a chemical agent on CBF, and the influence of acute hyperglycemia following cortical spreading depression on CBF are given.
Khan, Imad S.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Singer, Robert J.
Background: Prototyping of cerebral vasculature models through stereolithographic methods have the ability to accurately depict the 3D structures of complicated aneurysms with high accuracy. We describe the method to manufacture such a model and review some of its uses in the context of treatment planning, research, and surgical training. Methods: We prospectively used the data from the rotational angiography of a 40-year-old female who presented with an unruptured right paraclinoid aneurysm. The 3D virtual model was then converted to a physical life-sized model. Results: The model constructed was shown to be a very accurate depiction of the aneurysm and its associated vasculature. It was found to be useful, among other things, for surgical training and as a patient education tool. Conclusion: With improving and more widespread printing options, these models have the potential to become an important part of research and training modalities. PMID:24678427
Khan, Imad S; Kelly, Patrick D; Singer, Robert J
Prototyping of cerebral vasculature models through stereolithographic methods have the ability to accurately depict the 3D structures of complicated aneurysms with high accuracy. We describe the method to manufacture such a model and review some of its uses in the context of treatment planning, research, and surgical training. We prospectively used the data from the rotational angiography of a 40-year-old female who presented with an unruptured right paraclinoid aneurysm. The 3D virtual model was then converted to a physical life-sized model. The model constructed was shown to be a very accurate depiction of the aneurysm and its associated vasculature. It was found to be useful, among other things, for surgical training and as a patient education tool. With improving and more widespread printing options, these models have the potential to become an important part of research and training modalities.
Beare, Nicholas A V; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Malcolm E
Accurate diagnosis of cerebral malaria (CM) is important for patient management, epidemiological and end point surveillance, and enrolling patients with CM in studies of pathogenesis or therapeutic trials. In malaria-endemic areas, where asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common, a positive blood film in a comatose individual does not prove that the coma is due to malaria. A retinopathy consisting of two unique features - patchy retinal whitening and focal changes of vessel color - is highly specific for encephalopathy of malarial etiology. White-centered retinal hemorrhages are a common but less specific feature. Either indirect or direct ophthalmoscopy can be used to identify the changes, and both procedures can be learned and practiced by nonspecialist clinicians. In view of its important contributions to both clinical care and research, examination of the retina should become a routine component of the assessment of a comatose child or adult when CM is a possible diagnosis.
Beare, Nicholas AV; Lewallen, Susan; Taylor, Terrie E; Molyneux, Malcolm E
Accurate diagnosis of cerebral malaria (CM) is important for patient management, epidemiological and end point surveillance, and enrolling patients with CM in studies of pathogenesis or therapeutic trials. In malaria-endemic areas, where asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common, a positive blood film in a comatose individual does not prove that the coma is due to malaria. A retinopathy consisting of two unique features – patchy retinal whitening and focal changes of vessel color – is highly specific for encephalopathy of malarial etiology. White-centered retinal hemorrhages are a common but less specific feature. Either indirect or direct ophthalmoscopy can be used to identify the changes, and both procedures can be learned and practiced by nonspecialist clinicians. In view of its important contributions to both clinical care and research, examination of the retina should become a routine component of the assessment of a comatose child or adult when CM is a possible diagnosis. PMID:21449844
Yen, M T; Gedde, S J; Flynn, J T
To report a patient with unilateral glaucoma associated with Sotos syndrome. Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a disorder of growth and development with characteristic facial changes and normal endocrine function. Ocular manifestations may also include megalocornea, iris hypoplasia, cataracts, megalophthalmos, strabismus, nystagmus, and retinal dystrophy. Case report. A 50 year-old man with the clinical features of Sotos syndrome presented with complaints of decreased vision in the left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral megalocornea, megalophthalmos, iris hypoplasia and transillumination defects, cataracts, and unilateral glaucoma. Intraocular pressure was lowered, and visual field loss was stabilized with topical medications. Sotos syndrome patients should be examined routinely to allow for early detection and treatment of potential ocular problems, including glaucoma.
ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E
Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of oesophageal cancer. During the procedure, cerebral gas emboli developed resulting in an acute left-sided hemiparesis. After hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the patient recovered almost completely. The aetiology and treatment is discussed based on the reviewed literature. Once cerebral gas emboli are recognized, patient outcome can be improved by hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Foley, Lisa S; Yamanaka, Katsuhiro; Reece, T Brett
Neurologic injuries following aortic arch operations can be devastating, with stroke occurring in up to 12% of elective operations and significant cerebral dysfunction occurring in up to 25% of cases. The primary challenge unique to aortic arch operations involves interruption of direct perfusion of the brachiocephalic vessels during arch reconstruction. For this reason, neuroprotection is paramount. The 2 main modes of protection are (1) reducing metabolic demand through hypothermia and (2) limiting, or even eliminating, the ischemic period. Preoperative selection of the cerebral perfusion plan for each operation is imperative to maintain maximal diffuse cerebral protection and prevent focal neurologic events. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lopci, Egesta; Olivari, Laura; Bello, Lorenzo; Navarria, Pierina; Chiti, Arturo
We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA). Her medical history included brain surgery for small vascular lesions and suspicion of cerebral malignancy. C methionine PET (C-METH PET) demonstrated a diffusely increased uptake on the right hemisphere. Contrast-enhanced MRI documented a massive lesion with a diffuse "nidus" appearance, involving the right cerebral hemisphere (sparing the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior frontal lobe), the brainstem, and the middle cerebellar peduncle. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CPA and, after radiation treatment, the patient presented with clinical and radiological response.
Zhou, Yihua; Yuan, Ying; Huang, Chahua; Hu, Lihua; Cheng, Xiaoshu
In this study, we analyzed two cases of pure cerebral fat embolism and reviewed related literatures to explore the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of cerebral fat embolism, improve the treatment efficiency and reduce the misdiagnosis rate. In our cases, patients fully returned to consciousness at the different times with good prognosis, normal vital signs and without obvious sequelae. For patients with the limb fractures, who developed coma without chest distress, dyspnea or other pulmonary symptoms 12 or 24 h post injury, cerebral fat embolism should be highly suspected, except for those with intracranial lesions, such as delayed traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage, etc. The early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment can improve prognosis.
Penn, R D; Kurtz, D
The authors conducted quantitative analysis of computerized tomography (CT) scans to measure tumor size, cerebral edema, and regional blood volume in man. Mass lesions without edema caused a local reduction in blood volume. Cerebral edema also reduced blood volume in proportion to its severity. Consideration of the electrolyte changes and water shifts in white-matter edema suggested that the decrease in absorption coefficient seen in CT scans was due to the increase in water content. Thus, in cerebral edema separation of blood vessels as well as increased interstitial pressure decrease blood volume, and the regional differences in turn reflect pressure gradients within the brain.
Gayevyy, M. D.; Maltsev, V. G.; Pogorelyy, V. E.
Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (ACBF) under orthostatic tests (OT) was estimated in acute experiments on rabbits and cats under local anesthesia according to changes of perfusion pressure (PP) in carotid arteries, cerebral blood flow, pressure in the venous system of the brain, and resistance of cerebral vessels. The OT were conducted by turning a special table with the animal fastened to it from a horizontal to a vertical (head up or head down) position at 40 to 80 deg. In most experiments ACBF correlated with the changes of PP. Different variations of ACBF and its possible mechanisms are discussed.
Lavazza, Andrea; Massimini, Marcello
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue. Furthermore, organoids have helped research take a step forward in the field of personalised medicine and transplants. However, some ethical issues have arisen concerning the origin of the cells that are used to produce organoids (ie, human embryos) and their properties. In particular, there are new, relevant and so-far overlooked ethical questions concerning cerebral organoids. Scientists have created so-called mini-brains as developed as a few-months-old fetus, albeit smaller and with many structural and functional differences. However, cerebral organoids exhibit neural connections and electrical activity, raising the question whether they are or (which is more likely) will one day be somewhat sentient. In principle, this can be measured with some techniques that are already available (the Perturbational Complexity Index, a metric that is directly inspired by the main postulate of the Integrated Information Theory of consciousness), which are used for brain-injured non-communicating patients. If brain organoids were to show a glimpse of sensibility, an ethical discussion on their use in clinical research and practice would be necessary. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Background Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. Methods The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Results Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. Conclusions These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. PMID:20955613
Liu, Zhenquan; Li, Pengtao; Zhao, Dan; Tang, Huiling; Guo, Jianyou
Ischemic hypoxic brain injury often causes irreversible brain damage. The lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for ischemic stroke patients may explain a growing interest in traditional medicines. From the point of view of "self-medication" or "preventive medicine," Cordyceps sinensis was used in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in this paper. The right middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used in the study. The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (Caterpillar fungus) extract on mortality rate, neurobehavior, grip strength, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione content, Lipid Peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, catalase activity, Na+K+ATPase activity and glutathione S transferase activity in a rat model were studied respectively. Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly improved the outcome in rats after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in terms of neurobehavioral function. At the same time, supplementation of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly boosted the defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis. Restoration of the antioxidant homeostasis in the brain after reperfusion may have helped the brain recover from ischemic injury. These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of Cordyceps sinensis extract significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.
Morris, Robin D.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.
The concept of greater performance efficiency for certain mental abilities or processes in one cerebral hemisphere rather than the other is referred to as 'cerebral lateralization'. The experimental paradigm for lateralization research involves the study of patients with one damaged hemisphere, which prevents their performance of a certain task or function; this approach, however, presents many difficulties in extrapolating to brain function in normal patients. Attention is presently given to gender differences in lateralization, cerebral asymmetries in other species, and the evolutionary bases of hemispheric specialization.
Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.
Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339
Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, André; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel
Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series of cerebral hemodynamic parameters in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) during the Trail Making Tests (TMT), a means of selective attention and complex cognitive functioning. In females, there was a frequency peak at 0.375 Hz in both MCA, and we observed a dynamic shift in hemispheric dominance during that condition. Further, after the start phase, there was an MFV decline during complex functioning for the entire sample. These novel results suggest condition-specific features of cerebral hemodynamics in females, and it adds to the notion that gender is a fundamental confounder of brain physiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Véniant, M; Clozel, J P; Kuhn, H; Clozel, M
The goal of an antihypertensive treatment is to prevent "end-organ" damage. Cerebral vascular complications are among the most important because they are life threatening and can occur even at an early stage of the disease. Recently, it has been shown that cilazapril can decrease the mortality of stroke-prone rats, suggesting a decrease in the incidence of strokes, which occur spontaneously in these animals. The present article reviews the different functional and morphological changes that may explain the cerebral protective effects of cilazapril, such as the normalization of cerebral vascular reserve, decrease in the media, increase in the external diameter, and normalization of the mechanics and endothelial function of cerebral arterioles. In addition, the inhibition by cilazapril of injury-induced proliferation of smooth muscle cells and the infiltration of the endothelium by macrophages could prevent the development of atherosclerosis.
Donald, Kirsten A; Kakooza, Angelina M; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Samia, Pauline; Babakir, Haydar; Bearden, David; Majnemer, Annette; Fehlings, Darcy; Shevell, Michael; Chugani, Harry; Wilmshurst, Jo M
Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide. However, little is reported on this condition in the African context. Doctors from 22 countries in Africa, and representatives from a further 5 countries outside Africa, met to discuss the challenges in the evaluation and management of children with cerebral palsy in Africa and to propose service needs and further research. Basic care is limited by the poor availability of diagnostic facilities or medical personnel with experience and expertise in managing cerebral palsy, exacerbated by lack of available interventions such as medications, surgical procedures, or even regular therapy input. Relevant guidelines are lacking. In order to guide services for children with existing disabilities, to effectively target the main etiologies and to develop preventive strategies for the continent, research priorities must include multicenter collaborative studies looking at the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fasano, Ross M; Meier, Emily R; Hulbert, Monica L
Sickle cell anemia (SCA)-associated cerebral vasculopathy and moyamoya is a unique entity reflecting the abnormal interactions between sickled red blood cells (RBCs) and the cerebral arterial endothelium. Endothelial injury, coagulation activation, and the inflammatory response generated by sickled RBCs are implicated in the development of cerebral vasculopathy, but the pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. SCA-specific screening and treatment guidelines have successfully reduced the incidence of overt strokes in this high-risk population. However, despite aggressive hematological management, many children with cerebral vasculopathy due to SCA have progressive vasculopathy and recurrent strokes; therefore, more effective therapies, such as revascularization surgery and curative hematopoietic stem cell transplant, are urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Philip, Swetha Sara; Dutton, Gordon N
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) comprises visual malfunction due to retro-chiasmal visual and visual association pathway pathology. This can be isolated or accompany anterior visual pathway dysfunction. It is a major cause of low vision in children in the developed and developing world due to increasing survival in paediatric and neonatal care. CVI can present in many combinations and degrees. There are multiple causes and it is common in children with cerebral palsy. CVI can be identified easily, if a structured approach to history-taking is employed. This review describes the features of CVI and describes practical management strategies aimed at helping affected children. A literature review was undertaken using 'Medline' and 'Pubmed'. Search terms included cerebral visual impairment, cortical visual impairment, dorsal stream dysfunction and visual function in cerebral palsy. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.
Love, Russell J.; And Others
The adequacy of biting, sucking, swallowing, and chewing as well as the presence or absence of nine infantile oral reflexes were assessed in 60 cerebral palsied individuals (ages 3 to 23). (Author/PHR)
Melo, Débora Gusmão; Acosta, Angelina Xavier; Salles, Maria Aparecida de Almeida; Pina-Neto, João Monteiro de; Castro, José Daniel Vieira de; Santos, Antonio Carlos
Sotos syndrome or cerebral gigantism is characterized by macrocephaly, overgrowth, mental retardation and central nervous system abnormalities. Congenital heart defects may be present. We report 8 patients with this syndrome and relate their clinical features, neuroimaging and echocardiographic findings.
Srivastava, Kalyan; Cockburn, Ian A.; Swaim, AnneMarie; Thompson, Laura E.; Tripathi, Abhai; Fletcher, Craig A.; Shirk, Erin M.; Sun, Henry; Kowalska, M. Anna; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Sullivan, David; Zavala, Fidel; Morrell, Craig N.
Summary Cerebral malaria is a major complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection in children. The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria involves vascular inflammation, immune stimulation and obstruction of cerebral capillaries. Platelets have a prominent role in both immune responses and vascular obstruction. We now demonstrate that the platelet derived chemokine, platelet factor 4 (PF4)/CXCL4, promotes the development of experimental cerebral malaria. Plasmodium infected red blood cells (RBC) activated platelets independent of vascular effects, resulting in increased plasma PF4. PF4 or CXCR3 null mice had less ECM, decreased brain T-cell recruitment, and platelet depletion or aspirin treatment reduced the development of ECM. We conclude that Plasmodium infected RBC can activate platelets and platelet derived PF4 then contributes to immune activation and T-cell trafficking as part of the pathogenesis of ECM. PMID:18692777
Winship, Ian R
Cerebral collaterals are vascular redundancies in the cerebral circulation that can partially maintain blood flow to ischemic tissue when primary conduits are blocked. After occlusion of a cerebral artery, anastomoses connecting the distal segments of the MCA with distal branches of the ACA and PCA (known as leptomeningeal or pial collaterals) allow for partially maintained blood flow in the ischemic penumbra and delay or prevent cell death. However, collateral circulation varies dramatically between individuals, and collateral extent is significant predictor of stroke severity and recanalization rate. Collateral therapeutics attempt to harness these vascular redundancies by enhancing blood flow through pial collaterals to reduce ischemia and brain damage after cerebral arterial occlusion. While therapies to enhance collateral flow remain relatively nascent neuroprotective strategies, experimental therapies including inhaled NO, transient suprarenal aortic occlusion, and electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic sphenopalatine ganglion show promise as collateral therapeutics with the potential to improve treatment of acute ischemic stroke. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Levine, Benjamin D; Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H; Pawelczyk, James A; Diedrich, André; Ertl, Andrew C; Cox, James F; Cooke, William H; Giller, Cole A; Ray, Chester A; Lane, Lynda D; Buckey, Jay C; Baisch, Friedhelm J; Eckberg, Dwain L; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Blomqvist, C Gunnar
Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a mechanism responsible for postspaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that spaceflight impairs cerebral autoregulation. We studied six astronauts approximately 72 and 23 days before, after 1 and 2 weeks in space (n = 4), on landing day, and 1 day after the 16 day Neurolab space shuttle mission. Beat-by-beat changes of photoplethysmographic mean arterial pressure and transcranial Doppler middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were measured during 5 min of spontaneous breathing, 30 mmHg lower body suction to simulate standing in space, and 10 min of 60 deg passive upright tilt on Earth. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was quantified by analysis of the transfer function between spontaneous changes of mean arterial pressure and cerebral artery blood flow velocity, in the very low- (0.02-0.07 Hz), low- (0.07-0.20 Hz) and high-frequency (0.20-0.35 Hz) ranges. Resting middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity did not change significantly from preflight values during or after spaceflight. Reductions of cerebral blood flow velocity during lower body suction were significant before spaceflight (P < 0.05, repeated measures ANOVA), but not during or after spaceflight. Absolute and percentage reductions of mean (+/- s.e.m.) cerebral blood flow velocity after 10 min upright tilt were smaller after than before spaceflight (absolute, -4 +/- 3 cm s(-1) after versus -14 +/- 3 cm s(-1) before, P = 0.001; and percentage, -8.0 +/- 4.8% after versus -24.8 +/- 4.4% before, P < 0.05), consistent with improved rather than impaired cerebral blood flow regulation. Low-frequency gain decreased
Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela
The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…
Shamsoddini, Alireza; Amirsalari, Susan; Hollisaz, Mohammad-Taghi; Rahimnia, Alireza; Khatibi-Aghda, Amideddin
Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of spasticity and physical disability in children and spasticity is one of the commonest problems in those with neurological disease. The management of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy requires a multidisciplinary effort and should be started as early as possible. There are a number of treatments available for the management of spasticity. This article reviews the variety of options available for the clinical management of spasticity. PMID:25755853
Hélage, Siegfried; Duyckaerts, Charles; Seilhean, Danielle; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Chiras, Jacques
Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare pathology of poor prognosis in spite of the use of adapted antifungal treatments. This infection of the central nervous system is generally the complication of an invasive aspergillosis with hematogenic scattering from pulmonary focal spots. It can arise in immunocompetent patients treated with prolonged corticotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for cancer. A case of lethal cerebral aspergillosis in a patient with an infiltrative glioma treated with corticotherapy and radiotherapy is reported. Clinicopathological aspects and therapeutic approach are described. PMID:22454648
Hélage, Siegfried; Duyckaerts, Charles; Seilhean, Danielle; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Chiras, Jacques
Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare pathology of poor prognosis in spite of the use of adapted antifungal treatments. This infection of the central nervous system is generally the complication of an invasive aspergillosis with hematogenic scattering from pulmonary focal spots. It can arise in immunocompetent patients treated with prolonged corticotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for cancer. A case of lethal cerebral aspergillosis in a patient with an infiltrative glioma treated with corticotherapy and radiotherapy is reported. Clinicopathological aspects and therapeutic approach are described.
Vorstrup, S.; Andersen, A.; Juhler, M.
We measured cerebral blood flow in 10 consecutive, but selected, patients with acute ischemic stroke (less than 48 hours after onset) before and after hemodilution. Cerebral blood flow was measured by xenon-133 inhalation and emission tomography, and only patients with focal hypoperfusion in clinically relevant areas were included. Hemodilution was done according to the hematocrit level: for a hematocrit greater than or equal to 42%, 500 ml whole blood was drawn and replaced by the same volume of dextran 40; for a hematocrit between 37% and 42%, only 250 ml whole blood was drawn and replaced by 500 cc ofmore » dextran 40. Mean hematocrit was reduced by 16%, from 46 +/- 5% (SD) to 39 +/- 5% (SD) (p less than 0.001). Cerebral blood flow increased in both hemispheres by an average of 20.9% (p less than 0.001). Regional cerebral blood flow increased in the ischemic areas in all cases, on an average of 21.4 +/- 12.0% (SD) (p less than 0.001). In three patients, a significant redistribution of flow in favor of the hypoperfused areas was observed, and in six patients, the fractional cerebral blood flow increase in the hypoperfused areas was of the same magnitude as in the remainder of the brain. In the last patient, cerebral blood flow increased relatively less in the ischemic areas. Our findings show that cerebral blood flow increases in the ischemic areas after hemodilution therapy in stroke patients. The marked regional cerebral blood flow increase seen in some patients could imply an improved oxygen delivery to the ischemic tissue.« less
Glaser, Nicole; Yuen, Natalie; Anderson, Steven E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; O'Donnell, Martha E.
OBJECTIVE Cerebral edema is a life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. Recent data suggest that cerebral hypoperfusion and activation of cerebral ion transporters may be involved, but data describing cerebral metabolic alterations during DKA are lacking. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated 50 juvenile rats with DKA and 21 normal control rats using proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS measured cerebral intracellular pH and ratios of metabolites including ATP/inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr)/Pi, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), and lactate/Cr before and during DKA treatment. We determined the effects of treatment with insulin and intravenous saline with or without bumetanide, an inhibitor of Na-K-2Cl cotransport, using ANCOVA with a 2 × 2 factorial study design. RESULTS Cerebral intracellular pH was decreased during DKA compared with control (mean ± SE difference −0.13 ± 0.03; P < 0.001), and lactate/Cr was elevated (0.09 ± 0.02; P < 0.001). DKA rats had lower ATP/Pi and NAA/Cr (−0.32 ± 0.10, P = 0.003, and −0.14 ± 0.04, P < 0.001, respectively) compared with controls, but PCr/Pi was not significantly decreased. During 2-h treatment with insulin/saline, ATP/Pi, PCr/Pi, and NAA/Cr declined significantly despite an increase in intracellular pH. Bumetanide treatment increased ATP/Pi and PCr/Pi and ameliorated the declines in these values with insulin/saline treatment. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that cerebral metabolism is significantly compromised during DKA and that further deterioration occurs during early DKA treatment—consistent with possible effects of cerebral hypoperfusion and reperfusion injury. Treatment with bumetanide may help diminish the adverse effects of initial treatment with insulin/saline. PMID:20028943
Li, Zhi-hua; Chen, Chao
Cerebral infarction (CI) is one of severe diseases of central nervous system in neonates, and some infants with CI could have poor prognosis in the long term. This study aimed to analyze the clinical data and prognosis of all neonatal cases with cerebral infarction in recent years and to help future clinical work. Totally 58 neonatal cases with CI admitted to NICU of the hospital from January 1999 to December 2010 were included in this study. We analyzed all clinical data and prognosis by retrospective analysis. Fifty-two term babies and six preterm babies were included. There were altogether 51 cases with asphyxia and 7 with hemorrhagic cerebral infarction. Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia was the most common high-risk factor and it accounted for 46.6%. Seizure was the most frequent initial symptom and the most common clinical manifestation (accounted for 77.6%), and it was followed by intermittent cyanosis, apnea and lethargy. Cerebral CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging were major methods to help to make the diagnosis and they also had close relation with prognosis. Diffusion weighted imaging was very helpful to diagnose infarction in early stage. Left middle cerebral artery was the most common artery to be involved. Supportive therapy and symptomatic treatment were the main methods in the acute stage of neonatal cerebral infarction. Those babies with poor prognosis mostly had large infarction involving cerebral hemisphere, thalamus and basal ganglia. Neonatal cerebral infarction was a severe brain injury affecting long tern nervous system prognosis. Perinatal hypoxia was the most common high-risk factor and seizure was the most frequent initial symptom. Diffusion weighted imaging was valuable to diagnose infarction in early stage. Most of infants with poor prognosis had large infarction involving hemisphere, thalamus and basal ganglia. Early diagnosis with brain imaging would be helpful for rehabilitation therapy and improving prognosis.
Shah, Fawad-Ali; Gim, Sang-Ah; Sung, Jin-Hee; Jeon, Seong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ok; Koh, Phil-Ok
Curcumin is known to have a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to identify various proteins that are differentially expressed by curcumin treatment in focal cerebral ischemia using a proteomic approach. Adult male rats were treated with vehicle or curcumin 1 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Brain tissues were collected 24 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion, and cerebral cortices proteins were identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We detected several proteins with altered expression levels between vehicle- and curcumin-treated animals. Among these proteins, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, isocitrate dehydrogenase, adenosylhomocysteinase, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A were decreased in the vehicle-treated animal, and curcumin treatment attenuated the injury-induced decreases of these proteins. Conversely, pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase was increased in the vehicle-treated animal, and curcumin treatment prevented decreases in this protein. The identified altered proteins are associated with cellular metabolism and differentiation. The results of this study suggest that curcumin exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating the expression of various proteins in focal cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van de Giessen, Martijn; Janssen, Jasper P.; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke
Preoperative imaging of the cerebral vessel tree is essential for planning therapy on intracranial stenoses and aneurysms. Usually, a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) is acquired from which the cerebral vessel tree is segmented. Accurate analysis is helped by the labeling of the cerebral vessels, but labeling is non-trivial due to anatomical topological variability and missing branches due to acquisition issues. In recent literature, labeling the cerebral vasculature around the Circle of Willis has mainly been approached as a graph-based problem. The most successful method, however, requires the definition of all possible permutations of missing vessels, which limits application to subsets of the tree and ignores spatial information about the vessel locations. This research aims to perform labeling using probabilistic atlases that model spatial vessel and label likelihoods. A cerebral vessel tree is aligned to a probabilistic atlas and subsequently each vessel is labeled by computing the maximum label likelihood per segment from label-specific atlases. The proposed method was validated on 25 segmented cerebral vessel trees. Labeling accuracies were close to 100% for large vessels, but dropped to 50-60% for small vessels that were only present in less than 50% of the set. With this work we showed that using solely spatial information of the vessel labels, vessel segments from stable vessels (>50% presence) were reliably classified. This spatial information will form the basis for a future labeling strategy with a very loose topological model.
Mao, Lun-Lin; Hao, Dong-Lin; Mao, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yuan-Feng; Huang, Ting-Ting; Wu, Bo-Na; Wang, Li-Hui
PTEN is a dual specificity phosphatase and is implicated in inflammation and apoptosis of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Bisperoxovanadium (Bpv), a specific inhibitor of PTEN's phosphatase activity, has demonstrated powerful neuroprotective properties. We investigated the neuroprotective roles of Bpv in the rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) cerebral I/R injury, and explored the modulation of inflammatory mediators and PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathways by Bpv. Our results showed that treatment with Bpv (0.2 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased neurological deficit scores at 7 days after MCAO and infarct volume at 4 days after MCAO. The IL-10 concentration was increased and TNF-α concentration was decreased in the ischemic boundary zone of the cerebral cortex at 4 days after MCAO by Bpv. Furthermore, Bpv (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment significantly reduced PTEN mRNA and protein levels and increased PI3K, Akt and p-GSK-3β proteins expression in the ischemic boundary zone of the cerebral cortex at 4 days after MCAO. In conclusions, Bpv treatment demonstrates neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury of ischemic stroke rats and is associated with its modulation of inflammatory mediator production and up-regulation of PTEN downstream proteins PI3K, Akt and p-GSK-3β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krause, Diana N.; Duckles, Sue P.; Gonzales, Rayna J.
Reproductive effects of sex steroids are well-known, however it is increasingly apparent that these hormones have important actions on non-reproductive tissues such as the vasculature. The latter effects can be relevant throughout the lifespan, not just limited to reproductive years, and are not necessarily restricted to one sex or the other. Our work has established that cerebral blood vessels are a non-reproductive target tissue for sex steroids. We have found that estrogen and androgens alter vascular tone, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in cerebral vessels. Often the actions of estrogen and androgens oppose each other. Moreover, it is clear that cerebral vessels are directly targeted by sex steroids as they express specific receptors for these hormones. Interestingly, cerebral blood vessels also express enzymes that metabolize sex steroids. These findings suggest that local synthesis of 17β-estradiol and dihydrotestosterone can occur within the vessel wall. One of the enzymes present, aromatase, converts testosterone to 17β-estradiol, which would alter the local balance of androgenic and estrogenic influences. Thus cerebral vessels are affected by circulating sex hormones as well as locally synthesized sex steroids. The presence of vascular endocrine effector mechanisms has important implications for male-female differences in cerebrovascular function and disease. Moreover, the cerebral circulation is a target for gonadal hormones as well as anabolic steroids and therapeutic drugs used to manipulate sex steroid actions. The long-term consequences of these influences have yet to be determined. PMID:21535417
Zhang, Rong; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.; Levine, Benjamin D.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of autonomic neural control of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in 12 healthy subjects (aged 29+/-6 years) before and after ganglion blockade with trimethaphan. CBF velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler. The magnitude of spontaneous changes in mean blood pressure and CBF velocity were quantified by spectral analysis. The transfer function gain, phase, and coherence between these variables were estimated to quantify dynamic cerebral autoregulation. After ganglion blockade, systolic and pulse pressure decreased significantly by 13% and 26%, respectively. CBF velocity decreased by 6% (P<0.05). In the very low frequency range (0.02 to 0.07 Hz), mean blood pressure variability decreased significantly (by 82%), while CBF velocity variability persisted. Thus, transfer function gain increased by 81%. In addition, the phase lead of CBF velocity to arterial pressure diminished. These changes in transfer function gain and phase persisted despite restoration of arterial pressure by infusion of phenylephrine and normalization of mean blood pressure variability by oscillatory lower body negative pressure. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is altered by ganglion blockade. We speculate that autonomic neural control of the cerebral circulation is tonically active and likely plays a significant role in the regulation of beat-to-beat CBF in humans.
Zhu, Wen; Ye, Yang; Liu, Yi; Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Cun-Zhi
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. As a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture has been shown to be effective in promoting recovery after stroke. In this article, we review the clinical and experimental studies that demonstrated the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for cerebral ischemia. Clinical studies indicated that acupuncture activated relevant brain regions, modulated cerebral blood flow and related molecules in stroke patients. Evidence from laboratory indicated that acupuncture regulates cerebral blood flow and metabolism after the interrupt of blood supply. Acupuncture regulates multiple molecules and signaling pathways that lead to excitoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, neurons death and survival. Acupuncture also promotes neurogenesis, angiogenesis as well as neuroplasticity after ischemic damage. The evidence provided from clinical and laboratory suggests that acupuncture induces multi-level regulation via complex mechanisms and a single factor may not be enough to explain the beneficial effects against cerebral ischemia.
Curry, William T; Cosgrove, Garth Rees; Hochberg, Fred H; Loeffler, Jay; Zervas, Nicholas T
The Photon Radiosurgery System (PRS) is a miniature x-ray generator that can stereotactically irradiate intracranial tumors by using low-energy photons. Treatment with the PRS typically occurs in conjunction with stereotactic biopsy, thereby providing diagnosis and treatment in one procedure. The authors review the treatment of patients with brain metastases with the aid of the PRS and discuss the indications, advantages, and limitations of this technique. Clinical characteristics, treatment parameters, neuroimaging-confirmed outcome, and survival were reviewed in all patients with histologically verified brain metastases who were treated with the PRS at the Massachusetts General Hospital between December 1992 and November 2000. Local control of lesions was defined as either stabilization or diminution in the size of the treated tumor as confirmed by Gd-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Between December 1992 and November 2000, 72 intracranial metastatic lesions in 60 patients were treated with the PRS. Primary tumors included lung (33 patients), melanoma (15 patients), renal cell (five patients), breast (two patients), esophageal (two patients), colon (one patient), and Merkle cell (one patient) cancers, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (one patient). Supratentorial metastases were distributed throughout the cerebrum, with only one cerebellar metastasis. The lesions ranged in diameter from 6 to 40 mm and were treated with a minimal peripheral dose of 16 Gy (range 10-20 Gy). At the last follow-up examination (median 6 months), local disease control had been achieved in 48 (81%) of 59 tumors. An actuarial analysis demonstrated that the survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 63 and 34%, respectively. Patients with a single brain metastasis survived a mean of 11 months. Complications included four patients with postoperative seizures, three with symptomatic cerebral edema, two with hemorrhagic events, and three with symptomatic radiation necrosis requiring surgery
Mustaki, J P; Bissonnette, B; Archer, D; Boulard, G; Ravussin, P
The perioperative complications associated with cerebral aneurysm surgery require a specific anaesthetic management. Four major perioperative accidents are discussed in this review. The anaesthetic and surgical management in case of rebleeding subsequent to the re-rupture of the aneurysm is mainly prophylactic. It includes haemodynamic stability assurance, maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 80-90 mmHg during stimulation of the patient such as endotracheal intubation, application of the skull-pin head-holder, incision, and craniotomy. The aneurysmal transmural pressure should be adequately maintained by avoiding an aggressive decrease of intracranial pressure. Once the skull is open, the brain must be kept slack in order to decrease pressure under the retractors and avoid the risks of stretching and tearing of the adjacent vessels. If, despite these precautions, the aneurysm ruptures again. MAP should be decreased to 60 mmHg and the brain rendered more slack, in order to allow direct clipping of the aneurysm, or temporary clipping of the adjacent vessels. The optimal agents in this situation are isoflurane (which decreases CMRO2), intravenous anaesthetic agents (inspite their negative inotropic effect, they may potentially protect the brain) and sodium nitroprusside. Vasospasm occurs usually between the 3rd and the 7th day after subarachnoid haemorrhage. It may be seen peroperatively. The optimal treatment, as well as prophylaxis, is moderate controlled hypertension (MAP > 100 mmHg), associated with hypervolaemia and haemodilution, the so-called triple H therapy, with strict control of the filling pressures. Other beneficial therapies are calcium antagonists (nimodipine and nicardipine), the removal of the blood accumulated around the brain and in the cisternae, and possibly local administration of papaverine. Abrupt MAP increases are controlled in order to maintain adequate aneurysmal transmural pressure. Beta-blockers, local anaesthetics
Ausina, A; Báguena, M; Nadal, M; Manrique, S; Ferrer, A; Sahuquillo, J; Garnacho, A
Hyperventilation (HV) is routinely used in the management of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe head injury. However, this treatment continues to be controversial because it has been reported that long-lasting reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to profound sustained hypocapnia may contribute to the development or deterioration of ischemic lesions. Our goal in this study was to analyze the effects of sustained hyperventilation on cerebral hemodynamics (CBF, ICP) and metabolism (arterio jugular differences of lactates = AVDL). CO2-reactivity and CBF was estimated using AVDO2 (arteriojugular differences of oxygen content). Global cerebral ischemia and increased anaerobic metabolism were considered according to AVDO2 and AVDL respectively. Thirty-three patients with severe and moderate head injury and increased ICP were included. Within 72 hours after accident, patients were hyperventilated for a period of 4 hours. During this time jugular oxygen saturation (SjO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), AVDO2 and AVDL were recorded. In our study, most patients preserved CO2-reactivity (88.2%). In these cases HV was very effective in lowering ICP. Our findings showed that this reduction was due to a CBF decrease. According to basal AVDO2 twenty-five patients (75.7%) were considered as hyperemic and eight (24.2%) as not hyperemic. Global ischemia and increased anaerobic metabolism were detected in one case in the non-hyperemic group. According to AVDO2 and AVDL, no adverse effects were found during four hours of HV in hyperemic patients. Nevertheless, AVDO2 and AVDL are global measurements and might not detect regional ischemia surrounding focal lesions such as contusions and haematomas. We suggest that monitoring of AVDO2 or other haemometabolic variables should be mandatory when sustained HV is used in the management of head injury patients.
Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Lewén, Anders; Hillered, Lars; Enblad, Per
Background Hyperthermia is a common secondary insult in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to evaluate the relationship between hyperthermia and intracranial pressure (ICP), and if intracranial compliance and cerebral blood flow (CBF) pressure autoregulation affected that relationship. The relationships between hyperthermia and cerebral oximetry (BtipO2) and cerebral metabolism were also studied. Methods A computerized multimodality monitoring system was used for data collection at the neurointensive care unit. Demographic and monitoring data (temperature, ICP, blood pressure, microdialysis, BtipO2) were analyzed from 87 consecutive TBI patients. ICP amplitude was used as measure of compliance, and CBF pressure autoregulation status was calculated using collected blood pressure and ICP values. Mixed models and comparison between groups were used. Results The influence of hyperthermia on intracranial dynamics (ICP, brain energy metabolism, and BtipO2) was small, but individual differences were seen. Linear mixed models showed that hyperthermia raises ICP slightly more when temperature increases in the groups with low compliance and impaired CBF pressure autoregulation. There was also a tendency (not statistically significant) for increased BtipO2, and for increased pyruvate and lactate, with higher temperature, while the lactate/pyruvate ratio and glucose were stable. Conclusions The major finding was that the effects of hyperthermia on intracranial dynamics (ICP, brain energy metabolism, and BtipO2) were not extensive in general, but there were exceptional cases. Hyperthermia treatment has many side effects, so it is desirable to identify cases in which hyperthermia is dangerous. Information from multimodality monitoring may be used to guide treatment in individual patients. PMID:28463046
Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Nwoha, Polycarp U
The study evaluated changes in open field behaviours, cerebral cortical histomorphology and biochemical markers of oxidative stress following repeated administration of aspartame in mice. Adult mice were assigned into five groups of twelve each. Vehicle (distilled water), or aspartame (20, 40, 80 and 160mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 28days. Horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last dose of aspartame. Sections of the cerebral cortex were processed and stained for general histology, and also examined for neuritic plaques using the Bielschwosky's protocol. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity were assessed using appropriate antibodies. Aspartate and antioxidant levels were also assayed from cerebral cortex homogenates. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Body weight and food consumption decreased significantly with aspartame consumption. Locomotion, rearing and grooming increased significantly after first dose, and with repeated administration of aspartame. Histological changes consistent with neuronal damage were seen at 40, 80 and 160mg/kg. Neuritic plaque formation was not evident; while GFAP-reactive astrocytes and NSE-reactive neurons increased at 40 and 80mg/kg but decreased at 160mg/kg. Superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide increased with increasing doses of aspartame, while aspartate levels showed no significant difference. The study showed morphological alterations consistent with neuronal injury and biochemical changes of oxidative stress. These data therefore supports the need for caution in the indiscriminate use of aspartame as a non-nutritive sweetener. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H
This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.
Qiu, Wusi; Jiang, Qizhou; Xiao, Guoming; Wang, Weiming; Shen, Hong
Intracranial-pressure (ICP) monitoring is useful for patients with increased ICP following hemorrhagic stroke. In this study, the changes in pressure gradients between the two cerebral hemispheres were investigated after hemorrhagic stroke of one side, and after a craniotomy. Twenty-four patients with acute cerebral hemorrhages and intracerebral hematomas who exhibited mass effect and midline shift to the contralateral side on computed tomography were selected for this study. After admission, both sides of the cranium were drilled, and optical fiber sensors were implanted to monitor the brain parenchyma pressure (BPP) in both cerebral hemispheres. All patients underwent surgical hematoma evacuations. The preoperative and postoperative BPP data from both cerebral hemispheres were collected at various time points and compared pairwise. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) in the preoperative BPP values between the two hemispheres at three different time points. Differences in the BPP values between the two hemispheres at the time of surgery, and 24 and 48 h after surgery, were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The posteroperative BPPs of both hemispheres were statistically significantly lower than preoperative recordings. BPP sensors should be applied to the injured cerebral hemisphere, because this becomes the source of increased ICP. Hematoma evacuation surgery effectively decreases ICP and eliminates pressure gradients between the two cerebral hemispheres, consequently enabling brain shift correction.
Jensen, J.B.; Wright, A.D.; Lassen, N.A.
Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h (45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units) and 4% increased at 6 days (47.1 ISI units). Four subjects had similar increases of CBF when ascending to 3,200 m 3 mo later, indicating the reproducibility of the measurements. In nine subjects, ascending from 3,200 to 4,785-5,430 m, CBF increased to 76.4 ISI units, 53% above estimated sea-level values. CBF andmore » increases in CBF were similar in subjects with or without AMS. In six subjects, CBF was measured before and after therapeutic intervention. At 2 h CBF increased 22% (71.3 to 87.3 ISI units) above pretreatment values in three subjects given 1.5 g acetazolamide, while three subjects given placebo showed no change. Symptoms remained unaltered in all subjects during the 2 h of the study. Overall, the results indicated that increases in CBF were similar in subjects with or without AMS while acetazolamide-provoked increases of CBF in AMS subjects caused no acute change in symptoms. Alterations in CBF cannot be directly implicated in the pathogenesis of AMS.« less
Franklin, Stanley S.; Hunt, Marshall T.; Vogt, Thomas; Walsh, Gregory; Paglia, Donald E.
The plaintiff alleged that failure of the attending physician to manage her husband's hypertension properly resulted in his death from intracerebral hemorrhage. Four lines of evidence supported the defendant: (1) In 1970 to 1971 there was uncertainty in the medical community whether mild hypertension should be treated with drugs; this uncertainty still existed at the time of the trial. (2) Severe hypertension and advanced age are the two most important predisposing factors leading to intracerebral hemorrhage; the deceased patient had neither. (3) Hemorrhage into the cerebral cortex and underlying white matter is not typical of hypertensive intracerebral bleeding; more likely, rupture of an arteriovenous malformation occurred. (4) A diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is not one of exclusion but requires objective evidence of vascular change in the brain, heart and kidney; these changes were not found in the deceased patient. In conclusion, an expert witness should testify objectively rather than be the advocate of a lawyer's theory of liability. ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 9.Fig. 10. PMID:7233893
Azevedo, Elsa; Castro, Pedro; Santos, Rosa; Freitas, João; Coelho, Teresa; Rosengarten, Bernhard; Panerai, Ronney
Autonomic failure (AF) affects the peripheral vascular system, but little is known about its influence on cerebrovascular regulation. Patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) were studied as a model for AF. Ten mild (FAPm), 10 severe (FAPs) autonomic dysfunction FAP patients, and 15 healthy controls were monitored in supine and sitting positions for arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) with arterial volume clamping, and for blood flow velocity (BFV) in posterior (PCA) and contralateral middle cerebral arteries (MCA) with transcranial Doppler. Analysis included resting BFV, cerebrovascular resistance parameters (cerebrovascular resistance index, CVRi; resistance area product, RAP; and critical closing pressure, CrCP), and neurovascular coupling through visually evoked BFV responses in PCA (gain, rate time, attenuation, and natural frequency). In non-stimulation conditions, in each position, there were no significant differences between the groups, regarding HR, BP, resting BFV, and vascular resistance parameters. Sitting ABP was higher than in supine in the three groups, although only significantly in controls. Mean BFV was lower in sitting in all the groups, lacking statistical significance only in FAPs PCA. CVRi and CrCP increased with sitting in all the groups, while RAP increased in controls but decreased in FAPm and FAPs. In visual stimulation conditions, FAPs comparing to controls had a significant decrease of natural frequency, in supine and sitting, and of rate time and gain in sitting position. These results demonstrate that cerebrovascular regulation is affected in FAP subjects with AF, and that it worsens with orthostasis.
Taibi, A; Gadda, G; Gambaccini, M; Menegatti, E; Sisini, F; Zamboni, P
The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return, and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling, in the absence of gravity, for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of a crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment. Such venous function has been characterized by means of a novel application of strain-gauge plethysmography which uses a capacitive sensor. In this contribution, preliminary results of our investigation have been presented. In particular, comparison of plethysmography data confirmed that long duration spaceflights lead to a redistribution of venous blood volume, and showed interesting differences in the amplitude of cardiac oscillations measured at the level of the neck veins. The success of the experiment has also demonstrated that thanks to its easy portability, non-invasiveness, and non-operator dependence, the proposed device can be considered as a novel tool for use aboard the ISS. Further trials are now under way to complete the investigation on the drainage function of the neck veins in microgravity.
Margre, Anna L M; Reis, Maria G L; Morais, Rosane L S
cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture that cause functional limitation and are attributed to non-progressive disorders which occur in the fetal or infant brain. In recent years, with the increase in life expectancy of individuals with CP, several studies have described the impact of musculoskeletal disabilities and functional limitations over the life cycle. to characterize adults with CP through sociodemographic information, classifications, general health, associated conditions, physical complications and locomotion. twenty-two adults with CP recruited from local rehabilitation centers in an inner town of Brazil participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, comorbities, and physical complications. A brief physical therapy evaluation was carried out, and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) were applied. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. the mean age was 28.7 (SD 10.6) years, 86.4% of participants lived with parents, and 4.5% were employed. Most of the sample consisted of spastic quadriplegic subjects, corresponding to levels IV and V of the GMFCS and MACS. Different comorbidities and important physical complications such as scoliosis and muscle contractures were present. More than half of the participants were unable to walk. Most participants demonstrated important restrictions in social participation and lower educational level. Adults with CP can be affected by several physical complications and progressive limitations in gait.
Stadskleiv, Kristine; Jahnsen, Reidun; Andersen, Guro L; von Tetzchner, Stephen
To explore factors contributing to variability in cognitive functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A geographical cohort of 70 children with CP was assessed with tests of language comprehension, visual-spatial reasoning, attention, working memory, memory, and executive functioning. Mean age was 9;9 years (range 5;1-17;7), 54.3% were girls, and 50.0% had hemiplegic, 25.7% diplegic, 12.9% quadriplegic, and 11.4% dyskinetic CP. For the participants with severe motor impairments, assessments were adapted for gaze pointing. A cognitive quotient (CQ) was computed. Mean CQ was 78.5 (range 19-123). Gross motor functioning, epilepsy, and type of brain injury explained 35.5% of the variance in CQ (F = 10.643, p = .000). Twenty-four percent had an intellectual disability, most of them were children with quadriplegic CP. Verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning scores did only differ for the 21% with an uneven profile, of whom two-thirds had challenges with perceptual reasoning.
Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Lach, Lucy; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert
The aim of this study is to describe motivation in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and factors associated with motivation level. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) measures motivation in mastering challenging tasks and expressive elements. It was completed by 153 parents and 112 adolescents with CP. Adolescents (GMFCS in n=146 - I:50, II:43, III:13, IV:15, V:25) were assessed using the Leiter IQ and Gross Motor Function Measure. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Motivation scores were highest for mastery pleasure and social persistence with adults and lowest for gross motor and object-oriented persistence. Socio-demographic factors were not strongly correlated with DMQ. Higher gross motor ability (r=0.24-0.52) and fewer activity limitations (r=0.30-0.64, p<.001) were associated with persistence in cognitive, motor and social tasks, but not mastery pleasure. Higher IQ was associated with persistence in object-oriented tasks (r=0.42, p<.001). Prosocial behaviors correlated with high motivation (r=0.39-0.53, p<.001). Adolescents' motivation scores were higher than parents' scores. Adolescents with CP express high mastery pleasure, not related to abilities. High motivation was associated with fewer activity limitations and prosocial behaviors and aspects of family environment. Findings elucidate those at-risk for low motivation, which can influence treatment adherence and participation in challenging but meaningful activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blanco-Lezcano, L; Pavón-Fuentes, N; Blanco-Lezcano, V
Microdialysis cerebral technique has been widely employed in order to study the neurotransmitter release. This technique present numerous advantages such as: allow to work with sample in vivo from animals freely moving, by means of microdialysis can be infused simultaneously different drugs in different points implanted probes in several coordinates; also allow carry out pharmacokinetics studies that show correlation with behavior patter as well as to study metabolic changes, which is not possible when this determination are carry out in tissue, in post mortem stadio. In the present work is carry out a review about the main results obtaining in the sensitization and abstinence to several drug study and approach to biochemical characteristics to Parkinson s disease (PD) by means of microdialysis technique. In relation to sensibilization studies, the temporal changes in different behavior pattern that modify after amphetamine administration have been studied. Microdialysis study allowed correlationate dopamine concentration with behavior pattern above mentioned. In relation with PD, dopamine concentration after systemic and central (intracerebral) administration of levodopa and another dopaminergic drugs have been studied in different nucleus of basal ganglia as well as its respectively behavior correlates.
Kouider, Sid; de Gardelle, Vincent; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Pallier, Christophe
While the neural correlates of unconscious perception and subliminal priming have been largely studied for visual stimuli, little is known about their counterparts in the auditory modality. Here we used a subliminal speech priming method in combination with fMRI to investigate which regions of the cerebral network for language can respond in the absence of awareness. Participants performed a lexical decision task on target items preceded by subliminal primes, which were either phonetically identical or different from the target. Moreover, the prime and target could be spoken by the same speaker or by two different speakers. Word repetition reduced the activity in the insula and in the left superior temporal gyrus. Although the priming effect on reaction times was independent of voice manipulation, neural repetition suppression was modulated by speaker change in the superior temporal gyrus while the insula showed voice-independent priming. These results provide neuroimaging evidence of subliminal priming for spoken words and inform us on the first, unconscious stages of speech perception.
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured tomographically by inhalation of Xenon-/sup 133/. The calculation is based on taking a sequence of tomograms during the wash-in and wash-out phase of the tracer. Due to the dynamic nature of the process, a highly sensitive and fast moving single photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT) is required. Two brain-dedicated SPECT systems designed for this purpose are mentioned, and the method is described with special reference to the limitations inherent in the soft energy of the 133Xe primary photons. CBF tomography can be used for a multitude of clinical and investigative purposes. This articlemore » discusses in particular its use for the selection of patients with carotid occlusion for extracranial/intracranial bypass surgery, for detection of severe arterial spasm after aneurysm bleeding, and for detection of low flow areas during severe migraine attacks. The use of other tracers for CBF tomography using SPECT is summarized with emphasis on the /sup 99m/Tc chelates that freely pass the intact blood-brain barrier. The highly sensitive brain-dedicated SPECT systems described are a prerequisite for achieving high resolution tomograms with such tracers.« less
Sakai, K L; Hashimoto, R; Homae, F
Human language is a unique faculty of the mind. It has been the ultimate mystery throughout the history of neuroscience. Despite many aphasia and functional imaging studies, the exact correlation between cortical language areas and subcomponents of the linguistic system has not been established. One notable drawback is that most functional imaging studies have tested language tasks at the word level, such as lexical decision and word generation tasks, thereby neglecting the syntactic aspects of the language faculty. As proposed by Chomsky, the critical knowledge of language involves universal grammar (UG), which governs the syntactic structure of sentences. In this article, we will review recent advances made by functional neuroimaging studies of language, focusing especially on sentence processing in the cerebral cortex. We also present the recent results of our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study intended to identify cortical areas specifically involved in syntactic processing. A study of sentence processing that employs a newly developed technique, optical topography (OT), is also presented. Based on these findings, we propose a modular specialization of Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the angular gyrus/supramarginal gyrus. The current direction of research in neuroscience is beginning to establish the existence of distinct modules responsible for our knowledge of language.
Benson, P.J.; Sung, J.H.
Three patients, two males and one female aged 21, 14, and 31 years, respectively, developed cerebral saccular aneurysms several years after undergoing radiotherapy for cerebellar medulloblastoma at 2, 5, and 14 years of age, respectively. Following surgery, all three received combined cobalt-60 irradiation and intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) therapy, and died from rupture of the aneurysm 19, 9, and 17 years after the radiotherapy, respectively. Autopsy examination revealed no recurrence of the medulloblastoma, but widespread radiation-induced vasculopathy was found at the base of the brain and in the spinal cord, and saccular aneurysms arose from the posterior cerebralmore » arteries at the basal cistern or choroidal fissure. The aneurysms differed from the ordinary saccular aneurysms of congenital type in their location and histological features. Their locations corresponded to the areas where intrathecally administered colloidal /sup 198/Au is likely to pool, and they originated directly from a segment of the artery rather than from a branching site as in congenital saccular aneurysms. It is, therefore, concluded that the aneurysms in these three patients were most likely radiation-induced.« less
Yalcinkaya, Ebru Yilmaz; Caglar, Nil Sayıner; Tugcu, Betul; Tonbaklar, Aysegul
[Purpose] To evaluate the results of Bobath-based rehabilitation performed at a pediatric cerebral palsy (CP) inpatient clinic. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 28 children with CP who were inpatients at a pediatric service. Inclusion criteria were: being an inpatient of our hospital aged 2-12 with a diagnosis of CP; having one permanent primary caregiver; and the caregiver having no medical or psychotic problems. All of the patients received Bobath treatment for 1 hour per day, 5 days a week. The locomotor system, neurologic and orthopedic examination, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) of the patients, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) of permanent caregivers were evaluated at the time of admission to hospital, discharge from hospital, and at 1 and 3 months after discharge. [Results] Post-admission scores of GMFM at discharge, and 1 and 3 months later showed significant increase. Social function and emotional role subscores of SF-36 had increased significantly at discharge. [Conclusion] Bobath treatment is promising and randomized controlled further studies are needed for rehabilitation technics.
Yalcinkaya, Ebru Yilmaz; Caglar, Nil Sayıner; Tugcu, Betul; Tonbaklar, Aysegul
[Purpose] To evaluate the results of Bobath-based rehabilitation performed at a pediatric cerebral palsy (CP) inpatient clinic. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 28 children with CP who were inpatients at a pediatric service. Inclusion criteria were: being an inpatient of our hospital aged 2–12 with a diagnosis of CP; having one permanent primary caregiver; and the caregiver having no medical or psychotic problems. All of the patients received Bobath treatment for 1 hour per day, 5 days a week. The locomotor system, neurologic and orthopedic examination, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) of the patients, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) of permanent caregivers were evaluated at the time of admission to hospital, discharge from hospital, and at 1 and 3 months after discharge. [Results] Post-admission scores of GMFM at discharge, and 1 and 3 months later showed significant increase. Social function and emotional role subscores of SF-36 had increased significantly at discharge. [Conclusion] Bobath treatment is promising and randomized controlled further studies are needed for rehabilitation technics. PMID:24648650
Sadasivan, Chander; Fiorella, David J.; Woo, Henry H.; Lieber, Baruch B.
Many factors that are either blood-, wall-, or hemodynamics-borne have been associated with the initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The distribution of cerebral aneurysms around the bifurcations of the circle of Willis has provided the impetus for numerous studies trying to link hemodynamic factors (flow impingement, pressure, and/or wall shear stress) to aneurysm pathophysiology. The focus of this review is to provide a broad overview of such hemodynamic associations as well as the subsumed aspects of vascular anatomy and wall structure. Hemodynamic factors seem to be correlated to the distribution of aneurysms on the intracranial arterial tree and complex, slow flow patterns seem to be associated with aneurysm growth and rupture. However, both the prevalence of aneurysms in the general population and the incidence of ruptures in the aneurysm population are extremely low. This suggests that hemodynamic factors and purely mechanical explanations by themselves may serve as necessary, but never as necessary and sufficient conditions of this disease’s causation. The ultimate cause is not yet known, but it is likely an additive or multiplicative effect of a handful of biochemical and biomechanical factors. PMID:23549899
Weber, Stewart A; Patel, Ranish K; Lutsep, Helmi L
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the pathologic deposition of amyloid-beta within cortical and leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, capillaries and, in rare cases, the venules of the brain. It is often associated with the development of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) but may cause other neurologic symptoms or be asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, such as lobar microbleeds, support a diagnosis of CAA and assist with hemorrhage risk assessments. Immunosuppressants are used to treat rarer inflammatory forms of CAA. For the more common forms of CAA, the use of antihypertensive medications can prevent ICH recurrence while the use of antithrombotics may increase hemorrhage risk. Anti-amyloid approaches to treatment have not yet been investigated in phase 3 trials. Areas covered: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE on the topics of imaging, biomarkers, ICH prevention and treatment trials in CAA, focusing on its current diagnosis and management and opportunities for future therapeutic approaches. Expert commentary: There is likely a significant unrecognized burden of CAA in the elderly population. Continued research efforts to discover biomarkers that allow the early diagnosis of CAA will enhance the opportunity to develop treatment interventions.
Schneider, Rilla E; Ng, Pamela; Zhang, Xun; Andersen, John; Buckley, David; Fehlings, Darcy; Kirton, Adam; Wood, Ellen; van Rensburg, Esias; Shevell, Michael I; Oskoui, Maryam
Advanced maternal age is associated with higher frequencies of antenatal and perinatal conditions, as well as a higher risk of cerebral palsy in offspring. We explore the association between maternal age and specific cerebral palsy risk factors. Data were extracted from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry. Maternal age was categorized as ≥35 years of age and less than 20 years of age at the time of birth. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The final sample consisted of 1391 children with cerebral palsy, with 19% of children having mothers aged 35 or older and 4% of children having mothers below the age of 20. Univariate analyses showed that mothers aged 35 or older were more likely to have gestational diabetes (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8), to have a history of miscarriage (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.4), to have undergone fertility treatments (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 3.9), and to have delivered by Caesarean section (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.2). These findings were supported by multivariate analyses. Children with mothers below the age of 20 were more likely to have a congenital malformation (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.2), which is also supported by multivariate analysis. The risk factor profiles of children with cerebral palsy vary by maternal age. Future studies are warranted to further our understanding of the compound causal pathways leading to cerebral palsy and the observed greater prevalence of cerebral palsy with increasing maternal age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Takezawa, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Niihori, Tetsuya; Numata-Uematsu, Yurika; Inui, Takehiko; Yamamura-Suzuki, Saeko; Miyabayashi, Takuya; Anzai, Mai; Suzuki-Muromoto, Sato; Okubo, Yukimune; Endo, Wakaba; Togashi, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Onuma, Akira; Funayama, Ryo; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Nakayama, Keiko; Aoki, Yoko; Kure, Shigeo
Cerebral palsy is a common, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that causes movement and postural disabilities. Recent studies have suggested genetic diseases can be misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. We hypothesized that two simple criteria, that is, full-term births and nonspecific brain MRI findings, are keys to extracting masqueraders among cerebral palsy cases due to the following: (1) preterm infants are susceptible to multiple environmental factors and therefore demonstrate an increased risk of cerebral palsy and (2) brain MRI assessment is essential for excluding environmental causes and other particular disorders. A total of 107 patients-all full-term births-without specific findings on brain MRI were identified among 897 patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy who were followed at our center. DNA samples were available for 17 of the 107 cases for trio whole-exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization. We prioritized variants in genes known to be relevant in neurodevelopmental diseases and evaluated their pathogenicity according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic candidate variants were identified in 9 of 17 cases (52.9%) within eight genes: CTNNB1 , CYP2U1 , SPAST , GNAO1 , CACNA1A , AMPD2 , STXBP1 , and SCN2A . Five identified variants had previously been reported. No pathogenic copy number variations were identified. The AMPD2 missense variant and the splice-site variants in CTNNB1 and AMPD2 were validated by in vitro functional experiments. The high rate of detecting causative genetic variants (52.9%) suggests that patients diagnosed with cerebral palsy in full-term births without specific MRI findings may include genetic diseases masquerading as cerebral palsy.
Ding, Christine; Toll, Valerie; Ouyang, Bichun; Chen, Michael
The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in women surges following menopause. Estrogen fluctuations have been implicated in cerebral aneurysm formation, growth and rupture and are thought to explain the well-known gender disparity. The aim of this study was to examine the association between age at menopause, which can determine lifetime estrogen exposure, and the presence of cerebral aneurysms. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by interviewing postmenopausal women with intradural cerebral aneurysms about their basic medical and gynecologic histories. This information was compared with the same data points collected from 4682 women contacted through random digit phone dialing in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-sponsored Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study published in 2002. Among 76 consecutive postmenopausal women with cerebral aneurysms who were treated by a single physician and interviewed, multivariate logistic regression showed that later menopause age (OR 0.79, CI 0.63 to 0.996, p=0.046) was significantly associated with a lower aneurysm incidence. Premature menopause (<40 years) was seen in 26% of cases and 19% of controls (p=0.15). Each categorical increase in menopause age (<40, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, ≥55 years) decreased the likelihood by 21%. Despite a trend towards earlier mean age at menopause in the case group, the difference was not statistically significant. There is a trend showing that an earlier age at menopause is associated with the presence of a cerebral aneurysm. This suggests that loss of estrogen earlier in a woman's life may contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm. These data may identify a risk factor for cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis and also a potential target for future therapies.
Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H
Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be
Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Farkas, Eszter; Martin, Chris; Venneri, Annalena; Frangi, Alejandro F
A substantial body of evidence supports the hypothesis of a vascular component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebral hypoperfusion and blood-brain barrier dysfunction have been indicated as key elements of this pathway. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder, frequent in AD, characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in cerebral blood vessel walls. CAA is associated with loss of vascular integrity, resulting in impaired regulation of cerebral circulation, and increased susceptibility to cerebral ischemia, microhemorrhages, and white matter damage. Vasomotion- the spontaneous rhythmic modulation of arterial diameter, typically observed in arteries/arterioles in various vascular beds including the brain- is thought to participate in tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery regulation. Vasomotion is impaired in adverse conditions such as hypoperfusion and hypoxia. The perivascular and glymphatic pathways of Aβ clearance are thought to be driven by the systolic pulse. Vasomotion produces diameter changes of comparable amplitude, however at lower rates, and could contribute to these mechanisms of Aβ clearance. In spite of potential clinical interest, studies addressing cerebral vasomotion in the context of AD/CAA are limited. This study reviews the current literature on vasomotion, and hypothesizes potential paths implicating impaired cerebral vasomotion in AD/CAA. Aβ and oxidative stress cause vascular tone dysregulation through direct effects on vascular cells, and indirect effects mediated by impaired neurovascular coupling. Vascular tone dysregulation is further aggravated by cholinergic deficit and results in depressed cerebrovascular reactivity and (possibly) impaired vasomotion, aggravating regional hypoperfusion and promoting further Aβ and oxidative stress accumulation.
Olin, J. Tod; Dimmen, Andrew C.; Polaner, David M.; Kayser, Bengt; Roach, Robert C.
Previous studies have suggested that a reduction in cerebral oxygen delivery may limit motor drive, particularly in hypoxic conditions, where oxygen transport is impaired. We hypothesized that raising end-tidal Pco2 (PetCO2) during incremental exercise would increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen delivery, thereby improving peak power output (Wpeak). Amateur cyclists performed two ramped exercise tests (25 W/min) in a counterbalanced order to compare the normal, poikilocapnic response against a clamped condition, in which PetCO2 was held at 50 Torr throughout exercise. Tests were performed in normoxia (barometric pressure = 630 mmHg, 1,650 m) and hypoxia (barometric pressure = 425 mmHg, 4,875 m) in a hypobaric chamber. An additional trial in hypoxia investigated effects of clamping at a lower PetCO2 (40 Torr) from ∼75 to 100% Wpeak to reduce potential influences of respiratory acidosis and muscle fatigue imposed by clamping PetCO2 at 50 Torr. Metabolic gases, ventilation, middle cerebral artery CBF velocity (transcranial Doppler), forehead pulse oximetry, and cerebral (prefrontal) and muscle (vastus lateralis) hemoglobin oxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy) were monitored across trials. Clamping PetCO2 at 50 Torr in both normoxia (n = 9) and hypoxia (n = 11) elevated CBF velocity (∼40%) and improved cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation (∼15%), but decreased Wpeak (6%) and peak oxygen consumption (11%). Clamping at 40 Torr near maximal effort in hypoxia (n = 6) also improved cerebral oxygenation (∼15%), but again limited Wpeak (5%). These findings demonstrate that increasing mass cerebral oxygen delivery via CO2-mediated vasodilation does not improve incremental exercise performance, at least when accompanied by respiratory acidosis. PMID:21921244
Leegaard, O F
In order to evaluate occurrence and cause of a number of diffuse cerebral symptoms (DCS), such as impaired memory, inability to concentrate, emotional instability, irritability, etc., 44 survivors of cerebral infarction (CI) and 40 survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) were seen 6-26 months after onset for psychometric testing and an interview about DCS. Although surprisingly common in both groups, DCS were significantly more frequent in CI patients than in MI patients. 1/2 of the former and 1/3 of the latter complained of 5 or more symptoms. In contrast, a significant difference in test performance was demonstrated in only 1 of 4 tests. There was no significant correlation between the number of DCS and test performance. In both groups, DCS occurrence was independent of age, whereas in the MI group, but not in the CI group, test performance was inversely related to age. In the CI group, DCS occurrence was not significantly related to size or site of the infarction. The results indicate that an organic brain damage cannot be the sole cause of DCS, and it is suggested that some of the symptoms are manifestations of a stress response syndrome provoked by insufficient coping with the consequences of the disease.
Phan, Thanh G; Fong, Ashley C; Donnan, Geoffrey; Reutens, David C
Knowledge of the extent and distribution of infarcts of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) may give insight into the limits of the arterial territory and infarct mechanism. We describe the creation of a digital atlas of PCA infarcts associated with PCA branch and trunk occlusion by magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Infarcts were manually segmented on T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained >24 hours after stroke onset. The images were linearly registered into a common stereotaxic coordinate space. The segmented images were averaged to yield the probability of involvement by infarction at each voxel. Comparisons were made with existing maps of the PCA territory. Thirty patients with a median age of 61 years (range, 22 to 86 years) were studied. In the digital atlas of the PCA, the highest frequency of infarction was within the medial temporal lobe and lingual gyrus (probability=0.60 to 0.70). The mean and maximal PCA infarct volumes were 55.1 and 128.9 cm(3), respectively. Comparison with published maps showed greater agreement in the anterior and medial boundaries of the PCA territory compared with its posterior and lateral boundaries. We have created a probabilistic digital atlas of the PCA based on subacute magnetic resonance scans. This approach is useful for establishing the spatial distribution of strokes in a given cerebral arterial territory and determining the regions within the arterial territory that are at greatest risk of infarction.
Miyamoto, Takashi; Miyaji, Kagami; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Kohira, Satoshi; Tomoyasu, Takahiro; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ohara, Kuniyoshi
We examined the hypothesis that higher cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during RCP is correlated with urinary output. Between December 2002 and August 2006, 12 patients aged 3 to 61 days and weighing 2.6 to 3.4 kg underwent aortic arch repair with RCP. Urinary output and rSO2 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were assigned to either of 2 groups according to their corresponding rSO2: Group A (rSO2 < or = 75%) and Group B (rSO2 < 75%). Seven and 5 patients were assigned to Group A and Group B, respectively.Group A was characterized by mean radial arterial pressure (37.9 +/- 9.6 vs 45.8 +/- 7.8 mmHg; P = 0.14) and femoral arterial pressure (6.7 +/- 6.1 vs 20.8 +/- 14.6 mmHg; P = 0.09) compared to Group B. However, higher urinary output during CPB (1.03 +/- 1.18 vs 0.10 +/- 0.15 ml.kg-1.h-1; P = 0.03). Furthermore our results indicate that a higher dose of Chlorpromazine was used in Group A (2.9 +/- 1.4 vs 1.7 +/- 1.0 mg/kg; P = 0.03). Higher cerebral oxygenation may provide higher urinary output due to higher renal blood flow through collateral circulation.
Bonhomme, Vincent; Boveroux, Pierre; Hans, Pol; Brichant, Jean François; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Boly, Melanie; Laureys, Steven
To describe recent studies exploring brain function under the influence of hypnotic anesthetic agents, and their implications on the understanding of consciousness physiology and anesthesia-induced alteration of consciousness. Cerebral cortex is the primary target of the hypnotic effect of anesthetic agents, and higher-order association areas are more sensitive to this effect than lower-order processing regions. Increasing concentration of anesthetic agents progressively attenuates connectivity in the consciousness networks, while connectivity in lower-order sensory and motor networks is preserved. Alteration of thalamic sub-cortical regulation could compromise the cortical integration of information despite preserved thalamic activation by external stimuli. At concentrations producing unresponsiveness, the activity of consciousness networks becomes anticorrelated with thalamic activity, while connectivity in lower-order sensory networks persists, although with cross-modal interaction alterations. Accumulating evidence suggests that hypnotic anesthetic agents disrupt large-scale cerebral connectivity. This would result in an inability of the brain to generate and integrate information, while external sensory information is still processed at a lower order of complexity.
Rey-Santano, Carmen; Mielgo, Victoria E; López-de-Heredia-y-Goya, Jon; Murgia, Xabier; Valls-i-Soler, Adolfo
Aerosolization has been proposed as a useful alternative to rapid intratracheal instillation for the delivery of exogenous surfactant in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is a lack of information regarding the likely safety of this new therapeutic approach for the neonatal brain. We aimed to compare the cerebral effects of aerosolized versus bolus surfactant administration in premature lambs with respiratory distress syndrome. Prospective randomized study. BioCruces Institute Animal Research Facility. Fourteen intensively monitored and mechanically ventilated preterm lambs. Preterm lambs were randomly assigned to receive intratracheal aerosolized surfactant or bolus surfactant. Brain hemodynamics (cerebral and regional cerebral blood flow) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (cerebral oxygen delivery, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and oxygen extraction fraction) were measured every 30 minutes for 6 hours. We also performed cerebral biochemical and histological analysis. In preterm lambs with respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral blood flow, regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen delivery, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen increased significantly in the bolus surfactant group during the first 5 minutes, without changes in cerebral oxygen extraction fraction. By 60 minutes, all parameters had decreased in both groups, cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood flow (in inner and cerebellum brainstem regions) remaining higher in the bolus surfactant than in the aerosolized surfactant group. Overall, the impact of aerosol surfactant was not significantly different to that of bolus surfactant in terms of cerebral necrosis, edema, inflammation, hemorrhage, infarct, apoptosis, or oxidative stress. In preterm lambs with severe respiratory distress syndrome, aerosol surfactant administration seems to be as safe as bolus administration, showing more stable cerebral hemodynamics and cerebral oxygen metabolism to the same dose of
Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were
Gill, Amandip S; Rajneesh, Kiran F; Owen, Christopher M; Yeh, James; Hsu, Mike; Binder, Devin K
Cerebral edema is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in diverse disease states. Currently, the means to detect progressive cerebral edema in vivo includes the use of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors and/or serial radiological studies. However, ICP measurements exhibit a high degree of variability, and ICP monitors detect edema only after it becomes sufficient to significantly raise ICP. The authors report the development of 2 distinct minimally invasive fiberoptic near-infrared (NIR) techniques able to directly detect early cerebral edema. Cytotoxic brain edema was induced in adult CD1 mice via water intoxication by intraperitoneal water administration (30% body weight intraperitoneally). An implantable dual-fiberoptic probe was stereotactically placed into the cerebral cortex and connected to optical source and detector hardware. Optical sources consisted of either broadband halogen illumination or a single-wavelength NIR laser diode, and the detector was a sensitive NIR spectrometer or optical power meter. In one subset of animals, a left-sided craniectomy was performed to obtain cortical biopsies for water-content determination to verify cerebral edema. In another subset of animals, an ICP transducer was placed on the contralateral cortex, which was synchronized to a computer and time stamped. Using either broadband illumination with NIR spectroscopy or single-wavelength laser diode illumination with optical power meter detection, the authors detected a reduction in NIR optical reflectance during early cerebral edema. The time intervals between water injection (Time Point 0), optical trigger (defined as a 2-SD change in optical reflectance from baseline), and defined threshold ICP values of 10, 15 and 20 mm Hg were calculated. Reduction in NIR reflectance occurred significantly earlier than any of the ICP thresholds (p < 0.001). Saline-injected control mice exhibited a steady baseline optical signal. There was a significant correlation between
Tollånes, Mette C; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Moster, Dag
To investigate risks of recurrence of cerebral palsy in family members with various degrees of relatedness to elucidate patterns of hereditability. Population based cohort study. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, linked to the Norwegian social insurance scheme to identify cases of cerebral palsy and to databases of Statistics Norway to identify relatives. 2,036,741 Norwegians born during 1967-2002, 3649 of whom had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy; 22,558 pairs of twins, 1,851,144 pairs of first degree relatives, 1,699,856 pairs of second degree relatives, and 5,165,968 pairs of third degree relatives were identified. Cerebral palsy. If one twin had cerebral palsy, the relative risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy was 15.6 (95% confidence interval 9.8 to 25) in the other twin. In families with an affected singleton child, risk was increased 9.2 (6.4 to 13)-fold in a subsequent full sibling and 3.0 (1.1 to 8.6)-fold in a half sibling. Affected parents were also at increased risk of having an affected child (6.5 (1.6 to 26)-fold). No evidence was found of differential transmission through mothers or fathers, although the study had limited power to detect such differences. For people with an affected first cousin, only weak evidence existed for an increased risk (1.5 (0.9 to 2.7)-fold). Risks in siblings or cousins were independent of sex of the index case. After exclusion of preterm births (an important risk factor for cerebral palsy), familial risks remained and were often stronger. People born into families in which someone already has cerebral palsy are themselves at elevated risk, depending on their degree of relatedness. Elevated risk may extend even to third degree relatives (first cousins). The patterns of risk suggest multifactorial inheritance, in which multiple genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. These data offer additional evidence that the underlying causes of cerebral palsy extend beyond the clinical management of
Marumo, Toshiyuki; Eto, Kei; Wake, Hiroaki; Omura, Tomohiro; Nabekura, Junichi
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is a potent vasoconstrictor that contributes to cerebral ischaemia. An inhibitor of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis, TS-011, reduces infarct volume and improves neurological deficits in animal stroke models. However, little is known about how TS-011 affects the microvessels in ischaemic brain. Here, we investigated the effect of TS-011 on microvessels after cerebral ischaemia. TS-011 (0.3 mg·kg(-1) ) or a vehicle was infused intravenously for 1 h every 6 h in a mouse model of stroke, induced by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery occlusion following photothrombosis. The cerebral blood flow velocity and the vascular perfusion area of the peri-infarct microvessels were measured using in vivo two-photon imaging. The cerebral blood flow velocities in the peri-infarct microvessels decreased at 1 and 7 h after reperfusion, followed by an increase at 24 h after reperfusion in the vehicle-treated mice. We found that TS-011 significantly inhibited both the decrease and the increase in the blood flow velocities in the peri-infarct microvessels seen in the vehicle-treated mice after reperfusion. In addition, TS-011 significantly inhibited the reduction in the microvascular perfusion area after reperfusion, compared with the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, TS-011 significantly reduced the infarct volume by 40% at 72 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion. These findings demonstrated that infusion of TS-011 improved defects in the autoregulation of peri-infarct microcirculation and reduced the infarct volume. Our results could be relevant to the treatment of cerebral ischaemia. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.
Grocott, Hilary P; Ambrose, Emma; Moon, Mike
Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) involving cannulation of either the axillary or innominate artery is a commonly used technique for maintaining cerebral blood flow (CBF) during the use of hypothermic cardiac arrest (HCA) for operations on the aortic arch. Nevertheless, asymmetrical CBF with hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere is a common occurrence during SACP. The purpose of this report is to describe an adjunctive maneuver to improve left hemispheric CBF during SACP by applying extrinsic compression to the left carotid artery. A 77-yr-old male patient with a history of aortic valve replacement presented for emergent surgical repair of an acute type A aortic dissection of a previously known ascending aortic aneurysm. His intraoperative course included cannulation of the right axillary artery, which was used as the aortic inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass and also allowed for subsequent SACP during HCA. After the onset of HCA, the innominate artery was clamped at its origin to allow for SACP. Shortly thereafter, however, the left-sided cerebral oxygen saturation (SrO2) began to decrease. Augmenting the PaO2, PaCO2 and both SACP pressure and flow failed to increase left hemispheric SrO2. Following the use of ultrasound guidance to confirm the absence of atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery, external pressure was applied partially compressing the artery. With the carotid compression, the left cerebral saturation abruptly increased, suggesting pressurization of the left cerebral hemispheric circulation and augmentation of CBF. Direct ultrasound visualization and cautious partial compression of the left carotid artery may address asymmetrical CBF that occurs with SACP during HCA for aortic arch surgery. This strategy may lead to improved symmetry of CBF and corresponding cerebral oximetry measurements during aortic arch surgery.
Deschamps, Alain; Hall, Richard; Grocott, Hilary; Mazer, C David; Choi, Peter T; Turgeon, Alexis F; de Medicis, Etienne; Bussières, Jean S; Hudson, Christopher; Syed, Summer; Seal, Doug; Herd, Stuart; Lambert, Jean; Denault, André; Deschamps, Alain; Mutch, Alan; Turgeon, Alexis; Denault, Andre; Todd, Andrea; Jerath, Angela; Fayad, Ashraf; Finnegan, Barry; Kent, Blaine; Kennedy, Brent; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Kavanagh, Brian; Warriner, Brian; MacAdams, Charles; Lehmann, Christian; Fudorow, Christine; Hudson, Christopher; McCartney, Colin; McIsaac, Dan; Dubois, Daniel; Campbell, David; Mazer, David; Neilpovitz, David; Rosen, David; Cheng, Davy; Drapeau, Dennis; Dillane, Derek; Tran, Diem; Mckeen, Dolores; Wijeysundera, Duminda; Jacobsohn, Eric; Couture, Etienne; de Medicis, Etienne; Alam, Fahad; Abdallah, Faraj; Ralley, Fiona E; Chung, Frances; Lellouche, Francois; Dobson, Gary; Germain, Genevieve; Djaiani, George; Gilron, Ian; Hare, Gregory; Bryson, Gregory; Clarke, Hance; McDonald, Heather; Roman-Smith, Helen; Grocott, Hilary; Yang, Homer; Douketis, James; Paul, James; Beaubien, Jean; Bussières, Jean; Pridham, Jeremy; Armstrong, J N; Parlow, Joel; Murkin, John; Gamble, Jonathan; Duttchen, Kaylene; Karkouti, Keyvan; Turner, Kim; Baghirzada, Leyla; Szabo, Linda; Lalu, Manoj; Wasowicz, Marcin; Bautista, Michael; Jacka, Michael; Murphy, Michael; Schmidt, Michael; Verret, Michaël; Perrault, Michel-Antoine; Beaudet, Nicolas; Buckley, Norman; Choi, Peter; MacDougall, Peter; Jones, Philip; Drolet, Pierre; Beaulieu, Pierre; Taneja, Ravi; Martin, Rene; Hall, Richard; George, Ronald; Chun, Rosa; McMullen, Sarah; Beattie, Scott; Sampson, Sonia; Choi, Stephen; Kowalski, Stephen; McCluskey, Stuart; Syed, Summer; Boet, Sylvain; Ramsay, Tim; Saha, Tarit; Mutter, Thomas; Chowdhury, Tumul; Uppal, Vishal; Mckay, William
Cerebral oxygen desaturation during cardiac surgery has been associated with adverse perioperative outcomes. Before a large multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the impact of preventing desaturations on perioperative outcomes, the authors undertook a randomized prospective, parallel-arm, multicenter feasibility RCT to determine whether an intervention algorithm could prevent desaturations. Eight Canadian sites randomized 201 patients between April 2012 and October 2013. The primary outcome was the success rate of reversing cerebral desaturations below 10% relative to baseline in the intervention group. Anesthesiologists were blinded to the cerebral saturation values in the control group. Intensive care unit personnel were blinded to cerebral saturation values for both groups. Secondary outcomes included the area under the curve of cerebral desaturation load, enrolment rates, and a 30-day follow-up for adverse events. Cerebral desaturations occurred in 71 (70%) of the 102 intervention group patients and 56 (57%) of the 99 control group patients (P = 0.04). Reversal was successful in 69 (97%) of the intervention group patients. The mean cerebral desaturation load (SD) in the operating room was smaller for intervention group patients compared with control group patients (104  %.min vs. 398  %.min, mean difference, -294; 95% CI, -562 to -26; P = 0.03). This was also true in the intensive care unit (P = 0.02). There were no differences in adverse events between the groups. Study sites were successful in reversal of desaturation, patient recruitment, randomization, and follow-up in cardiac surgery, supporting the feasibility of conducting a large multicenter RCT.
Lélis, Ana Luíza P A; Cardoso, Maria Vera L M; Hall, Wendy A
Sleep disorders are more prevalent in children with cerebral palsy. The review aimed to identify and synthesize information about the nature of sleep disorders and their related factors in children with cerebral palsy. We performed an electronic search by using the search terms sleep/child*, and sleep/cerebral palsy in the following databases: Latin American literature on health sciences, SCOPUS, medical publications, cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature, psycinfo, worldcat, web of science, and the Cochrane library. The selection criteria were studies: available in Portuguese, English or Spanish and published between 2004 and 2014, with results addressing sleep disorders in children (ages 0-18 y) with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. 36,361 abstracts were identified. Of those, 37 papers were selected, and 25 excluded. Twelve papers were incorporated in the study sample: eight quantitative studies, three reviews, and one case study. Eleven types of sleep disorders were identified, such as difficult morning awakening, insomnia, nightmares, difficulties in initiating and maintaining nighttime sleep (night waking), and sleep anxiety. Twenty-one factors were linked to sleep disorders, which we classified as intrinsic factors associated with common comorbidities accompanying cerebral palsy, and extrinsic aspects, specifically environmental and socio-familial variables, and clinical-surgical and pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giri, Sachin Ashok; Kotecha, Nitin; Giri, Deepali; Diyora, Batuk; Nayak, Naren; Sharma, Alok
Cranioplasty is a commonly performed procedure for the repair of cranial defects. Various materials have been used for this procedure and have a good safety profile. Human cerebral myiasis is an exceedingly rare condition. It involves the invasion of live or dead human tissues by larvae of the insect species dipterous. We describe the first case of cerebral myiasis associated with an artificial cranioplasty bone flap. There was delayed cerebral cortex infestation of the species dipterous after cranioplasty with polymethyl methacrylate bone flap. The patient initially presented with an acute subdural hematoma and contaminated, comminuted frontal bone fracture that required craniectomy with interval cranioplasty at 3 months. Two years after the index procedure, the patient presented for neurosurgical follow-up because of 2 months of nonhealing ulcers and a foul smell emanating from the cranioplasty site, as well as acute onset of unilateral arm and leg weakness. Surgical exploration found live larvae invading the dura and cerebral cortex, an area that was thoroughly debrided with good outcomes for the patient. Cerebral myiasis can be managed via surgical and antibiotic therapy to obtain a good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.
Cerebral hypoxia is a major contributor to neonatal/infant mortality and morbidity including severe neurological complications such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, motor impairment, and epilepsy. Currently, no technology is capable of accurate monitoring of neonatal cerebral oxygenation. We proposed to use optoacoustics for this application by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein. We developed and built a multi-wavelength, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and laser diode optoacoustic systems for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation in the reflection mode through open anterior or posterior fontanelles and in the transmission mode through the skull in the occipital area. In this paper we present results of initial tests of the laser diode system for neonatal cerebral oxygenation measurements. First, the system was tested in phantoms simulating neonatal SSS. Then, using the data obtained in the phantoms, we optimized the system's hardware and software and tested it in neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The laser diode system was capable of detecting SSS signals in the reflection mode through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles as well as in the transmission mode through the skull with high signal-to-noise ratio. Using the signals measured at different wavelengths and algorithms developed for oxygenation measurements, the laser diode system provided real-time, continuous oxygenation monitoring with high precision at all these locations.
Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Parmeggiani, Belisa S; Santos, Roberto C V; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Moreira, Karen L S; da Rocha, Maria Izabel U M; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo
It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain in brain increased, while the CK activity decreased in infected animals compared to uninfected animals. Brain histopathology revealed inflammatory demyelination, gliosis of the brain and intercellular edema in infected animals. Based on this evidence, S. agalactiae infection causes an impairment in cerebral bioenergetics through the augmentation of complex IV activity, which may be considered an adaptive response to maintain proper functioning of the electron respiratory chain, as well as to ensure ongoing electron flow through the electron transport chain. Moreover, inhibition of cerebral CK activity contributes to lower availability of ATP, contributing to impairment of cerebral energy homeostasis. In summary, these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis linked to the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tüzün, Emine Handan; Güven, Duygu Korkem; Eker, Levent; Elbasan, Bülent; Bülbül, Selda Fatma
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status, and provide information regarding anthropometric measurements of cerebral-palsied children living in the city of Ankara, Turkey. A total of 447 children with cerebral palsy (CP) were participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment by the gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). Assesment of nutritional status was based on the triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) estimates derived from TSF and mid-upper arm circumference measurements. TSF and AFA Z-scores were computed using reference data. Cerebral-palsied children had lower TSF and AFA Z-scores compared to reference data from healthy children. The prevalence of underweight and overweight among boys was 8.3 and 9.5%, respectively, whereas it was 19.0 and 0.5% for girls. Underweight was more prevalent in the low functioning children than in moderate functioning children. The findings of this study indicate that cerebral-palsied children face nutritional challenges. Underweight is more prevalent than overweight among cerebral-palsied children. To optimize the outcomes of rehabilitation and prevention efforts, an understanding of the heterogeneity of nutritional status among children with CP is required.
Fujii, K; Weno, B L; Baumbach, G L; Heistad, D D
The goal of the current study was to determine whether treatment of hypertension reduces cerebral infarction after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs). Three-month-old SHRSPs received untreated drinking water or drinking water containing cilazapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide. After 3 months of treatment, the left middle cerebral artery was occluded and neurological deficit was evaluated. Infarct volume was measured 3 days after occlusion using computer imaging techniques from brain slices. Cilazapril and hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure in SHRSPs. One day after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, neurological deficit was decreased by both cilazapril and hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide compared with untreated SHRSPs, and the deficit 3 days after occlusion was decreased significantly only by cilazapril. Infarct volume was 178 +/- 7 mm3 (mean +/- SEM) in untreated SHRSPs, and it was significantly reduced to 117 +/- 15 mm3 by hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide and to 101 +/- 17 mm3 by cilazapril. Infarct volume in Wistar-Kyoto rats was 27 +/- 16 mm3. Thus, reduction in arterial pressure by hydralazine with hydrochlorothiazide or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor is protective against focal cerebral ischemia in SHRSPs.
Yeom, Jung Sook; Cho, Young Hye; Koo, Chung Mo; Jun, Jin Su; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Jae-Young; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang
Cerebral vasculitis is thought to be a possible underlying mechanism of severe neurological complications of Kawasaki's disease (KD), such as cerebral infarct or aneurysm rupture. To evaluate the intracranial inflammatory response in patients with acute-stage KD, we measured the levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with KD ( n = 7) and compared the levels to those of the age- and sex-matched febrile control patients (bacterial meningitis [ n = 5], enteroviral meningitis [ n = 10], nonspecific viral illness without central nervous system involvement [ n = 10]). PTX3 and TNF-α were rarely detected and only in trace concentration in KD, and the levels of IL-6 were not different from those of nonspecific viral illnesses. These mediators are not established biomarkers for cerebral vasculitis but might reflect vascular inflammation in various diseases including KD. Therefore, intracranial inflammation including vasculitis seems to be insignificant in our patients with KD. However, our results might be attributed to the fact that these patients lacked any clinical signs of cerebral or coronary vessel involvement. None of them underwent brain imaging. To clarify this issue, further studies involving patients with neurologic symptoms and proven involvement of cerebral vessels are needed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Dorrance, Anne M; Matin, Nusrat; Pires, Paulo W
The incidence of obesity in the population is increasing at an alarming rate, with this comes an increased risk of insulin resistance (IR). Obesity and IR increase an individual’s risk of having a stroke and they have been linked to several forms of dementia. Stroke and dementia are associated with, or exacerbated by, reduced cerebral blood flow, which has recently been described in obese patients. In this review we will discuss the effects of obesity on cerebral artery function and structure. Regarding their function, we will focus on the endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) dependent dilation. NO dependent dilation is impaired in cerebral arteries from obese rats, and the majority of evidence suggests this is a result of increased oxidative stress. We will also describe the limited studies showing that inward cerebral artery remodeling occurs in models of obesity, and that the remodeling is associated with an increase in the damage caused by cerebral ischemia. We will also discuss some of the more paradoxical findings associated with stroke and obesity, including the evidence that obesity is a positive factor for stroke survival. Finally we will discuss the evidence that links these changes in vascular structure and function to cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:24846235
Habertheuer, Andreas; Wiedemann, Dominik; Kocher, Alfred; Laufer, Guenther; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth
Arch surgery remains undoubtedly among the most technically and strategically challenging endeavors in cardiovascular surgery. Surgical interventions of thoracic aneurysms involving the aortic arch require complete circulatory arrest in deep hypothermia (DHCA) or elaborate cerebral perfusion strategies with varying degrees of hypothermia to achieve satisfactory protection of the brain from ischemic insults, that is, unilateral/bilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). Despite sophisticated and increasingly individualized surgical approaches for complex aortic pathologies, there remains a lack of consensus regarding the optimal method of cerebral protection and circulatory management during the time of arch exclusion. Many recent studies argue in favor of ACP with various degrees of hypothermic arrest during arch reconstruction and its advantages have been widely demonstrated. In fact ACP with more moderate degrees of hypothermia represents a paradigm shift in the cardiac surgery community and is widely adopted as an emergent strategy; however, many centers continue to report good results using other perfusion strategies. Amidst this important discussion we review currently available surgical strategies of cerebral protection management and compare the results of recent European multicenter and single-center data. PMID:26713319
Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Kabashi-Muçaj, Serbeze; Lascu, Luana Corina; Kabashi, Antigona; Bondari, A; Bondari, Simona; Dedushi-Hoti, Kreshnike; Biçaku, Ardian; Shatri, Jeton
Selection of patients with cerebral infarction for MRI that is suitable for thrombolytic therapy as an emerging application. Although the efficiency of the therapy with i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 3 hours after onset of symptoms has been proven in selected patients with CT, now these criteria are determined by MRI, as the data we gather are fast and accurate in the first hours. MRI screening in patients with acute cerebral infarction before application of thrombolytic therapy was done in a UCC Mannheim in Germany. Unlike trials with CT, MRI studies demonstrated the benefits of therapy up to 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. We studied 21 patients hospitalized in Clinic of Neuroradiology at University Clinical Centre in Mannheim-Germany. They all undergo brain MRI evaluation for stroke. This article reviews literature that has followed application of thrombolysis in patients with cerebral infarction based on MRI. We have analyzed the MRI criteria for i.v. application of tPA at this University Centre. Alongside the personal viewpoints of clinicians, survey reveals a variety of clinical aspects and MRI features that are opened for further more exploration: therapeutic effects, the use of the MRI angiography, dynamics, and other. MRI is a tested imaging method for rapid evaluation of patients with hyperacute cerebral infarction, replacing the use of CT imaging and clinical features. MRI criteria for thrombolytic therapy are being applied in some cerebral vascular centres. In Kosovo, the application of thrombolytic therapy has not started yet.
Chronic kidney disease, defined by a decreased glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is recognized as a major global health burden, mainly because it is an established risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The magnitude of the effect of chronic kidney disease on incident stroke seems to be higher in persons of Asian ethnicity. Since the kidney and brain share unique susceptibilities to vascular injury due to similar anatomical and functional features of small artery diseases, kidney impairment can be predictive of the presence and severity of cerebral small vessel diseases. Chronic kidney disease has been reported to be associated with silent brain infarcts, cerebral white matter lesions, and cerebral microbleeds, independently of vascular risk factors. In addition, chronic kidney disease affects cognitive function, partly via the high prevalence of cerebral small vessel diseases. Retinal artery disease also has an independent relationship with chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment. Stroke experts are no longer allowed to be ignorant of chronic kidney disease. Close liaison between neurologists and nephrologists can improve the management of cerebral small vessel diseases in kidney patients. PMID:25692105
Brazy, J E; Lewis, D V; Mitnick, M H; Jöbsis vander Vliet, F F
A noninvasive optical method for bedside monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in small preterm infants was evaluated. Through differential absorbance of near infrared light, changes in the oxidation-reduction level of cytochrome aa3, in the oxygenation state of hemoglobin and in tissue blood volume were assessed in the transilluminated anterior cerebral field. Overall, cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin correlated significantly with transcutaneous oxygen, r = .44 p less than .0001; however, correlation was best in the absence of cardiorespiratory disease. Hypoxia with or without bradycardia led to hemoglobin deoxygenation and a shift in cytochrome aa3 to a more reduced state. When hypoxic episodes came in series or were prolonged, aa3 reduction occurred simultaneous with hemoglobin deoxygenation but its recovery to base-line values sometimes lagged behind the return of hemoglobin oxygenation. In one infant with a large patent ductus arteriosus, even brief episodes of mild bradycardia caused precipitous reduction of cytochrome aa3 before any shift to greater hemoglobin deoxygenation. This response disappeared after ductal ligation. In general, the antecedent state of cerebral oxygenation, the severity and duration of deoxygenation, and the presence or absence of circulatory abnormalities all influenced the aa3 response to hypoxia. Continuous noninvasive near infrared monitoring of cerebral oxygenation can be performed on sick preterm infants at the bedside.
Lan, Shih-Yun; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Kuang-Lin
Acute pediatric encephalitis with fulminant cerebral edema can rapidly become fatal or result in devastating neurological sequelae. All cases coded with the discharge diagnosis of acute encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Of the 1038 children with acute pediatric encephalitis, 25 were enrolled in our study with ages ranging from 5 months to 16 years. The major neurological symptoms included an altered level of consciousness (72%), vomiting (60%), and headache (48%). The onset of neurological symptoms to signs of brain herniation ranged from 0 days to 9 days. Nineteen (76%) patients had a seizure 24-48 hours prior to showing signs of fulminant cerebral edema, and 12 (48%) patients developed status epilepticus. Sixteen patients died, and no survivors returned to baseline. Risk factors for seizures and status epilepticus were compared between the fulminant cerebral edema group (n = 25, 19 seizures, including 12 status epilepticus) and control group (nonfulminant cerebral edema) (n = 1013, 444 seizures, including 141 status epilepticus; p = 0.001 for seizures and p < 0.001 for status epilepticus). Our findings indicate that preceding seizures and status epilepticus are significant risk factors for fulminant cerebral edema in children with acute encephalitis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Maddula, Mohana; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M; Munshi, Sunil
Purpose Cerebral misery perfusion (CMP) is a condition where cerebral autoregulatory capacity is exhausted, and cerebral blood supply in insufficient to meet metabolic demand. We present an educational review of this important condition, which has a range of clinical manifestations. Method A non-systematic review of published literature was undertaken on CMP and major cerebral artery occlusive disease, using Pubmed and Sciencedirect. Findings Patients with CMP may present with strokes in watershed territories, collapses and transient ischaemic attacks or episodic movements associated with an orthostatic component. While positron emission tomography is the gold standard investigation for misery perfusion, advanced MRI is being increasingly used as an alternative investigation modality. The presence of CMP increases the risk of strokes. In addition to the devastating effect of stroke, there is accumulating evidence of impaired cognition and quality of life with carotid occlusive disease (COD) and misery perfusion. The evidence for revascularisation in the setting of complete carotid occlusion is weak. Medical management constitutes careful blood pressure management while addressing other vascular risk factors. Discussion The evidence for the management of patients with COD and CMP is discussed, together with recommendations based on our local experience. In this review, we focus on misery perfusion due to COD. Conclusion Patients with CMP and COD may present with a wide-ranging clinical phenotype and therefore to many specialties. Early identification of patients with misery perfusion may allow appropriate management and focus on strategies to maintain or improve cerebral blood flow, while avoiding potentially harmful treatment. PMID:28959496
Towler, Stephen; Welcome, Suzanne; Halderman, Laura K.; Otto, Ron; Eckert, Mark A.; Chiarello, Christine
Biological and behavioral differences between the sexes range from obvious to subtle or nonexistent. Neuroanatomical differences are particularly controversial, perhaps due to the implication that they might account for behavioral differences. In this sample of 200 men and women, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were found for sex differences in total cerebral gray and white matter, cerebellum, and gray matter proportion (women had a higher proportion of gray matter). The only one of these sex differences that survived adjustment for the effect of cerebral volume was gray matter proportion. Individual differences in cerebral volume accounted for 21% of the difference in gray matter proportion, while sex accounted for an additional 4%. The relative size of the corpus callosum was 5% larger in women, but this difference was completely explained by a negative relationship between relative callosal size and cerebral volume. In agreement with Jancke et al., individuals with higher cerebral volume tended to have smaller corpora callosa. There were few sex differences in the size of structures in Broca's and Wernicke's area. We conclude that individual differences in brain volume, in both men and women, account for apparent sex differences in relative size. PMID:18440950
Prins, Mayumi L
The developing central nervous system has the capacity to metabolize ketone bodies. It was once accepted that on weaning, the ‘post-weaned/adult’ brain was limited solely to glucose metabolism. However, increasing evidence from conditions of inadequate glucose availability or increased energy demands has shown that the adult brain is not static in its fuel options. The objective of this review is to summarize the body of literature specifically regarding cerebral ketone metabolism at different ages, under conditions of starvation and after various pathologic conditions. The evidence presented supports the following findings: (1) there is an inverse relationship between age and the brain’s capacity for ketone metabolism that continues well after weaning; (2) neuroprotective potentials of ketone administration have been shown for neurodegenerative conditions, epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, and traumatic brain injury; and (3) there is an age-related therapeutic potential for ketone as an alternative substrate. The concept of cerebral metabolic adaptation under various physiologic and pathologic conditions is not new, but it has taken the contribution of numerous studies over many years to break the previously accepted dogma of cerebral metabolism. Our emerging understanding of cerebral metabolism is far more complex than could have been imagined. It is clear that in addition to glucose, other substrates must be considered along with fuel interactions, metabolic challenges, and cerebral maturation. PMID:17684514
Nair, Priya; Chong, Brian W; Indahlastari, Aprinda; Lindsay, James; DeJeu, David; Parthasarathy, Varsha; Ryan, Justin; Babiker, Haithem; Workman, Christopher; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Frakes, David
Hemodynamics are currently considered to a lesser degree than geometry in clinical practices for evaluating cerebral aneurysm (CA) risk and planning CA treatment. This study establishes fundamental relationships between three clinically recognized CA geometric factors and four clinically relevant hemodynamic responses. The goal of the study is to develop a more combined geometric/hemodynamic basis for informing clinical decisions. Flows within eight idealized template geometries were simulated using computational fluid dynamics and measured using particle image velocimetry under both steady and pulsatile flow conditions. The geometric factor main effects were then analyzed to quantify contributions made by the geometric factors (aneurysmal dome size (DS), dome-to-neck ratio (DNR), and parent-vessel contact angle (PV-CA)) to effects on the hemodynamic responses (aneurysmal and neck-plane root-mean-square velocity magnitude (Vrms), aneurysmal wall shear stress (WSS), and cross-neck flow (CNF)). Two anatomical aneurysm models were also examined to investigate how well the idealized findings would translate to more realistic CA geometries. DNR made the greatest contributions to effects on hemodynamics including a 75.05% contribution to aneurysmal Vrms and greater than 35% contributions to all responses. DS made the next greatest contributions, including a 43.94% contribution to CNF and greater than 20% contributions to all responses. PV-CA and several factor interactions also made contributions of greater than 10%. The anatomical aneurysm models and the most similar idealized templates demonstrated consistent hemodynamic response patterns. This study demonstrates how individual geometric factors, and combinations thereof, influence CA hemodynamics. Bridging the gap between geometry and flow in this quantitative yet practical way may have potential to improve CA evaluation and treatment criteria. Agreement among results from idealized and anatomical models further
Anwar, Shahzad; Nazir Khan, Malik M.; Nadeem Khan, Malik M.; Qazi, Faiza M.; Awan, Abid H.; Dar, Irfan
A single, open and non comparative study was conducted at Anwar Shah Trust for C.P. & Paralysis in collaboration with the Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Children Hospital Lahore, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of ACULASER THERAPY in childern suffering from Cerebral Palsy (C.P.) and associated Neurological Disorders like epilepsy, cortical blindness, spasticity, hemiplegia, paraplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, monoplegia, sensory-neural deafness and speech disorders. In all 250 childern were treated and the data was gathered during a period of 3 years from December 2003 till December 2006. These children were further classified according to the type of C.P. (spastic, athetoid, mixed) they suffered from and associated Neurological Disorders. This article shows results in C.P. childern who were treated with ACULASER THERAPY for minimum 6 weeks and more or had minimum of 15 treatment sessions and more. This article also shows that those childern who were given a break in the treatment for 1 month to 1 year did not show any reversal of the signs and symptoms. Analysis of the data showed that out of 171 children with Spasticity and Stiffness 147 showed marked improvement showing 87% success rate, out of 126 children with Epileptic fits, there was a significant reduction in the intensity, frequency and duration of Epileptic fits in 91 children showing 72% success rate, out of 48 children with Cortical Blindness 30 children showed improvement accounting for 63% efficacy rate, out of 105 children with Hearing Difficulties, 63 showed marked improvement accounting for 60% improvement rate, out of 190 children with Speech Disorders 122 showed improvement reflecting 64% improvement rate, out of 96 children with Hemiplegia 71 showed improvement in movement, tone and power accounting for 74% improvement rate, out of 76 children with Quadriplegia 52 showed improvement in gross and fine motor functions showing 69% success rate and out of 58 children with Paraplegia of
Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lee, Jiun-Yih; Chou, Yi-Lin; Sheu, Mei-Ling
Background The present study investigated the annual prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) among children aged <7 years in Taiwan and the association between socioeconomic status and CP prevalence. Methods Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the 2002−2008 period were used in this population-based study. Severe and total CP were defined according to catastrophic illness certificate and medical claim records, respectively. The annual CP prevalence was calculated as the number of children with CP among all children aged <7 years. Results From 2002 to 2008, the annual prevalence of total and severe CP ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 and from 1.1 to 1.4 per 1000 children, respectively. Boys were 30% more likely to have CP than girls [adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 1.3 (1.2−1.4) to 1.4 (1.2−1.5)]. Low family income was associated with a higher CP prevalence [adjusted RR (95% CI) ranged from 5.1 (4.2−6.2) to 6.4 (5.4−7.6)]. The prevalence of CP in rural area was higher than that in urban or suburban areas. The mortality rate of severe CP ranged from 12.2−22.7 per 1000 children within the 7 years study period. Conclusions The prevalence of CP in Taiwan is similar to that in Western countries. A higher prevalence of CP is associated with male sex, low income, and rural residential location. Our findings provide insights into CP epidemiology among the Chinese population. PMID:29364952
Tseng, Sung-Hui; Lee, Jiun-Yih; Chou, Yi-Lin; Sheu, Mei-Ling; Lee, Yuan-Wen
The present study investigated the annual prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) among children aged <7 years in Taiwan and the association between socioeconomic status and CP prevalence. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for the 2002-2008 period were used in this population-based study. Severe and total CP were defined according to catastrophic illness certificate and medical claim records, respectively. The annual CP prevalence was calculated as the number of children with CP among all children aged <7 years. From 2002 to 2008, the annual prevalence of total and severe CP ranged from 1.9 to 2.8 and from 1.1 to 1.4 per 1000 children, respectively. Boys were 30% more likely to have CP than girls [adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 1.3 (1.2-1.4) to 1.4 (1.2-1.5)]. Low family income was associated with a higher CP prevalence [adjusted RR (95% CI) ranged from 5.1 (4.2-6.2) to 6.4 (5.4-7.6)]. The prevalence of CP in rural area was higher than that in urban or suburban areas. The mortality rate of severe CP ranged from 12.2-22.7 per 1000 children within the 7 years study period. The prevalence of CP in Taiwan is similar to that in Western countries. A higher prevalence of CP is associated with male sex, low income, and rural residential location. Our findings provide insights into CP epidemiology among the Chinese population.
Rodríguez Mariblanca, M; Cano de la Cuerda, R
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common developmental disorders. Technological development has enabled a transformation of the healthcare sector, which can offer more individualised, participatory, and preventive services. Within this context of new technology applied to the healthcare sector, mobile applications, or apps, constitute a very promising tool for the management of children with CP. The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic review of the information published about various mobile applications either directly related to CP or with potential to be useful in the context of the disease, and to describe, analyse, and classify these applications. A literature search was carried out to gather articles published in English or Spanish between 2011 and 2017 which presented, analysed, or validated applications either specifically designed or potentially useful for CP. Furthermore, a search for mobile applications was conducted in the main mobile application markets. A total of 63 applications were found in biomedical databases and mobile application markets, of which 40 were potentially useful for CP and 23 were specifically designed for the condition (11 for information, 3 for evaluation, and 9 for treatment). There are numerous mobile applications either specifically designed for or with potential to be useful in the field of CP. However, despite the existing scientific evidence, the low methodological quality of scientific articles makes it impossible to generalise the use of these tools. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Roach, E.S.; Stump, D.A.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 16 cranial regions in 23 children and adolescents with frequent headaches using the non-invasive Xenon-133 inhalation technique. Blood flow response to 5% carbon dioxide (CO2) was also determined in 21 patients, while response to 50% oxygen was measured in the two patients with hemoglobinopathy. Included were 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of migraine, 4 with musculoskeletal headaches, and 3 with features of both types. Also studied were 2 patients with primary thrombocythemia, 2 patients with hemoglobinopathy and headaches, 1 patient with polycythemia, and 1 with headaches following trauma. With two exceptions,more » rCBF determinations were done during an asymptomatic period. Baseline rCBF values tended to be higher in these young patients than in young adults done in our laboratory. Localized reduction in the expected blood flow surge after CO2 inhalation, most often noted posteriorly, was seen in 8 of the 13 vascular headaches, but in none of the musculoskeletal headache group. Both patients with primary thrombocythemia had normal baseline flow values and altered responsiveness to CO2 similar to that seen in migraineurs; thus, the frequently reported headache and transient neurologic signs with primary thrombocythemia are probably not due to microvascular obstruction as previously suggested. These data support the concept of pediatric migraine as a disorder of vasomotor function and also add to our knowledge of normal rCBF values in younger patients. Demonstration of altered vasomotor reactivity to CO2 could prove helpful in children whose headache is atypical.« less
Xu, Lili; Hu, Zhiyong; Shen, Jianjun; McQuillan, Patrick M
Cerebral injury caused by hypoperfusion during the perioperative period is one of the main causes of disability and death in patients after major surgery. No effective protective or preventative strategies have been identified. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cerebral oxygen and glucose metabolism in elderly patients with known, pre-existing cerebral ischemia. Sixty ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) II-III patients, diagnosed with vertebral artery ischemia by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), and scheduled for elective total hip replacement surgery, were enrolled in the study. They were randomly allocated to receive either 1mg/kg Ginkgo biloba extract (G group n=30) or normal saline (D group n=30) after induction of anesthesia. Blood samples were collected from radial artery and jugular venous bulb catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of glucose and lactate concentrations preoperatively, before surgical incision, at the end of surgery, and on post-op day 1. Arterial O2 content (CaO2), jugular venous O2 content (CjvO2), arteriovenous O2 content difference (Da-jvO2), cerebral oxygen extraction rate (CEO2), and arteriovenous glucose and lactate content differences (Da-jvGlu and Da-jvLac) were calculated. There were no significant differences in CaO2 or Da-jvGlu during surgery between groups (p>0.05). However, the Ginkgo group had higher CjvO2, internal jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) and lower CEO2, Da-jvO2 and Da-jvLac at the end of surgery (T2) and on post-op day 1 (T3) than those in the control group (p<0.05). Ginkgo biloba extract can improve cerebral oxygen supply, decrease cerebral oxygen extraction rate and consumption, and help maintain the balance between cerebral oxygen supply and consumption. It has no effect, however, on cerebral glucose metabolism in elderly patients with known, pre-existing cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Phill B.; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Boas, David A.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Ayata, Cenk; Dunn, Andrew K.
Real-time investigation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration (HbO, HbR) dynamics has been difficult until recently due to limited spatial and temporal resolution of techniques like laser Doppler flowmetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The combination of laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) and multispectral reflectance imaging (MSRI) yields high-resolution spatiotemporal maps of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in response to functional cortical activation. During acute focal cerebral ischemia, changes in HbO and HbR are much larger than in functional activation, resulting in the failure of the Beer-Lambert approximation to yield accurate results. We describe the use of simultaneous LSF and MSRI, using a nonlinear Monte Carlo fitting technique, to record rapid changes in CBF, HbO, HbR, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) during acute focal cerebral ischemia induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) and reperfusion. This technique captures CBF and CMRO2 changes during hemodynamic and metabolic events with high temporal and spatial resolution through the intact skull and demonstrates the utility of simultaneous LSF and MSRI in mouse models of cerebrovascular disease. PMID:19021335
Bragin, Denis E; Statom, Gloria L; Yonas, Howard; Dai, Xingping; Nemoto, Edwin M
The lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation is the critical cerebral perfusion pressure at which cerebral blood flow begins to fall. It is important that cerebral perfusion pressure be maintained above this level to ensure adequate cerebral blood flow, especially in patients with high intracranial pressure. However, the critical cerebral perfusion pressure of 50 mm Hg, obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, differs from the value of 30 mm Hg, obtained by increasing intracranial pressure, which we previously showed was due to microvascular shunt flow maintenance of a falsely high cerebral blood flow. The present study shows that the critical cerebral perfusion pressure, measured by increasing intracranial pressure to decrease cerebral perfusion pressure, is inaccurate but accurately determined by dopamine-induced dynamic intracranial pressure reactivity and cerebrovascular reactivity. Cerebral perfusion pressure was decreased either by increasing intracranial pressure or decreasing mean arterial pressure and the critical cerebral perfusion pressure by both methods compared. Cortical Doppler flux, intracranial pressure, and mean arterial pressure were monitored throughout the study. At each cerebral perfusion pressure, we measured microvascular RBC flow velocity, blood-brain barrier integrity (transcapillary dye extravasation), and tissue oxygenation (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) in the cerebral cortex of rats using in vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy. University laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. At each cerebral perfusion pressure, dopamine-induced arterial pressure transients (~10 mm Hg, ~45 s duration) were used to measure induced intracranial pressure reactivity (Δ intracranial pressure/Δ mean arterial pressure) and induced cerebrovascular reactivity (Δ cerebral blood flow/Δ mean arterial pressure). At a normal cerebral perfusion pressure of 70 mm Hg, 10 mm Hg mean arterial pressure pulses had no effect on
Artico, Marco; Spoletini, Marialuisa; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fornai, Francesco; Salvati, Maurizio; Frati, Alessandro; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Taurone, Samanta
In June 2017 we celebrate the 90th anniversary of the pioneer discovery of cerebral angiography, the seminal imaging technique used for visualizing cerebral blood vessels and vascular alterations as well as other intracranial disorders. Egas Moniz (1874-1955) was the first to describe the use of this revolutionary technique which, until 1975 (when computed tomography, CT, scan was introduced in the clinical practice), was the sole diagnostic tool to provide an imaging of cerebral vessels and therefore alterations due to intracranial pathology. Moniz introduced in the clinical practice this fundamental and important diagnostic tool. The present contribution wishes to pay a tribute to the Portuguese neurosurgeon, who was also a distinguished neurologist and statesman. Despite his tremendous contribution in modern brain imaging, Egas Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for prefrontal leucotomy, the neurosurgical intervention nowadays unacceptable, but should rather be remembered for his key contribution to modern brain imaging.
Davlet'yarova, K. V.; Korshunov, S. D.; Kapilevich, L. V.
Biomechanical analysis and the study results of children's with cerebral palsy (CP) muscles bioelectrical activity while walking on a flat surface are represented. Increased flexion in the hip and shoulder joints and extension in the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy were observed, with the movement of the lower limbs had less smooth character in comparison with the control group. Herewith, the oscillation amplitude was significantly increased, and the frequency in the m. gastrocnemius and m. lateralis was decreased. It was shown, that the dynamic stereotype of walking in children with cerebral palsy was characterized by excessive involvement of m. gastrocnemius and m.latissimus dorsi in locomotion. Thus, resulting biomechanical and bioelectrical parameters of walking should be considered in the rehabilitation programs development.
Artico, Marco; Spoletini, Marialuisa; Fumagalli, Lorenzo; Biagioni, Francesca; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fornai, Francesco; Salvati, Maurizio; Frati, Alessandro; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Taurone, Samanta
In June 2017 we celebrate the 90th anniversary of the pioneer discovery of cerebral angiography, the seminal imaging technique used for visualizing cerebral blood vessels and vascular alterations as well as other intracranial disorders. Egas Moniz (1874–1955) was the first to describe the use of this revolutionary technique which, until 1975 (when computed tomography, CT, scan was introduced in the clinical practice), was the sole diagnostic tool to provide an imaging of cerebral vessels and therefore alterations due to intracranial pathology. Moniz introduced in the clinical practice this fundamental and important diagnostic tool. The present contribution wishes to pay a tribute to the Portuguese neurosurgeon, who was also a distinguished neurologist and statesman. Despite his tremendous contribution in modern brain imaging, Egas Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949 for prefrontal leucotomy, the neurosurgical intervention nowadays unacceptable, but should rather be remembered for his key contribution to modern brain imaging. PMID:28974927
Bejot, Yannick; Caillier, Marie; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Didi, Roy; Ben Salem, Douraied; Moreau, Thibault; Giroud, Maurice
Ischemia of the areas supplied by the anterior cerebral artery is relatively uncommon. In addition, combined hemiballismus and masturbation have rarely been reported in patients with cerebrovascular disease. We describe herein a 62-year-old right-handed man simultaneously exhibiting right side hemiballismus and involuntary masturbation with the left hand after bilateral infarction of the anterior cerebral artery territory. Right side hemiballismus was related to the disruption of afferent fibers from the left frontal lobe to the left subthalamic nucleus. Involuntary masturbation using the left hand was exclusively linked to a callosal type of alien hand syndrome secondary to infarction of the right side of the anterior corpus callosum. After 2 weeks, these abnormal behaviours were completely extinguished. This report stresses the wide diversity of clinical manifestations observed after infarction of the anterior cerebral artery territory.
Nezzar, Hachemi; Mbekeani, Joyce N; Dalens, Helen
To report a case of incidental asymptomatic atypical morning glory syndrome (MGS) with concomitant ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral dysgenesis. A 6-year-old child was discovered to have incidental findings of MGS, with atypia. All visual functions were normal including vision and stereopsis. Neuroimaging revealed ipsilateral carotid and middle cerebral vascular narrowing without associated collateral vessels or cerebral ischemia commonly seen in Moyamoya disease. Subsequent annual examinations have been stable, without signs of progression. This case demonstrates disparity between structural aberrations and final visual and neurological function and reinforces the association between MGS and intracranial vascular disruption. Full ancillary ophthalmic and neuroimaging studies should be performed in all patients with MGS with interval reassessments, even when the patient is asymptomatic and functionally intact.
Levine, S.R.; Welch, K.M.; Ewing, J.R.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) asymmetries were studied in controls and patients with common and classic/complicated migraine using /sup 133/Xe inhalation with 8 homologously situated external collimators over each cerebral hemisphere. Migraine patients as a group more frequently had posterior rCBF asymmetries than controls (p less than 0.03). Although there were no differences in the number of anterior rCBF asymmetries, migraine patients had 2 or more asymmetric probe pairs more often than controls (p less than 0.02). The posterior rCBF asymmetries, consistent with the site of activation of many migraine attacks, may be related to more labile control of themore » cerebral circulation.« less
Alecu, C; De Bray, J M; Penisson-Besnier, I; Pasco-Papon, A; Dubas, F
We report a case of cerebral deep venous thrombosis that manifested clinically by a pseudobulbar syndrome with major trismus, abnormal movements and static cerebellar syndrome. To our knowledge, only three other cases of deep cerebral venous thrombosis associated with cerebellar or pseudobulbar syndrome have been published since 1985. The relatively good prognosis in our patient could be explained by the partially intact internal cerebral veins as well as use of early anticoagulant therapy. There was a spontaneous hyperdensity of the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli on the brain CT scan, an aspect highly contributive to diagnosis. This hyperdensity of the falx cerebri was found in 19 out of 22 cases of deep venous thrombosis detailed in the literature.
Fischer, G W; Silvay, G
We describe the development and current applications of cerebral oximetry (based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy) that can be used during cardiac and major vascular surgery to determined brain tissue oxygen saturation. There are presently three cerebral oximetry devices with FDA approval in the United States to measure and monitor cerebral tissue oxygen saturation. 1. INVOS (Somanetics Corporation, Troy, MI - recently COVIDIEN, Boulder, CO); FORE-SIGHT (CAS Medical Systems, Inc. Branford, CT); EQUANOX (Nonin Medical Inc.Minnesota, MN). All devices are portable, non-invasive and easy to use in operating room and intensive care unit. The data provided in these communication may provided information for improvement of perioperative neuromonitoring techniques, and may be crucial in the design of future clinical trials.
Schöberl, F; Eren, O E; Wollenweber, F A; Kraus, T; Kellert, L
Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by deposition of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the wall of small to medium-sized arteries, capillaries and venules of the cerebral cortex and leptomeninges. Over the last years it was recognized as an important cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive deficits in the elderly. The clinical and radiological manifestations are diverse ranging from acute onset focal neurological deficits due to intracerebral lobar hemorrhage to subacute progressive cognitive impairment due to Aß-mediated inflammation confluent subcortical edema. The wide clinico-radiological spectrum of CAA is a major challenge for the neurologist and stroke physician. This review provides a structured and detailed look at recent developments in CAA, and is illustrated with case studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
autoregulation, render the cerebral circulation dependent upon systemic circulation exposing brain to ischernic damage or edema in shock or stress...Thus, sharp reductions of arterial pressure, as might occur in hemorrhagic or traumatic shock, will render the cerebral circulation vulnerable to...autoregulated range, rendering local areas of the brain vulnerable to cerebral edema and breakdown of the blood brain barrier. -2- 8. Cerebral blood
Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J
During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.
Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S
T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Bache, Søren; Rasmussen, Rune; Rossing, Maria; Hammer, Niels Risør; Juhler, Marianne; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Møller, Kirsten
Secondary brain injury accounts for a major part of the morbidity and mortality in patients with spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the pathogenesis and pathophysiology remain controversial. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important posttranscriptional regulators of complementary mRNA targets and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of other types of acute brain injury. Cerebral microdialysis is a promising tool to investigate these mechanisms. We hypothesized that miRNAs would be present in human cerebral microdialysate. RNA was extracted and miRNA profiles were established using high throughput real-time quantification PCR on the following material: 1) Microdialysate sampled in vitro from A) a solution of total RNA extracted from human brain, B) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from a neurologically healthy patient, and C) a patient with SAH; and 2) cerebral microdialysate and CSF sampled in vivo from two patients with SAH. MiRNAs were categorized according to their relative recovery (RR) and a pathway analysis was performed for miRNAs exhibiting a high RR in vivo. Seventy-one of the 160 miRNAs detected in CSF were also found in in vivo microdialysate from SAH patients. Furthermore specific miRNAs consistently exhibited either a high or low RR in both in vitro and in vivo microdialysate. Analysis of repeatability showed lower analytical variation in microdialysate than in CSF. MiRNAs are detectable in cerebral microdialysate; a large group of miRNAs consistently showed a high RR in cerebral microdialysate. Measurement of cerebral interstitial miRNA concentrations may aid in the investigation of secondary brain injury in neurocritical conditions.
Potchen, Michael J; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Demarco, J Kevin; Kampondeni, Sam D; Beare, Nicholas; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E
To describe brain CT findings in retinopathy-confirmed, paediatric cerebral malaria. In this outcomes study of paediatric cerebral malaria, a subset of children with protracted coma during initial presentation was scanned acutely. Survivors experiencing adverse neurological outcomes also underwent a head CT. All children had ophthalmological examination to confirm the presence of the retinopathy specific for cerebral malaria. Independent interpretation of CT images was provided by two neuroradiologists. Acute brain CT findings in three children included diffuse oedema with obstructive hydrocephalus (2), acute cerebral infarctions in multiple large vessel distributions with secondary oedema and herniation (1), and oedema of thalamic grey matter (1). One child who was reportedly normal prior to admission had parenchymal atrophy suggestive of pre-existing CNS injury. Among 56 survivors (9-84 months old), 15 had adverse neurologic outcomes-11/15 had a follow-up head CT, 3/15 died and 1/15 refused CT. Follow-up head CTs obtained 7-18 months after the acute infection revealed focal and multifocal lobar atrophy correlating to regions affected by focal seizures during the acute infection (5/11). Other findings were communicating hydrocephalus (2/11), vermian atrophy (1/11) and normal studies (3/11). The identification of pre-existing imaging abnormalities in acute cerebral malaria suggests that population-based studies are required to establish the rate and nature of incidental imaging abnormalities in Malawi. Children with focal seizures during acute cerebral malaria developed focal cortical atrophy in these regions at follow-up. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate mechanisms of CNS injury and death in this common fatal disease. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Tian; Surapaneni, Krishna; Lou, Min; Cheng, Liuquan; Spincemaille, Pascal
Purpose: To assess quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) for reducing the inconsistency of standard magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences in measurements of cerebral microbleed burden. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Ten patients (5.6%) were selected from among 178 consecutive patients suspected of having experienced a stroke who were imaged with a multiecho gradient-echo sequence at 3.0 T and who had cerebral microbleeds on T2*-weighted images. QSM was performed for various ranges of echo time by using both the magnitude and phase components in the morphology-enabled dipole inversion method. Cerebral microbleed size was measured by two neuroradiologists on QSM images, T2*-weighted images, susceptibility-weighted (SW) images, and R2* maps calculated by using different echo times. The sum of susceptibility over a region containing a cerebral microbleed was also estimated on QSM images as its total susceptibility. Measurement differences were assessed by using the Student t test and the F test; P < .05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: When echo time was increased from approximately 20 to 40 msec, the measured cerebral microbleed volume increased by mean factors of 1.49 ± 0.86 (standard deviation), 1.64 ± 0.84, 2.30 ± 1.20, and 2.30 ± 1.19 for QSM, R2*, T2*-weighted, and SW images, respectively (P < .01). However, the measured total susceptibility with QSM did not show significant change over echo time (P = .31), and the variation was significantly smaller than any of the volume increases (P < .01 for each). Conclusion: The total susceptibility of a cerebral microbleed measured by using QSM is a physical property that is independent of echo time. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:22056688
Boucetta, Soufiane; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio; Lachapelle, Francis; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Gravel, Paul; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh
Idiopathic hypersomnia is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, despite normal or long sleep time. Its pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. This pilot study aims at characterizing the neural correlates of idiopathic hypersomnia using single photon emission computed tomography. Thirteen participants with idiopathic hypersomnia and 16 healthy controls were scanned during resting wakefulness using a high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography scanner with 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer to assess cerebral blood flow. The main analysis compared regional cerebral blood flow distribution between the two groups. Exploratory correlations between regional cerebral blood flow and clinical characteristics evaluated the functional correlates of those brain perfusion patterns. Significance was set at p < .05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Participants with idiopathic hypersomnia showed regional cerebral blood flow decreases in medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and putamen, as well as increases in amygdala and temporo-occipital cortices. Lower regional cerebral blood flow in the medial prefrontal cortex was associated with higher daytime sleepiness. These preliminary findings suggest that idiopathic hypersomnia is characterized by functional alterations in brain areas involved in the modulation of vigilance states, which may contribute to the daytime symptoms of this condition. The distribution of regional cerebral blood flow changes was reminiscent of the patterns associated with normal non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, suggesting the possible presence of incomplete sleep-wake transitions. These abnormalities were strikingly distinct from those induced by acute sleep deprivation, suggesting that the patterns seen here might reflect a trait associated with idiopathic hypersomnia rather than a non-specific state of sleepiness. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep
Ozbilgin, Sule; Yılmaz, Osman; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Hancı, Volkan; Ozbal, Seda; Yurtlu, Serhan; Gunenc, Sakize Ferim; Kuvaki, Bahar; Kucuk, Burcu Ataseven; Sisman, Ali Rıza
Cerebral ischemia may cause permanent brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. The efficacy and mechanisms of pharmacological treatments administered immediately after cerebral damage are not fully known. Sugammadex is a licensed medication. As other cyclodextrins have not passed the necessary phase tests, trade preparations are not available, whereas sugammadex is frequently used in clinical anesthetic practice. Previous studies have not clearly described the effects of the cyclodextrin family on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect against transient global cerebral ischemia. Animals were assigned to control, sham-operated, S 16 and S 100 groups. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by 10-minute occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery, followed by 24-hour reperfusion. At the end of the experiment, neurological behavior scoring was performed on the rats, followed by evaluation of histomorphological and biochemical measurements. Sugammadex 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg improved neurological outcome, which was associated with reductions in both histological and neurological scores. The hippocampus TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) and caspase results in the S 16 and S 100 treatment groups were significantly lower than those of the I/R group. Neurological scores in the treated groups were significantly higher than those of the I/R group. The study showed that treatment with 16 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg sugammadex had a neuroprotective effect in a transient global cerebral I/R rat model. However, 100 mg/kg sugammadex was more neuroprotective in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Brown, Robert J; Epling, Brian P; Staff, Ilene; Fortunato, Gilbert; Grady, James J; McCullough, Louise D
Natriuresis with polyuria is common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Previous studies have shown an increased risk of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with hyponatremia and/or the cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW). However, natriuresis may occur in the absence of hyponatremia or hypovolemia and it is not known whether the increase in DCI in patients with CSW is secondary to a concomitant hypovolemia or because the physiology that predisposes to natriuretic peptide release also predisposes to cerebral vasospasm. Therefore, we investigated whether polyuria per se was associated with vasospasm and whether a temporal relationship existed. A retrospective review of patients with aSAH was performed. Exclusion criteria were admission more than 48 h after aneurysmal rupture, death within 5 days, and the development of diabetes insipidus or acute renal failure. Polyuria was defined as > 6 liters of urine in a 24 h period. Vasospasm was defined as a mean velocity > 120 m/s on Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TCDs) or by evidence of vasospasm on computerized tomography (CT) or catheter angiography. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between polyuria and vasospasm. 95 patients were included in the study. 51 had cerebral vasospasm and 63 met the definition of polyuria. Patients with polyuria were significantly more likely to have vasospasm (OR 4.301, 95% CI 1.378-13.419) in multivariate analysis. Polyuria was more common in younger patients (52 vs 68, p <.001) but did not impact mortality after controlling for age and disease severity. The timing of the development of polyuria was clustered around the diagnosis of vasospasm and patients with polyuria developed vasospasm faster than those without polyuria. Polyuria is common after aSAH and is significantly associated with cerebral vasospasm. The development of polyuria may be temporally related to the development of
Eseonu, Chikezie I; ReFaey, Karim; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo
Cerebral vasospasm following a transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma is a devastating occurrence that can lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor neurologic outcome if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. The etiology of this condition is not well understood but can lead to significant arterial vasospasm that causes severe ischemic insults. In this paper, we identify common presenting symptoms and essential management strategies to treat this harmful disease. A retrospective case report and literature review of presentation, treatment, and outcome of cerebral vasospasm following transsphenoidal surgery. We present 1 case and review 12 known cases in the literature on vasospasm following transsphenoidal surgery. Mean age was 48 (±13.8) years. There were 46.2% male patients. Factors associated with vasospasm, such as cerebral spinal fluid leaks following surgery, were seen in 38.5% of cases, and postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was seen in 84.6% of cases. Hemiparesis was the presenting symptom of delayed cerebral ischemia in 61.5% of cases. For management, maintaining at least a euvolemic volume status was used in 76.9%, induced hypertension was used in 61.5%, and nimodipine was administered in 46.2% of cases. Patients returned to their neurologic baseline in 61.5% of cases, had new permanent deficits in 7.7% of cases, and died in 30.8% of cases. Cerebral vasospasm following transsphenoidal surgery is a dangerous disease that can lead to a high likelihood of mortality if not identified and treated. Early postoperative events, such as peritumoral subarachnoid hemorrhage and hemiparesis, may be factors associated with post-transsphenoidal surgery vasospasm. Effective treatment options used in patients that regained complete neurologic recovery were by inducing hypertension, maintaining euvolemia, and administering nimodipine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Doorn, Janis Lee
Several features of the acoustic waveforms of fluent and cerebral palsied speech were compared, using six fluent and seven cerebral palsied subjects, with a major emphasis being placed on an investigation of the trajectories of the first three formants (vocal tract resonances). To provide an overall picture which included other acoustic features, fundamental frequency, intensity, speech timing (speech rate and syllable duration), and prevocalization (vocalization prior to initial stop consonants found in cerebral palsied speech) were also investigated. Measurements were made using repetitions of a test sentence which was chosen because it required large excursions of the speech articulators (lips, tongue and jaw), so that differences in the formant trajectories for the fluent and cerebral palsied speakers would be emphasized. The acoustic features were all extracted from the digitized speech waveform (10 kHz sampling rate): the fundamental frequency contours were derived manually, the intensity contours were measured using the signal covariance, speech rate and syllable durations were measured manually, as were the prevocalization durations, while the formant trajectories were derived from short time spectra which were calculated for each 10 ms of speech using linear prediction analysis. Differences which were found in the acoustic features can be summarized as follows. For cerebral palsied speakers, the fundamental frequency contours generally showed inappropriate exaggerated fluctuations, as did some of the intensity contours; the mean fundamental frequencies were either higher or the same as for the fluent subjects; speech rates were reduced, and syllable durations were longer; prevocalization was consistently present at the beginning of the test sentence; formant trajectories were found to have overall reduced frequency ranges, and to contain anomalous transitional features, but it is noteworthy that for any one cerebral palsied subject, the inappropriate
Boulouis, Gregoire; Xiong, Li; Jessel, Michel J.; Roongpiboonsopit, Duangnapa; Ayres, Alison; Schwab, Kristin M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Gurol, M. Edip; Greenberg, Steven M.; Viswanathan, Anand
Objective: To investigate whether cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) is associated with increased risk of future first-ever symptomatic lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) presenting with neurologic symptoms and without ICH. Methods: Consecutive patients meeting modified Boston criteria for probable CAA in the absence of ICH from a single-center cohort were analyzed. cSS and other small vessel disease MRI markers were assessed according to recent consensus recommendations. Patients were followed prospectively for future incident symptomatic lobar ICH. Prespecified Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate cSS and first-ever lobar ICH risk adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The cohort included 236 patients with probable CAA without lobar ICH at baseline. cSS prevalence was 34%. During a median follow-up of 3.26 years (interquartile range 1.42–5.50 years), 27 of 236 patients (11.4%) experienced a first-ever symptomatic lobar ICH. cSS was a predictor of time until first ICH (p = 0.0007, log-rank test). The risk of symptomatic ICH at 5 years of follow-up was 19% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11%–32%) for patients with cSS at baseline vs 6% (95% CI 3%–12%) for patients without cSS. In multivariable Cox regression models, cSS presence was the only independent predictor of increased symptomatic ICH risk during follow-up (HR 4.04; 95% CI 1.73–9.44, p = 0.001), after adjusting for age, lobar cerebral microbleeds burden, and white matter hyperintensities. Conclusions: cSS is consistently associated with an increased risk of future lobar ICH in CAA with potentially important clinical implications for patient care decisions such as antithrombotic use. PMID:28356458
Chu, Hannah X; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Moore, Jeffrey P; Chan, Christopher T; Vinh, Antony; Gelderblom, Mathias; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Broughton, Brad RS; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G
We tested whether significant leukocyte infiltration occurs in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. C57BL6/J male mice underwent either permanent (3 or 24 hours) or transient (1 or 2 hours+22- to 23-hour reperfusion) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Using flow cytometry, we observed ∼15,000 leukocytes (CD45+high cells) in the ischemic hemisphere as early as 3 hours after permanent MCAO (pMCAO), comprising ∼40% lymphoid cells and ∼60% myeloid cells. Neutrophils were the predominant cell type entering the brain, and were increased to ∼5,000 as early as 3 hours after pMCAO. Several cell types (monocytes, macrophages, B lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells) were also increased at 3 hours to levels sustained for 24 hours, whereas others (CD4+ T cells, natural killer T cells, and dendritic cells) were unchanged at 3 hours, but were increased by 24 hours after pMCAO. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that leukocytes typically had entered and widely dispersed throughout the parenchyma of the infarct within 3 hours. Moreover, compared with pMCAO, there were ∼50% fewer infiltrating leukocytes at 24 hours after transient MCAO (tMCAO), independent of infarct size. Microglial cell numbers were bilaterally increased in both models. These findings indicate that a profound infiltration of inflammatory cells occurs in the brain early after focal ischemia, especially without reperfusion. PMID:24326388
Salavati, M; Waninge, A; Rameckers, E A A; van der Steen, J; Krijnen, W P; van der Schans, C P; Steenbergen, B
The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V; (ii) to describe their face validity and usability; and (iii) to determine their sensitivity and specificity. The initial versions of the two CVI-MQ's were developed based on literature. Subsequently, the Delphi method was used in two groups of experts, one familiar with CVI and one not familiar with CVI, in order to gain consensus about face validity and usability. The sensitivity and specificity of the CVI-MQ's were subsequently assessed in 82 children with CP with (n = 39) and without CVI (n = 43). With the receiver operating curve the cut-off scores were determined to detect possible presence or absence of CVI in children with CP. Both questionnaires showed very good face validity (percentage agreement above 96%) and good usability (percentage agreement 95%) for practical use. The CVI-MQ version for GMFCS levels I, II and III had a sensitivity of 1.00 and specificity of 0.96, with a cut-off score of 12 points or higher, and the version for GMFCS levels IV and V had a sensitivity of 0.97 and a specificity of 0.98, with a cut-off score of eight points or higher. The CVI-MQ is able to identify at-risk children with CP for the probability of having CVI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Miyamoto, Takashi; Miyaji, Kagami; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Kohira, Satoshi; Tomoyasu, Takahiro; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ohara, Kuniyoshi
Objective We examined the hypothesis that higher cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during RCP is correlated with urinary output. Methods Between December 2002 and August 2006, 12 patients aged 3 to 61 days and weighing 2.6 to 3.4 kg underwent aortic arch repair with RCP. Urinary output and rSO2 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were assigned to either of 2 groups according to their corresponding rSO2: Group A (rSO2 ≦ 75%) and Group B (rSO2 < 75%). Results Seven and 5 patients were assigned to Group A and Group B, respectively. Group A was characterized by mean radial arterial pressure (37.9 ± 9.6 vs 45.8 ± 7.8 mmHg; P = 0.14) and femoral arterial pressure (6.7 ± 6.1 vs 20.8 ± 14.6 mmHg; P = 0.09) compared to Group B. However, higher urinary output during CPB (1.03 ± 1.18 vs 0.10 ± 0.15 ml·kg-1·h-1; P = 0.03). Furthermore our results indicate that a higher dose of Chlorpromazine was used in Group A (2.9 ± 1.4 vs 1.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg; P = 0.03). Conclusion Higher cerebral oxygenation may provide higher urinary output due to higher renal blood flow through collateral circulation. PMID:18973699
Apostolidou, Ioanna; Morrissette, Greg; Sarwar, Muhammad F; Konia, Mojca R; Kshettry, Vibhu R; Wahr, Joyce A; Lobbestael, Aaron A; Nussmeier, Nancy A
This "real-world" study was designed to assess the patterns of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) change during adult cardiac surgery. A secondary objective was to determine any relation between perioperative rSO(2) (baseline and during surgery) and patient characteristics or intraoperative variables. Prospective, observational, multicenter, nonrandomized clinical study. Cardiac operating rooms at 3 academic medical centers. Ninety consecutive adult patients presenting for cardiac surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients received standard care at each institution plus bilateral forehead recordings of cerebral oxygen saturation with the 7600 Regional Oximeter System (Nonin Medical, Plymouth, MN). The average baseline (before induction) rSO(2) was 63.9 ± 8.8% (range 41%-95%); preoperative hematocrit correlated with baseline rSO(2) (0.48% increase for each 1% increase in hematocrit, p = 0.008). The average nadir (lowest recorded rSO(2) for any given patient) was 54.9 ± 6.6% and was correlated with on-pump surgery, baseline rSO(2), and height. Baseline rSO(2) was found to be an independent predictor of length of stay (hazard ratio 1.044, confidence interval 1.02-1.07, for each percentage of baseline rSO(2)). In cardiac surgical patients, lower baseline rSO(2) value, on-pump surgery, and height were significant predictors of nadir rSO(2), whereas only baseline rSO(2) was a predictor of postoperative length of stay. These findings support previous research on the predictive value of baseline rSO(2) on length of stay and emphasize the need for further research regarding the clinical relevance of baseline rSO(2) and intraoperative changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objective To introduce the Korean Database of Cerebral Palsy (KDCP) and to provide the first report on characteristics of subjects with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods The KDCP is a nationwide database of subjects with CP, which includes a total of 773 subjects. Characteristics such as demography, birth history, onset and type of CP, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, functional ability and accompanying impairments, were extracted and analyzed. Results Preterm delivery and low birth weight were found in 59.51% and 60.28% of subjects, respectively. Postnatally acquired CP was 15.3%. The distribution of CP was 87.32%, 5.17%, and 1.81% for spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic types, respectively. Functional ability was the worst in dyskinetic CP, as compared to other types of CP. Speech-language disorder (43.9%), ophthalmologic impairment (32.9%), and intellectual disability (30.3%) were the three most common accompanying impairments. The number of accompanying impairments was elevated in subjects with preterm birth and low birth weight. Brain MRI showed normal findings, malformations, and non-malformations in 10.62%, 9.56%, and 77.35% of subjects, respectively. Subjects with normal MRI findings had better functional ability than subjects with other MRI findings. MRI findings of a non-malformation origin, such as periventricular leukomalacia, were more common in subjects with preterm birth and low birth weight. Conclusion The KDCP and its first report are introduced in this report, wherein the KDCP established agreement on terminologies of CP. This study added information on the characteristics of subjects with CP in South Korea, which can now be compared to those of other countries and ethnicities. PMID:28971049
Elliott, D; Pollock, B J; Chua, R; Weeks, D J
Cerebral specialization for spatial processing in adults with Down syndrome was examined. In the first experiment, both control and right-handed subjects with Down syndrome exhibited no lateral advantage in a dihaptic shape-matching task, whereas left-handed subjects with Down syndrome displayed an expected left-hand advantage. In a visual field dot enumeration task in the second experiment, all groups exhibited left-field superiority. Thus, atypical cerebral organization of function in adults with Down syndrome appears to be confined to speech perception (Elliott & Weeks, 1993).
Hanby, Martha F; Panerai, Ronney B; Robinson, Thompson G; Haunton, Victoria J
The ability of a blood vessel to change diameter in response to a change in carbon dioxide concentration is often referred to as vasomotor reactivity. This study aimed to determine whether vasomotor reactivity is impaired in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease in comparison to healthy controls. Transcranial Doppler was used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries at baseline and under hypocapnic conditions in 40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 50 healthy controls. Vasomotor reactivity, assessed under hypocapnic conditions, is not impaired in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease in comparison to healthy controls.
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Kachel, R; Ritter, H; Grossmann, K; Glaser, F H
The present paper is a review of 37 successful catheter dilatations of supra-aortic vascular stenoses. There were sixteen patients with a total of 21 stenoses of the internal carotid, vertebral artery or common carotid artery and sixteen patients with subclavian stenoses. Amongst the patients with stenoses of the cerebral vessels, there were ten with multiple lesions and six with a single stenosis. Three patients had successful dilatations of bilateral stenoses. The indications, technique, and complications of catheter dilatation of lesions of the cerebral vessels are described and discussed.
Nevo, S.; Zeltzer, M.; Benderly, A.; Levy, J.
Three cases of cerebral gigantism, two sibs and their double first cousin, are described in a large inbred family from Israel. Two of the three were observed and diagnosed at birth and two were followed for two years. They all presented the signs and symptoms considered typical of this syndrome, as well as some of the less frequent findings. Generalized oedema and flexion contractures of the feet were observed in two of the three at birth. This has not hitherto been reported in cases of cerebral gigantism, of whom only a few have been observed and diagnosed at birth. Autosomal recessive inheritance is clearly implied in this family. Images PMID:4841084
Kaaniche, F; Chaari, A; Turki, O; Chelly, H; Bouaziz, M
Head injuries are described in the literature as a rare but possible etiology of cerebral venous thrombosis although no pathophysiological link has been identified. Trauma-related venous thrombi occurring in the brain produce a broad spectrum of clinical presentations. A purely psychiatric term is exceptional, leading to misinterpretation and late diagnosis. Positive diagnosis has been greatly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging with venous phase angiography, currently the gold standard exploration. We report the case of a patient who presented with post-trauma cerebral venous thrombosis revealed by psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Thakur, Kiran Teresa; Westover, M Brandon
A 65-year-old man presented with fluctuating focal neurological deficits and neuroimaging findings of multiple small cerebral infarctions. His medical investigation revealed a >100 pack/year smoking history, and a haematocrit >60. Subsequent investigations led to a diagnosis of cerebral infarction due to smoker’s polycythemia, the third such case reported in the medical literature. The patient’s neurological deficits resolved completely with subsequent haematocrit reduction. This brief report reviews the differential diagnosis of polycythemia, current knowledge of the mechanisms by which smoker’s polycythemia may lead to ischemic stroke, and recommendations for management. PMID:22675101
Disorders of feeding and swallowing are common in children with cerebral palsy. Feeding and swallowing disorders have significant implications for development, growth and nutrition, respiratory health, gastrointestinal function, parent-child interaction, and overall family life. Assessments need to be comprehensive in scope and centered around the medical home. Oral feeding interventions for children with cerebral palsy may be effective in promoting oral motor function, but have not been shown to be effective in promoting feeding efficiency or weight gain. Feeding gastrostomy tubes are a reasonable alternative for children with severe feeding and swallowing problems who have had poor weight gain. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
Manhas, Amitoz; Nimjee, Shahid M; Agrawal, Abhishek; Zhang, Jonathan; Diaz, Orlando; Zomorodi, Ali R; Smith, Tony; Powers, Ciarán J; Sauvageau, Eric; Klucznik, Richard P; Ferrell, Andrew; Golshani, Kiarash; Stieg, Philip E; Britz, Gavin W
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains an important health issue in the United States. Despite recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the mortality rate following aneurysm rupture. In those patients who survive, up to 50% are left severely disabled. The goal of preventing the hemorrhage or re-hemorrhage can only be achieved by successfully excluding the aneurysm from the circulation. This article is a comprehensive review by contemporary vascular neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiolgists on the modern management of cerebral aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Metzger, Aude; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jeremy; Molino, François; Maréchal, Bénédicte; Picot, Marie-Christine; Ayrignac, Xavier; Carra, Clarisse; Bauchet, Luc; Krainik, Alexandre; Labauge, Pierre; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas
The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment. Cerebral vasoreactivity, measured as the cerebral blood flow percent increase normalised by end-tidal carbon dioxide variation, was assessed globally and by regions of interest using the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Non-parametric statistics tests were used to assess differences between groups, and associations were estimated using linear models. Cerebral vasoreactivity was lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in cognitively normal patients (p=0.004) and was associated with education level in patients (R 2 = 0.35; p = 0.047). There was no decrease in cerebral vasoreactivity between patients and controls. Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis may be mediated through decreased cerebral vasoreactivity. Cerebral vasoreactivity could therefore be considered as a marker of cognitive decline in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity does not differ between multiple sclerosis patients and controls. • Cerebral vasoreactivity measure is linked to cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. • Cerebral vasoreactivity is linked to level of education in multiple sclerosis.
Recent neuropathology studies identify hypoxia as the main cause of perinatal cerebral damage. Cerebral lesions present at birth, with transition to chronic scar lesions, are correlated to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and minimal brain dysfunction. Gestation age and severity of hypoxic exposure essentially determine the cerebral…
Gupta, Ram; Singh, Manjeet; Sharma, Ajay
The present study is designed to investigate the effect of dietary flavanoid rutin, micronutrient selenium and garlic oil on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury. Global cerebral ischaemia was induced by occluding right and left common carotid arteries for 10min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cerebral infarct size was estimated using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Elevated plus maze was employed to estimate short-term memory. Degree of motor incoordination was evaluated using inclined beam-walking test and lateral push test. Mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was employed as an index of oxidative stress. Global cerebral ischaemia followed by reperfusion produced a significant impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination and produced a notable increase in mitochondrial TBARS. Administration of rutin and garlic oil before global cerebral ischaemia markedly reduced cerebral infarct size and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. Administration of sodium selenite either before or after global cerebral ischaemia markedly reduced cerebral infarct size and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. The protective effect of rutin, sodium selenite and garlic oil was accompanied by a marked decrease in mitochondrial TBARS. On the basis of these results, it may be suggested that rutin and garlic oil administrated before cerebral ischaemia may scavenge reactive oxygen species and consequently attenuate global cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury. Sodium selenite administrated before and after cerebral ischaemia may be neuroprotective due to its antioxidant effect.
Rigby, Brandon Rhett; Gloeckner, Adam Robert; Sessums, Suzanne; Lanning, Beth Anne; Grandjean, Peter Walter
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize pelvic displacement and cardiorespiratory responses to simulated horseback riding and walking in youth with cerebral palsy and to compare responses to youth without cerebral palsy before and after 8 weeks of hippotherapy. Method: Eight youth with cerebral palsy (M[subscript age] = 10 ± 4…
Tanaka, Tomotaka; Uno, Hisakazu; Miyashita, Kotaro; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki
Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a condition featuring hyponatremia and dehydration caused by head injury, operation on the brain, subarachnoid hemorrhage, brain tumor and so on. However, there are a few reports of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome caused by cerebral infarction. We describe a patient with cerebral infarction who developed cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. A 79-year-old Japanese woman with hypertension and arrhythmia was admitted to our hospital for mild consciousness disturbance, conjugate deviation to right, left unilateral spatial neglect and left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a broad ischemic change in right middle cerebral arterial territory. She was diagnosed as cardiogenic cerebral embolism because atrial fibrillation was detected on electrocardiogram on admission. She showed hyponatremia accompanied by polyuria complicated at the same time with the development of hemorrhagic transformation on day 14 after admission. Based on her hypovolemic hyponatremia, she was evaluated as not having syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone but cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. She fortunately recovered with proper fluid replacement and electrolyte management. This is a rare case of cerebral infarction and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in the course of hemorrhagic transformation. It may be difficult to distinguish cerebral salt-wasting syndrome from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, however, an accurate assessment is needed to reveal the diagnosis of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome because the recommended fluid management is opposite in the two conditions.
Stevenson, Richard D; Conaway, Mark; Barrington, John W; Cuthill, Sara L; Worley, Gordon; Henderson, Richard C
To determine the prevalence of previous fracture, the rate of fracture over time and associated risk factors for fracture in children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP). Three hundred and sixty-four children with moderate-to-severe motor impairment (Gross Motor Function Classification System III, IV and V) enrolled in a multi-centre, region-based longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and health. Of these, 297 had baseline fracture information and 261 children had at least one follow-up assessment. Median duration of follow-up was 1.6 years, for over 600 person-years of follow-up. Forty-six (15.5%) children reported 62 previous fractures at baseline assessment. Children with a history of fractures at baseline were older (mean age 11.9 vs. 8.9 years, p<0.0001) and had greater body fat (triceps z-score -0.01 vs. -0.68, p=0.0003) than children with no previous fracture. Twenty children (6.7%) reported 24 fractures during the follow-up period. Factors associated with risk of fracture during the follow-up period were higher body fat (p=0.03), gastrostomy use (p=0.05) and previous fracture (p=0.10). Based on 24 fractures in 604.5 person-years of follow-up, the rate of fracture was 4.0 per hundred children (4.0%) per year. For children with a history of fracture at baseline, the fracture rate was 7.0% per year; for children with gastrostomy, 6.8% per year; and for children with high triceps skinfold, 9.7% per year. Children with moderate or severe CP are at high risk for fracture. Children with greater body fat, feeding gastrostomy and prior history of fracture are at highest risk and may benefit most from intervention. Further longitudinal study and clinical trials in children with CP are needed to better understand the factors contributing to fracture risk in this population and the best methods of prevention and treatment.
Kirkness, Catherine J; Burr, Robert L; Cain, Kevin C; Newell, David W; Mitchell, Pamela H
Nurses' ability to rapidly detect decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which may contribute to secondary brain injury, may be limited by poor visibility of CPP displays. To evaluate the impact of a highly visible CPP display on the functional outcome in individuals with cerebral aneurysms. Patients with cerebral aneurysms (n = 100) who underwent continuous CPP monitoring were enrolled and randomized to beds with or without the additional CPP display. Six-month outcome was assessed. Functional outcome was not significantly different between control and intervention groups after controlling for initial neurologic condition (odds ratio .904, 95% confidence interval 0.317 to 2.573). However, greater time below CPP thresholds (55 to 70 mm Hg) was significantly associated with poorer outcome (P = .005 to .010). Although the enhanced CPP display was not associated with significantly better outcome, longer periods of CPP below set levels were associated with poorer outcome.
Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Hsu-Jan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
We investigated the curative effect of Pheretima aspergillum (earthworm, PA) on rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). The MCAo-induced cerebral infarction was established and its underlying mechanisms by counting the infarction areas and evaluating the rats' neurological status. Immunostaining was used to test the expression of NeuN, and glial fibrillary acidic (GFAP), S100B, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) proteins. Our results showed that oral administration of PA for two weeks to rats with MCAo successfully reduced cerebral infarction areas in the cortex and striatum, and also reduced scores of neurological deficit. The PA-treated MCAo rats showed greatly decreased neuronal death, glial proliferation, and S100B proteins in the penumbra area of the cortex and in the ischemic core area of the cortex, but BDNF did not changed. These results demonstrated novel and detailed cellular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of PA in MCAo rats.
Midulla, P S; Gandsas, A; Sadeghi, A M; Mezrow, C K; Yerlioglu, M E; Wang, W; Wolfe, D; Ergin, M A; Griepp, R B
Retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) is a new method of cerebral protection that has been touted as an improvement over hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). However, RCP has been used clinically for durations and at temperatures that are "safe" for HCA alone. This study was designed to compare RCP to HCA and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) deliberately exceeding "safe" limits, in order to determine unequivocally whether RCP provides better cerebral protection than HCA. Four groups of six Yorkshire pigs (20 to 30 kg) were randomly assigned to undergo 90 minutes of RCP, ACP, HCA, or HCA with heads packed in ice (HCA-HP) at an esophageal temperature of 20 degrees C. Arterial, mixed venous and cerebral venous oxygen, glucose and lactate contents; quantitative EEG; were monitored at baseline (37 degrees C); at the end of cooling cardiopulmonary bypass (20 degrees C); during rewarming (30 degrees C); and at two and four hours post intervention. Animals were recovered and were evaluated daily using a quantitative behavioral score (0 to 9). Mean behavioral score was lower in the HCA group than in the other three groups at seven days (HCA 5.8 +/- 1.1; RCP 8.5 +/- 0.2; ACP 9.0 +/- 0.0; HCA-HP 8.5 +/- 0.2, p < 0.05). Recovery of QEEG was better in the ACP group than in all others, but the RCP group had faster EEG recovery than HCA alone, although not better than HCA-HP (HCA 15 +/- 4; RCP 27 +/- 3; ACP 78 +/- 5; HCA-HP 19 +/- 3, p < 0.001). However, histopathological evidence of ischemic injury was present in 5 of 6 HCA animals and also in 4 of 6 of the HCP-HP group, but only in 1 of 6 RCP animals and in none of the ACP group. This study demonstrates that ACP affords the best cerebral protection by all outcome measures, but RCP provides clear improvement compared to HCA.
Matano, Fumihiro; Murai, Yasuo; Mizunari, Takayuki; Adachi, Koji; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio
Few papers have reported detailed accounts of intracerebral hemorrhage caused by cerebral hyperperfusion after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass (STA-MCA) bypass for atherosclerotic occlusive cerebrovascular disease. We report a case of vasogenic edema and subsequent intracerebral hemorrhage caused by the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after STA-MCA bypass for atherosclerotic occlusive cerebrovascular disease disease without intense postoperative blood pressure control. A 63-year-old man with repeating left hemiparesis underwent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), which revealed right internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. We performed a double bypass superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass surgery for the M2 and M3 branches. While the patient’s postoperative course was relatively uneventful, he suffered generalized convulsions, and computed tomography revealed a low area in the right frontal lobe on Day 4 after surgery. We considered this lesion to be pure vasogenic edema caused by cerebral hyperperfusion after revascularization. Intravenous drip infusion of a free radical scavenger (edaravone) and efforts to reduce systolic blood pressure to <120 mmHg were continued. The patient experienced severe left hemiparesis and disturbance of consciousness on Day 8 after surgery, due to intracerebral hemorrhage in the right frontal lobe at the site of the earlier vasogenic edema. Brain edema associated with cerebral hyperperfusion after STA-MCA bypass for atherosclerotic occlusive cerebrovascular disease should be recognized as a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. The development of brain edema associated with CHS after STA-MCA bypass for atherosclerotic occlusive cerebrovascular disease requires not only intensive control of blood pressure, but also consideration of sedation therapy with propofol. PMID:28664022
Walcott, Brian P; Reinshagen, Clemens; Stapleton, Christopher J; Choudhri, Omar; Rayz, Vitaliy; Saloner, David; Lawton, Michael T
Cerebral aneurysms are weakened blood vessel dilatations that can result in spontaneous, devastating hemorrhage events. Aneurysm treatment aims to reduce hemorrhage events, and strategies for complex aneurysms often require surgical bypass or endovascular stenting for blood flow diversion. Interventions that divert blood flow from their normal circulation patterns have the potential to result in unintentional ischemia. Recent developments in computational modeling and in vivo assessment of hemodynamics for cerebral aneurysm treatment have entered into clinical practice. Herein, we review how these techniques are currently utilized to improve risk stratification and treatment planning. © The Author(s) 2016.
Floris, Gianluca; Di Stefano, Francesca; Cherchi, Maria Valeria; Costa, Gianna; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna
Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) might reflect specific underlying vascular pathologies like cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). In the present study we report the gradient-echo MRI pattern of two siblings with P284S PSEN1 mutation. T2* gradient-echo images of the two subjects demonstrated multiple microbleeds in lobar regions. The role and causes of CMB in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have not been clearly established and useful contributions could derive from familial AD studies. Furthermore, since CAA is a potential risk factor for developing adverse events in AD immunization trials, the identification in vivo of CAA through non-invasive MRI methods could be useful to monitoring side effects.
Poittevin, Marine; Bonnin, Philippe; Pimpie, Cynthia; Rivière, Léa; Sebrié, Catherine; Dohan, Anthony; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Kubis, Nathalie
Diabetes increases the risk of stroke by three, increases related mortality, and delays recovery. We aimed to characterize functional and structural alterations in cerebral microvasculature before and after experimental cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that preexisting brain microvascular disease in patients with diabetes might partly explain increased stroke severity and impact on outcome. Diabetes was induced in 4-week-old C57Bl/6J mice by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After 8 weeks of diabetes, the vasoreactivity of the neurovascular network to CO2 was abolished and was not reversed by nitric oxide (NO) donor administration; endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) mRNA, phospho-eNOS protein, nNOS, and phospho-nNOS protein were significantly decreased; angiogenic and vessel maturation factors (vascular endothelial growth factor a [VEGFa], angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), Ang2, transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β], and platelet-derived growth factor-β [PDGF-β]) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) occludin and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) expression were significantly decreased; and microvessel density was increased without changes in ultrastructural imaging. After permanent focal cerebral ischemia induction, infarct volume and neurological deficit were significantly increased at D1 and D7, and neuronal death (TUNEL+ / NeuN+ cells) and BBB permeability (extravasation of Evans blue) at D1. At D7, CD31+ / Ki67+ double-immunolabeled cells and VEGFa and Ang2 expression were significantly increased, indicating delayed angiogenesis. We show that cerebral microangiopathy thus partly explains stroke severity in diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Deichmann, Ralf; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Hattingen, Elke; Singer, Oliver C.; Wagner, Marlies
Purpose Quantitative T2'-mapping detects regional changes of the relation of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) by using their different magnetic properties in gradient echo imaging and might therefore be a surrogate marker of increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in cerebral hypoperfusion. Since elevations of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with consecutive accumulation of Hb might also increase the fraction of deoxygenated Hb and, through this, decrease the T2’-values in these patients we evaluated the relationship between T2’-values and CBV in patients with unilateral high-grade large-artery stenosis. Materials and Methods Data from 16 patients (13 male, 3 female; mean age 53 years) with unilateral symptomatic or asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis/occlusion were analyzed. MRI included perfusion-weighted imaging and high-resolution T2’-mapping. Representative relative (r)CBV-values were analyzed in areas of decreased T2’ with different degrees of perfusion delay and compared to corresponding contralateral areas. Results No significant elevations in cerebral rCBV were detected within areas with significantly decreased T2’-values. In contrast, rCBV was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in regions with severe perfusion delay and decreased T2’. Furthermore, no significant correlation between T2’- and rCBV-values was found. Conclusions rCBV is not significantly increased in areas of decreased T2’ and in areas of restricted perfusion in patients with unilateral high-grade stenosis. Therefore, T2’ should only be influenced by changes of oxygen metabolism, regarding our patient collective especially by an increase of the OEF. T2’-mapping is suitable to detect altered oxygen consumption in chronic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27560515
Nishimura, Naoko; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Yojiro; Aoki, Ken
Effects of hypoxia on cerebral circulation are important for occupational, high-altitude, and aviation medicine. Increased risk of fainting might be attributable to altered cerebral circulation by hypoxia. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is reportedly impaired immediately by mild hypoxia. However, continuous exposure to hypoxia causes hyperventilation, resulting in hypocapnia. This hypocapnia is hypothesized to restore impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation with reduced steady-state cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, no studies have examined hourly changes in alterations of dynamic cerebral autoregulation and steady-state CBF during sustained hypoxia. We therefore examined cerebral circulation during 5-h exposure to 15% O2 hypoxia and 21% O2 in 13 healthy volunteers in a sitting position. Waveforms of blood pressure and CBF velocity in the middle cerebral artery were measured using finger plethysmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by spectral and transfer function analysis. As expected, steady-state CBF velocity decreased significantly from 2 to 5 h of hypoxia, accompanying 2- to 3-Torr decreases in end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2). Furthermore, transfer function gain and coherence in the very-low-frequency range increased significantly at the beginning of hypoxia, indicating impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. However, contrary to the proposed hypothesis, indexes of dynamic cerebral autoregulation showed no significant restoration despite ETCO2 reductions, resulting in persistent higher values of very-low-frequency power of CBF velocity variability during hypoxia (214+/-40% at 5 h of hypoxia vs. control) without significant increases in blood pressure variability. These results suggest that sustained mild hypoxia reduces steady-state CBF and continuously impairs dynamic cerebral autoregulation, implying an increased risk of shortage of oxygen supply to the brain.
Quinn, Davin K.; Abbott, Christopher C.
Introduction Neurologic deterioration occurring days to weeks after a cerebral hypoxic event accompanied by diffuse white matter demyelination is called delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy (DPHL). Manifestations of DPHL are diverse, and include dementia, gait disturbance, incontinence, pyramidal tract signs, parkinsonism, chorea, mood and thought disorders, akinetic mutism, and rarely catatonia. Methods The authors report a case of malignant catatonia in a patient diagnosed with DPHL that was refractory to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and review the literature on catatonia in DHPL. Results The patient was a 56 year-old female with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted with catatonia two weeks after hospitalization for drug overdose and respiratory failure. Her catatonic symptoms did not respond to lorazepam, amantadine, methylphenidate, or ten sessions of bilateral ECT at maximum energy. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive periventricular white matter lesions not present on admission scans, and she was diagnosed with DPHL. Discussion No treatment for DPHL has been proven to be widely effective. Hyperbaric oxygen treatments may reduce the rate of development, and symptom improvement has been reported with stimulants and other psychotropic agents. Review of the literature reveals rare success with GABAergic agents for catatonia after cerebral hypoxia, and no cases successfully treated with ECT. There are seven case reports of neurologic decompensation during ECT treatment after a cerebral hypoxic event. Conclusion Caution is advised when considering ECT for catatonia when delayed sequelae of cerebral hypoxia are on the differential diagnosis, as there is a dearth of evidence to support this treatment approach. PMID:25262046
Carlsson, Malin; Olsson, Ingrid; Hagberg, Gudrun; Beckung, Eva
The aim of the study was to describe behavioural problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP) with and without epilepsy. The children were sampled from the Western Sweden CP register and were part of a European Union project. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and questions on epilepsy were answered by one parent of each child. Medical…
Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Field, Tiffany; Largie, Shay; Diego, Miguel; Manigat, Natasha; Seoanes, Jacqueline; Bornstein, Joan
Twenty young children (mean age = 32 months) with cerebral palsy (CP) recruited from early intervention programs received 30 minutes of massage or reading twice weekly for 12 weeks. The children receiving massage therapy showed fewer physical symptoms including reduced spasticity, less rigid muscle tone overall and in the arms, and improved fine…
Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan
The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…
Sartwelle, Thomas P; Johnston, James C
The cardinal driver of cerebral palsy litigation is electronic fetal monitoring, which has continued unabated for 40 years. Electronic fetal monitoring, however, is based on 19th-century childbirth myths, a virtually nonexistent scientific foundation, and has a false positive rate exceeding 99%. It has not affected the incidence of cerebral palsy. Electronic fetal monitoring has, however, increased the cesarian section rate, with the expected increase in mortality and morbidity risks to mothers and babies alike. This article explains why electronic fetal monitoring remains endorsed as efficacious in the worlds' labor rooms and courtrooms despite being such a feeble medical modality. It also reviews the reasons professional organizations have failed to condemn the use of electronic fetal monitoring in courtrooms. The failures of tort reform, special cerebral palsy courts, and damage limits to stem the escalating litigation are discussed. Finally, the authors propose using a currently available evidence rule-the Daubert doctrine that excludes "junk science" from the courtroom-as the beginning of the end to cerebral palsy litigation and electronic fetal monitoring's 40-year masquerade as science. © The Author(s) 2014.
Weems, S.A.; Zaidel, E.
Two experiments explored repetition priming benefits in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. In both experiments, a lateralized lexical decision task was employed using repeated target stimuli. In the first experiment, all targets were repeated in the same visual field, and in the second experiment the visual field of presentation was switched…
Izura Gómez, Marta; Misis Del Campo, Maite; Puyalto de Pablo, Paloma; Castaño Duque, Carlos
We report the use of mechanical venous thrombectomy in 2 cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in which the usual first-choice treatment with systemic anticoagulants was contraindicated. Our aim is to present this treatment as an alternative to consider when anticoagulants therapy is too risky or is contraindicated in critically ill patients.
Auld, Megan Louise; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie
This review evaluates the clinimetric properties of tactile assessments for children with cerebral palsy. Assessment of registration was reported using Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments (SWMs) or exteroception. Assessment of two-point discrimination was reported using the Disk-Criminator[R] or paperclip methods; Single point localization and double…
Krebs, Hermano I.; Ladenheim, Barbara; Hippolyte, Christopher; Monterroso, Linda; Mast, Joelle
Our goal was to examine the feasibility of applying therapeutic robotics to children and adults with severe to moderate impairment due to cerebral palsy (CP). Pilot results demonstrated significant gains for both groups. These results suggest that robot-mediated therapy may be an effective tool to ameliorate the debilitating effects of CP and…
Monbaliu, E.; Ortibus, E.; Roelens, F.; Desloovere, K.; Deklerck, J.; Prinzie, P.; De Cock, P.; Feys, H.
Aim: This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS), the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Movement Scale (BFMMS), and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) in patients with bilateral dystonic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Three raters independently scored videotapes of 10 patients (five males, five females;…
Drake, Carrie T.; Iadecola, Costantino
Well-regulated blood flow within the brain is vital to normal function. The brain's requirement for sufficient blood flow is ensured by a tight link between neural activity and blood flow. The link between regional synaptic activity and regional cerebral blood flow, termed functional hyperemia, is the basis for several modern imaging techniques…
Banham, Katharine M.
Reported were scores on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale, the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (Form L-M), the Quick Screening Scale of Mental Development, and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale achieved by 102 retarded, cerebral palsied infants who were in a hospital rehabilitation program. (GW)
Kopelman, A E
Twins had congenital hyperthyroidism and delayed cerebral development manifested as ventriculomegaly, increased space in the interhemispheric fissure, and an exaggerated gyral pattern on cranial computed tomographic scans. At 3 1/2 years of age, both children had delayed development. Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism may interfere with normal brain growth and maturation with both neuranatomic and developmental sequelae.
Fujii, Norio; Naito, Yuichiro; Takanashi, Shigehiko; Ueno, Toshiaki; Nakagomi, Tadayoshi
Infected subdural hematoma(ISH)is a rare disease caused by hematogenous infection of a preexisting subdural hematoma. We report a rare case of ISH accompanied by cerebral infarction. A 76-year-old man who had suffered a closed head injury 3 months before presented fever, headache and left hemiparesis during the medical treatment of acute cholangitis and obstructive jaundice with pancreatic cancer at the department of surgical gastroenterology. At the consultation, computed tomography(CT)scan indicated right chronic subdural hematoma. We performed a burr hole opening surgery on the same day. Abscess and hematoma was aspirated from the subdural space, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)was detected in this specimen. Thus the diagnosis of the infected subdural hematoma was confirmed. However, despite the antibiotics therapy, follow-up CT showed a low-density area close to the residual abscess, which suggested cerebral infarction. Cerebral angiography showed a vasospasm at the cortical segment of the right middle cerebral artery near the residual abscess. Eventually we carried out a small craniotomy to evacuate the abscess. Our case showed that prompt surgical treatment is required in case of ISH and the whole hematoma and abscess should be removed as soon as possible with an image diagnosis and an additional surgical operation.
A study of the heritability of lobar brain volumes in twins has introduced a new approach to questions about the genetics of cerebral asymmetry. In addition to the classic comparison between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, a contrast was made between pairs of two right-handers (RR pairs) and pairs including one or more non-right-hander (non-RR pairs), in the light of the right shift (RS) theory of handedness. This paper explains the predictions of the RS model for pair concordance for genotype, cerebral asymmetry and handedness in healthy MZ and DZ twins. It shows how predictions for cerebral asymmetry vary between RR and non-RR pairs over a range of incidences of left-handedness. Although MZ twins are always concordant for genotype and DZ twins may be discordant, differences for handedness and cerebral asymmetry are expected to be small, consistent with the scarcity of significant effects in the literature. Marked differences between RR and non-RR pairs are predicted at all levels of incidence, the differences slightly larger in MZ than DZ pairs.
Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.
In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…
same person. Spastic CP is the most common type of Cerebral Palsy. It can be subdivided into 5 types : Quadriplegia : A type of CP when occurs in...all four of their limbs-both arms and both legs it is called quadriplegia . Due to the problems of controlling the muscles in their face and upper
Imms, Christine; Reilly, Sheena; Carlin, John; Dodd, Karen
The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in activities outside school and to compare their participation with a large representative sample of children. A population-based survey was conducted of children with CP born in Victoria, Australia in 1994 and 1995. Of 219 living children identified,…
Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.
Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…
Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee
Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…
Dunaway, Avtar; Klein, Marsha Dunn
Helpful techniques are offered for making bathtime easier, safer, and more fun for children who have cerebral palsy. Safety in the bathtub is stressed, both for the child who needs protection from slippery surfaces and extreme water temperature, and for the caregiver who must lift and carry the child without causing injury to the lower back.…
There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…
Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie
A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…
Allison, Kristen M.; Hustad, Katherine C.
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to identify acoustic characteristics of connected speech that differentiate children with dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy (CP) from typically developing children and to identify acoustic measures that best detect dysarthria in children with CP. Method: Twenty 5-year-old children with dysarthria…
Christiansen, Annette Sandahl; Lange, Christa
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the delivery of the same amount of intermittent versus continuous physiotherapy given to children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was organized either in an intermittent regime four times a week for 4 weeks alternating with a 6-week treatment pause, or a continuous once or twice a week regime, both…
Milner, Danny A.; Whitten, Richard O.; Kamiza, Steve; Carr, Richard; Liomba, George; Dzamalala, Charles; Seydel, Karl B.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.
Pediatric cerebral malaria carries a high mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. We present our systematic analysis of the descriptive and quantitative histopathology of all organs sampled from a series of 103 autopsies performed between 1996 and 2010 in Blantyre, Malawi on pediatric cerebral malaria patients and control patients (without coma, or without malaria infection) who were clinically well characterized prior to death. We found brain swelling in all cerebral malaria patients and the majority of controls. The histopathology in patients with sequestration of parasites in the brain demonstrated two patterns: (a) the “classic” appearance (i.e., ring hemorrhages, dense sequestration, and extra-erythrocytic pigment) which was associated with evidence of systemic activation of coagulation and (b) the “sequestration only” appearance associated with shorter duration of illness and higher total burden of parasites in all organs including the spleen. Sequestration of parasites was most intense in the gastrointestinal tract in all parasitemic patients (those with cerebral malarial and those without). PMID:25191643
van der Linden, Marietta
In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…
Thompson, George A., Jr.
The behavior modification procedure, carried out at mealtime with a ten-year-old retarded boy who had spastic cerebral palsy, consisted of differential reinforcement and punishment, and resulted in substantial decreases in tongue thrust (reverse swallowing) and food expulsion, and a large increase in observed chewing. (Author/DLS)
Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter
Aim: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function. Method: We examined attention and executive function with standardized neuropsychological measures in a group of children with unilateral…
Fee, Maureen A.; And Others
Children with cerebral palsy sometimes display nutritional inadequacy, as evaluated through anthropometric measurements and laboratory values. Causes of poor nutritional status include inadequate calories offered or adequate calories offered but not consumed. Inadequate caloric retention may be due to vomiting, rumination, or gastroesophageal…
Tutar, Nihal Uslu; Töre, Hüseyin Gürkan; Kirbaş, Ismail; Tarhan, Nefise Cağla; Coşkun, Mehmet
We describe the features of a duplicated middle cerebral artery identified by computed tomographic angiography that originates from a previously undefined origin, ie, from the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery. Recognition of this anomaly is important in patients with a possible aneurysm, which was not present in our patient.
van Genderen, Maria; Dekker, Marjoke; Pilon, Florine; Bals, Irmgard
To identify elements that could facilitate the diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children with good visual acuity in the general ophthalmic clinic. We retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of 30 children with good visual acuity and CVI and compared them with those of 23 children who were referred with a suspicion of CVI, but proved to have a different diagnosis. Clinical characteristics included medical history, MRI findings, visual acuity, crowding ratio (CR), visual field assessment, and the results of ophthalmologic and orthoptic examination. We also evaluated the additional value of a short CVI questionnaire. Eighty-three percent of the children with an abnormal medical history (mainly prematurity and perinatal hypoxia) had CVI, in contrast with none of the children with a normal medical history. Cerebral palsy, visual field defects, and partial optic atrophy only occurred in the CVI group. 41% of the children with CVI had a CR ≥2.0, which may be related to dorsal stream dysfunction. All children with CVI, but also 91% of the children without CVI gave ≥3 affirmative answers on the CVI questionnaire. An abnormal pre- or perinatal medical history is the most important risk factor for CVI in children, and therefore in deciding which children should be referred for further multidisciplinary assessment. Additional symptoms of cerebral damage, i.e., cerebral palsy, visual field defects, partial optic atrophy, and a CR ≥2 may support the diagnosis. CVI questionnaires should not be used for screening purposes as they yield too many false positives.
Turtzo, L. Christine; Siegel, Chad; McCullough, Louise D.
Gonadal hormones contribute to ischemic neuroprotection, but cannot fully explain the observed sexual dimorphism in stroke outcomes seen during life stages with low sex steroid hormones. Sex chromosomal complement (XX in females; XY in males) may also contribute to ischemic sexual dimorphism. A transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used to investigate the role of X chromosome dosage in female XX and XO littermates of two mouse strains (Paf and EdaTa). Cohorts of XX and XO gonadally intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized females supplemented with estrogen were examined. Infarct sizes were equivalent between ovariectomized XX and XO mice, between intact XX and XO mice, and between estrogen-supplemented ovariectomized XX and XO mice. This is the first study to investigate the role of sex chromosome dosage in the response to cerebral ischemia. Neither the number of X chromosomes, nor the parent of origin of the remaining X chromosome, had a significant effect on the degree of cerebral infarction after experimental stroke in adult female mice. Estrogen was protective against cerebral ischemia in both XX and XO mice. PMID:21917808
Turtzo, L Christine; Siegel, Chad; McCullough, Louise D
Gonadal hormones contribute to ischemic neuroprotection, but cannot fully explain the observed sexual dimorphism in stroke outcomes seen during life stages with low sex steroid hormones. Sex chromosomal complement (XX in females; XY in males) may also contribute to ischemic sexual dimorphism. A transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model was used to investigate the role of X chromosome dosage in female XX and XO littermates of two mouse strains (Paf and Eda(Ta)). Cohorts of XX and XO gonadally intact, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized females supplemented with estrogen were examined. Infarct sizes were equivalent between ovariectomized XX and XO mice, between intact XX and XO mice, and between estrogen-supplemented ovariectomized XX and XO mice. This is the first study to investigate the role of sex chromosome dosage in the response to cerebral ischemia. Neither the number of X chromosomes nor the parent of origin of the remaining X chromosome had a significant effect on the degree of cerebral infarction after experimental stroke in adult female mice. Estrogen was protective against cerebral ischemia in both XX and XO mice.
Knoester, H.; Maes, A.; van der Wal, A. C.; Kubat, B.
Cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) has been reported as a rare complication of medical intervention. There has been one reported case of CAAE after the use of an intraosseous infusion (IO) system. We report on a case of CAAE after tibial IO infusion in a 7-month-old girl during resuscitation. PMID:18247071
Horvath, Boldizsár; Grasselly, Magda; Bodecs, Tamas; Boncz, Imre; Bodis, József
To determine the interaction between histological chorioamnionitis and unexplained neonatal cerebral palsy among low birth weight infants. We studied 141 preterm infants below 1500 g delivered between 2000 and 2010. Clinical data, neonatal neuroimaging, laboratory results, the histopathological features of the placenta and gastric smear within the first hour of delivery, were evaluated. Cerebral palsy was detected in 11 out of 141 preterm newborns (7.8%). The incidence of silent histological chorioamnionitis was 33.6% (43 of 128 cases). Chorioamniontis was significantly associated with the risk of unexplained cerebral palsy (p=0.024). There were also significant correlations between maternal genital infections and chorioamnionitis (p=0.005), and between maternal infections and a positive smear of neonatal gastric aspirates (p=0.000). The rate of cesarean section was 67.4% (95 out of 141 deliveries), and elective cesarean section was performed in 68 cases. Intrauterine exposure to maternal infection was associated with a marked increase in the risk of cerebral palsy in preterm infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Angelo, Jennifer
This study of 22 individuals (ages 13-20) with cerebral palsy investigated the use of scanning, an interface technique that allows access to assistive devices such as communication boards, electronic augmentative communication devices, and computers by using a pointer, either a finger or a cursor. This packet of information includes the findings…
Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel
Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…
Aravapalli, Amit; Fox, James; Lazaridis, Christos
Nearly all long-bone fractures are accompanied by some form of fat embolism. The rare complication of clinically significant fat embolism syndrome, however, occurs in only 0.9-2.2% of cases. The clinical triad of fat embolism syndrome consists of respiratory distress, altered mental status, and petechial rash. Cerebral fat embolism causes the neurologic involvement seen in fat embolism syndrome. A 19-year-old African-American male was admitted with gunshot wounds to his right hand and right knee. He had diffuse hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, bilateral ankle clonus and decerebrate posturing with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 4T. Subsequent MRI of the brain showed innumerable punctate areas of restricted diffusion consistent with "starfield" pattern. On a 10-week follow up he has a normal neurological examination and he is discharged home. Despite the severity of the neurologic insult upon initial presentation, the majority of case reports on cerebral fat embolism illustrate that cerebral dysfunction associated with cerebral fat embolism is reversible. When neurologic deterioration occurs in the non-head trauma patient, then a systemic cause such as fat emboli should be considered. We describe a patient with non-head trauma who demonstrated the classic "starfield" pattern on diffusion-weighted MRI imaging.
Metting, Zwany; Rödiger, Lars A; Regtien, Joost G; van der Naalt, Joukje
To describe a case of a young man with delayed coma after mild head injury, suggestive of cerebral fat embolism (CFE). To underline the value of MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of secondary deterioration in mild head injury. A 21-year-old man admitted with mild head injury after a fall with facial fractures and long bone fractures. He was admitted to the intensive care unit and was mechanically ventilated. Weaning was not possible because of desaturations and pulmonary congestion. Low platelet count and anaemia developed. On several time points during his admission cerebral imaging data were obtained. Non-contrast CT on admission was normal while follow-up MRI showed extensive white matter abnormalities. These imaging abnormalities combined with the clinical presentation suggests cerebral fat embolism (CFE) as the most likely cause of secondary deterioration in our patient. In head injured patients with long bone fractures one should consider cerebral fat embolism. When the classical clinical syndrome is not present, MR imaging is warranted for diagnosis and to exclude other causes of secondary deterioration.
Lucardie, Richard; Sobsey, Dick
Through content analysis, employing qualitative and quantitative methods, Canadian media representation of people with cerebral palsy (PWCP) in public life was examined. Canadian NewsDisc, an online biographic database service, was used to examine the use of stigmatizing language such as afflicted by, afflicted with, suffered from, suffers from,…
Rehni, Ashish K; Shri, Richa; Singh, Manjeet
Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 10 min followed by reperfusion for 24 hr was employed in present study to produce ischaemia and reperfusion induced cerebral injury in mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Short-term memory was evaluated using elevated plus maze. Inclined beam walking test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced cerebral infarction and impaired short-term memory, motor co-ordination and lateral push response. A preceding episode of mesenteric artery occlusion for 15 min and reperfusion of 15 min (remote mesenteric ischaemic preconditioning) prevented markedly ischaemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury measured in terms of infarct size, loss of short-term memory, motor coordination and lateral push response. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, iv) a KATP channel blocker and caffeine (7 mg/kg, iv) an adenosine receptor blocker attenuated the neuroprotective effect of remote mesenteric ischaemic preconditioning. It may be concluded that neuroprotective effect of remote mesenteric ischaemic preconditioning may be due to activation of adenosine receptors and consequent activation of KATP channels in mice.
Jones, Jeffery A., Ed.
This official training manual of the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association includes the latest coaching and training techniques specific to all sports in the national program. The book features guidelines for coaching over a dozen sports, including soccer, swimming, cycling, and track and field. It contains everything coaches,…
Fisher, Mark; French, Samuel; Ji, Ping; Kim, Ronald C.
Background and Purpose Cerebral microbleeds in the elderly are routinely identified by brain MRI. The purpose of this study was to better characterize the pathological basis of microbleeds. Methods We studied post-mortem brain specimens of 33 individuals with no clinical history of stroke, age range 71–105 years. Cerebral microbleeds were identified by presence of hemosiderin (iron), identified by routine histochemistry and Prussian blue stain. Cellular localization of iron (in macrophages and pericytes) was studied by immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, CD68, and, in selected cases, electron microscopy. Presence of beta-amyloid was analyzed using immunohistochemistry for epitope 6E10. Results Cerebral microbleeds were present in 22 cases, and occurred at capillary, small artery, and arteriolar levels. Presence of microbleeds occurred independent of amyloid deposition at site of microbleeds. While most subjects had hypertension, microbleeds were present with and without hypertension. Putamen was site of microbleeds in all but one case; one microbleed was in subcortical white matter of occipital lobe. Most capillary microbleeds involved macrophages, but the two microbleeds studied by electron microscopy demonstrated pericyte involvement. Conclusions These findings indicate that cerebral microbleeds are common in elderly brain and can occur at the capillary level. PMID:21030702
Kuperminc, Michelle N.; Stevenson, Richard D.
Growth and nutrition disorders are common secondary health conditions in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Poor growth and malnutrition in CP merit study because of their impact on health, including psychological and physiological function, healthcare utilization, societal participation, motor function, and survival. Understanding the etiology of…
McPherson, Jessica A; Smid, Marcela C; Smiley, Sarah; Stamilio, David M
Objective The primary aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between maternal obesity and cerebral palsy or death in children. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial previously performed by the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Women in the original trial were included if at high risk for preterm delivery. The present study included singletons enrolled in the original study with complete data. Obese and nonobese women were compared. A secondary analysis comparing class 3 obese or classes 1 to 2 obese women to nonobese women was performed. The primary outcome was a composite of cerebral palsy or perinatal death. Results In this study, 1,261 nonobese, 339 obese, and 69 morbidly obese women were included. When adjusted for gestational age at delivery and magnesium exposure, there was no association between maternal obesity and child cerebral palsy or death. In the analysis using obesity severity categories, excess risk for adverse outcome appeared confined to the class 3 obese group. Conclusion In women at high risk of delivering preterm, maternal obesity was not independently associated with child cerebral palsy or death. The association in unadjusted analysis appears to be mediated by preterm birth among obese patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Golbin, Arlene, Ed.
Intended for parents of cerebral palsied children, the manual discusses special communication problems that often accompany the condition, and describes various strategies for helping such children communicate. A chapter on positioning for speech diagrams 14 different positions to help facilitate better functioning in many areas, including speech.…
Meincke, Felix; Spangenberg, Tobias; Kreidel, Felix; Frerker, Christian; Virmani, Renu; Ladich, Elena; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ghanem, Alexander
Aims of this case-series were to assess the feasibility of cerebral protection devices in interventional left atrial appendage occlusion (iLAAO) procedures and to yield insight into the pathomorphological correlate of early, procedural cerebral embolization during iLAAO. Five consecutive patients underwent iLLO flanked by the Sentinel CPS® (Claret Medical, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA) cerebral protection system. Placement and recapture of the Sentinel ® device as well as the iLAAO were successful and safe in all cases. Histomorphometric analysis of the collected filters showed embolized debris in all patients. Acute thrombus was found in three patients, organizing thrombus in four. Interestingly, two patients had endocardial or myocardial tissue in their filters. Cerebral protection during iLAAO with the Sentinel CPS ® device is feasible. Furthermore, this dataset identifies the formation and embolization of thrombus and cardiac tissue as emboligeneic sources and potential future targets to reduce procedural complications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Fantini, Sergio
Coherent Hemodynamics Spectroscopy (CHS) is a novel technique for non-invasive measurements of local microcirculation quantities such as the capillary blood transit times and dynamic autoregulation. The basis of CHS is to measure, for instance with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), peripheral coherent hemodynamic changes that are induced by controlled perturbations in the systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). In this study, the MAP perturbation was induced by the fast release of two pneumatic cuffs placed around the subject's thighs after they were kept inflated (at 200 mmHg) for two minutes. The resulting transient changes in cerebral oxy- (O) and deoxy- (D) hemoglobin concentrations measured with NIRS on the prefrontal cortex are then described by a novel hemodynamic model, from which quantifiable parameters such as the capillary blood transit time and a cutoff frequency for cerebral autoregulation are obtained. We present results on eleven healthy volunteers in a protocol involving measurements during normal breathing and during hyperventilation, which is known to cause a hypocapnia-induced increase in cerebral autoregulation. The measured capillary transit time was unaffected by hyperventilation (normal breathing: 1.1±0.1 s; hyperventilation: 1.1±0.1 s), whereas the cutoff frequency of autoregulation, which increases for higher autoregulation efficiency, was indeed found to be significantly greater during hyperventilation (normal breathing: 0.017±0.002 Hz; hyperventilation: 0.034±0.005 Hz). These results provide a validation of local cerebral autoregulation measurements with the new technique of CHS.
Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko
The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this purpose, 36 children (age range 1 year 10 months…
Sidtis, John J.; Strother, Stephen C.; Naoum, Ansam; Rottenberg, David A.; Gomez, Christopher
The hereditary ataxias constitute a group of degenerative diseases that progress over years or decades. With principal pathology involving the cerebellum, dysarthria is an early feature of many of the ataxias. Positron emission tomography was used to study regional cerebral blood flow changes during speech production over a 21 month period in a…
Wang, Qiang-Ping; Ma, Jun-Peng; Zhou, Zhang-Ming; Yang, Min; You, Chao
Several studies have investigated the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after decompressive craniectomy (DC) for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. However, the results are controversial. Therefore, the following is a retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence and risk factors of hydrocephalus after DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction. From January 2004 to June 2014, patients at two medical centres in south-west China, who underwent DC for malignant hemispheric cerebral infarction, were included. The patients' clinical and radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. A chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression model were used to identify the risk factors. A total of 128 patients were included in the study. The incidence of ventriculomegaly and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus were 42.2% (54/128) and 14.8% (19/128), respectively. Lower preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were factors significantly associated with the development of post-operative hydrocephalus after DC. Cerebral infarction patients receiving DC have a moderate tendency to suffer from post-operative hydrocephalus. A poor GCS score and the presence of SAH were significantly associated with the development of hydrocephalus after DC.
Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Balkom, Hans; de Moor, Jan
Background: Various aspects of the home literacy environment are considered to stimulate the emergent literacy development in children without disabilities. It is important to gain insight into the home literacy environment of children with cerebral palsy given that they have been shown to have difficulty acquiring literacy skills. Aims: The aims…
Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim
This study described the aerobic capacity [VO[subscript 2peak] (ml/kg/min)] in contemporary children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) using a maximal exercise test protocol. Twenty-four children and adolescents with CP classified at Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level I or level II and 336 typically developing…
van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have problems with arithmetic, but the development of numerical abilities in these children has received only minor attention. In comparison, detailed accounts have been written on the arithmetic abilities of typically developing children, but a theoretical framework is still lacking. A promising perspective…
Two visual search experiments suggest that: cerebral lateralization of cognitive functions results from differences in sensorimotor resolution capacities of the hemispheres; both hemispheres can process verbal and visuospatial information analytically and holistically; and respective hemispheric competence is a function of the level of…
Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu
The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from…
Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi
This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…
Nourhashemi, Mina; Kongolo, Guy; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Goudjil, Sabrina; Wallois, Fabrice
The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age. Transfer entropy was calculated in order to determine the directionality between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text]. The surrogate method was applied to determine statistical significance. The results show that rCBV and [Formula: see text] have a predominant driving influence on rCBF at the resting state in the preterm neonatal brain. Statistical analysis robustly detected the correct directionality of rCBV on rCBF and [Formula: see text] on rCBF. This study helps to clarify the early organization of the rCBV-rCBF and [Formula: see text] inter-relationship in the immature cortex.
Paliwal, Pankaj; Dash, Debabrata; Krishnamurthy, Sairam
Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion. After 24 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion or 22 h of reperfusion, piracetam was administered for pharmacokinetic, brain penetration, and pharmacological experiments. In pharmacokinetic study, blood samples were collected at different time points after 200-mg/kg (oral) and 75-mg/kg (intravenous) administration of piracetam through right external jugular vein cannulation. In brain penetration study, the cerebrospinal fluid, systemic blood, portal blood, and brain samples were collected at pre-designated time points after 200-mg/kg oral administration of piracetam. In a separate experiment, the pharmacological effect of the single oral dose of piracetam in middle cerebral artery occlusion was assessed at a dose of 200 mg/kg. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam including area under curve (AUC 0-24 ), maximum plasma concentration (C max ), time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (t max ), elimination half-life (t 1/2 ), volume of distribution (V z ), total body clearance, mean residence time, and bioavailability were found to be similar in ischemic stroke condition except for brain penetration. Piracetam exposure (AUC 0-2 ) in brain and CSF were found to be 2.4- and 3.1-fold higher, respectively, in ischemic stroke compared to control rats. Piracetam significantly reduced infarct volume by 35.77% caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no change in the pharmacokinetic parameters of piracetam in the ischemic stroke model except for
Mandić, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Dukić, Milan; Vasiljević, Mladenko; Filimonović, Dejan; Bogavac, Mirjana
Systemic vasoconstriction in preeclamptic patients increases vascular resistance, and is manifested by increased arterial blood flow velocity. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there is a change of Doppler indices in maternal medial cerbral artery (MCA) in severe preeclampsia due to: 1) severity of clinical symptoms, 2) the begining of eclamptic attack and 3) the application of anticonvulsive therapy. A prospective clinical study included 92 pregnant women, gestational age 28-36 weeks. They were divided into three groups: normotensive (n=30), mild preeclampsia (n=33), and severe preeclampsia (n=29). We investigated maternal cerebral circulation by assessing the MCA. We registrated: pulsatility index (Pi), resistance index (Ri), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), and the maximum systolic, end diastolic and medium velocity. Patients with severe preeclampsia were divided into two subgroups. subgroup 1 included patients without symptoms of threatening eclampsia (n=18; 62.06%); while subgroup 2 included those with symptoms of preeclampsia (n=11; 37.94%). All patients with severe preeclampsia were treated with magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and cerebral blood flow was measured before and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was done by oneway ANOVA, Student t-test and t-paired sample test. The difference was considered to be significant if p<0.05. Significantly increased Pi, Ri and all velocities were established in the group of patients with severe preeclampsia compared with the other two groups. In the group with severe preeclamsia we registrated significantly increased values of all velocities (patients with signs of threatening eclampsia). After MgSO4 treatment in patients with severe preeclampsia significantly decreased values of Pi, Ri, S/D ratio and all velocities were registered. In the studied group of patients with severe preclampsia we found increased velocity values, Pi and Ri, especially in patients with signs of threatened eclampsia, suggesting that
Zuj, Kathryn; Greaves, Danielle; Shoemaker, Kevin; Blaber, Andrew; Hughson, Richard L.
Returning from spaceflight, astronauts experience a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance and syncope. Longer duration space flight may result in greater adaptations to microgravity which could increase the post-flight incidence of syncope. CCISS (Cardiovascular and Cerebovascular Control on return from the International Space Station) is an ongoing project designed to help determine adaptations that occur during spaceflight which may contribute to orthostatic intolerance. One component of this project involves looking at cerebral vascular responses before and after long duration spaceflight. As a known vasodilator, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been frequently used to assess changes in cerebral vascular reactivity. In this experiment, end tidal PCO2 was manipulated through changes in respired air. Two breaths of a 10% CO2 gas mixture were administered at 1-min intervals resulting in an increase in end tidal PCO2 . Throughout the testing, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was determined using transcranial Doppler ultrasound. The cerebral resistance index (RI) was calculated from the Doppler wave form using the equation; RI=(CBFVsystolic-CBFVdiastolic)/CBFVsystolic. Changes in this index have been shown to reflect changes in cerebral vascular resistance. Peak responses to the CO2 stimulus were determined and compared to baseline measures taken at the beginning of the testing. Cerebral blood flow velocity increased and RI decreased with the two breaths of CO2. Preliminary data show a 36.0% increase in CBFV and a 9.0% decrease in RI pre-flight. Post flight, the response to CO2 appears to change showing a potentially blunted decrease in resistance (6.8%) and a smaller increase in CBFV (22.8%). Long term spaceflight may result in cerebrovascular changes which could decrease the vasodilatory capacity of cerebral resistance vessels. Further investigations in the CCISS project will reveal the interactive role of CO2 and arterial blood pressure on maintenance of brain
Wang, Shuang; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Xing, Yingqi; Ma, Hongyin; Jin, Hang; Liu, Jia; Yang, Yi
Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in asymptomatic patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis. Fifty-seven patients with asymptomatic mild, moderate, and severe unilateral MCA stenosis and 8 patients with symptomatic severe unilateral MCA stenosis diagnosed by transcranial Doppler were enrolled. Twenty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. The noninvasive continuous cerebral blood flow velocity and arterial blood pressure were recorded simultaneously from each subject in the supine position. Transfer function analysis was applied to determine the autoregulatory parameters (phase difference [PD] and gain). The PD values in the severe stenosis groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (60.71 ± 18.63°), the asymptomatic severe stenosis group was impaired ipsilaterally (28.94 ± 27.43°, P < 0.001), and the symptomatic severe stenosis group was impaired bilaterally (13.74 ± 19.21°, P < 0.001; 19.68 ± 14.50°, P = 0.006, respectively). The PD values in the mild and moderate stenosis groups were not significantly different than the controls (44.49 ± 27.93°; 48.65 ± 25.49°, respectively). The gain values in the mild and moderate groups were higher than in the controls (1.00 ± 0.58 cm/s/mm Hg vs 0.86 ± 0.34 cm/s/mm Hg, and 1.20 ± 0.59 cm/s/mm Hg vs 0.86 ± 0.34 cm/s/mm Hg, respectively). The gain values in the severe stenosis groups were significantly lower than that in the control group: the asymptomatic severe stenosis group was lower bilaterally (0.56 ± 0.32 cm/s/mm Hg, P = 0.003; 0.60 ± 0.32 cm/s/mm Hg, P < 0.05, respectively), whereas the symptomatic severe group was lower unilaterally (on the contralateral side) (0.53 ± 0.43 cm/s/mm Hg, P < 0.05). In asymptomatic patients with unilateral MCA stenosis, only the dCA of the severe stenosis was ipsilaterally
Nielsen, T H; Schalén, W; Ståhl, N; Toft, P; Reinstrup, P; Nordström, C H
The study explores whether the cerebral biochemical pattern in patients treated with hemicraniectomy after large middle cerebral artery infarcts reflects ongoing ischemia or non-ischemic mitochondrial dysfunction. The study includes 44 patients treated with decompressive hemicraniectomy (DCH) due to malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions. Chemical variables related to energy metabolism obtained by microdialysis were analyzed in the infarcted tissue and in the contralateral hemisphere from the time of DCH until 96 h after DCH. Reperfusion of the infarcted tissue was documented in a previous report. Cerebral lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P) and lactate were significantly elevated in the infarcted tissue compared to the non-infarcted hemisphere (p < 0.05). From 12 to 96 h after DCH the pyruvate level was significantly higher in the infarcted tissue than in the non-infarcted hemisphere (p < 0.05). After a prolonged period of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, cerebral tissue shows signs of protracted mitochondrial dysfunction, characterized by a marked increase in cerebral lactate level with a normal or increased cerebral pyruvate level resulting in an increased LP-ratio. This biochemical pattern contrasts to cerebral ischemia, which is characterized by a marked decrease in cerebral pyruvate. The study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to diagnose cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction and to separate it from cerebral ischemia by microdialysis and bed-side biochemical analysis.
De Silva, T. Michael; Miller, Alyson A.
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a major contributor to stroke, and a leading cause of cognitive impairment and dementia. Despite the devastating effects of cerebral SVD, the pathogenesis of cerebral SVD is still not completely understood. Moreover, there are no specific pharmacological strategies for its prevention or treatment. Cerebral SVD is characterized by marked functional and structural abnormalities of the cerebral microcirculation. The clinical manifestations of these pathological changes include lacunar infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and cerebral microbleeds. The main purpose of this review is to discuss evidence implicating oxidative stress in the arteriopathy of both non-amyloid and amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) forms of cerebral SVD and its most important risk factors (hypertension and aging), as well as its contribution to cerebral SVD-related brain injury and cognitive impairment. We also highlight current evidence of the involvement of the NADPH oxidases in the development of oxidative stress, enzymes that are a major source of reactive oxygen species in the cerebral vasculature. Lastly, we discuss potential pharmacological strategies for oxidative stress in cerebral SVD, including some of the historical and emerging NADPH oxidase inhibitors. PMID:27014073
Eiken, Ola; Keramidas, Michail E; Taylor, Nigel A S; Grönkvist, Mikael
Supra-tolerance head-to-foot directed gravitoinertial load (+Gz) typically induces a sequence of symptoms/signs, including loss of: peripheral vision-central vision-consciousness. The risk of unconsciousness is greater when anti-G-garment failure occurs after prolonged rather than brief exposures, presumably because, in the former condition, mental signs are not consistently preceded by impaired vision. The aims were to investigate if prolonged exposure to moderately elevated +Gz reduces intraocular pressure (IOP; i.e., improves provisions for retinal perfusion), or the cerebral anoxia reserve. Subjects were exposed to 4-min +Gz plateaux either at 2 and 3 G (n = 10), or at 4 and 5 G (n = 12). Measurements included eye-level mean arterial pressure (MAP), oxygenation of the cerebral frontal cortex, and at 2 and 3 G, IOP. IOP was similar at 1 (14.1 ± 1.6 mmHg), 2 (14.0 ± 1.6 mmHg), and 3 G (14.0 ± 1.6 mmHg). During the G exposures, MAP exhibited an initial prompt drop followed by a partial recovery, end-exposure values being reduced by ≤30 mmHg. Cerebral oxygenation showed a similar initial drop, but without recovery, and was followed by either a plateau or a further slight decrement to a minimum of about -14 μM. Gz loading did not affect IOP. That cerebral oxygenation remained suppressed throughout these G exposures, despite a concomitant partial recovery of MAP, suggests that the increased risk of unconsciousness upon G-garment failure after prolonged +Gz exposure is due to reduced cerebral anoxia reserve.
Pires, Paulo W.; Dams Ramos, Carla M.; Matin, Nusrat
Maintenance of brain function depends on a constant blood supply. Deficits in cerebral blood flow are linked to cognitive decline, and they have detrimental effects on the outcome of ischemia. Hypertension causes alterations in cerebral artery structure and function that can impair blood flow, particularly during an ischemic insult or during periods of low arterial pressure. This review will focus on the historical discoveries, novel developments, and knowledge gaps in 1) hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, 2) vascular function with emphasis on myogenic reactivity and endothelium-dependent dilation, and 3) blood-brain barrier function. Hypertensive artery remodeling results in reduction in the lumen diameter and an increase in the wall-to-lumen ratio in most cerebral arteries; this is linked to reduced blood flow postischemia and increased ischemic damage. Many factors that are increased in hypertension stimulate remodeling; these include the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and reactive oxygen species levels. Endothelial function, vital for endothelium-mediated dilation and regulation of myogenic reactivity, is impaired in hypertension. This is a consequence of alterations in vasodilator mechanisms involving nitric oxide, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and ion channels, including calcium-activated potassium channels and transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 4. Hypertension causes blood-brain barrier breakdown by mechanisms involving inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasoactive circulating molecules. This exposes neurons to cytotoxic molecules, leading to neuronal loss, cognitive decline, and impaired recovery from ischemia. As the population ages and the incidence of hypertension, stroke, and dementia increases, it is imperative that we gain a better understanding of the control of cerebral artery function in health and disease. PMID:23585139
AHMETGJEKAJ, ILIR; KABASHI-MUÇAJ, SERBEZE; LASCU, LUANA CORINA; KABASHI, ANTIGONA; BONDARI, A.; BONDARI, SIMONA; DEDUSHI-HOTI, KRESHNIKE; BIÇAKU, ARDIAN; SHATRI, JETON
Purpose: Selection of patients with cerebral infarction for MRI that is suitable for thrombolytic therapy as an emerging application. Although the efficiency of the therapy with i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 3 hours after onset of symptoms has been proven in selected patients with CT, now these criteria are determined by MRI, as the data we gather are fast and accurate in the first hours. Material and methods: MRI screening in patients with acute cerebral infarction before application of thrombolytic therapy was done in a UCC Mannheim in Germany. Unlike trials with CT, MRI studies demonstrated the benefits of therapy up to 6 hours after the onset of symptoms. We studied 21 patients hospitalized in Clinic of Neuroradiology at University Clinical Centre in Mannheim-Germany. They all undergo brain MRI evaluation for stroke. This article reviews literature that has followed application of thrombolysis in patients with cerebral infarction based on MRI. Results: We have analyzed the MRI criteria for i.v. application of tPA at this University Centre. Alongside the personal viewpoints of clinicians, survey reveals a variety of clinical aspects and MRI features that are opened for further more exploration: therapeutic effects, the use of the MRI angiography, dynamics, and other. Conclusions: MRI is a tested imaging method for rapid evaluation of patients with hyperacute cerebral infarction, replacing the use of CT imaging and clinical features. MRI criteria for thrombolytic therapy are being applied in some cerebral vascular centres. In Kosovo, the application of thrombolytic therapy has not started yet. PMID:25729591
Meex, Ingrid; De Deyne, Cathy; Dens, Jo; Scheyltjens, Simon; Lathouwers, Kevin; Boer, Willem; Vundelinckx, Guy; Heylen, René; Jans, Frank
Current monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is limited to clinical observation of consciousness, breathing pattern and presence of a pulse. At the same time, the adequacy of cerebral oxygenation during CPR is critical for neurological outcome and thus survival. Cerebral oximetry, based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), provides a measure of brain oxygen saturation. Therefore, we examined the feasibility of using NIRS during CPR. Recent technologies (FORE-SIGHT™ and EQUANOX™) enable the monitoring of absolute cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) values without the need for pre-calibration. We tested both FORE-SIGHT™ (five patients) and EQUANOX Advance™ (nine patients) technologies in the in-hospital as well as the out-of-hospital CPR setting. In this observational study, values were not utilized in any treatment protocol or therapeutic decision. An independent t-test was used for statistical analysis. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of both technologies to measure cerebral oxygen saturation during CPR. With the continuous, pulseless near-infrared wave analysis of both FORE-SIGHT™ and EQUANOX™ technology, we obtained SctO2 values in the absence of spontaneous circulation. Both technologies were able to assess the efficacy of CPR efforts: improved resuscitation efforts (improved quality of chest compressions with switch of caregivers) resulted in higher SctO2 values. Until now, the ability of CPR to provide adequate tissue oxygenation was difficult to quantify or to assess clinically due to a lack of specific technology. With both technologies, any change in hemodynamics (for example, ventricular fibrillation) results in a reciprocal change in SctO2. In some patients, a sudden drop in SctO2 was the first warning sign of reoccurring ventricular fibrillation. Both the FORE-SIGHT™ and EQUANOX™ technology allow non-invasive monitoring of the cerebral oxygen saturation during CPR. Moreover, changes in SctO2 values might be
Seydel, Karl B; Kampondeni, Samuel D; Valim, Clarissa; Potchen, Michael J; Milner, Danny A; Muwalo, Francis W; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Bradley, William G; Fox, Lindsay L; Glover, Simon J; Hammond, Colleen A; Heyderman, Robert S; Chilingulo, Cowles A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E
Case fatality rates among African children with cerebral malaria remain in the range of 15 to 25%. The key pathogenetic processes and causes of death are unknown, but a combination of clinical observations and pathological findings suggests that increased brain volume leading to raised intracranial pressure may play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available in Malawi in 2009, and we used it to investigate the role of brain swelling in the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria in African children. We enrolled children who met a stringent definition of cerebral malaria (one that included the presence of retinopathy), characterized them in detail clinically, and obtained MRI scans on admission and daily thereafter while coma persisted. Of 348 children admitted with cerebral malaria (as defined by the World Health Organization), 168 met the inclusion criteria, underwent all investigations, and were included in the analysis. A total of 25 children (15%) died, 21 of whom (84%) had evidence of severe brain swelling on MRI at admission. In contrast, evidence of severe brain swelling was seen on MRI in 39 of 143 survivors (27%). Serial MRI scans showed evidence of decreasing brain volume in the survivors who had had brain swelling initially. Increased brain volume was seen in children who died from cerebral malaria but was uncommon in those who did not die from the disease, a finding that suggests that raised intracranial pressure may contribute to a fatal outcome. The natural history indicates that increased intracranial pressure is transient in survivors. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Wellcome Trust U.K.).
Cremer, Nicole; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Peterson, Mark D.
Background Individuals with cerebral palsy have less lean body mass, greater relative adiposity, and lower fitness and physical activity participation; and yet, the prevalence of age-related multimorbidity in this population has yet to be established. Purpose To examine the prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic conditions and multimorbidity in a sample of middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy. Methods A clinic-based sample of middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy was examined using Electronic Medical Records Search Engine (EMERSE) software. Our cohort included n= 435 individuals aged 40–60 years old, with an ICD-9/10-CM Diagnosis Code for cerebral palsy. Prevalence of 12 chronic conditions were evaluated, including existing diagnoses or historical record of: osteopenia/osteoporosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, impaired glucose tolerance/type 2 diabetes, other cardiovascular conditions, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, asthma, emphysema, pre-hypertension/hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Multivariate logistic models were used to estimate adjusted mulitmorbidity (i.e., ≥2 chronic conditions), adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, obesity, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Results There were 137 unique multimorbidity combinations. Multimorbidity was significantly more prevalent among obese versus non-obese individuals for both GMFCS I–III (75.8% vs. 53.6%) and GMFCS IV–V (79.0% vs 64.2%), but was also significantly higher in non-obese individuals with GMFCS IV–V (64.2%) compared to individuals with non-obese individuals with GMFCS I–III (53.6%). Both obesity status (OR: 2.20; 95% CI 1.32–2.79) and the GMFCS IV–V category (OR: 1.81; 95% CI 1.32–3.68) were independently associated with multimorbidity. Conclusion Middle-aged adults with cerebral palsy have high estimates of multimorbidity, and both obesity and higher GMFCS levels are independently associated with greater risk. PMID:28065772
Mendel, T A; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, T; Lewandowska, E; Stępień, T; Szpak, G M
The process of β-amyloid accumulation in cerebral vessels is presented. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) was confirmed during an autopsy. It was diagnosed according to the Boston criteria. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy can involve all kinds of cerebral vessels (cortical and leptomeningeal arterioles, capillaries and veins). The development of CAA is a progressive process. β-amyloid appears first in the tunica media, surrounding smooth muscle cells, and in the adventitia. β-amyloid is progressively accumulated, causing a gradual loss of smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall and finally replacing them. Then, the detachment and delamination of the outer part of the tunica media results in the "double barrel" appearance, fibrinoid necrosis, and microaneurysm formation. Microbleeding with perivascular deposition of erythrocytes and blood breakdown products can also occur. β-amyloid can also be deposited in the surrounding of the affected vessels of the brain parenchyma, known as "dysphoric CAA". Ultrastructurally, when deposits of amyloid fibers were localized in or outside the arteriolar wall, the degenerating vascular smooth muscle cells were observed. In the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology the study was carried out in a group of 48 patients who died due to intracerebral hemorrhage caused by sporadic CAA.
Liu, Y; Allen, R
The study aimed to model the cerebrovascular system, using a linear ARX model based on data simulated by a comprehensive physiological model, and to assess the range of applicability of linear parametric models. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and middle cerebral arterial blood flow velocity (MCAV) were measured from 11 subjects non-invasively, following step changes in ABP, using the thigh cuff technique. By optimising parameters associated with autoregulation, using a non-linear optimisation technique, the physiological model showed a good performance (r=0.83+/-0.14) in fitting MCAV. An additional five sets of measured ABP of length 236+/-154 s were acquired from a subject at rest. These were normalised and rescaled to coefficients of variation (CV=SD/mean) of 2% and 10% for model comparisons. Randomly generated Gaussian noise with standard deviation (SD) from 1% to 5% was added to both ABP and physiologically simulated MCAV (SMCAV), with 'normal' and 'impaired' cerebral autoregulation, to simulate the real measurement conditions. ABP and SMCAV were fitted by ARX modelling, and cerebral autoregulation was quantified by a 5 s recovery percentage R5% of the step responses of the ARX models. The study suggests that cerebral autoregulation can be assessed by computing the R5% of the step response of an ARX model of appropriate order, even when measurement noise is considerable.
Sun, Bao-Liang; Xia, Zuo-Li; Wang, Jing-Ru; Yuan, Hui; Li, Wen-Xia; Chen, Yu-She; Yang, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Su-Ming
The study was designed to observe the influence of blockade of cerebral lymphatic drainage on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain edema after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Wistar rats were divided into non-SAH, SAH, and SAH plus cervical lymphatic blockade (SAH + CLB) groups. Autologous arterial hemolysate was injected into rat's cisterna magna to induce SAH. The rCBF was recorded continuously by a laser Doppler flowmeter. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was also monitored. After 24 hours and 72 hours of SAH, the rats were sacrificed and the brain was harvested for water content detection. It was found that there was no obvious change of rCBF and brain water content during the experiment in non-SAH group. An immediate and persistent drop in rCBF was found in SAH group. The drop in rCBF was more obvious in SAH + CLB group. CLB also worsened the SAH-induced increase in ICP. The brain water content 24 hours and 72 hours after induction of SAH in SAH group increased significantly. CLB led to a further increase of brain water content. In conclusion, blockade of cerebral lymphatic drainage pathway deteriorates the secondary cerebral ischemia and brain edema after SAH.
Lu, Shan-Shan; Ge, Song; Su, Chun-Qiu; Xie, Jun; Mao, Jian; Shi, Hai-Bin; Hong, Xun-Ning
Intracranial plaque characteristics are associated with stroke events. Differences in plaque features may explain the disconnect between stenosis severity and the presence of ischemic stroke. To investigate the relationship between plaque characteristics and downstream perfusion changes, and their contribution to the occurrence of cerebral infarction beyond luminal stenosis. Case control. Forty-six patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis (with acute cerebral infarction, n = 30; without acute cerebral infarction, n = 16). 3.0T with 3D turbo spin echo sequence (3D-SPACE). Luminal stenosis grade, plaque features including lesion T 2 and T 1 hyperintense components, plaque enhancement grade, and plaque distribution were assessed. Brain perfusion was evaluated on mean transient time maps based on the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (MTT-ASPECTS). Plaque features, grade of luminal stenosis, and MTT-ASPECTS were compared between two groups. The association between plaque features and MTT-ASPECTS were assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the effect of significant variables alone and their combination in determining the occurrence of cerebral infarction. Stronger enhanced plaques were associated with downstream lower MTT-ASPECTS (P = 0.010). Plaque enhancement grade (P = 0.039, odds ratio [OR] 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-32) and MTT-ASPECTS (P = 0.003, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.7) were associated with a recent cerebral infarction, whereas luminal stenosis grade was not (P = 0.128). The combination of MTT-ASPECTS and plaque enhancement grade provided incremental information beyond luminal stenosis grade alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) improved from 0.535 to 0.921 (P < 0.05). Strongly enhanced plaques are associated with a higher likelihood of downstream
He, Lan Ying; Wang, Jian; Luo, Yong; Dong, Wei Wei; Liu, Li Xu
To investigate the change of brain edema in patients with cerebral infarction by non-invasive cerebral electrical impedance (CEI) measurements. An invariable secure current at a frequency of 50 kHz and an intensity of 0.1 mA was given into a person's brain. CEI values of the bilateral hemisphere of 200 healthy volunteers and 107 patients with cerebral infarction were measured by non-invasive brain edema monitor. The results of perturbative index (PI) converted from CEI were compared with the volumes of brain edema, which were calculated by an image analysing system according to magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. (1) In the healthy volunteers, PI values in the left and right hemisphere were 7.98 +/- 0.95 and 8.02 +/- 0.71 respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two sides (p>0.05). Age, gender and different measuring times did not obviously affect PI values (p>0.05). (2) In the cerebral infarction group, CEI measurements were more sensitive to the volumes of lesion, which were more than 20 ml. The positive ratio of PI was higher when the volumes of infarction were >20 ml (80.0%): the ratio of PI was 75.9% when the volumes of infarction were 20-50 ml and it was 83.3% when the volumes of lesion were more than 50 ml. PI was lower when the volumes were less than 20 ml. (3) PI of the infarction side increased obviously 3-5 days after onset; the difference of two sides was the most significant. There was a positive correlation between PI of the infarction side and volume of infarction. PI may be a sensitive parameter for non-invasive monitoring of the change of brain edema in patients with cerebral infarction. CEI is a valuable method for the early detection of brain edema.
Duning, Thomas; Deppe, Michael; Brand, Eva; Stypmann, Jörg; Becht, Charlotte; Heidbreder, Anna; Young, Peter
Background The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR) is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD), an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea. Patients and Methods Genetically proven FD patients (n = 23) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 44) underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML) volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis. Results In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22%) CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem. Conclusion Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than
Reijmer, Yael D.; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Salat, David H.; Schultz, Aaron; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Ayres, Alison M.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Rosas, Diana; Schwab, Kristin; Leemans, Alexander; Biessels, Geert-Jan; Rosand, Jonathan; Johnson, Keith A.; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, M. Edip
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a common form of small-vessel disease and an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. The mechanisms linking small-vessel disease to cognitive impairment are not well understood. We hypothesized that in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, multiple small spatially distributed lesions affect cognition through disruption of brain connectivity. We therefore compared the structural brain network in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy to healthy control subjects and examined the relationship between markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related brain injury, network efficiency, and potential clinical consequences. Structural brain networks were reconstructed from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 38 non-demented patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (69 ± 10 years) and 29 similar aged control participants. The efficiency of the brain network was characterized using graph theory and brain amyloid deposition was quantified by Pittsburgh compound B retention on positron emission tomography imaging. Global efficiency of the brain network was reduced in patients compared to controls (0.187 ± 0.018 and 0.201 ± 0.015, respectively, P < 0.001). Network disturbances were most pronounced in the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes. Among patients, lower global network efficiency was related to higher cortical amyloid load (r = −0.52; P = 0.004), and to magnetic resonance imaging markers of small-vessel disease including increased white matter hyperintensity volume (P < 0.001), lower total brain volume (P = 0.02), and number of microbleeds (trend P = 0.06). Lower global network efficiency was also related to worse performance on tests of processing speed (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), executive functioning (r = 0.54, P = 0.001), gait velocity (r = 0.41, P = 0.02), but not memory. Correlations with cognition were independent of age, sex, education level, and other magnetic resonance imaging
Doering, T J; Aaslid, R; Steuernagel, B; Brix, J; Niederstadt, C; Breull, A; Schneider, B; Fischer, G C
The purpose of the study contained herein was to investigate the effects of old traditional physiotherapeutic treatments on cerebral autoregulation. Treatment consisted of complete body immersion in cold or warm water baths. Fifteen volunteers were investigated by means of transcranial Doppler sonography and a servo-controlled noninvasive device for blood pressure measuring. One group of 8 volunteers (mean age, 27.2+/-3.5 yr; gender, 3 females/5 males) was subjected to cold baths of 22 degrees C for 20 min Another group of 7 volunteers (mean age, 52.1+/-8.5 yr; gender, 4 females/3 males) took hyperthermic baths at rising water temperatures from 36 degrees to 42 degrees C, increased by 1 degree C every 5 min. Each volunteer in both groups underwent autoregulation tests two to four times before, during, and after the thermic bath. Dynamic autoregulation was measured by the response of cerebral blood flow velocity to a transient decrease of the mean arterial blood pressure, induced by rapid deflation of thigh cuffs. The autoregulation index, i.e., a measure of the speed of change of cerebral autoregulation, was used to quantify the response. Further parameters were core temperature, blood pressure (mm Hg) and CO2et. During hypothermic baths, core temperature decreased by 0.3 degrees C (P = 0.001), measured between preliminary phase and the end of the bath; the autoregulation index decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 5.3 before the bath to 4.25 during the bath. During hyperthermic baths, the autoregulation index increased from 6.0 to 7.5 and 8.9 (P < 0.001), with an increase of core temperature of 0.4 degrees C. The main cerebral autoregulation system is dependent on changes of core temperature, provoked by hypothermic or hyperthermic whole-body thermostimulus. Application of hyperthermic baths increased the autoregulation index, and hypothermic baths decreased the autoregulation index. Further studies are needed to prove the positive effects of thermo
Clozel, J P; Kuhn, H; Hefti, F
Chronic hypertension is associated with a lower cerebral vascular reserve due to thickening of the media of cerebral vessels. The goal of the present study was to determine if long-term inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme with cilazapril, a new long-acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, could improve cerebral vascular reserve. For this purpose, two groups of 12 spontaneously hypertensive rats were compared. One group was treated with 10 mg/kg/day cilazapril from 14 weeks to 33 weeks of age and was compared with a group treated with placebo. A third group of 12 Wistar-Kyoto rats treated with placebo was used as reference. At the end of the treatment period, cerebral vascular reserve was evaluated by measuring cerebral blood flow (radioactive microspheres) at rest and during maximal vasodilation induced by seizures provoked by bicuculline. Then, the rats were perfusion-fixed, and morphometry of the cerebral vasculature was performed. Cerebral vascular reserve was severely impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rats since their maximal cerebral blood flow was decreased by 52% compared with the Wistar-Kyoto rats. Cilazapril normalized cerebral blood flow reserve. This normalization was associated with a decreased thickness of the medial layer in the carotid artery, the middle cerebral artery, and in the pial arteries larger than 100 microns. Further studies are required to determine whether this decreased medial thickness is due to the normalization of blood pressure induced by cilazapril or to the reduction of trophic factors such as angiotensin II.
Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin
Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.
We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did notmore » alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine.« less
Amorim, Robson Luis; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Gattás, Gabriel S; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Menezes, Marcos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) reduces mortality and improves functional outcome in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. However, little is known regarding the impact of DC on cerebral hemodynamics. Therefore, our goal was to study the hemodynamic changes that may occur in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction after DC and to assess their relationship with outcomes. Twenty-seven patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction who were treated with DC were studied. The perfusion CT hemodynamic parameters, mean transit time, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral blood volume were evaluated preoperatively and within the first 24 hours after DC. There was a global trend toward improved cerebral hemodynamics after DC. Preoperative and postoperative absolute mean transit times were associated with mortality at 6 months, and the ratio of post- and preoperative cerebral blood flow was significantly higher in patients with favorable outcomes than those with unfavorable outcomes. Patients who underwent surgery 48 hours after stroke, those with midline brain shift>10 mm, and those who were >55 years showed no significant improvement in any perfusion CT parameters. DC improves cerebral hemodynamics in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, and the level of improvement is related to outcome. However, some patients did not seem to experience any additional hemodynamic benefit, suggesting that perfusion CT may play a role as a prognostic tool in patients undergoing DC after ischemic stroke.
Sobel, Gábor; Halász, Judit; Bogdányi, Katalin; Szabó, István; Borka, Katalin; Molnár, Péter; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Paulin, Ferenc; Bánhidy, Ferenc
Congenital primary intracranial hemangiopericytomas are exceptionally rare tumors. We present a case of a fetus, with the prenatal sonogram at 33 weeks of gestation revealing a large cerebral tumor. Because of the enlarged head, a cesarean section was performed. The tumor was confirmed by postnatal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. Elevated intracranial pressure and hemorrhage led to death on the 11th day. Autopsy revealed a 10x9 cm large inhomogeneous tumor located centrally, mainly in the posterior fossa. Histology showed a hypercellular and hypervascular tumor with extended necrosis and high mitotic rate. The tumor cells were positive for vimentin and CD34 antigens and negative for several neurological markers, desmin and CD31. The diagnosis of a congenital primary cerebral hemangiopericytoma was confirmed.
Wu, Lin-Hui; Chen, Wei-Hung; Lien, Li-Ming; Huang, Chien-Hsien; Chiu, Hou-Chang
A 38 year-old male presented with an acute onset of left hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a bright lesion by diffusion-weighted imaging with low apparent diffusion coefficient value in the right subcortical region, a finding compatible with an acute cerebral infarct. An old infarct was also noted in the same imaging. Both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot method were positive for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The white blood cell count was 2930 cells / mm3, and the subpopulation study for lymphocyte revealed a decreased cluster of differentiation 4+ count of 149 cells/mm3. Studies for prothrombotic states showed decreased protein S and increased anticardiolipin antibodies. We concluded that this was a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with acute and old cerebral infarcts. This patient might be the first reported case in Taiwan. AIDS might be related with stroke in young patients, a condition probably under-recognized in Taiwan.
Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl
One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093
Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive disorder of the developing brain with different etiologies in the pre-, peri- or postnatal period. The most important of these diseases is cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), followed by intra- and periventricular hemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, vascular disorders, infections or brain malformations. The underlying cause is always a damage of the first motor neuron. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Europe is 2-3 per 1000 live births with a broad spectrum in different birth weight groups. Our own data concerning only pre-term infants in the NICU with birth weight below 1500 g (VLBW) are between 10%-20%. Established classical treatment methods include physiotherapy (Bobath, Vojta, Hippotherapy), methods of speech and occupational therapists (Castillo-Morales, Sensory Integration) and other therapeutical concepts (Petö, Affolter, Frostig).
Bagley, Joshua A; Reumann, Daniel; Bian, Shan; Lévi-Strauss, Julie; Knoblich, Juergen A
Human brain development involves complex interactions between different regions, including long-distance neuronal migration or formation of major axonal tracts. Different brain regions can be cultured in vitro within 3D cerebral organoids, but the random arrangement of regional identities limits the reliable analysis of complex phenotypes. Here, we describe a coculture method combining brain regions of choice within one organoid tissue. By fusing organoids of dorsal and ventral forebrain identities, we generate a dorsal-ventral axis. Using fluorescent reporters, we demonstrate CXCR4-dependent GABAergic interneuron migration from ventral to dorsal forebrain and describe methodology for time-lapse imaging of human interneuron migration. Our results demonstrate that cerebral organoid fusion cultures can model complex interactions between different brain regions. Combined with reprogramming technology, fusions should offer researchers the possibility to analyze complex neurodevelopmental defects using cells from neurological disease patients and to test potential therapeutic compounds.
Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Pérez-Cruz, Julio; Delgado-Reyes, Luis; Ortega-Gutiérrez, César; Téllez-Palacios, Daniela
As part of a study of the microsurgical anatomy of the pericallosal artery, we describe one brain with three unusual anatomical variants. From the autopsy of a 45 year-old female, we extracted the brain and all the arterial blood vessels were washed off with saline solution to be injected afterwards with red latex. The brain was then immersed in 10% formalin for two months. Finally, we dissected and measured the internal carotid artery segments, using a digital Vernier caliper under a Carl Zeiss OPMI surgical microscope with magnification of 6x up to 40x. The brain's weight was 1250 grams and three rare anatomical variants were found: 1) right accessory middle cerebral artery (ACMA-d), 2) right bihemispheric anterior cerebral artery (ACABihem-d), 3) median artery of the corpus callosum (AMCC). The association of the anatomical variations described previously is inconstant; furthermore, their appearance in a single case is rare.
Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Resnick, S.M.
The relation between anxiety and cortical activity was compared in two samples of normal volunteers. One group was studied with the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation technique for measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the other with positron emission tomography (PET) using /sup 18/Flurodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) for measuring cerebral metabolic rates (CMR) for glucose. The inhalation technique produced less anxiety than the PET procedure, and for low anxiety subjects, there was a linear increase in CBF with anxiety. For higher anxiety subjects, however, there was a linear decrease in CBF with increased anxiety. The PET group manifested a linear decrease in CMRmore » with increased anxiety. The results indicate that anxiety can have systematic effects on cortical activity, and this should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different procedures. They also suggest a physiologic explanation of a fundamental behavioral law that stipulates a curvilinear, inverted-U relationship between anxiety and performance.« less
Blondiaux, Eléonore; Garel, Catherine
The purpose of this article is to analyze the advantages and limitations of prenatal ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of the fetal brain. These imaging modalities should not be seen as competitive but rather as complementary. There are wide variations in the world regarding screening policies, technology, skills, and legislation about termination of pregnancy, and these variations markedly impact on the way of using prenatal imaging. According to the contribution expected from each technique and to local working conditions, one should choose the most appropriate imaging modality on a case-by-case basis. The advantages and limitations of US and MRI in the setting of fetal brain imaging are displayed. Different anatomical regions (midline, ventricles, subependymal area, cerebral parenchyma, pericerebral space, posterior fossa) and pathological conditions are analyzed and illustrated in order to compare the respective contribution of each technique. An accurate prenatal diagnosis of cerebral abnormalities is of utmost importance for prenatal counseling.
Kolb, Bryan; Teskey, G. Campbell; Gibb, Robbin
An important development in behavioral neuroscience in the past 20 years has been the demonstration that it is possible to stimulate functional recovery after cerebral injury in laboratory animals. Rodent models of cerebral injury provide an important tool for developing such rehabilitation programs. The models include analysis at different levels including detailed behavioral paradigms, electrophysiology, neuronal morphology, protein chemistry, and epigenetics. A significant challenge for the next 20 years will be the translation of this work to improve the outcome from brain injury and disease in humans. Our goal in the article will be to synthesize the multidisciplinary laboratory work on brain plasticity and behavior in the injured brain to inform the development of rehabilitation programs. PMID:21120136
Juan, Elsa; Kaplan, Peter W; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O
Postanoxic coma after cardiac arrest is one of the most serious acute cerebral conditions and a frequent cause of admission to critical care units. Given substantial improvement of outcome over the recent years, a reliable and timely assessment of clinical evolution and prognosis is essential in this context, but may be challenging. In addition to the classic neurologic examination, EEG is increasingly emerging as an important tool to assess cerebral functions noninvasively. Although targeted temperature management and related sedation may delay clinical assessment, EEG provides accurate prognostic information in the early phase of coma. Here, the most frequently encountered EEG patterns in postanoxic coma are summarized and their relations with outcome prediction are discussed. This article also addresses the influence of targeted temperature management on brain signals and the implication of the evolution of EEG patterns over time. Finally, the article ends with a view of the future prospects for EEG in postanoxic management and prognostication.
Mathew, Roy J.
Anxiety disorders are some of the commonest psychiatric disorders and anxiety commonly co-exists with other psychiatric conditions. Anxiety can also be a normal emotion. Thus, study of the neurobiological effects of anxiety is of considerable significance. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMR) serve as indices of brain function. CBF/CMR research is expected to provide new insight into alterations in brain function in anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Possible associations between stress I anxiety I panic and cerebral ischemia I stroke give additional significance to the effects of anxiety on CBF. With the advent of non-invasive techniques, study of CBF/CMR in anxiety disorders became easier. A large numbers of research reports are available on the effects of stress, anxiety and panic on CBF/CMR in normals and anxiety disorder patients. This article reviews the available human research on this topic. PMID:21743685
Song, Yoo Mi; Shin, Sun Young
To report a case of bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusion in rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Reviewed clinical charts, photographs, and fluorescein angiography An 89-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes developed sudden bilateral ptosis, complete ophthalmoplegia of the right eye, and superior rectus palsy of the left eye. Brain and orbit magnetic resonance imaging showed midbrain infarction and mild diffuse sinusitis. On the 2nd day of hospitalization, sudden visual loss and light reflex loss developed. There were retinal whitening, absence of retinal arterial filling, and a total lack of choroidal perfusion on fluorescein angiography of the right eye. The left eye showed a cherry red spot in the retina and the absence of retinal arterial filling and partial choroidal perfusion on fluorescein angiography. On rhinologic examination, mucormyosis was noticed. Despite treatment, visual acuity and light reflex did not recover and he died 4 days after admission. Bilateral ophthalmic artery occlusion can occur in rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis.
González Jiménez, D; Díaz Martin, J J; Bousoño García, C; Jiménez Treviño, S
Recent data suggest that, contrary to initial expectations with improvements in perinatal medicine, the prevalence of cerebral palsy has not decreased over the last 20 years. Gastrointestinal disorders are a major chronic problem in most of children with cerebral palsy and in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. A multidisciplinary approach, with input from neurologists, gastroenterologists, nurses, dieticians and other specialists, can make a major contribution to the medical wellbeing and quality of life of these children and their caregivers. This article focuses on diagnostic methods and therapeutic options available for major nutritional and gastrointestinal problems in patients with neurological disabilities: gastroesophageal reflux, constipation and swallowing disorders. Copyright © 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Miyamoto, Ikuya; Yoshida, Kazuya; Tsuboi, Yoichi; Iizuka, Tadahiko
Treatment with denture for edentulous people is highly important for maintaining quality of life. However, its effect on the brain is unknown. In this experimental study, we hypothesized that dental prosthesis can recover not only the physical condition of mastication system but also the regional brain activity. We evaluated functional brain imaging of edentulous subjects fixed by dental implant prosthesis with clenching tasks by multi-channel near-infrared optical topography. Results revealed a significantly (P<0.001; paired t-test) increased cerebral regional blood volume during maximum voluntary clenching task by implant-retained prosthesis. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with and without prosthesis in the latency to the maximum regional blood volume after the task. Conclusively, clenching can be effective for increasing cerebral blood volume; accordingly maintenance of normal chewing might prevent the brain from degenerating.
Myrden, Andrew; Schudlo, Larissa; Weyand, Sabine; Zeyl, Timothy; Chau, Tom
Access solutions may facilitate communication in children with limited functional speech and motor control. This study reviews current trends in access solution development for children with cerebral palsy, with particular emphasis on the access technology that harnesses a control signal from the user (eg, movement or physiological change) and the output device (eg, augmentative and alternative communication system) whose behavior is modulated by the user's control signal. Access technologies have advanced from simple mechanical switches to machine vision (eg, eye-gaze trackers), inertial sensing, and emerging physiological interfaces that require minimal physical effort. Similarly, output devices have evolved from bulky, dedicated hardware with limited configurability, to platform-agnostic, highly personalized mobile applications. Emerging case studies encourage the consideration of access technology for all nonverbal children with cerebral palsy with at least nascent contingency awareness. However, establishing robust evidence of the effectiveness of the aforementioned advances will require more expansive studies. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fulmer, B B; Dillard, S C; Musulman, E M; Palmer, C A; Oakes, J
Two cases of fusiform cerebral aneurysms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children are presented. To our knowledge, only 9 patients with this association have been reported. One of our patients represents the first report of a patient with an aneurysm associated with varicella-zoster vasculitis. One patient presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage, Hunt-Hess grade IV, and posed difficult surgical management. The other patient suffered a cerebral infarct with a resulting hemiparesis. The first patient had a ventriculostomy placed, initially improved, and subsequently died from rebleeding. The second patient improved with medical management. AIDS arteriopathy, and specifically fusiform aneurysms, are being increasingly reported. The various presentations of this surgically challenging entity in light of other AIDS-related syndromes pose difficult management decisions. On occasion, the intracranial aneurysm may be the initial form of presentation as was present in our first patient.
Avila, Jose David
Trazodone is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of depression and insomnia. Fatal overdose is rare and usually occurs when combined with other drugs or alcohol. Only a few lethal cases of pure trazodone overdose have been reported, all attributed to cardiotoxicity. We reported a 37-year-old woman who presented after ingesting 6.45 g of trazodone in a suicidal attempt. She was hyponatremic because of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and, shortly after, had a seizure and developed fatal cerebral edema. Others have described seizures and hyponatremia after pure trazodone overdose, but this is the first report of cerebral edema and death from a neurological complication. Careful monitoring and correction of sodium levels may be necessary in these patients.
Chen, Jiann-Jy; Chang, Hsin-Feng; Liu, Chih-Yang; Chen, Dem-Lion
Infectious mononucleosis (IM) complicated with a neurological manifestation, including acute cerebellar ataxia, Guillain-Barre syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, cranial nerve palsies, optic neuritis or transverse myelitis, has been rarely reported; however, IM complicated with acute cerebral infarction has never been reported in the literature. A 49-year-old man with diabetic mellitus suffered from IM with fever, pharyngitis, parotiditis with lymphadenopathies, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. After two weeks of conservative treatment, left upper limb paresis and left hemihypesthesia occurred. Neuroimaging demonstrated acute ischemic stroke involving the right frontal lobe. In view of the underlying infection, immediate intravenous rt-PA was not recommended; hence, oral aspirin 100 mg daily was prescribed and he received regular rehabilitation in the subsequent follow up. Although IM is known to be self-limited, it could contribute to acute cerebral infarction, which is a rare IM neurological complication.
Lin, Gen-Min; Chu, Kai-Min; Juan, Chun-Jung; Chang, Feng-Yee
Cerebral hemorrhage occurs rarely in endocarditis caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. A 51-year-old man with a prosthetic mitral valve, who had been prophylactically treated (7 years) with warfarin, presented with intermittent fever. On admission, a Levine grade II/VI systolic cardiac murmur was detected. A transthoracic echocardiogram was negative for valve vegetation. Cefepime (1 g every 8 hours) was administered intravenously. On day 4, culturing of Gram-negative bacilli from blood and a transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a small oscillating filament attached to lateral mitral prosthetic ring on the atrial side. Ceftriaxone (2 g once daily) was started. Gait instability and left-side weakness developed abruptly 2 weeks later; brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hematoma over the right parietal-occipital lobe. Ceftriaxone was adjusted to 2 g every 12 hours. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was identified 3 weeks later. Recovery was achieved, with significant interval improvement and resolution of the cerebral lesions evident on CT.
Erkin, Gulten; Culha, Canan; Ozel, Sumru; Kirbiyik, Eylem Gulsen
The aim of our study was to identify feeding and gastrointestinal system (GIS) problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to evaluate the relationship between these problems and the severity of CP. A total of 120 children with CP were enrolled consecutively into the study (67 males, 53 females; mean age: 6.0[plus or minus]2.4 years; range:…
Zhang, R.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Giller, C. A.; Levine, B. D.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)
To test the hypothesis that spontaneous changes in cerebral blood flow are primarily induced by changes in arterial pressure and that cerebral autoregulation is a frequency-dependent phenomenon, we measured mean arterial pressure in the finger and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) during supine rest and acute hypotension induced by thigh cuff deflation in 10 healthy subjects. Transfer function gain, phase, and coherence function between changes in arterial pressure and VMCA were estimated using the Welch method. The impulse response function, calculated as the inverse Fourier transform of this transfer function, enabled the calculation of transient changes in VMCA during acute hypotension, which was compared with the directly measured change in VMCA during thigh cuff deflation. Beat-to-beat changes in VMCA occurred simultaneously with changes in arterial pressure, and the autospectrum of VMCA showed characteristics similar to arterial pressure. Transfer gain increased substantially with increasing frequency from 0.07 to 0.20 Hz in association with a gradual decrease in phase. The coherence function was > 0.5 in the frequency range of 0.07-0.30 Hz and < 0.5 at < 0.07 Hz. Furthermore, the predicted change in VMCA was similar to the measured VMCA during thigh cuff deflation. These data suggest that spontaneous changes in VMCA that occur at the frequency range of 0.07-0.30 Hz are related strongly to changes in arterial pressure and, furthermore, that short-term regulation of cerebral blood flow in response to changes in arterial pressure can be modeled by a transfer function with the quality of a high-pass filter in the frequency range of 0.07-0.30 Hz.
Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Eiriksdottir, Audur; Gunnarsdottir, Eva; Meintema, Marrit; Arnadottir, Unnur; Vik, Torstein
We describe the cognitive profile in a complete national cohort of children with cerebral palsy (CP). One hundred and twenty-seven Icelandic children (67 females, 60 males) with CP, born between 1985 and 2000 and assessed between the ages of 4 and 6 years 6 months (mean age 5y 5mo, SD 6mo), were included in the study. IQ was measured using the…
Strangward, Patrick; Haley, Michael J; Shaw, Tovah N; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Greig, Rachel; Mironov, Aleksandr; de Souza, J Brian; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Craig, Alister G; Milner, Danny A; Allan, Stuart M; Couper, Kevin N
The murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) has been utilised extensively in recent years to study the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria (HCM). However, it has been proposed that the aetiologies of ECM and HCM are distinct, and, consequently, no useful mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of HCM can be obtained from studying the ECM model. Therefore, in order to determine the similarities and differences in the pathology of ECM and HCM, we have performed the first spatial and quantitative histopathological assessment of the ECM syndrome. We demonstrate that the accumulation of parasitised red blood cells (pRBCs) in brain capillaries is a specific feature of ECM that is not observed during mild murine malaria infections. Critically, we show that individual pRBCs appear to occlude murine brain capillaries during ECM. As pRBC-mediated congestion of brain microvessels is a hallmark of HCM, this suggests that the impact of parasite accumulation on cerebral blood flow may ultimately be similar in mice and humans during ECM and HCM, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that cerebrovascular CD8+ T-cells appear to co-localise with accumulated pRBCs, an event that corresponds with development of widespread vascular leakage. As in HCM, we show that vascular leakage is not dependent on extensive vascular destruction. Instead, we show that vascular leakage is associated with alterations in transcellular and paracellular transport mechanisms. Finally, as in HCM, we observed axonal injury and demyelination in ECM adjacent to diverse vasculopathies. Collectively, our data therefore shows that, despite very different presentation, and apparently distinct mechanisms, of parasite accumulation, there appear to be a number of comparable features of cerebral pathology in mice and in humans during ECM and HCM, respectively. Thus, when used appropriately, the ECM model may be useful for studying specific pathological features of HCM.
Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A
Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological
Ma, Lin; Ren, He-cheng; Huang, Ying
The objective of this work was to explore the feasibility of bypass between the maxillary artery (MA) and proximity of middle cerebral artery (MCA). Ten fixed and perfused adult cadaver heads were dissected bilaterally, 20 sides in total. The superficial temporal artery and its 2 branches were dissected, and outer diameters were measured. The MA and its branch were exposed as well as deep temporal artery; outer diameter of MA was measured. The lengths between the external carotid artery, internal carotid artery, maxillary artery, and proximal middle cerebral artery were measured. Ten healthy adults as targets (20 sides), inner diameter and blood flow dynamic parameters of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, internal carotid artery, maxillary artery, superficial temporal artery, and its 2 branches were done with ultrasound examination. The mean outer diameter of MA (2.60 ± 0.20 mm) was larger than that of the temporal artery trunk (1.70 ± 0.30 mm). The mean lengths of graft vessels between the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery, and the bifurcation section of MCA (171.00 ± 2.70 and 162.40 ± 2.60 mm) were longer than the mean lengths of graft vessels between MA and MCA bifurcation section (61.70 ± 1.50 mm). In adults, the mean blood flow of the second part of MA (62.70 ± 13.30 mL/min) was more than that of the 2 branches of the superficial temporal artery (15.90 ± 3.70 mL/min and 17.70 ± 4.10 ml/min). Bypass between the maxillary artery and proximity of middle cerebral artery is feasible. It is a kind of effective high flow bypass with which the graft vessel is shorter and straighter than the bypass between internal carotid artery or external carotid artery and proximity of middle cerebral artery.
Koenig, Matthew A
The purpose of this article is to describe the modern management of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH causes an inflammatory reaction to blood products in the basal cisterns of the brain, which may produce cerebral ischemia and strokes through progressive narrowing of the cerebral artery lumen. This process, known as cerebral vasospasm, is the most common cause of DCI after SAH. Untreated DCI may result in strokes, which account for a significant portion of the death and long-term disability after SAH. A number of publications, including two recent consensus statements, have clarified many best practices for defining, diagnosing, monitoring, preventing, and treating DCI. DCI is best defined as new onset of focal or global neurologic deficits or strokes not attributable to another cause. In addition to the clinical examination, radiographic studies such as transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and CT perfusion may have a role in determining which patients are at high risk for developing DCI. The mainstay of prevention and treatment of DCI is maintenance of euvolemia, which can be a difficult therapeutic target to measure. Hemodynamic augmentation with induced hypertension with or without inotropic support has become the first-line treatment of DCI. The ideal method of measuring hemodynamic values and volume status in patients with DCI remains elusive. In patients who do not adequately respond to or cannot tolerate hemodynamic augmentation, endovascular therapy (intraarterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty) is a complementary strategy. Optimal triggers for escalation and de-escalation of therapies for DCI have not been well defined. Recent guidelines and consensus statements have clarified many aspects of prevention, monitoring, and treatment of DCI after SAH. Controversies continue regarding the optimal methods for measurement of volume status, the role of invasive neuromonitoring
Wilson, Robert S; Boyle, Patricia A; Levine, Steven R; Yu, Lei; Anagnos, Sophia E; Buchman, Aron S; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A
The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that a higher level of childhood adversity is associated with increased risk of cerebral infarction in old age. Older participants in a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study rated adverse childhood experiences (e.g., emotional neglect, parental intimidation and violence) on a previously established 16-item scale. During a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up, there were 257 deaths, with 206 brain autopsies (80.2). Number of chronic cerebral infarcts (gross plus microscopic; expressed as 0, 1, or >1) was determined in a uniform neuropathologic examination, which had been completed in 192 individuals at the time of these analyses. Childhood adversity scores ranged from 0 to 31 (mean = 8.3, SD = 6.4). In an ordinal logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, higher adversity was associated with higher likelihood of chronic cerebral infarction. In analyses of childhood adversity subscales, only emotional neglect was associated with infarction (odds ratio [OR] = 1.097; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.048-1.148). The likelihood of infarction was 2.8 times higher (95% CI 2.0-4.1) in those reporting a moderately high level of childhood emotional neglect (score = 6, 75th percentile) vs a moderately low level of neglect (score = 1, 25th percentile). Results were comparable in subsequent analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic status, cardiovascular risk factors, and an anxiety-related trait. Emotional neglect in childhood may be a risk factor for cerebral infarction in old age.
Maarouf, M; Runge, M; Kocher, M; Zähringer, M; Treuer, H; Sturm, V
The authors evaluated the efficacy of radiosurgery (RS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT AVMs). Two patients with seven HHT AVMs were treated by linear accelerator-RS. Complete obliteration was achieved 18 to 24 months post-treatment without side effects. Because HHT AVMs are small and multiple, RS is superior to microsurgery because it is noninvasive and all AVMs can be treated in one session regardless of their location.
Botulinum toxin is a natural purified protein and one of the strongest biological poisons - neurotoxin. It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its medical usage started in USA in 1981 and in Europe in 1992. There are seven different immune types of the toxin: A, B, C1, D, E, F and G. Toxin types A and B are used to decrease muscular spasticity. Botulinum toxin prevents the formation of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve tissues in muscles, which in the end irreversibly destroys neuromuscular synapses. It is called temporary local chemodenervation. It does not affect the synthesis of acetylcholine. As it affects neuromuscular bond it also affects one of the symptoms of cerebral palsy - spasticity Decreasing the spasticity of children with cerebral palsy leads to the improvement of conscious movements, muscles are less toned, passive mobility is improved, orthosis tolerance is also improved, and the child is enabled to perform easier and better motor functions such as crawling, standing and walking. Since the action of Botulinum toxin is limited to 2-6 months, new neural collaterals are formed and neuromuscular conductivity is reestablished which in the end once again develops a muscular spasm. This leads to a conclusion that botulinum toxin should again be applied into spastic muscles. It is very important for good effect of Botulinum toxin to set the goals of the therapy in advance. The goals include improvement of a function, prevention of contractions and deformities, ease of care and decrease of pain for children with cerebral palsy. After application of botulinum toxin, it is necessary to perform adequate and intensive physical treatment with regular monitoring of effects. This work shows a case of a boy with spastic form of cerebral palsy. After being habilitated using Vojta therapy and Bobath concept and the conduct of certain physical procedures, botulinum toxin is administered into his lower limbs’ muscles and kinezitherapy intensified
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common movement disorder of childhood. Parents recognized the symptoms of CP at mean age of 13 months. However there was a mean delay of going to a doctor by 23 months and the mean age of diagnosis was 5.5 years. Less than half of the CP children were diagnosed by a pediatrician and were receiving treatment methods…
Piuzzi, Nicolás S.; Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando M.; Buttaro, Martin A.; Piccaluga, Francisco
The incidence of clinical fat embolism syndrome (FES) is low (<1%) whilst fat embolism (FE) of marrow fat appears to occur more often (Mellor and Soni (2001)). Paradoxical brain FE may occur in patients undergoing hip orthopedic surgery who have an undocumented patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a case of an eighty-year-old male patient, who underwent a scheduled revision hip surgery suffering a paradoxical cerebral FE. PMID:25184065
Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…
Casazza, M; Avanzini, G; Broggi, G; Fornari, M; Franzini, A
From November 1979 to March 1988, 16 patients with cerebral gangliogliomas were investigated and underwent surgery at the Institute Neurologico "C. Besta" of Milan. Their age varied from 11 to 48 years. 15 of these patients presented with a seizure as the first and often the only neurological symptom. This report deals with the epileptologic and neuroradiologic features of these patients before and after surgical treatment.
Naidich, T P; Radkowski, M A; McLone, D G; Leestma, J
A review of serial computed tomography (CT) scans of 25 patients with the Dandy-Walker malformation revealed six patients with chronic downward transincisural herniation of the cerebrum after shunt decompression of the posterior fossa cyst or malfunction of a lateral ventricular drainage catheter, or both. Chronic cerebral herniation was detected postmortem in a seventh patient with the Dandy-Walker malformation. The CT findings and autopsy appearance of this previously undescribed feature of shunted Dandy-Walker malformation are illustrated.
Plotnikov, M B; Kobzeva, E A; Plotnikova, T M
Cerebral ischemia in rats (both carotid arteries occlusion) during 30 min, 3 hours and recirculation (1 hour) after ischemia (30 min) stimulated diene conjugates and fluorescent products accumulation in brain tissue. Intraperitoneal injection of sodium hydroxybutyrate (100 mg/kg), bemitil (50 mg/kg), ethomersol (50 mg/kg) reduced brain lipid peroxidation and did not yield in this respect to emoxypin (5 mg/kg). In contrast to emoxypin, sodium hydroxybutyrate, bemitil and ethomersol had no antiradical activity.
Baer, Kerstin; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Frevert, Ute
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is responsible for nearly one million annual deaths worldwide. Because of the difficulty in monitoring the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria in humans, we conducted a study in various mouse models to better understand disease progression in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). We compared the effect on the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) and the histopathology of the brain of P. berghei ANKA, a known ECM model, P. berghei NK65, generally thought not to induce ECM, P. yoelii 17XL, originally reported to induce human cerebral malaria-like histopathology, and P. yoelii YM. As expected, P. berghei ANKA infection caused neurological signs, cerebral hemorrhages, and BBB dysfunction in CBA/CaJ and Swiss Webster mice, while Balb/c and A/J mice were resistant. Surprisingly, PbNK induced ECM in CBA/CaJ mice, while all other mice were resistant. P. yoelii 17XL and P. yoelii YM caused lethal hyperparasitemia in all mouse strains; histopathological alterations, BBB dysfunction, or neurological signs were not observed. Intravital imaging revealed that infected erythrocytes containing mature parasites passed slowly through capillaries making intimate contact with the endothelium, but did not arrest. Except for relatively rare microhemorrhages, mice with ECM presented no obvious histopathological alterations that would explain the widespread disruption of the BBB. Intravital imaging did reveal, however, that postcapillary venules, but not capillaries or arterioles, from mice with ECM, but not hyperparasitemia, exhibit platelet marginalization, extravascular fibrin deposition, CD14 expression, and extensive vascular leakage. Blockage of LFA-1 mediated cellular interactions prevented leukocyte adhesion, vascular leakage, neurological signs, and death from ECM. The endothelial barrier-stabilizing mediators imatinib and FTY720 inhibited vascular leakage and neurological signs and prolonged survival to ECM. Thus, it appears that neurological
Choi, Hwan; Wren, Tishya Anne Leong; Steele, Katherine Muterspaugh
Many individuals with cerebral palsy wear ankle foot orthoses during daily life. Orthoses influence joint motion, but how they impact muscle remains unclear. In particular, the gastrocnemius is commonly stiff in cerebral palsy. Understanding whether orthoses stretch or shorten this muscle during daily life may inform orthosis design and rehabilitation. This study investigated the impact of different ankle foot orthoses on gastrocnemius operating length during walking in children with cerebral palsy. Case series, within subject comparison of gastrocnemius operating length while walking barefoot and with two types of ankle foot orthoses. We performed gait analyses for 11 children with cerebral palsy. Each child was fit with two types of orthoses: a dynamic ankle foot orthosis (Cascade dynamic ankle foot orthosis) and an adjustable dynamic response ankle foot orthosis (Ultraflex ankle foot orthosis). Musculoskeletal modeling was used to quantify gastrocnemius musculotendon operating length and velocity with each orthosis. Walking with ankle foot orthoses could stretch the gastrocnemius more than barefoot walking for some individuals; however, there was significant variability between participants and orthoses. At least one type of orthosis stretched the gastrocnemius during walking for 4/6 and 3/5 of the Gross Motor Functional Classification System Level I and III participants, respectively. AFOs also reduced peak gastrocnemius lengthening velocity compared to barefoot walking for some participants, with greater reductions among the Gross Motor Functional Classification System Level III participants. Changes in gastrocnemius operating length and lengthening velocity were related to changes in ankle and knee kinematics during gait. Ankle foot orthoses impact gastrocnemius operating length during walking and, with proper design, may assist with stretching tight muscles in daily life. Clinical relevance Determining whether ankle foot orthoses stretch tight muscles can
Sykora, Marek; Steiner, Thorsten; Rocco, Andrea; Turcani, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Diedler, Jennifer
Hemicraniectomy has been shown to be an effective treatment of life-threatening edema (LTE) in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction when performed early. Identifying patients who will develop LTE is therefore imperative. We hypothesize that autonomic shift toward sympathetic dominance may relate to LTE formation. We aimed to investigate the predictive potential of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) as a marker of autonomic balance for calculating the course of large middle cerebral artery infarction. Patients with middle cerebral artery infarction >2/3 of the territory and BRS measurement at admission were analyzed. BRS was estimated using the cross-correlational method. Demographic, clinical, and radiological data including stroke severity, infarct size, and basal ganglia involvement were recorded. Malignant course with LTE was defined as clinical deterioration and midline shift ≥5 mm in the first 48 hours. Eighteen (62.8%) patients developed LTE. Patients with LTE had lower BRS (2.3 versus 4.4 mm Hg/ms, P=0.007), larger infarcts (214 versus 144 mL, P=0.03), more frequent involvement of the basal ganglia (14 versus 4, P=0.03), and more often underwent thrombolysis combined with endovascular intervention (6 versus 0, P=0.04). In a multivariate model, BRS (OR, 0.36; CI, 0.14-0.93; P=0.03) and basal ganglia involvement (OR, 11.53; CI, 1.15-115.9; P=0.04) were independent predictors for LTE. This model correctly classified 86.2% of the malignant cases. Decreased BRS, mirroring sympathetic activation, and basal ganglia involvement were associated with development of malignant course with LTE in large middle cerebral artery infarction. The predictive relevance of our findings needs to be confirmed in further studies.
Smith, Gwenn S.; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol.; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David
Background Monoamine dysfunction, particularly of the serotonin system, has been the dominant hypothesis guiding research and treatment development in affective disorders. The majority of research has been performed in mid-life depressed adults. The importance of understanding the neurobiology of depression in older adults is underscored by increased rates of mortality and completed suicide and an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia. To evaluate the dynamic response of the serotonin system, the acute effects of citalopram infusion on cerebral glucose metabolism was measured in depressed older adults and control subjects. The hypothesis was tested that smaller decreases in metabolism would be observed in cortical and limbic regions in depressed older adults relative to controls. Methods Sixteen depressed older adults and thirteen controls underwent two resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose after placebo and citalopram infusions. Results In controls compared to depressed older adults, greater citalopram induced decreases in cerebral metabolism were observed in the right anterior cingulate, middle temporal (bilaterally), left precuneus, and left parahippocampal gyri. Greater decreases in the depressed older adults than controls was observed in left superior and left middle frontal gyri and increases in left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, left thalamus and right putamen. Conclusion In depressed older adults relative to controls, the cerebral metabolic response to citalopram is blunted in cortico-cortico and cortico-limbic pathways and increased in the left hemisphere (greater decrease interiorly and increases posterior). These findings suggest both blunted and compensatory cerebral metabolic responses to citalopram in depressed older adults. PMID:19368900
Visualization of blood flow in a cerebral aneurysm. Streamlines (colored by fluid velocity magnitude) reveal the complexity of the flow, isocontours of vorticity show blood vortex structures (colored by pressure), and the flexible arterial wall is colored by the stress magnitude, where regions in red indicate areas of high stress. Credits: Science: Paris Perdikaris, Yue Yu, George Em. Karniadakis and Leopold Grinberg Visualization: Joseph A. Insley and Michael E. Papka
Catala, M; Fontaine, B; Rancurel, G
A Yugoslavian perfectly bilingual for French and Serb had a limited left middle cerebral artery stroke. He developed a peculiar dysgraphia characterised by the use of Latin characters (French spelling) to transcribe Serb phonemes that would normally have been spelt in the Cyrillic alphabet. This dysgraphia was likely to be due to an impairment of the allographic procedure. It is concluded that allographs of the two alphabets are produced concomitantly in bialphabetical patients during the allographic procedure. Images PMID:8201350
Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Greig, Rachel; Mironov, Aleksandr; de Souza, J. Brian; Cruickshank, Sheena M.; Craig, Alister G.; Milner, Danny A.; Allan, Stuart M.
The murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) has been utilised extensively in recent years to study the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria (HCM). However, it has been proposed that the aetiologies of ECM and HCM are distinct, and, consequently, no useful mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of HCM can be obtained from studying the ECM model. Therefore, in order to determine the similarities and differences in the pathology of ECM and HCM, we have performed the first spatial and quantitative histopathological assessment of the ECM syndrome. We demonstrate that the accumulation of parasitised red blood cells (pRBCs) in brain capillaries is a specific feature of ECM that is not observed during mild murine malaria infections. Critically, we show that individual pRBCs appear to occlude murine brain capillaries during ECM. As pRBC-mediated congestion of brain microvessels is a hallmark of HCM, this suggests that the impact of parasite accumulation on cerebral blood flow may ultimately be similar in mice and humans during ECM and HCM, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that cerebrovascular CD8+ T-cells appear to co-localise with accumulated pRBCs, an event that corresponds with development of widespread vascular leakage. As in HCM, we show that vascular leakage is not dependent on extensive vascular destruction. Instead, we show that vascular leakage is associated with alterations in transcellular and paracellular transport mechanisms. Finally, as in HCM, we observed axonal injury and demyelination in ECM adjacent to diverse vasculopathies. Collectively, our data therefore shows that, despite very different presentation, and apparently distinct mechanisms, of parasite accumulation, there appear to be a number of comparable features of cerebral pathology in mice and in humans during ECM and HCM, respectively. Thus, when used appropriately, the ECM model may be useful for studying specific pathological features of HCM. PMID:28273147
Aguirre, José A; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Brada, Muriel; Saporito, Andrea; Borgeat, Alain; Bühler, Philipp
Beach chair position is considered a potential risk factor for central neurological events particularly if combined with low blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of regional anesthesia on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome. This is a prospective, assessor-blinded observational study evaluating patients in the beach chair position undergoing shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia. University hospital operating room. Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I-II physical status scheduled for elective shoulder surgery. Cerebral saturation and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery were measured prior to anesthesia and continued after beach chair positioning until discharge to the postanesthesia care unit. The anesthesiologist was blinded for these values. Controlled hypotension with systolic blood pressure≤100mm Hg was maintained during surgery. Neurobehavioral tests and values of regional cerebral saturation, bispectral index, the mean maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery, and invasive blood pressure were measured prior to regional anesthesia, and measurements were repeated after placement of the patient on the beach chair position and every 20 minutes thereafter until discharge to postanesthesia care unit. The neurobehavioral tests were repeated the day after surgery. The incidence of cerebral desaturation events was 5%. All patients had a significant blood pressure drop 5 minutes after beach chair positioning, measured at the heart as well as the acoustic meatus levels, when compared with baseline values (P<.05). There was no decrease in either the regional cerebral saturation (P=.136) or the maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery (P=.212) at the same time points. Some neurocognitive tests showed an impairment 24 hours after surgery (P<.001 for 2 of 3 tests). Beach chair position in patients undergoing regional anesthesia for shoulder surgery had no major impact on
Sato, K; Yamada, M; Kuroda, H; Yamamoto, D; Asano, Y; Inoue, Y; Fujii, K; Kumabe, T
Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a potential complication of superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis for Moyamoya disease. In this study, we evaluated whether TOF-MRA could assess cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis for this disease. This retrospective study included patients with Moyamoya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-MCA single anastomosis. TOF-MRA and SPECT were performed before and 1-6 days after anastomosis. Bilateral ROIs on the source image of TOF-MRA were manually placed directly on the parietal branch of the superficial temporal artery just after branching the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery and on the contralateral superficial temporal artery on the same axial image, respectively. The change ratio of the maximum signal intensity of the superficial temporal artery on TOF-MRA was calculated by using the following formula: (Postoperative Ipsilateral/Postoperative Contralateral)/(Preoperative Ipsilateral/Preoperative Contralateral). Of 23 patients (26 sides) who underwent the operation, 5 sides showed cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome postoperatively. There was a significant difference in the change ratio of signal intensity on TOF-MRA observed between the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and non-cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome groups (cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome group: 1.88 ± 0.32; non-cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome group: 1.03 ± 0.20; P = .0009). The minimum ratio value for the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome group was 1.63, and the maximum ratio value for the non-cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome group was 1.30. Thus, no overlap was observed between the 2 groups for the change ratio of signal intensity on TOF-MRA. Diagnosis of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is indicated by an increase in the change ratio of signal intensity on TOF-MRA by more than approximately 1.5 times the preoperative levels. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Porta, R; Camardella, M; Gentile, V; De Santis, A
Since a specific inhibition of cerebral spermidine (Spd) synthase activity by alicyclic amines was preliminarily observed in vitro, we examined the in vivo inhibitory effectiveness of dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) on Spd biosynthesis in 21-day-old rat brain. For this purpose a previously reported HPLC procedure (Porta et al., 1981a) was modified to analyze the cerebral levels of DCHA at the time of polyamine determinations. The intraperitoneally injected DCHA was shown to cross the blood-brain barrier easily, reaching high levels in the cerebral tissue (approximately 750 nmol/g brain) within 1 h of its administration. The effect of the drug on the polyamine metabolism resulted in a significant depletion of Spd biosynthesis from the sixth hour after the treatment and in an earlier and prolonged increase of the putrescine (Pt) steady-state levels. Conversely, the spermine (Spm) endogenous pools remained unchanged throughout the 24-h post-DCHA period. Moreover, following the intracerebral administration of [1,4-14C]Pt, significantly lower specific radioactivity (s.r.a.) values for labeled Pt and Spd were recorded in the brains of DCHA-treated animals. Conversely, after intracerebral [14C]Spd injection, the s.r.a. of newly formed [14C]Spm remained unchanged, confirming the specificity of the DCHA effect on the Spd biosynthesis.
Gordon, Andrew M
Cerebral palsy is caused by early damage to the developing brain, as the most common pediatric neurological disorder. Hemiplegia (unilateral spastic cerebral palsy) is the most common subtype, and the resulting impairments, lateralized to one body side, especially affect the upper extremity, limiting daily function. This chapter first describes the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying impaired upper extremity control of cerebral palsy. It will be shown that the severity of impaired hand function closely relates to the integrity of the corticospinal tract innervating the affected hand. It will also shown that the developing corticospinal tract can reorganize its connectivity depending on the timing and location of CNS injury, which also has implications for the severity of hand impairments and rehabilitation. The mechanisms underlying impaired motor function will be highlighted, including deficits in movement execution and planning and sensorimotor integration. It will be shown that despite having unimanual hand impairments, bimanual movement control deficits and mirror movements also impact function. Evidence for motor learning-based therapies including Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy and Bimanual Training, and the possible pathophysiological predictors of treatment outcome and plasticity will be described. Finally, future directions for rehabilitations will be presented.