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Sample records for abscisic acid-dependent stomatal

  1. Cross-talk between abscisic acid-dependent and abscisic acid-independent pathways during abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Paul, Saikat; Basu, Supratim

    2013-07-01

    Salinity, drought and low temperature are the common forms of abiotic stress encountered by land plants. To cope with these adverse environmental factors, plants execute several physiological and metabolic responses. Both osmotic stress (elicited by water deficit or high salt) and cold stress increase the endogenous level of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA-dependent stomatal closure to reduce water loss is associated with small signaling molecules like nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and cytosolic free calcium, and mediated by rapidly altering ion fluxes in guard cells. ABA also triggers the expression of osmotic stress-responsive (OR) genes, which usually contain single/multiple copies of cis-acting sequence called abscisic acid-responsive element (ABRE) in their upstream regions, mostly recognized by the basic leucine zipper-transcription factors (TFs), namely, ABA-responsive element-binding protein/ABA-binding factor. Another conserved sequence called the dehydration-responsive element (DRE)/C-repeat, responding to cold or osmotic stress, but not to ABA, occurs in some OR promoters, to which the DRE-binding protein/C-repeat-binding factor binds. In contrast, there are genes or TFs containing both DRE/CRT and ABRE, which can integrate input stimuli from salinity, drought, cold and ABA signaling pathways, thereby enabling cross-tolerance to multiple stresses. A strong candidate that mediates such cross-talk is calcium, which serves as a common second messenger for abiotic stress conditions and ABA. The present review highlights the involvement of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling components and their interaction or convergence in activating the stress genes. We restrict our discussion to salinity, drought and cold stress.

  2. Developmental priming of stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid by leaf microclimate.

    PubMed

    Pantin, Florent; Renaud, Jeanne; Barbier, François; Vavasseur, Alain; Le Thiec, Didier; Rose, Christophe; Bariac, Thierry; Casson, Stuart; McLachlan, Deirdre H; Hetherington, Alistair M; Muller, Bertrand; Simonneau, Thierry

    2013-09-23

    Plant water loss and CO2 uptake are controlled by valve-like structures on the leaf surface known as stomata. Stomatal aperture is regulated by hormonal and environmental signals. We show here that stomatal sensitivity to the drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is acquired during leaf development by exposure to an increasingly dryer atmosphere in the rosette plant Arabidopsis. Young leaves, which develop in the center of the rosette, do not close in response to ABA. As the leaves increase in size, they are naturally exposed to increasingly dry air as a consequence of the spatial arrangement of the leaves, and this triggers the acquisition of ABA sensitivity. Interestingly, stomatal ABA sensitivity in young leaves is rapidly restored upon water stress. These findings shed new light on how plant architecture and stomatal physiology have coevolved to optimize carbon gain against water loss in stressing environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear-localized AtHSPR links abscisic acid-dependent salt tolerance and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Hao, Hongyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Haowei; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2015-12-01

    Salt stress from soil or irrigation water limits plant growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant in C24, named athspr (Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related), showed several phenotypes, including reduced organ size and enhanced sensitivity to environmental cues. The athspr mutant is severely impaired under salinity levels at which wild-type (WT) plants grow normally. AtHSPR encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, and its expression was enhanced by high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression (OE) of AtHSPR significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress by increasing the activities of the antioxidant system and by maintaining K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that OE of AtHSPR increased the expression of ABA/stress-responsive, salt overly sensitive (SOS)-related and antioxidant-related genes. In addition, ABA content was reduced in athspr plants with or without salt stress, and exogenous ABA restored WT-like salt tolerance to athspr plants. athspr exhibited increased leaf stomatal density and stomatal index, slower ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduced drought tolerance relative to the WT. AtHSPR OE enhanced drought tolerance by reducing leaf water loss and stomatal aperture. Transcript profiling in athspr showed a differential salt-stress response for genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ABA signaling, cell death, stress response and photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggested that AtHSPR is involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis through modulation of ROS levels, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, photosynthesis and K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-07-11

    Light activates proton (H(+))-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO(2) to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO(2) levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H(+)-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO(2) and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H(+)-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure.

  5. Simultaneous requirement of carbon dioxide and abscisic acid for stomatal closing in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Raschke, K

    1975-01-01

    Open stomata of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. closed only when carbon dioxide and abscisic acid (ABA) were presented simultaneously. Three parameters of stomatal closing were determined after additions of ABA to the irrigation water of detached leaves, while the leaves were exposed to various CO2 concentrations ([CO2]s) in the air; a) the delay between addition of ABA and a reduction of stomatal conductance by 5%, b) the velocity of stomatal closing, and c) the new conductance. Changes in all three parameters showed that stomatal responses to ABA were enhanced by CO2; this effect followed saturation kinetics. Half saturation occurred at an estimated [CO2] in the stomatal pore of 200 μl l(-1). With respect to ABA, stomata responded in normal air with half their maximal amplitude at [ABA]s between 10(-6) and 10(-5) M(+-)-ABA. The amounts of ABA taken up by the leaves during the delay increased with a power <1 (on the average, 0.67) of the [ABA] in the transpiration stream. The minimal amount of ABA found to produce a stomatal response was about 1 pmol of (+-)-ABA per cm(2) leaf area, almost two orders of magnitude smaller than the original content of the leaves in ABA indicating that most of the endogenous ABA was in a compartment isolated from the guard cells.An interaction between stomatal responses to CO2 and ABA was also found in Gossypium hirsutum L. and Commelina communis L.; it was however much weaker than in X. strumarium.Based on earlier findings and on the results of this investigation it is suggested that stomata close if the cytoplasm of the guard cells contains much malate and H(+). The acid content in turn is determined by the relative rates of production of malic acid (from endogenous as well as exogenous CO2) and its removal (by transport of the anion into the vacuole and exchange of the H(+) for K(+) with the environment of the guard cells). The simultaneous requirement of CO2 and ABA for stomatal closure leads to the inference that ABA

  6. Abscisic-acid-dependent basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in plant abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-01-01

    One of the major causes of significant crop loss throughout the world is the myriad of environmental stresses including drought, salinity, cold, heavy metal toxicity, and ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays. Plants as sessile organisms have evolved various effective mechanism which enable them to withstand this plethora of stresses. Most of such regulatory mechanisms usually follow the abscisic-acid (ABA)-dependent pathway. In this review, we have primarily focussed on the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) activated by the ABA-mediated signalosome. Upon perception of ABA by specialized receptors, the signal is transduced via various groups of Ser/Thr kinases, which phosphorylate the bZIP TFs. Following such post-translational modification of TFs, they are activated so that they bind to specific cis-acting sequences called abscisic-acid-responsive elements (ABREs) or GC-rich coupling elements (CE), thereby influencing the expression of their target downstream genes. Several in silico techniques have been adopted so far to predict the structural features, recognize the regulatory modification sites, undergo phylogenetic analyses, and facilitate genome-wide survey of TF under multiple stresses. Current investigations on the epigenetic regulation that controls greater accessibility of the inducible regions of DNA of the target gene to the bZIP TFs exclusively under stress situations, along with the evolved stress memory responses via genomic imprinting mechanism, have been highlighted. The potentiality of overexpression of bZIP TFs, either in a homologous or in a heterologous background, in generating transgenic plants tolerant to various abiotic stressors have also been addressed by various groups. The present review will provide a coherent documentation on the functional characterization and regulation of bZIP TFs under multiple environmental stresses, with the major goal of generating multiple-stress-tolerant plant cultivars in near future.

  7. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-02-07

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid substitutions of R-X-X-S/T sites to Ala suppressed transactivation activity, and multiple substitution of these sites resulted in almost complete suppression of transactivation activity in transient assays. In contrast, substitution of the Ser/Thr residues to Asp resulted in high transactivation activity without exogenous ABA application. A phosphorylated, transcriptionally active form was achieved by substitution of Ser/Thr in all conserved R-X-X-S/T sites to Asp. Transgenic plants overexpressing the phosphorylated active form of AREB1 expressed many ABA-inducible genes, such as RD29B, without ABA treatment. These results indicate that the ABA-dependent multisite phosphorylation of AREB1 regulates its own activation in plants.

  8. Functional convergence of oxylipin and abscisic acid pathways controls stomatal closure in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Tatyana; Kolla, Venkat A; Wang, Chang-Quan; Nasafi, Zainab; Hicks, Derrick R; Phadungchob, Bpantamars; Chehab, Wassim E; Brandizzi, Federica; Froehlich, John; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2014-03-01

    Membranes are primary sites of perception of environmental stimuli. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are major structural constituents of membranes that also function as modulators of a multitude of signal transduction pathways evoked by environmental stimuli. Different stresses induce production of a distinct blend of oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids, "oxylipins." We employed three Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotypes to examine the oxylipin signature in response to specific stresses and determined that wounding and drought differentially alter oxylipin profiles, particularly the allene oxide synthase branch of the oxylipin pathway, responsible for production of jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (12-OPDA). Specifically, wounding induced both 12-OPDA and JA levels, whereas drought induced only the precursor 12-OPDA. Levels of the classical stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) were also mainly enhanced by drought and little by wounding. To explore the role of 12-OPDA in plant drought responses, we generated a range of transgenic lines and exploited the existing mutant plants that differ in their levels of stress-inducible 12-OPDA but display similar ABA levels. The plants producing higher 12-OPDA levels exhibited enhanced drought tolerance and reduced stomatal aperture. Furthermore, exogenously applied ABA and 12-OPDA, individually or combined, promote stomatal closure of ABA and allene oxide synthase biosynthetic mutants, albeit most effectively when combined. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Brassica napus verified the potency of this combination in inducing stomatal closure in plants other than Arabidopsis. These data have identified drought as a stress signal that uncouples the conversion of 12-OPDA to JA and have revealed 12-OPDA as a drought-responsive regulator of stomatal closure functioning most effectively together with ABA.

  9. Abscisic Acid Determines Basal Susceptibility of Tomato to Botrytis cinerea and Suppresses Salicylic Acid-Dependent Signaling Mechanisms1

    PubMed Central

    Audenaert, Kris; De Meyer, Geert B.; Höfte, Monica M.

    2002-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the plant hormones involved in the interaction between plants and pathogens. In this work, we show that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Moneymaker) mutants with reduced ABA levels (sitiens plants) are much more resistant to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea than wild-type (WT) plants. Exogenous application of ABA restored susceptibility to B. cinerea in sitiens plants and increased susceptibility in WT plants. These results indicate that ABA plays a major role in the susceptibility of tomato to B. cinerea. ABA appeared to interact with a functional plant defense response against B. cinerea. Experiments with transgenic NahG tomato plants and benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid demonstrated the importance of salicylic acid in the tomato-B. cinerea interaction. In addition, upon infection with B. cinerea, sitiens plants showed a clear increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, which was not observed in infected WT plants, indicating that the ABA levels in healthy WT tomato plants partly repress phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity. In addition, sitiens plants became more sensitive to benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid root treatment. The threshold values for PR1a gene expression declined with a factor 10 to 100 in sitiens compared with WT plants. Thus, ABA appears to negatively modulate the salicylic acid-dependent defense pathway in tomato, which may be one of the mechanisms by which ABA levels determine susceptibility to B. cinerea. PMID:11842153

  10. Regulation of Stomatal Immunity by Interdependent Functions of a Pathogen-Responsive MPK3/MPK6 Cascade and Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lawrence; Sun, Tiefeng

    2017-01-01

    Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is one of the earliest responses after plants sense an invading pathogen. Here, we show that MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-responsive MAPKs, and their upstream MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK5, are essential to both stomatal and apoplastic immunity. Loss of function of MPK3 and MPK6, or their upstream MKK4 and MKK5, abolishes pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern- and pathogen-induced stomatal closure. Gain-of-function activation of MPK3/MPK6 induces stomatal closure independently of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling. In contrast, exogenously applied organic acids such as malate or citrate are able to reverse the stomatal closure induced by MPK3/MPK6 activation. Gene expression analysis and in situ enzyme activity staining revealed that malate metabolism increases in guard cells after activation of MPK3/MPK6 or inoculation of pathogen. In addition, pathogen-induced malate metabolism requires functional MKK4/MKK5 and MPK3/MPK6. We propose that the pathogen-responsive MPK3/MPK6 cascade and ABA are two essential signaling pathways that control, respectively, the organic acid metabolism and ion channels, two main branches of osmotic regulation in guard cells that function interdependently to control stomatal opening/closure. PMID:28254778

  11. Abscisic Acid Content and Stomatal Sensitivity to CO2 in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. after Pretreatments in Warm and Cold Growth Chambers 1

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, Klaus; Pierce, Margaret; Popiela, Chu Chen

    1976-01-01

    The degree of stomatal sensitivity to CO2 was positively correlated with the content of abscisic acid of leaves of Xanthium strumarium grown in a greenhouse and then transferred for 24 hours or more to a cold (5/10 C, night/day) or a warm growth chamber (20/23 C). This correlation did not exist in plants kept in the greehouse continuously (high abscisic acid, no CO2 sensitivity), nor in plants transferred from the cold to the warm chamber (low abscisic acid, high CO2 sensitivity). The abscisic acid content of leaves was correlated with water content only within narrow limits, if at all. At equal water contents, prechilled leaves contained more abscisic acid than leaves of plants pretreated in the warm chamber. There appear to be at least two compartments for abscisic acid in the leaf. PMID:16659416

  12. Abscisic Acid Content and Stomatal Sensitivity to CO(2) in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. after Pretreatments in Warm and Cold Growth Chambers.

    PubMed

    Raschke, K; Pierce, M; Popiela, C C

    1976-01-01

    The degree of stomatal sensitivity to CO(2) was positively correlated with the content of abscisic acid of leaves of Xanthium strumarium grown in a greenhouse and then transferred for 24 hours or more to a cold (5/10 C, night/day) or a warm growth chamber (20/23 C). This correlation did not exist in plants kept in the greehouse continuously (high abscisic acid, no CO(2) sensitivity), nor in plants transferred from the cold to the warm chamber (low abscisic acid, high CO(2) sensitivity). The abscisic acid content of leaves was correlated with water content only within narrow limits, if at all. At equal water contents, prechilled leaves contained more abscisic acid than leaves of plants pretreated in the warm chamber. There appear to be at least two compartments for abscisic acid in the leaf.

  13. Influence of Cadmium on Water Relations, Stomatal Resistance, and Abscisic Acid Content in Expanding Bean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Gunsé, Benet; Barceló, Juan

    1989-01-01

    Ten day old bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Contender) were used to analyze the effects of 3 micromolar Cd on the time courses of expansion growth, dry weight, leaf water relations, stomatal resistance, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots and leaves. Control and Cd-treated plants were grown for 144 hours in nutrient solution. Samples were taken at 24 hour intervals. At the 96 and 144 hour harvests, additional measurements were made on excised leaves which were allowed to dry for 2 hours. From the 48 hour harvest, Cd-treated plants showed lower leaf relative water contents and higher stomatal resistances than controls. At the same time, root and leaf expansion growth, but not dry weight, was significantly reduced. The turgor potentials of leaves from Cd-treated plants were nonsignificantly higher than those of control leaves. A significant increase (almost 400%) of the leaf ABA concentration was detected after 120 hours exposure to Cd. But Cd was found to inhibit ABA accumulation during drying of excised leaves. It is concluded that Cd-induced decrease of expansion growth is not due to turgor decrease. The possible mechanisms of Cd-induced stomatal closure are discussed. PMID:16666937

  14. GID1 modulates stomatal response and submergence tolerance involving abscisic acid and gibberellic acid signaling in rice.

    PubMed

    Du, Hao; Chang, Yu; Huang, Fei; Xiong, Lizhong

    2015-11-01

    Plant responses to abiotic stresses are coordinated by arrays of growth and developmental programs. Gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play critical roles in the developmental programs and environmental responses, respectively, through complex signaling and metabolism networks. However, crosstalk between the two phytohormones in stress responses remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF 1 (GID1), a soluble receptor for GA, regulates stomatal development and patterning in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The gid1 mutant showed impaired biosynthesis of endogenous ABA under drought stress conditions, but it exhibited enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ABA. Scanning electron microscope and infrared thermal image analysis indicated an increase in the stomatal conductance in the gid1 mutant under drought conditions. Interestingly, the gid1 mutant had increased levels of chlorophyll and carbohydrates under submergence conditions, and showed enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability and submergence tolerance compared with the wild-type. Further analyses suggested that the function of GID1 in submergence responses is partially dependent on ABA, and GA signaling by GID1 is involved in submergence tolerance by modulating carbohydrate consumption. Taken together, these findings suggest GID1 plays distinct roles in stomatal response and submergence tolerance through both the ABA and GA signaling pathways in rice. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Abscisic Acid Transport and Homeostasis in the Context of Stomatal Regulation.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Jalakas, Pirko; Laanemets, Kristiina; Mohammadi, Omid; Hõrak, Hanna; Kollist, Hannes; Brosché, Mikael

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of cytosolic ABA receptors is an important breakthrough in stomatal research; signaling via these receptors is involved in determining the basal stomatal conductance and stomatal responsiveness. However, the source of ABA in guard cells is still not fully understood. The level of ABA increases in guard cells by de novo synthesis, recycling from inactive conjugates via β-glucosidases BG1 and BG2 and by import, whereas it decreases by hydroxylation, conjugation, and export. ABA importers include the NRT1/PTR family protein AIT1, ATP-binding cassette protein ABCG40, and possibly ABCG22, whereas the DTX family member DTX50 and ABCG25 function as ABA exporters. Here, we review the proteins involved in ABA transport and homeostasis and their physiological role in stomatal regulation. Recent experiments suggest that functional redundancy probably exists among ABA transporters between vasculature and guard cells and ABA recycling proteins, as stomatal functioning remained intact in abcg22, abcg25, abcg40, ait1, and bg1bg2 mutants. Only the initial response to reduced air humidity was significantly delayed in abcg22. Considering the reports showing autonomous ABA synthesis in guard cells, we discuss that rapid stomatal responses to atmospheric factors might depend primarily on guard cell-synthesized ABA, whereas in the case of long-term soil water deficit, ABA synthesized in the vasculature might have a significant role. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intracellular ca2+ stores could participate to abscisic acid-induced depolarization and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Meimoun, Patrice; Vidal, Guillaume; Bohrer, Anne-Sophie; Lehner, Arnaud; Tran, Daniel; Briand, Joël; Bouteau, François

    2009-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension,abscisic acid (aBa) induces changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) which are the trigger for aBa-induced plasma membrane anion current activation, H+-aTPase inhibition, and subsequent plasma membrane depolarization. In the present study, we took advantage of this model to analyze the implication of intracellular Ca2+ stores in aBa signal transduction through electrophysiological current measurements, cytosolic Ca2+ activity measurements with the apoaequorin Ca2+ reporter protein and external pH measurement. Intracellular Ca2+ stores involvement was determined by using specific inhibitors of CICR channels: the cADP-ribose/ryanodine receptor (Br-cADPR and dantrolene) and of the inositol trisphosphate receptor (U73122). In addition experiments were performed on epidermal strips of A. thaliana leaves to monitor stomatal closure in response to ABA in presence of the same pharmacology. Our data provide evidence that ryanodine receptor and inositol trisphosphate receptor could be involved in ABA-induced (1) Ca2+ release in the cytosol, (2) anion channel activation and H+-ATPase inhibition leading to plasma membrane depolarization and (3) stomatal closure. Intracellular Ca2+ release could thus contribute to the control of early events in the ABA signal transduction pathway in A. thaliana. PMID:19847112

  17. Abscisic Acid Content, Transpiration, and Stomatal Conductance As Related to Leaf Age in Plants of Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Raschke, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1976-08-01

    Among the four uppermost leaves of greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. the content of abscisic acid per unit fresh or dry weight was highest in the youngest leaf and decreased gradually with increasing age of the leaves. Expressed per leaf, the second youngest leaf was richest in ABA; the amount of ABA per leaf declined only slightly as the leaves expanded. Transpiration and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with the ABA concentration in the leaves; the youngest leaf lost the least amount of water. This correlation was always very good if the youngest leaf was compared with the older leaves but not always good among the older leaves. Since stomatal sensitivity to exogenous (+/-)-ABA was the same in leaves of all four age groups ABA may be in at least two compartments in the leaf, one of which is isolated from the guard cells.The ability to synthesize ABA in response to wilting or chilling was strongly expressed in young leaves and declined with leaf age. There was no difference between leaves in their content of the metabolites of ABA, phaseic, and dihydrophaseic acid, expressed per unit weight.

  18. Abscisic Acid Content, Transpiration, and Stomatal Conductance As Related to Leaf Age in Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, Klaus; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1976-01-01

    Among the four uppermost leaves of greenhouse-grown plants of Xanthium strumarium L. the content of abscisic acid per unit fresh or dry weight was highest in the youngest leaf and decreased gradually with increasing age of the leaves. Expressed per leaf, the second youngest leaf was richest in ABA; the amount of ABA per leaf declined only slightly as the leaves expanded. Transpiration and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with the ABA concentration in the leaves; the youngest leaf lost the least amount of water. This correlation was always very good if the youngest leaf was compared with the older leaves but not always good among the older leaves. Since stomatal sensitivity to exogenous (±)-ABA was the same in leaves of all four age groups ABA may be in at least two compartments in the leaf, one of which is isolated from the guard cells. The ability to synthesize ABA in response to wilting or chilling was strongly expressed in young leaves and declined with leaf age. There was no difference between leaves in their content of the metabolites of ABA, phaseic, and dihydrophaseic acid, expressed per unit weight. PMID:16659640

  19. Drought tolerance, xylem sap abscisic acid and stomatal conductance during soil drying: a comparison of young plants of four temperate deciduous angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Nancy J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.

    1998-07-01

    Patterns of water relations, xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration ([ABA]) and stomatal aperture were compared in drought-sensitive black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.), less drought-sensitive sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and drought-tolerant white oak (Quercus alba L.). Strong correlations among reduction in predawn water potential, increase in xylem sap [ABA] and stomatal closure were observed in all species. Stomatal response was more highly correlated with xylem [ABA] than with ABA flux. Xylem sap pH and ion concentrations appeared not to play a major role in the stomatal response of these species. Stomata were more sensitive to relative changes in [ABA] in drought-sensitive black walnut and black willow than in sugar maple and white oak. In the early stages of drought, increased [ABA] in the xylem sap of black walnut and black willow was probably of root origin and provided a signal to the shoot of the water status of the roots. In sugar maple and white oak, leaf water potential declined with the onset of stomatal closure, so that stomatal closure also may have occurred in response to the change in leaf water potential.

  20. Drought tolerance, xylem sap abscisic acid and stomatal conductance during soil drying: a comparison of canopy trees of three temperate deciduous angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, Nancy J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.

    1998-07-01

    Patterns of water relations, xylem sap abscisic acid concentration ([ABA]) and stomatal aperture were characterized and compared in drought-sensitive black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), less drought-sensitive sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and drought-tolerant white oak (Quercus alba L.) trees co-occurring in a second-growth forest in Missouri, USA. There were strong correlations among reduction in predawn leaf water potential, increased xylem sap [ABA] and stomatal closure in all species. Stomatal conductance was more closely correlated with xylem sap ABA concentration than with ABA flux or xylem sap pH and cation concentrations. In isohydric black walnut, increased concentrations of ABA in the xylem sap appeared to be primarily of root origin, causing stomatal closure in response to soil drying. In anisohydric sugar maple and white oak, however, there were reductions in midday leaf water potential associated with stomatal closure, making it uncertain whether drought-induced xylem sap ABA was of leaf or root origin. The role of root-originated xylem sap ABA in these species as a signal to the shoot of the water status of the roots is, therefore, less certain.

  1. F-box protein DOR functions as a novel inhibitory factor for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure under drought stress in Arabidopsis,.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu'e; Xu, Wenying; Li, Zhonghui; Deng, Xing Wang; Wu, Weihua; Xue, Yongbiao

    2008-12-01

    Guard cells, which form stoma in leaf epidermis, sense and integrate environmental signals to modulate stomatal aperture in response to diverse conditions. Under drought stress, plants synthesize abscisic acid (ABA), which in turn induces a rapid closing of stoma, to prevent water loss by transpiration. However, many aspects of the molecular mechanism for ABA-mediated stomatal closure are still not understood. Here, we report a novel negative regulator of guard cell ABA signaling, DOR, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The DOR gene encodes a putative F-box protein, a member of the S-locus F-box-like family related to AhSLF-S(2) and specifically interacting with ASK14 and CUL1. A null mutation in DOR resulted in a hypersensitive ABA response of stomatal closing and a substantial increase of drought tolerance; in contrast, the transgenic plants overexpressing DOR were more susceptible to the drought stress. DOR is strongly expressed in guard cells and suppressed by ABA treatment, suggesting a negative feedback loop of DOR in ABA responses. Double-mutant analyses of dor with ABA-insensitive mutant abi1-1 showed that abi1-1 is epistatic to dor, but no apparent change of phospholipase Dalpha1 was detected between the wild type and dor. Affymetrix GeneChip analysis showed that DOR likely regulates ABA biosynthesis under drought stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DOR acts independent of phospholipase Dalpha1 in an ABA signaling pathway to inhibit the ABA-induced stomatal closure under drought stress.

  2. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. In vivo phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in guard cells of Vicia faba L. is enhanced by fusicoccin and suppressed by abscisic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.; Aghoram, K.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.

    Plants regulate water loss and CO{sub 2} gain by modulating the aperture sizes of stomata that penetrate the epidermis. Aperture size itself is increased by osmolyte accumulation and consequent turgor increase in the pair of guard cells that flank each stoma. Guard-cell phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the regulated step leading to malate synthesis, is crucial for charge and pH maintenance during osmolyte accumulation. Regulation of this cytosolic enzyme by effectors is well documented, but additional regulation by posttranslational modification is predicted by the alteration of PEPC kinetics during stomatal opening. In this study, the authors have investigated whether this alterationmore » is associated with the phosphorylation status of this enzyme. Using sonicated epidermal peels (isolated guard cells) pre-loaded with {sub 32}PO{sub 4}, the authors induced stomatal opening and guard-cell malate accumulation by incubation with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with 5 {micro}M fusicoccin (FC). In corroboratory experiments, guard cells were incubated with the FC antagonist, 10 {micro}M abscisic acid (ABA). The phosphorylation status of PEPC was assessed by immunoprecipitation, electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and autoradiography. PEPC was phosphorylated when stomata were stimulated to open, and phosphorylation was lessened by incubation with ABA.« less

  3. A chloroplast retrograde signal, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate, acts as a secondary messenger in abscisic acid signaling in stomatal closure and germination.

    PubMed

    Pornsiriwong, Wannarat; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Chan, Kai Xun; Tee, Estee E; Ganguly, Diep; Crisp, Peter A; Phua, Su Yin; Zhao, Chenchen; Qiu, Jiaen; Park, Jiyoung; Yong, Miing Tiem; Nisar, Nazia; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John; Cazzonelli, Christopher I; Wilson, Philippa B; Gilliham, Matthew; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pogson, Barry J

    2017-03-21

    Organelle-nuclear retrograde signaling regulates gene expression, but its roles in specialized cells and integration with hormonal signaling remain enigmatic. Here we show that the SAL1-PAP (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'- phosphate) retrograde pathway interacts with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling to regulate stomatal closure and seed germination in Arabidopsis . Genetically or exogenously manipulating PAP bypasses the canonical signaling components ABA Insensitive 1 (ABI1) and Open Stomata 1 (OST1); priming an alternative pathway that restores ABA-responsive gene expression, ROS bursts, ion channel function, stomatal closure and drought tolerance in ost1 -2. PAP also inhibits wild type and abi1 -1 seed germination by enhancing ABA sensitivity. PAP-XRN signaling interacts with ABA, ROS and Ca 2+ ; up-regulating multiple ABA signaling components, including lowly-expressed Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) capable of activating the anion channel SLAC1. Thus, PAP exhibits many secondary messenger attributes and exemplifies how retrograde signals can have broader roles in hormone signaling, allowing chloroplasts to fine-tune physiological responses.

  4. A chloroplast retrograde signal, 3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphate, acts as a secondary messenger in abscisic acid signaling in stomatal closure and germination

    PubMed Central

    Pornsiriwong, Wannarat; Estavillo, Gonzalo M; Chan, Kai Xun; Tee, Estee E; Ganguly, Diep; Crisp, Peter A; Phua, Su Yin; Zhao, Chenchen; Qiu, Jiaen; Park, Jiyoung; Yong, Miing Tiem; Nisar, Nazia; Yadav, Arun Kumar; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John; Cazzonelli, Christopher I; Wilson, Philippa B; Gilliham, Matthew; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pogson, Barry J

    2017-01-01

    Organelle-nuclear retrograde signaling regulates gene expression, but its roles in specialized cells and integration with hormonal signaling remain enigmatic. Here we show that the SAL1-PAP (3′-phosphoadenosine 5′- phosphate) retrograde pathway interacts with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling to regulate stomatal closure and seed germination in Arabidopsis. Genetically or exogenously manipulating PAP bypasses the canonical signaling components ABA Insensitive 1 (ABI1) and Open Stomata 1 (OST1); priming an alternative pathway that restores ABA-responsive gene expression, ROS bursts, ion channel function, stomatal closure and drought tolerance in ost1-2. PAP also inhibits wild type and abi1-1 seed germination by enhancing ABA sensitivity. PAP-XRN signaling interacts with ABA, ROS and Ca2+; up-regulating multiple ABA signaling components, including lowly-expressed Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs) capable of activating the anion channel SLAC1. Thus, PAP exhibits many secondary messenger attributes and exemplifies how retrograde signals can have broader roles in hormone signaling, allowing chloroplasts to fine-tune physiological responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23361.001 PMID:28323614

  5. Atmospheric CO2 Alters Resistance of Arabidopsis to Pseudomonas syringae by Affecting Abscisic Acid Accumulation and Stomatal Responsiveness to Coronatine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yeling; Vroegop-Vos, Irene; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Van Wees, Saskia C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 influences plant growth and stomatal aperture. Effects of high or low CO2 levels on plant disease resistance are less well understood. Here, resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against the foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) was investigated at three different CO2 levels: high (800 ppm), ambient (450 ppm), and low (150 ppm). Under all conditions tested, infection by Pst resulted in stomatal closure within 1 h after inoculation. However, subsequent stomatal reopening at 4 h, triggered by the virulence factor coronatine (COR), occurred only at ambient and high CO2, but not at low CO2. Moreover, infection by Pst was reduced at low CO2 to the same extent as infection by mutant Pst cor-. Under all CO2 conditions, the ABA mutants aba2-1 and abi1-1 were as resistant to Pst as wild-type plants under low CO2, which contained less ABA. Moreover, stomatal reopening mediated by COR was dependent on ABA. Our results suggest that reduced ABA levels at low CO2 contribute to the observed enhanced resistance to Pst by deregulation of virulence responses. This implies that enhanced ABA levels at increasing CO2 levels may have a role in weakening plant defense. PMID:28559899

  6. The Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 Is an Important Transcriptional Regulator of Abscisic Acid-Dependent Grape Berry Ripening Processes1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Philippe; Lecourieux, David; Kappel, Christian; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Cramer, Grant; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    In grape (Vitis vinifera), abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates during fruit ripening and is thought to play a pivotal role in this process, but the molecular basis of this control is poorly understood. This work characterizes ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR2 (VvABF2), a grape basic leucine zipper transcription factor belonging to a phylogenetic subgroup previously shown to be involved in ABA and abiotic stress signaling in other plant species. VvABF2 transcripts mainly accumulated in the berry, from the onset of ripening to the harvesting stage, and were up-regulated by ABA. Microarray analysis of transgenic grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 showed that this transcription factor up-regulates and/or modifies existing networks related to ABA responses. In addition, grape cells overexpressing VvABF2 exhibited enhanced responses to ABA treatment compared with control cells. Among the VvABF2-mediated responses highlighted in this study, the synthesis of phenolic compounds and cell wall softening were the most strongly affected. VvABF2 overexpression strongly increased the accumulation of stilbenes that play a role in plant defense and human health (resveratrol and piceid). In addition, the firmness of fruits from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants overexpressing VvABF2 was strongly reduced. These data indicate that VvABF2 is an important transcriptional regulator of ABA-dependent grape berry ripening. PMID:24276949

  7. Abscisic Acid-Dependent and -Independent Expression of the Carrot Late-Embryogenesis-Abundant-Class Gene Dc3 in Transgenic Tobacco Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Najeeb U.; Chung, Hwa-Jee; Thomas, Terry L.; Drew, Malcolm C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the expression of three promoter 5′ deletion constructs (−218, −599, and −1312) of the LEA (late embryogenesis abundant)-class gene Dc3 fused to β-glucuronidase (GUS), where each construct value refers to the number of base pairs upstream of the transcription start site at which the deletion occurred. The Dc3 gene is noted for its induction by abscisic acid (ABA), but its response to other plant hormones and various environmental stresses has not been reported previously for vegetative cells. Fourteen-day-old transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seedlings were exposed to dehydration, hypoxia, salinity, exogenous ethylene, or exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJa). GUS activity was quantified fluorimetrically and expression was observed by histochemical staining of the seedlings. An increase in GUS activity was observed in plants with constructs −599 and −1312 in response to dehydration and salinity within 6 h of stress, and at 12 h in response to hypoxia. No increase in endogenous ABA was found in any of the three lines, even after 72 h of hypoxia. An ABA-independent increase in GUS activity was observed when endogenous ABA biosynthesis was blocked by fluridone and plants were exposed to 5 μL L−1 ethylene in air or 100 μm MeJa. Virtually no expression was observed in construct −218 in response to dehydration, salinity, or MeJa, but there was a moderate response to ethylene and hypoxia. This suggests that the region between −218 and −599 is necessary for ABA (dehydration and salinity)- and MeJa-dependent expression, whereas ethylene-mediated expression does not require this region of the promoter. PMID:9847092

  8. Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors involved in an abscisic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway under drought and high-salinity conditions

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Yuichi; Furihata, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2000-01-01

    The induction of the dehydration-responsive Arabidopsis gene, rd29B, is mediated mainly by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis of rd29B indicated that two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) are required for the dehydration-responsive expression of rd29B as cis-acting elements. Three cDNAs encoding basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type ABRE-binding proteins were isolated by using the yeast one-hybrid system and were designated AREB1, AREB2, and AREB3 (ABA-responsive element binding protein). Transcription of the AREB1 and AREB2 genes is up-regulated by drought, NaCl, and ABA treatment in vegetative tissues. In a transient transactivation experiment using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, both the AREB1 and AREB2 proteins activated transcription of a reporter gene driven by ABRE. AREB1 and AREB2 required ABA for their activation, because their transactivation activities were repressed in aba2 and abi1 mutants and enhanced in an era1 mutant. Activation of AREBs by ABA was suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors. These results suggest that both AREB1 and AREB2 function as transcriptional activators in the ABA-inducible expression of rd29B, and further that ABA-dependent posttranscriptional activation of AREB1 and AREB2, probably by phosphorylation, is necessary for their maximum activation by ABA. Using cultured Arabidopsis cells, we demonstrated that a specific ABA-activated protein kinase of 42-kDa phosphorylated conserved N-terminal regions in the AREB proteins. PMID:11005831

  9. Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors involved in an abscisic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway under drought and high-salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Uno, Y; Furihata, T; Abe, H; Yoshida, R; Shinozaki, K; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K

    2000-10-10

    The induction of the dehydration-responsive Arabidopsis gene, rd29B, is mediated mainly by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis of rd29B indicated that two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) are required for the dehydration-responsive expression of rd29B as cis-acting elements. Three cDNAs encoding basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type ABRE-binding proteins were isolated by using the yeast one-hybrid system and were designated AREB1, AREB2, and AREB3 (ABA-responsive element binding protein). Transcription of the AREB1 and AREB2 genes is up-regulated by drought, NaCl, and ABA treatment in vegetative tissues. In a transient transactivation experiment using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, both the AREB1 and AREB2 proteins activated transcription of a reporter gene driven by ABRE. AREB1 and AREB2 required ABA for their activation, because their transactivation activities were repressed in aba2 and abi1 mutants and enhanced in an era1 mutant. Activation of AREBs by ABA was suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors. These results suggest that both AREB1 and AREB2 function as transcriptional activators in the ABA-inducible expression of rd29B, and further that ABA-dependent posttranscriptional activation of AREB1 and AREB2, probably by phosphorylation, is necessary for their maximum activation by ABA. Using cultured Arabidopsis cells, we demonstrated that a specific ABA-activated protein kinase of 42-kDa phosphorylated conserved N-terminal regions in the AREB proteins.

  10. AtPP2CG1, a protein phosphatase 2C, positively regulates salt tolerance of Arabidopsis in abscisic acid-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin, E-mail: fangfei6073@126.com; Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu2001@neau.edu.cn; Zhai, Hong, E-mail: Zhai.h@neigaehrb.ac.cn

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt tolerance in ABA-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 up-regulates the expression of marker genes in different pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 expresses in the vascular system and trichomes of Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, drought, andmore » abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The expression levels of AtPP2CG1 in the ABA synthesis-deficient mutant abi2-3 were much lower than that in WT plants under salt stress suggesting that the expression of AtPP2CG1 acts in an ABA-dependent manner. Over-expression of AtPP2CG1 led to enhanced salt tolerance, whereas its loss of function caused decreased salt tolerance. These results indicate that AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Under salt treatment, AtPP2CG1 up-regulated the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, including RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A and KIN1. GUS activity was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flower, and trichomes of AtPP2CG1 promoter-GUS transgenic plants. AtPP2CG1 protein was localized in nucleus and cytoplasm via AtPP2CG1:eGFP and YFP:AtPP2CG1 fusion approaches.« less

  11. miR394 and LCR are involved in Arabidopsis salt and drought stress responses in an abscisic acid-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian Bo; Gao, Shuai; Sun, Di; Li, Hua; Shu, Xia Xia; Yang, Zhi Min

    2013-12-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short, endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have ability to base pair with their target mRNAs to induce their degradation in plants. miR394a/b are conserved small RNAs and its target gene LCR (LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) encodes an F-box protein (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) but whether miR394a/b and its target gene LCR are involved in regulation of plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses is unknown. Mature miR394 and precursor miR394a/b are shown to be slightly induced by ABA. By contrast, LCR expression is depressed by ABA. Analysis of LCR and its promoter (pLCR::GUS) revealed that LCR is expressed at all development stages. MIR394a/b over-expression (35S::MIR394a/b) and lcr (LCR loss of function) mutant plants are hypersensitive to salt stress, but LCR over-expressing (35S::m5LCR) plants display the salt-tolerant phenotype. Both 35S::MIR394a/b and lcr plants are highly tolerant to severe drought stress compared with wild-type, but 35S::m5LCR plants are susceptible to water deficiency. Over-expression of MIR394a/b led to ABA hypersensitivity and ABA-associated phenotypes, whereas 35S::m5LCR plants show ABA resistance phenotypes. Moreover, 35S::MIR394a/b plants accumulated higher levels of ABA-induced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals than wild-type and 35S::m5LCR plants. Expressions of ABA- and stress-responsive genes, ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, ABF3, and ABF4 are up-regulated in MIR394a/b over-expressing plants but down-regulated in 35S::m5LCR plants. Over-expression of MIR394a in abi4-1 or abi5-1 background resulted in loss of ABA-sensitivity in 35S::MIR394a plants. The silencing of LCR mRNA by miR394 is essential to maintain a certain phenotype favorable for the adaptive response to abiotic stresses. The contrasting phenotypes of salt and drought responses may be mediated by a functional balance between miR394 and LCR. If the balance is perturbed in case of the abiotic stress, an identical phenotype

  12. miR394 and LCR are involved in Arabidopsis salt and drought stress responses in an abscisic acid-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short, endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have ability to base pair with their target mRNAs to induce their degradation in plants. miR394a/b are conserved small RNAs and its target gene LCR (LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) encodes an F-box protein (SKP1-Cullin/CDC53-F-box) but whether miR394a/b and its target gene LCR are involved in regulation of plant response to abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses is unknown. Results Mature miR394 and precursor miR394a/b are shown to be slightly induced by ABA. By contrast, LCR expression is depressed by ABA. Analysis of LCR and its promoter (pLCR::GUS) revealed that LCR is expressed at all development stages. MIR394a/b over-expression (35S::MIR394a/b) and lcr (LCR loss of function) mutant plants are hypersensitive to salt stress, but LCR over-expressing (35S::m5LCR) plants display the salt-tolerant phenotype. Both 35S::MIR394a/b and lcr plants are highly tolerant to severe drought stress compared with wild-type, but 35S::m5LCR plants are susceptible to water deficiency. Over-expression of MIR394a/b led to ABA hypersensitivity and ABA-associated phenotypes, whereas 35S::m5LCR plants show ABA resistance phenotypes. Moreover, 35S::MIR394a/b plants accumulated higher levels of ABA-induced hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radicals than wild-type and 35S::m5LCR plants. Expressions of ABA- and stress-responsive genes, ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, ABF3, and ABF4 are up-regulated in MIR394a/b over-expressing plants but down-regulated in 35S::m5LCR plants. Over-expression of MIR394a in abi4-1 or abi5-1 background resulted in loss of ABA-sensitivity in 35S::MIR394a plants. Conclusions The silencing of LCR mRNA by miR394 is essential to maintain a certain phenotype favorable for the adaptive response to abiotic stresses. The contrasting phenotypes of salt and drought responses may be mediated by a functional balance between miR394 and LCR. If the balance is perturbed in case of the abiotic

  13. Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to terminal drought: leaf stomatal conductance, pod abscisic acid concentration, and seed set.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jiayin; Turner, Neil C; Khan, Tanveer; Du, Yan-Lei; Xiong, Jun-Lan; Colmer, Timothy D; Devilla, Rosangela; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-04-01

    Flower and pod production and seed set of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) are sensitive to drought stress. A 2-fold range in seed yield was found among a large number of chickpea genotypes grown at three dryland field sites in south-western Australia. Leaf water potential, photosynthetic characteristics, and reproductive development of two chickpea genotypes with contrasting yields in the field were compared when subjected to terminal drought in 106kg containers of soil in a glasshouse. The terminal drought imposed from early podding reduced biomass, reproductive growth, harvest index, and seed yield of both genotypes. Terminal drought at least doubled the percentage of flower abortion, pod abscission, and number of empty pods. Pollen viability and germination decreased when the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW) decreased below 0.18 (82% of the plant-available soil water had been transpired); however, at least one pollen tube in each flower reached the ovary. The young pods which developed from flowers produced when the FTSW was 0.50 had viable embryos, but contained higher abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations than those of the well-watered plants; all pods ultimately aborted in the drought treatment. Cessation of seed set at the same soil water content at which stomata began to close and ABA increased strongly suggested a role for ABA signalling in the failure to set seed either directly through abscission of developing pods or seeds or indirectly through the reduction of photosynthesis and assimilate supply to the seeds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Separating active and passive influences on stomatal control of transpiration.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Motivated by studies suggesting that the stomata of ferns and lycophytes do not conform to the standard active abscisic acid (ABA) -mediated stomatal control model, we examined stomatal behavior in a conifer species (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) that is phylogenetically midway between the fern and angiosperm clades. Similar to ferns, daytime stomatal closure in response to moderate water stress seemed to be a passive hydraulic process in M. glyptostroboides immediately alleviated by rehydrating excised shoots. Only after prolonged exposure to more extreme water stress did active ABA-mediated stomatal closure become important, because foliar ABA production was triggered after leaf turgor loss. The influence of foliar ABA on stomatal conductance and stomatal aperture was highly predictable and additive with the passive hydraulic influence. M. glyptostroboides thus occupies a stomatal behavior type intermediate between the passively controlled ferns and the characteristic ABA-dependent stomatal closure described in angiosperm herbs. These results highlight the importance of considering phylogeny as a major determinant of stomatal behavior.

  15. Cross-talk in abscisic acid signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2002-01-01

    "Cross-talk" in hormone signaling reflects an organism's ability to integrate different inputs and respond appropriately, a crucial function at the heart of signaling network operation. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in bud and seed dormancy, growth regulation, leaf senescence and abscission, stomatal opening, and a variety of plant stress responses. This review summarizes what is known about ABA signaling in the control of stomatal opening and seed dormancy and provides an overview of emerging knowledge about connections between ABA, ethylene, sugar, and auxin synthesis and signaling.

  16. Presence of abscisic acid, a phytohormone, in the mammalian brain

    SciTech Connect

    Le Page-Degivry, M.T.; Bidard, J.N.; Rouvier, E.

    1986-02-01

    This paper reports the presence of abscisic acid, one of the most important phytohormones, in the central nervous system of pigs and rats. The identification of this hormone in brain was made after extensive purification by using a radioimmunoassay that is very specific for (+)-cis-abscisic acid. The final product of purification from mammalian brain has the same properties as authentic abscisic acid: it crossreacts in the radioimmunoassay for the phytohormone and it has the same retention properties and the same gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characteristics. Moreover, like (+)-cis-abscisic acid itself, the brain factor inhibits stomatal apertures of abaxial epidermis strips ofmore » Setcreasea purpurea Boom (Commelinaceae). The presence of abscisic acid conjugates that are present in plants has also been identified in brain.« less

  17. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  18. Plant, cell, and molecular mechanisms of abscisic-acid regulation of stomatal apertures. A new mechanism for the regulation of stomatal-aperture size in intact leaves: Accumulation of mesophyll-derived sucrose in the guard-cell wall of Vicia faba L.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr.; Smith, B.G.

    At various times after pulse labeling Vicia faba L. leaflets with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, whole-leaf pieces and rinsed epidermal peels were harvested and subsequently processed for histochemical analysis. Cells dissected from whole leaf retained apoplastic contents whereas those from rinsed peels contained only cytoplastic contents. Sucrose specific radioactivity peaked in palisade cells, 111 GBq{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, at 20 min. In contrast, the {sup 14}C content and sucrose specific radioactivity were very low in guard cells for 20 min, implying little CO{sub 2} incorporation; both then peaked at 40 min. The guard-cell apoplast had a high maximum sucrose specific radioactivity and amore » high sucrose influx rate. These and other comparisons implied the presence of (a) multiple sucrose pools in mesophyll cells, (b) a localized mesophyll-apoplast region that exchanges with phloem and stomata, and (c) mesophyll-derived sucrose in guard-cell walls sufficient to diminish stomatal opening by {approximately} 4 {micro}m. Factors expected to enhance sucrose accumulation in guard-cell walls are (a) high transpiration rate, which closes stomata, and (b) high apoplastic sucrose concentration, which is elevated when mesophyll-sucrose efflux exceeds translocation. Therefore, multiple physiological factors are integrated in the attenuation of stomatal-aperture size by this previously unrecognized mechanism.« less

  19. Observations on the Stomatal Control of NO2 Exchange.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Chaparro-Suarez, I. G.; Meixner, F. X.

    2005-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides play a central role in tropospheric chemistry especially in the formation of tropospheric ozone, acid rain and hydroxyl radical as well as in CH4 and CO oxidation processes. NO2 can be assimilated and emitted by the plant leaves as well. We investigated the impact of the stomatal regulation with four tree species (Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus ilex und Pinus sylvestris) by exposure of leaves to the hormone abscisic acid inducing stomatal closure. The results showed that the NO2 uptake was strongly dependent on stomatal aperture. The uptake correlated linearly with stomatal (leaf) conductance in case of all four tree species investigated. In contrast an NO2 emission was observed with beech in the dark when stomata were basically closed.

  20. The BIG protein distinguishes the process of CO2 -induced stomatal closure from the inhibition of stomatal opening by CO2.

    PubMed

    He, Jingjing; Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Peng, Kai; Tagliavia, Cecilia; Li, Siwen; Xue, Shaowu; Liu, Amy; Hu, Honghong; Zhang, Jingbo; Hubbard, Katharine E; Held, Katrin; McAinsh, Martin R; Gray, Julie E; Kudla, Jörg; Schroeder, Julian I; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2018-04-01

    We conducted an infrared thermal imaging-based genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants displaying aberrant stomatal behavior in response to elevated concentrations of CO 2 . This approach resulted in the isolation of a novel allele of the Arabidopsis BIG locus (At3g02260) that we have called CO 2 insensitive 1 (cis1). BIG mutants are compromised in elevated CO 2 -induced stomatal closure and bicarbonate activation of S-type anion channel currents. In contrast with the wild-type, they fail to exhibit reductions in stomatal density and index when grown in elevated CO 2 . However, like the wild-type, BIG mutants display inhibition of stomatal opening when exposed to elevated CO 2 . BIG mutants also display wild-type stomatal aperture responses to the closure-inducing stimulus abscisic acid (ABA). Our results indicate that BIG is a signaling component involved in the elevated CO 2 -mediated control of stomatal development. In the control of stomatal aperture by CO 2 , BIG is only required in elevated CO 2 -induced closure and not in the inhibition of stomatal opening by this environmental signal. These data show that, at the molecular level, the CO 2 -mediated inhibition of opening and promotion of stomatal closure signaling pathways are separable and BIG represents a distinguishing element in these two CO 2 -mediated responses. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Separating Active and Passive Influences on Stomatal Control of Transpiration[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A.M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by studies suggesting that the stomata of ferns and lycophytes do not conform to the standard active abscisic acid (ABA) -mediated stomatal control model, we examined stomatal behavior in a conifer species (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) that is phylogenetically midway between the fern and angiosperm clades. Similar to ferns, daytime stomatal closure in response to moderate water stress seemed to be a passive hydraulic process in M. glyptostroboides immediately alleviated by rehydrating excised shoots. Only after prolonged exposure to more extreme water stress did active ABA-mediated stomatal closure become important, because foliar ABA production was triggered after leaf turgor loss. The influence of foliar ABA on stomatal conductance and stomatal aperture was highly predictable and additive with the passive hydraulic influence. M. glyptostroboides thus occupies a stomatal behavior type intermediate between the passively controlled ferns and the characteristic ABA-dependent stomatal closure described in angiosperm herbs. These results highlight the importance of considering phylogeny as a major determinant of stomatal behavior. PMID:24488969

  2. Role of nitric oxide in regulating stomatal apertures

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Dimas M; Bright, Jo; Confraria, Ana; Harrison, Judith; Barros, Raimundo S; Desikan, Radhika; Neill, Steven J; Hancock, John T

    2009-01-01

    During stomatal closure, nitric oxide (NO) operates as one of the key intermediates in the complex, abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated, guard cell signaling network that regulates this process. However, data concerning the role of NO in stomatal closure that occurs in turgid vs. dehydrated plants is limited. The data presented demonstrate that, while there is a requirement for NO during the ABA-induced stomatal closure of turgid leaves, such a requirement does not exist for ABA-enhanced stomatal closure observed to occur during conditions of rapid dehydration. The data also indicate that the ABA signaling pathway must be both functional and to some degree activated for guard cell NO signaling to occur. These observations are in line with the idea that the effects of NO in guard cells are mediated via a Ca2+-dependent rather than a Ca2+-independent ABA signaling pathway. It appears that there is a role for NO in the fine tuning of the stomatal apertures of turgid leaves that occurs in response to fluctuations in the prevailing environment. PMID:19816112

  3. Improving stomatal functioning at elevated growth air humidity: A review.

    PubMed

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Bouranis, Dimitrios; Giday, Habtamu; Carvalho, Dália R A; Rezaei Nejad, Abdolhossein; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2016-12-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH≥85%) are prone to lethal wilting upon transfer to conditions of high evaporative demand. The reduced survival of these plants is related to (i) increased cuticular permeability, (ii) changed anatomical features (i.e., longer pore length and higher stomatal density), (iii) reduced rehydration ability, (iv) impaired water potential sensitivity to leaf dehydration and, most importantly, (v) compromised stomatal closing ability. This review presents a critical analysis of the strategies which stimulate stomatal functioning during plant development at high RH. These include (a) breeding for tolerant cultivars, (b) interventions with respect to the belowground environment (i.e., water deficit, increased salinity, nutrient culture and grafting) as well as (c) manipulation of the aerial environment [i.e., increased proportion of blue light, increased air movement, temporal temperature rise, and spraying with abscisic acid (ABA)]. Root hypoxia, mechanical disturbance, as well as spraying with compounds mimicking ABA, lessening its inactivation or stimulating its within-leaf redistribution are also expected to improve stomatal functioning of leaves expanded in humid air. Available evidence leaves little doubt that genotypic and phenotypic differences in stomatal functioning following cultivation at high RH are realized through the intermediacy of ABA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolutionary Conservation of ABA Signaling for Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Franks, Peter J.; Nevo, Eviatar; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Guoping; Pogson, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-driven stomatal regulation reportedly evolved after the divergence of ferns, during the early evolution of seed plants approximately 360 million years ago. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the stomata of certain fern species are unresponsive to ABA, but exhibit passive hydraulic control. However, ABA-induced stomatal closure was detected in some mosses and lycophytes. Here, we observed that a number of ABA signaling and membrane transporter protein families diversified over the evolutionary history of land plants. The aquatic ferns Azolla filiculoides and Salvinia cucullata have representatives of 23 families of proteins orthologous to those of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and all other land plant species studied. Phylogenetic analysis of the key ABA signaling proteins indicates an evolutionarily conserved stomatal response to ABA. Moreover, comparative transcriptomic analysis has identified a suite of ABA-responsive genes that differentially expressed in a terrestrial fern species, Polystichum proliferum. These genes encode proteins associated with ABA biosynthesis, transport, reception, transcription, signaling, and ion and sugar transport, which fit the general ABA signaling pathway constructed from Arabidopsis and Hordeum vulgare. The retention of these key ABA-responsive genes could have had a profound effect on the adaptation of ferns to dry conditions. Furthermore, stomatal assays have shown the primary evidence for ABA-induced closure of stomata in two terrestrial fern species P. proliferum and Nephrolepis exaltata. In summary, we report, to our knowledge, new molecular and physiological evidence for the presence of active stomatal control in ferns. PMID:28232585

  5. Stomatal Density and Responsiveness of Banana Fruit Stomates

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara E.; Brun, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Determination of stomatal densities of the banana peel (Musa acuminata L. var Hort. Valery) by microscopic observations showed 30 times fewer stomates on fruit epidermis than found on the banana leaf. Observations also showed that peel stomates were not laid down in a linear pattern as on the leaf. It was demonstrated that stomatal responses occurred in banana fruit. Specific conditions of high humidity and light were necessary for stomatal opening: low humidity and darkness were necessary for closure. Responsiveness of the stomates continued for a considerable length of time after the fruit had been severed from the host. Images PMID:16656239

  6. Arabidopsis YAK1 regulates abscisic acid response and drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongjin; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Xiong, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone that controls several plant processes such as seed germination, seedling growth, and abiotic stress response. Here, we report that AtYak1 plays an important role in ABA signaling and postgermination growth in Arabidopsis. AtYak1 knockout mutant plants were hyposensitive to ABA inhibition of seed germination, cotyledon greening, seedling growth, and stomatal movement. atyak1-1 mutant plants display reduced drought stress resistance, as evidenced by water loss rate and survival rate. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that AtYak1 deficiency led to elevated expression of stomatal-related gene, MYB60, and down-regulation of several stress-responsive genes. Altogether, these results indicate that AtYak1 plays a role as a positive regulator in ABA-mediated drought response in Arabidopsis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2- and ABA-induced stomatal closing

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andish; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B.; Bargmann, Bastiaan O.R.; Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2]. [CO2] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard-cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard-cell specific enhancer trap-line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately ~ 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV′/FM′) were comparable to wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and carbon assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard-cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard-cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a “deflated” thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard-cell turgor production. PMID:26096271

  8. Guard cell photosynthesis is critical for stomatal turgor production, yet does not directly mediate CO2 - and ABA-induced stomatal closing.

    PubMed

    Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Palomares, Axxell; Bagheri, Andisheh; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Engineer, Cawas B; Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Stephan, Aaron B; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-08-01

    Stomata mediate gas exchange between the inter-cellular spaces of leaves and the atmosphere. CO2 levels in leaves (Ci) are determined by respiration, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and atmospheric [CO2 ]. [CO2 ] in leaves mediates stomatal movements. The role of guard cell photosynthesis in stomatal conductance responses is a matter of debate, and genetic approaches are needed. We have generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that are chlorophyll-deficient in guard cells only, expressing a constitutively active chlorophyllase in a guard cell specific enhancer trap line. Our data show that more than 90% of guard cells were chlorophyll-deficient. Interestingly, approximately 45% of stomata had an unusual, previously not-described, morphology of thin-shaped chlorophyll-less stomata. Nevertheless, stomatal size, stomatal index, plant morphology, and whole-leaf photosynthetic parameters (PSII, qP, qN, FV '/FM' ) were comparable with wild-type plants. Time-resolved intact leaf gas-exchange analyses showed a reduction in stomatal conductance and CO2 -assimilation rates of the transgenic plants. Normalization of CO2 responses showed that stomata of transgenic plants respond to [CO2 ] shifts. Detailed stomatal aperture measurements of normal kidney-shaped stomata, which lack chlorophyll, showed stomatal closing responses to [CO2 ] elevation and abscisic acid (ABA), while thin-shaped stomata were continuously closed. Our present findings show that stomatal movement responses to [CO2 ] and ABA are functional in guard cells that lack chlorophyll. These data suggest that guard cell CO2 and ABA signal transduction are not directly modulated by guard cell photosynthesis/electron transport. Moreover, the finding that chlorophyll-less stomata cause a 'deflated' thin-shaped phenotype, suggests that photosynthesis in guard cells is critical for energization and guard cell turgor production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Avoiding high relative air humidity during critical stages of leaf ontogeny is decisive for stomatal functioning.

    PubMed

    Fanourakis, Dimitrios; Carvalho, Susana M P; Almeida, Domingos P F; Heuvelink, Ep

    2011-07-01

    Plants of several species, if grown at high relative air humidity (RH ≥85%), develop stomata that fail to close fully in case of low leaf water potential. We studied the effect of a reciprocal change in RH, at different stages of leaf expansion of Rosa hybrida grown at moderate (60%) or high (95%) RH, on the stomatal closing ability. This was assessed by measuring the leaf transpiration rate in response to desiccation once the leaves had fully expanded. For leaves that started expanding at high RH but completed their expansion after transfer to moderate RH, the earlier this switch took place the better the stomatal functioning. Leaves initially expanding at moderate RH and transferred to high RH exhibited poor stomatal functioning, even when this transfer occurred very late during leaf expansion. Applying a daily abscisic acid (ABA) solution to the leaves of plants grown at continuous high RH was effective in inducing stomatal closure at low water potential, if done before full leaf expansion (FLE). After FLE, stomatal functioning was no longer affected either by the RH or ABA level. The results indicate that the degree of stomatal adaptation depends on both the timing and duration of exposure to high RH. It is concluded that stomatal functionality is strongly dependent on the humidity at which the leaf completed its expansion. The data also show that the effect of ambient RH and the alleviating role of ABA are restricted to the period of leaf expansion. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  10. Functional Analysis of Cellulose and Xyloglucan in the Walls of Stomatal Guard Cells of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T.

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measured the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3je5 mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface. PMID:26729799

  11. Functional analysis of cellulose and xyloglucan in the walls of stomatal guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE PAGES

    Rui, Yue; Anderson, Charles T.

    2016-01-04

    Here, stomatal guard cells are pairs of specialized epidermal cells that control water and CO 2 exchange between the plant and the environment. To fulfill the functions of stomatal opening and closure that are driven by changes in turgor pressure, guard cell walls must be both strong and flexible, but how the structure and dynamics of guard cell walls enable stomatal function remains poorly understood. To address this question, we applied cell biological and genetic analyses to investigate guard cell walls and their relationship to stomatal function in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana). Using live-cell spinning disk confocal microscopy, we measuredmore » the motility of cellulose synthase (CESA)-containing complexes labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-CESA3 and observed a reduced proportion of GFP-CESA3 particles colocalizing with microtubules upon stomatal closure. Imaging cellulose organization in guard cells revealed a relatively uniform distribution of cellulose in the open state and a more fibrillar pattern in the closed state, indicating that cellulose microfibrils undergo dynamic reorganization during stomatal movements. In cesa3 je5 mutants defective in cellulose synthesis and xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking the hemicellulose xyloglucan, stomatal apertures, changes in guard cell length, and cellulose reorganization were aberrant during fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening or abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, indicating that sufficient cellulose and xyloglucan are required for normal guard cell dynamics. Together, these results provide new insights into how guard cell walls allow stomata to function as responsive mediators of gas exchange at the plant surface.« less

  12. Phototropins But Not Cryptochromes Mediate the Blue Light-Specific Promotion of Stomatal Conductance, While Both Enhance Photosynthesis and Transpiration under Full Sunlight12[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Boccalandro, Hernán E.; Giordano, Carla V.; Ploschuk, Edmundo L.; Piccoli, Patricia N.; Bottini, Rubén; Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) or cryptochromes 1 and 2 (cry1 and cry2) exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light. Since phot and cry are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors, they may be involved in the perception of the blue light-specific signal that induces the aperture of the stomatal pores. In leaf epidermal peels, the blue light-specific effect saturates at low irradiances; therefore, it is considered to operate mainly under the low irradiance of dawn, dusk, or deep canopies. Conversely, we show that both phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 have reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis, particularly under the high irradiance of full sunlight at midday. These mutants show compromised responses of stomatal conductance to irradiance. However, the effects of phot and cry on photosynthesis were largely nonstomatic. While the stomatal conductance phenotype of phot1 phot2 was blue light specific, cry1 cry2 showed reduced stomatal conductance not only in response to blue light, but also in response to red light. The levels of abscisic acid were elevated in cry1 cry2. We conclude that considering their effects at high irradiances cry and phot are critical for the control of transpiration and photosynthesis rates in the field. The effects of cry on stomatal conductance are largely indirect and involve the control of abscisic acid levels. PMID:22147516

  13. Phototropins but not cryptochromes mediate the blue light-specific promotion of stomatal conductance, while both enhance photosynthesis and transpiration under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, Hernán E; Giordano, Carla V; Ploschuk, Edmundo L; Piccoli, Patricia N; Bottini, Rubén; Casal, Jorge J

    2012-03-01

    Leaf epidermal peels of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking either phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) or cryptochromes 1 and 2 (cry1 and cry2) exposed to a background of red light show severely impaired stomatal opening responses to blue light. Since phot and cry are UV-A/blue light photoreceptors, they may be involved in the perception of the blue light-specific signal that induces the aperture of the stomatal pores. In leaf epidermal peels, the blue light-specific effect saturates at low irradiances; therefore, it is considered to operate mainly under the low irradiance of dawn, dusk, or deep canopies. Conversely, we show that both phot1 phot2 and cry1 cry2 have reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis, particularly under the high irradiance of full sunlight at midday. These mutants show compromised responses of stomatal conductance to irradiance. However, the effects of phot and cry on photosynthesis were largely nonstomatic. While the stomatal conductance phenotype of phot1 phot2 was blue light specific, cry1 cry2 showed reduced stomatal conductance not only in response to blue light, but also in response to red light. The levels of abscisic acid were elevated in cry1 cry2. We conclude that considering their effects at high irradiances cry and phot are critical for the control of transpiration and photosynthesis rates in the field. The effects of cry on stomatal conductance are largely indirect and involve the control of abscisic acid levels.

  14. Nonredundant functions of Arabidopsis LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 in controlling stomatal immunity and jasmonate-mediated stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Yekondi, Shweta; Liang, Fu-Chun; Okuma, Eiji; Radziejwoski, Amandine; Mai, Hsien-Wei; Swain, Swadhin; Singh, Prashant; Gauthier, Mathieu; Chien, Hsiao-Chiao; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Stomatal immunity restricts bacterial entry to leaves through the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and downstream abscisic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Through a reverse genetics approach, we characterized the function of the L-type lectin receptor kinase-V.2 (LecRK-V.2) and -VII.1 (LecRK-VII.1). Analyses of interactions with the PRR FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) were performed by co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and whole-cell patch-clamp analyses were used to evaluate guard cell Ca 2+ -permeable cation channels. The Arabidopsis thaliana LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 and notably their kinase activities were required for full activation of stomatal immunity. Knockout lecrk-V.2 and lecrk-VII.1 mutants were hyper-susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae infection and showed defective stomatal closure in response to bacteria or to the MAMPs flagellin and EF-Tu. By contrast, Arabidopsis over-expressing LecRK-V.2 or LecRK-VII.1 demonstrated a potentiated stomatal immunity. LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 are shown to be part of the FLS2 PRR complex. In addition, LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 were critical for methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-mediated stomatal closure, notably for MeJA-induced activation of guard cell Ca 2+ -permeable cation channels. This study highlights the role of LecRK-V.2 and LecRK-VII.1 in stomatal immunity at the FLS2 PRR complex and in MeJA-mediated stomatal closure. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Abscisic acid analogs as chemical probes for dissection of abscisic acid responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Benson, Chantel L; Kepka, Michal; Wunschel, Christian; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Nelson, Ken M; Christmann, Alexander; Abrams, Suzanne R; Grill, Erwin; Loewen, Michele C

    2015-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone known to mediate numerous plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ABA acts, through a genetically redundant family of ABA receptors entitled Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor (RCAR)/Pyrabactin Resistant 1 (PYR1)/Pyrabactin Resistant-Like (PYL) receptors comprised of thirteen homologues acting in concert with a seven-member set of phosphatases. The individual contributions of A. thaliana RCARs and their binding partners with respect to specific physiological functions are as yet poorly understood. Towards developing efficacious plant growth regulators selective for specific ABA functions and tools for elucidating ABA perception, a panel of ABA analogs altered specifically on positions around the ABA ring was assembled. These analogs have been used to probe thirteen RCARs and four type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) and were also screened against representative physiological assays in the model plant Arabidopsis. The 1'-O methyl ether of (S)-ABA was identified as selective in that, at physiologically relevant levels, it regulates stomatal aperture and improves drought tolerance, but does not inhibit germination or root growth. Analogs with the 7'- and 8'-methyl groups of the ABA ring replaced with bulkier groups generally retained the activity and stereoselectivity of (S)- and (R)-ABA, while alteration of the 9'-methyl group afforded an analog that substituted for ABA in inhibiting germination but neither root growth nor stomatal closure. Further in vitro testing indicated differences in binding of analogs to individual RCARs, as well as differences in the enzyme activity resulting from specific PP2Cs bound to RCAR-analog complexes. Ultimately, these findings highlight the potential of a broader chemical genetics approach for dissection of the complex network mediating ABA-perception, signaling and functionality within a given species and modifications in the future design

  16. Fern Stomatal Responses to ABA and CO2 Depend on Species and Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Hanna; Kollist, Hannes; Merilo, Ebe

    2017-06-01

    Changing atmospheric CO 2 levels, climate, and air humidity affect plant gas exchange that is controlled by stomata, small pores on plant leaves and stems formed by guard cells. Evolution has shaped the morphology and regulatory mechanisms governing stomatal movements to correspond to the needs of various land plant groups over the past 400 million years. Stomata close in response to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), elevated CO 2 concentration, and reduced air humidity. Whether the active regulatory mechanisms that control stomatal closure in response to these stimuli are present already in mosses, the oldest plant group with stomata, or were acquired more recently in angiosperms remains controversial. It has been suggested that the stomata of the basal vascular plants, such as ferns and lycophytes, close solely hydropassively. On the other hand, active stomatal closure in response to ABA and CO 2 was found in several moss, lycophyte, and fern species. Here, we show that the stomata of two temperate fern species respond to ABA and CO 2 and that an active mechanism of stomatal regulation in response to reduced air humidity is present in some ferns. Importantly, fern stomatal responses depend on growth conditions. The data indicate that the stomatal behavior of ferns is more complex than anticipated before, and active stomatal regulation is present in some ferns and has possibly been lost in others. Further analysis that takes into account fern species, life history, evolutionary age, and growth conditions is required to gain insight into the evolution of land plant stomatal responses. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Stomatal VPD Response: There Is More to the Story Than ABA.

    PubMed

    Merilo, Ebe; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Jalakas, Pirko; Parik, Helen; Tulva, Ingmar; Rasulov, Bakhtier; Kilk, Kalle; Kollist, Hannes

    2018-01-01

    Guard cells shrink and close stomatal pores when air humidity decreases (i.e. when the difference between the vapor pressures of leaf and atmosphere [VPD] increases). The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in VPD-induced stomatal closure has been studied using ABA-related mutants that respond to VPD in some studies and not in others. The importance of ABA biosynthesis in guard cells versus vasculature for whole-plant stomatal regulation is unclear as well. Here, we show that Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) lines carrying mutations in different steps of ABA biosynthesis as well as pea ( Pisum sativum ) wilty and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) flacca ABA-deficient mutants had higher stomatal conductance compared with wild-type plants. To characterize the role of ABA production in different cells, we generated transgenic plants where ABA biosynthesis was rescued in guard cells or phloem companion cells of an ABA-deficient mutant. In both cases, the whole-plant stomatal conductance, stunted growth phenotype, and leaf ABA level were restored to wild-type values, pointing to the redundancy of ABA sources and to the effectiveness of leaf ABA transport. All ABA-deficient lines closed their stomata rapidly and extensively in response to high VPD, whereas plants with mutated protein kinase OST1 showed stunted VPD-induced responses. Another strongly ABA-insensitive mutant, defective in the six ABA PYR/RCAR receptors, responded to changes in VPD in both directions strongly and symmetrically, indicating that its VPD-induced closure could be passive hydraulic. We discuss that both the VPD-induced passive hydraulic stomatal closure and the stomatal VPD regulation of ABA-deficient mutants may be conditional on the initial pretreatment stomatal conductance. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Fern Stomatal Responses to ABA and CO2 Depend on Species and Growth Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Changing atmospheric CO2 levels, climate, and air humidity affect plant gas exchange that is controlled by stomata, small pores on plant leaves and stems formed by guard cells. Evolution has shaped the morphology and regulatory mechanisms governing stomatal movements to correspond to the needs of various land plant groups over the past 400 million years. Stomata close in response to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced air humidity. Whether the active regulatory mechanisms that control stomatal closure in response to these stimuli are present already in mosses, the oldest plant group with stomata, or were acquired more recently in angiosperms remains controversial. It has been suggested that the stomata of the basal vascular plants, such as ferns and lycophytes, close solely hydropassively. On the other hand, active stomatal closure in response to ABA and CO2 was found in several moss, lycophyte, and fern species. Here, we show that the stomata of two temperate fern species respond to ABA and CO2 and that an active mechanism of stomatal regulation in response to reduced air humidity is present in some ferns. Importantly, fern stomatal responses depend on growth conditions. The data indicate that the stomatal behavior of ferns is more complex than anticipated before, and active stomatal regulation is present in some ferns and has possibly been lost in others. Further analysis that takes into account fern species, life history, evolutionary age, and growth conditions is required to gain insight into the evolution of land plant stomatal responses. PMID:28351911

  19. Stomatal movements in laurophyllous plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautov, A. A.; Bauer, S. M.; Ivanova, O. V.; Sapach, Y. O.; Krylova, E. G.

    2018-05-01

    Stomata are the structural elements of plant epidermis which control transpiration and gas exchange. Each stoma consists of two guard cells divided by the stomatal aperture. These cells are capable of reversible deformations determining the width of aperture. It is known that these deformations depend on the value of turgor pressure in the guard cells and on the structure of their walls. In this work, the influence of the outer tangential wall geometry of the guard cells on stomatal movements is estimated by means of the finite element method in the ANSYS software. The application of modelling has shown that cuticular outgrowths on the tangential walls influence the degree and pattern of guard cell deformations. The outgrowths prevent wide opening of the stomatal aperture and cause its sinking deep into leaf epidermis. The functional significance of such stomatal movements is discussed. It is deduced that the discovered phenomenon had great importance to the survival of laurophyllous plants in conditions of aridization.

  20. The Barley Magnesium Chelatase 150-kD Subunit Is Not an Abscisic Acid Receptor1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Müller, André H.; Hansson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium chelatase is the first unique enzyme of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It is composed of three gene products of which the largest is 150 kD. This protein was recently identified as an abscisic acid receptor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We have evaluated whether the barley (Hordeum vulgare) magnesium chelatase large subunit, XanF, could be a receptor for the phytohormone. The study involved analysis of recombinant magnesium chelatase protein as well as several induced chlorophyll-deficient magnesium chelatase mutants with defects identified at the gene and protein levels. Abscisic acid had no effect on magnesium chelatase activity and binding to the barley 150-kD protein could not be shown. Magnesium chelatase mutants showed a wild-type response in respect to postgermination growth and stomatal aperture. Our results question the function of the large magnesium chelatase subunit as an abscisic acid receptor. PMID:19176716

  1. The effect of competition from neighbours on stomatal conductance in lettuce and tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, Lidiya; Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J; Arkhipova, Tatyana; Kudoyarova, Guzel

    2011-05-01

    Competition decreased transpiration from young lettuce plants after 2 days, before any reductions in leaf area became apparent, and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) of lettuce and tomato plants was also reduced. Stomatal closure was not due to hydraulic signals or competition for nutrients, as soil water content, leaf water status and leaf nitrate concentrations were unaffected by neighbours. Competition-induced stomatal closure was absent in an abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient tomato mutant, flacca, indicating a fundamental involvement of ABA. Although tomato xylem sap ABA concentrations were unaffected by the presence of neighbours, ABA/pH-based stomatal modulation is still likely to underlie the response to competition, as soil and xylem sap alkalization was observed in competing plants. Competition also modulated leaf ethylene production, and treatment of lettuce plants with an ethylene perception inhibitor (1-methylcyclopropene) diminished the difference in g(s) between single and competing plants grown in a controlled environment room, but increased it in plants grown in the greenhouse: ethylene altered the extent of the stomatal response to competition. Effects of competition on g(s) are discussed in terms of the detection of the absence of neighbours: increases in g(s) and carbon fixation may allow faster initial space occupancy within an emerging community/crop. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-07

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K(+) channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H(+)-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ∼36-41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K(+) channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H(+)-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth.

  3. Predicting Essential Components of Signal Transduction Networks: A Dynamic Model of Guard Cell Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song; Assmann, Sarah M; Albert, Réka

    2006-01-01

    Plants both lose water and take in carbon dioxide through microscopic stomatal pores, each of which is regulated by a surrounding pair of guard cells. During drought, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits stomatal opening and promotes stomatal closure, thereby promoting water conservation. Dozens of cellular components have been identified to function in ABA regulation of guard cell volume and thus of stomatal aperture, but a dynamic description is still not available for this complex process. Here we synthesize experimental results into a consistent guard cell signal transduction network for ABA-induced stomatal closure, and develop a dynamic model of this process. Our model captures the regulation of more than 40 identified network components, and accords well with previous experimental results at both the pathway and whole-cell physiological level. By simulating gene disruptions and pharmacological interventions we find that the network is robust against a significant fraction of possible perturbations. Our analysis reveals the novel predictions that the disruption of membrane depolarizability, anion efflux, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cytosolic pH increase, the phosphatidic acid pathway, or K+ efflux through slowly activating K+ channels at the plasma membrane lead to the strongest reduction in ABA responsiveness. Initial experimental analysis assessing ABA-induced stomatal closure in the presence of cytosolic pH clamp imposed by the weak acid butyrate is consistent with model prediction. Simulations of stomatal response as derived from our model provide an efficient tool for the identification of candidate manipulations that have the best chance of conferring increased drought stress tolerance and for the prioritization of future wet bench analyses. Our method can be readily applied to other biological signaling networks to identify key regulatory components in systems where quantitative information is limited. PMID:16968132

  4. Synthesis, photostability and bioactivity of 2,3-cyclopropanated abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wenjian, Liu; Xiaoqiang, Han; Yumei, Xiao; Jinlong, Fan; Yuanzhi, Zhang; Huizhe, Lu; Mingan, Wang; Zhaohai, Qin

    2013-12-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of plant development and adaptation to environmental stress. The isomerization of ABA to the biologically inactive 2E-isomer by light considerably limits its applications in agricultural fields. To overcome this shortcoming, an ABA analogue, cis-2,3-cyclopropanated ABA, was synthesized, and its photostability and biological activities were investigated. This compound showed high photostability under UV light exposure, which was 4-fold higher than that of (±)-ABA. cis-2,3-cyclopropanated ABA exhibited high ABA-like activity, including the ability to effectively inhibit seed germination, seedling growth and stomatal movements of Arabidopsis. In some cases, its bioactivity approaches that of (±)-ABA. trans-2,3-cyclopropanated abscisic acid was also prepared, an isomer that was more photostable but which showed weak ABA-like activity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure Involves ALMT4, a Phosphorylation-Dependent Vacuolar Anion Channel of Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Baetz, Ulrike; Huck, Nicola V.; Zhang, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed between a pair of guard cells and allow plant uptake of CO2 and water evaporation. Their aperture depends on changes in osmolyte concentration of guard cell vacuoles, specifically of K+ and Mal2−. Efflux of Mal2− from the vacuole is required for stomatal closure; however, it is not clear how the anion is released. Here, we report the identification of ALMT4 (ALUMINUM ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER4) as an Arabidopsis thaliana ion channel that can mediate Mal2− release from the vacuole and is required for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). Knockout mutants showed impaired stomatal closure in response to the drought stress hormone ABA and increased whole-plant wilting in response to drought and ABA. Electrophysiological data show that ALMT4 can mediate Mal2− efflux and that the channel activity is dependent on a phosphorylatable C-terminal serine. Dephosphomimetic mutants of ALMT4 S382 showed increased channel activity and Mal2− efflux. Reconstituting the active channel in almt4 mutants impaired growth and stomatal opening. Phosphomimetic mutants were electrically inactive and phenocopied the almt4 mutants. Surprisingly, S382 can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases in vitro. In brief, ALMT4 likely mediates Mal2− efflux during ABA-induced stomatal closure and its activity depends on phosphorylation. PMID:28874508

  7. Function of ABA in Stomatal Defense against Biotic and Drought Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Jung, Jangho; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes involved in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Under stress conditions, plants synthesize ABA in various organs and initiate defense mechanisms, such as the regulation of stomatal aperture and expression of defense-related genes conferring resistance to environmental stresses. The regulation of stomatal opening and closure is important to pathogen defense and control of transpirational water loss. Recent studies using a combination of approaches, including genetics, physiology, and molecular biology, have contributed considerably to our understanding of ABA signal transduction. A number of proteins associated with ABA signaling and responses—especially ABA receptors—have been identified. ABA signal transduction initiates signal perception by ABA receptors and transfer via downstream proteins, including protein kinases and phosphatases. In the present review, we focus on the function of ABA in stomatal defense against biotic and abiotic stresses, through analysis of each ABA signal component and the relationships of these components in the complex network of interactions. In particular, two ABA signal pathway models in response to biotic and abiotic stress were proposed, from stress signaling to stomatal closure, involving the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR-like (PYL) or regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR) family proteins, 2C-type protein phosphatases, and SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26154766

  8. Impaired Malate and Fumarate Accumulation Due to the Mutation of the Tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter Has Little Effects on Stomatal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, David B; Barros, Kallyne A; Barros, Jessica Aline S; Omena-Garcia, Rebeca P; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Sanglard, Lílian M V P; Detmann, Kelly C; Silva, Willian Batista; Daloso, Danilo M; DaMatta, Fábio M; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-11-01

    Malate is a central metabolite involved in a multiplicity of plant metabolic pathways, being associated with mitochondrial metabolism and playing significant roles in stomatal movements. Vacuolar malate transport has been characterized at the molecular level and is performed by at least one carrier protein and two channels in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) vacuoles. The absence of the Arabidopsis tonoplast Dicarboxylate Transporter (tDT) in the tdt knockout mutant was associated previously with an impaired accumulation of malate and fumarate in leaves. Here, we investigated the consequences of this lower accumulation on stomatal behavior and photosynthetic capacity as well as its putative metabolic impacts. Neither the stomatal conductance nor the kinetic responses to dark, light, or high CO 2 were highly affected in tdt plants. In addition, we did not observe any impact on stomatal aperture following incubation with abscisic acid, malate, or citrate. Furthermore, an effect on photosynthetic capacity was not observed in the mutant lines. However, leaf mitochondrial metabolism was affected in the tdt plants. Levels of the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were altered, and increases in both light and dark respiration were observed. We conclude that manipulation of the tonoplastic organic acid transporter impacted mitochondrial metabolism, while the overall stomatal and photosynthetic capacity were unaffected. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Stomatal lock-open, a consequence of epidermal cell death, follows transient suppression of stomatal opening in barley attacked by Blumeria graminis.

    PubMed

    Prats, Elena; Gay, Alan P; Mur, Luis A J; Thomas, Barry J; Carver, Timothy L W

    2006-01-01

    Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) attack disrupted stomatal behaviour, and hence leaf water conductance (g(l)), in barley genotypes Pallas and Risø-S (susceptible), P01 (with Mla1 conditioning a hypersensitive response; HR), and P22 and Risø-R (with mlo5 conditioning papilla-based penetration resistance). Inoculation caused some stomatal closure well before the fungus attempted infection. Coinciding with epidermal cell penetration, stomatal opening in light was also impeded, although stomata of susceptible and mlo5 lines remained largely able to close in darkness. Following infection, in susceptible lines stomata closed in darkness but opening in light was persistently impeded. In Risø-R, stomata recovered nearly complete function by approximately 30 h after inoculation, i.e. after penetration resistance was accomplished. In P01, stomata became locked open and unable to close in darkness shortly after epidermal cells died due to HR. In the P22 background, mlo5 penetration resistance was often followed by consequential death of attacked cells, and here too stomata became locked open, but not until approximately 24 h after pathogen attack had ceased. The influence of epidermal cell death was localized, and only affected stomata within one or two cells distance. These stomata were unable to close not only in darkness but also after application of abscisic acid and in wilted leaves suffering drought. Thus, resistance to Bgh based on HR or associated with cell death may have previously unsuspected negative consequences for the physiological health of apparently 'disease-free' plants. The results are discussed in relation to the control of stomatal aperture in barley by epidermal cells.

  10. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Saroj K.; Reddy, Kambham R.; Li, Jiaxu

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stress is a primary threat to fulfill the demand of agricultural production to feed the world in coming decades. Plants reduce growth and development process during stress conditions, which ultimately affect the yield. In stress conditions, plants develop various stress mechanism to face the magnitude of stress challenges, although that is not enough to protect them. Therefore, many strategies have been used to produce abiotic stress tolerance crop plants, among them, abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone engineering could be one of the methods of choice. ABA is an isoprenoid phytohormone, which regulates various physiological processes ranging from stomatal opening to protein storage and provides adaptation to many stresses like drought, salt, and cold stresses. ABA is also called an important messenger that acts as the signaling mediator for regulating the adaptive response of plants to different environmental stress conditions. In this review, we will discuss the role of ABA in response to abiotic stress at the molecular level and ABA signaling. The review also deals with the effect of ABA in respect to gene expression. PMID:27200044

  11. Correction: Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells

    DOE PAGES

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; ...

    2015-07-20

    One central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca 2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca 2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca 2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca 2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruplemore » mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca 2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca 2+-dependent and Ca 2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca 2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level.« less

  12. Enhancing tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) to simulated acid rain by exogenous abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Liang, Chanjuan

    2017-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates much important plant physiological and biochemical processes and induces tolerance to different stresses. Here, we studied the regulation of exogenous ABA on adaptation of rice seedlings to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress by measuring biomass dry weight, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, nutrient elements, and endogenous hormones. The application of 10 μM ABA alleviated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and decreases in contents of nutrient (K, Mg, N, and P) and hormone (auxin, gibberellins, and zeatin). Moreover, 10 μM ABA could stimulate the Ca content as signaling molecules under SAR stress. Contrarily, the application of 100 μM ABA aggravated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and contents of nutrient and hormone. The results got after a 5-day recovery (without SAR) show that exogenous 10 μM ABA can promote self-restoration process in rice whereas 100 μM ABA hindered the restoration by increasing deficiency of nutrients and disturbing the balance of hormones. These results confirmed that exogenous ABA at proper concentration could enhance the tolerance of rice to SAR stress.

  13. Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; Nguyen, Desiree; Yong, Taiming; Yang, Paul G; Poretsky, Elly; Belknap, Thomas F; Waadt, Rainer; Alemán, Fernando; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-01-01

    A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruple mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03599.001 PMID:26192964

  14. Correction: Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells

    DOE PAGES

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; ...

    2015-07-29

    A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca 2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca 2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca 2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca 2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruplemore » mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca 2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca 2+-dependent and Ca 2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca 2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level.« less

  15. Abscisic Acid Stimulates Elongation of Excised Pea Root Tips

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Douglas H.; Lutz, Donald H.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1975-01-01

    Excised Pisum sativum L. root tips were incubated in a pH 5.2 sucrose medium containing abscisic acid. Elongation growth was inhibited by 100 μm abscisic acid. However, decreasing the abscisic acid concentration caused stimulation of elongation, the maximum response (25% to 30%) occurring at 1 μm abscisic acid. Prior to two hours, stimulation of elongation by 1 μm abscisic acid was not detectable. Increased elongation did not occur in abscisic acid-treated root tips of Lens culinaris L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., or Zea mays L. PMID:16659198

  16. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) uptake by vegetation controlled by atmospheric concentrations and plant stomatal aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaparro-Suarez, I. G.; Meixner, F. X.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2011-10-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exchange between the atmosphere and five European tree species was investigated in the laboratory using a dynamic branch enclosure system (consisting of two cuvettes) and a highly specific NO2 analyzer. NO2 measurements were performed with a sensitive gas phase chemiluminescence NO detector combined with a NO2 specific (photolytic) converter, both from Eco-Physics (Switzerland). This highly specific detection system excluded bias from other nitrogen compounds. Investigations were performed at two light intensities (Photosynthetic Active Radiation, PAR, 450 and 900 μmol m-2 s-1) and NO2 concentrations between 0 and 5 ppb. Ambient parameters (air temperature and relative humidity) were held constant. The data showed dominant NO2 uptake by the respective tree species under all conditions. The results did not confirm the existence of a compensation point within a 95% confidence level, though we cannot completely exclude emission of NO2 under very low atmospheric concentrations. Induced stomatal stricture, or total closure, by changing light conditions, as well as by application of the plant hormone ABA (Abscisic Acid) caused a corresponding decrease of NO2 uptake. No loss of NO2 to plant surfaces was observed under stomatal closure and species dependent differences in uptake rates could be clearly related to stomatal behavior.

  17. Transmission and pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative single stranded RNA arthropod-borne virus member of the Family Rhabdoviridae. The virion is composed of the host derived plasma membrane, the envelope, and an internal ribonucleoprotein core. The envelope contain...

  18. Surviving a Dry Future: Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Mediated Plant Mechanisms for Conserving Water under Low Humidity

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms are able to respond rapidly to the first sign of dry conditions, a decrease in air humidity, more accurately described as an increase in the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the atmosphere (VPD), by abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure. The genes underlying this response offer valuable candidates for targeted selection of crop varieties with improved drought tolerance, a critical goal for current plant breeding programs, to maximize crop production in drier and increasingly marginalized environments, and meet the demands of a growing population in the face of a changing climate. Here, we review current understanding of the genetic mechanisms underpinning ABA-mediated stomatal closure, a key means for conserving water under dry conditions, examine how these mechanisms evolved, and discuss what remains to be investigated. PMID:29113039

  19. Multi-level Modeling of Light-Induced Stomatal Opening Offers New Insights into Its Regulation by Drought

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhongyao; Jin, Xiaofen; Albert, Réka; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Plant guard cells gate CO2 uptake and transpirational water loss through stomatal pores. As a result of decades of experimental investigation, there is an abundance of information on the involvement of specific proteins and secondary messengers in the regulation of stomatal movements and on the pairwise relationships between guard cell components. We constructed a multi-level dynamic model of guard cell signal transduction during light-induced stomatal opening and of the effect of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) on this process. The model integrates into a coherent network the direct and indirect biological evidence regarding the regulation of seventy components implicated in stomatal opening. Analysis of this signal transduction network identified robust cross-talk between blue light and ABA, in which [Ca2+]c plays a key role, and indicated an absence of cross-talk between red light and ABA. The dynamic model captured more than 1031 distinct states for the system and yielded outcomes that were in qualitative agreement with a wide variety of previous experimental results. We obtained novel model predictions by simulating single component knockout phenotypes. We found that under white light or blue light, over 60%, and under red light, over 90% of all simulated knockouts had similar opening responses as wild type, showing that the system is robust against single node loss. The model revealed an open question concerning the effect of ABA on red light-induced stomatal opening. We experimentally showed that ABA is able to inhibit red light-induced stomatal opening, and our model offers possible hypotheses for the underlying mechanism, which point to potential future experiments. Our modelling methodology combines simplicity and flexibility with dynamic richness, making it well suited for a wide class of biological regulatory systems. PMID:25393147

  20. Mechanistic Basis for Plant Responses to Drought Stress : Regulatory Mechanism of Abscisic Acid Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in the rapid adaptation of plants to environmental stresses such as drought and high salinity. Accumulated ABA in plant cells promotes stomatal closure in guard cells and transcription of stress-tolerant genes. Our understanding of ABA responses dramatically improved by the discovery of both PYR/PYL/RCAR as a soluble ABA receptor and inhibitory complex of a protein phospatase PP2C and a protein kinase SnRK2. Moreover, several structural analyses of PYR/PYL/RCAR revealed the mechanistic basis for the regulatory mechanism of ABA signaling, which provides a rational framework for the design of alternative agonists in future.

  1. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  2. Proteins of Vasicular Stomatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, C. Y.; Prevec, L.

    1969-01-01

    Infection of L cells with vesicular stomatitis virus results in the release, into the cell-free fluid, of four antigenic components separable by rate zonal centrifugation on sucrose gradients. The largest antigens are the infectious (B) particle and a shorter noninfectious, autointerfering (T) particle. The two small antigens are characterized by sedimentation coefficients of approximately 20S and 6S. Treatment of purified B or T particles with sodium deoxycholate results in the release from the particle of a nucleoprotein core which can be purified on sucrose gradient and which has a sedimentation coefficient characteristic of the virus from which it arose. Utilizing purified antigens labeled with 14C-amino acids during growth, we examined the protein constituents of each antigen by acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The proteins of B and T particles are identical, each containing one minor (virus protein 1) and three major (virus proteins 2, 3, and 4) proteins, numbered in order of increasing mobility. Virus protein 3 originates from the nucleoprotein core, whereas proteins 2 and 4 come from the coat. The origin of virus protein 1 is not known. The 20S antigen contains a single protein equivalent to virus protein 3, whereas the 6S antigen shows a single protein which is similar to, but probably distinct from, virus protein 2. PMID:4306195

  3. CYCLIN H;1 regulates drought stress responses and blue light-induced stomatal opening by inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao Feng; Jin, Yin Hua; Yoo, Chan Yul; Lin, Xiao-Li; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Bressan, Ray A; Hasegawa, Paul M; Jin, Jing Bo

    2013-06-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE Ds (CDKDs) phosphorylate the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Arabidopsis CYCLIN H;1 (CYCH;1) interacts with and activates CDKDs; however, the physiological function of CYCH;1 has not been determined. Here, we report that CYCH;1, which is localized to the nucleus, positively regulates blue light-induced stomatal opening. Reduced-function cych;1 RNA interference (cych;1 RNAi) plants exhibited a drought tolerance phenotype. CYCH;1 is predominantly expressed in guard cells, and its expression was substantially down-regulated by dehydration. Transpiration of intact leaves was reduced in cych;1 RNAi plants compared with the wild-type control in light but not in darkness. CYCH;1 down-regulation impaired blue light-induced stomatal opening but did not affect guard cell development or abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure. Microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that CYCH;1 did not regulate the expression of abscisic acid-responsive genes or light-induced stomatal opening signaling determinants, such as MYB60, MYB61, Hypersensitive to red and blue1, and Protein phosphatase7. CYCH;1 down-regulation induced the expression of redox homeostasis genes, such as LIPOXYGENASE3 (LOX3), LOX4, ARABIDOPSIS GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE 7 (ATGPX7), EARLY LIGHT-INDUCIBLE PROTEIN1 (ELIP1), and ELIP2, and increased hydrogen peroxide production in guard cells. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutations in CDKD;2 or CDKD;3 did not affect responsiveness to drought stress, suggesting that CYCH;1 regulates the drought stress response in a CDKD-independent manner. We propose that CYCH;1 regulates blue light-mediated stomatal opening by controlling reactive oxygen species homeostasis.

  4. WRKY transcription factors: key components in abscisic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Deena L; Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Lin, Jun; Ringler, Patricia; Boken, Ashley K; Langum, Tanner J; Smidt, Lucas; Boomsma, Darius D; Emme, Nicholas J; Chen, Xianfeng; Finer, John J; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, senescence, seed dormancy and seed germination. For over 15 years, limited evidence has been available suggesting that WRKY TFs may play roles in regulating plant responses to the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), notably some WRKY TFs are ABA-inducible repressors of seed germination. However, the roles of WRKY TFs in other aspects of ABA signalling, and the mechanisms involved, have remained unclear. Recent significant progress in ABA research has now placed specific WRKY TFs firmly in ABA-responsive signalling pathways, where they act at multiple levels. In Arabidopsis, WRKY TFs appear to act downstream of at least two ABA receptors: the cytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR-protein phosphatase 2C-ABA complex and the chloroplast envelope-located ABAR-ABA complex. In vivo and in vitro promoter-binding studies show that the target genes for WRKY TFs that are involved in ABA signalling include well-known ABA-responsive genes such as ABF2, ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, DREB1a, DREB2a and RAB18. Additional well-characterized stress-inducible genes such as RD29A and COR47 are also found in signalling pathways downstream of WRKY TFs. These new insights also reveal that some WRKY TFs are positive regulators of ABA-mediated stomatal closure and hence drought responses. Conversely, many WRKY TFs are negative regulators of seed germination, and controlling seed germination appears a common function of a subset of WRKY TFs in flowering plants. Taken together, these new data demonstrate that WRKY TFs are key nodes in ABA-responsive signalling networks. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Leveraging abscisic acid receptors for efficient water use in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jinghui; Tischer, Stefanie V.; Christmann, Alexander; Windisch, Wilhelm; Schnyder, Hans; Grill, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth requires the influx of atmospheric CO2 through stomatal pores, and this carbon uptake for photosynthesis is inherently associated with a large efflux of water vapor. Under water deficit, plants reduce transpiration and are able to improve carbon for water exchange leading to higher water use efficiency (WUE). Whether increased WUE can be achieved without trade-offs in plant growth is debated. The signals mediating the WUE response under water deficit are not fully elucidated but involve the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA is perceived by a family of related receptors known to mediate acclimation responses and to reduce transpiration. We now show that enhanced stimulation of ABA signaling via distinct ABA receptors can result in plants constitutively growing at high WUE in the model species Arabidopsis. WUE was assessed by three independent approaches involving gravimetric analyses, 13C discrimination studies of shoots and derived cellulose fractions, and by gas exchange measurements of whole plants and individual leaves. Plants expressing the ABA receptors RCAR6/PYL12 combined up to 40% increased WUE with high growth rates, i.e., are water productive. Water productivity was associated with maintenance of net carbon assimilation by compensatory increases of leaf CO2 gradients, thereby sustaining biomass acquisition. Leaf surface temperatures and growth potentials of plants growing under well-watered conditions were found to be reliable indicators for water productivity. The study shows that ABA receptors can be explored to generate more plant biomass per water transpired, which is a prime goal for a more sustainable water use in agriculture. PMID:27247417

  6. Abscisic Acid Down-Regulates Hydraulic Conductance of Grapevine Leaves in Isohydric Genotypes Only1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Masclef, Diane; Lebon, Eric; Christophe, Angélique

    2017-01-01

    Plants evolved different strategies to cope with water stress. While isohydric species maintain their midday leaf water potential (ΨM) under soil water deficit by closing their stomata, anisohydric species maintain higher stomatal aperture and exhibit substantial reductions in ΨM. It was hypothesized that isohydry is related to a locally higher sensitivity of stomata to the drought-hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Interestingly, recent lines of evidence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggested that stomatal responsiveness is also controlled by an ABA action on leaf water supply upstream from stomata. Here, we tested the possibility in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) that different genotypes ranging from near isohydric to more anisohydric may have different sensitivities in these ABA responses. Measurements on whole plants in drought conditions were combined with assays on detached leaves fed with ABA. Two different methods consistently showed that leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) was down-regulated by exogenous ABA, with strong variations depending on the genotype. Importantly, variation between isohydry and anisohydry correlated with Kleaf sensitivity to ABA, with Kleaf in the most anisohydric genotypes being unresponsive to the hormone. We propose that the observed response of Kleaf to ABA may be part of the overall ABA regulation of leaf water status. PMID:28899961

  7. Thiol-based Redox Proteins in Brassica napus Guard Cell Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Ning; Song, Wen-yuan; Harmon, Alice C.; Assmann, Sarah M.; Chen, Sixue

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Reversibly oxidized cysteine sulfhydryl groups serve as redox sensors or targets of redox sensing that are important in different physiological processes. Little is known, however, about redox sensitive proteins in guard cells and how they function in stomatal signaling. In this study, Brassica napus guard cell proteins altered by redox in response to abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were identified by complementary proteomics approaches, saturation differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT). In total, 65 and 118 potential redox responsive proteins were identified in ABA and MeJA treated guard cells, respectively. All the proteins contain at least one cysteine, and over half of them are predicted to form intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Most of the proteins fall into the functional groups of energy, stress and defense, and metabolism. Based on the peptide sequences identified by mass spectrometry, 30 proteins were common to ABA and MeJA treated samples. A total of 44 cysteines was mapped in all the identified proteins, and their levels of redox sensitivity were quantified. Two of the proteins, a SNRK2 kinase and an isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were confirmed to be redox regulated and involved in stomatal movement. This study creates an inventory of potential redox switches, and highlights a protein redox regulatory mechanism in guard cell ABA and MeJA signal transduction. PMID:24580573

  8. Stomatal action directly feeds back on leaf turgor: new insights into the regulation of the plant water status from non-invasive pressure probe measurements.

    PubMed

    Ache, Peter; Bauer, Hubert; Kollist, Hannes; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Lautner, Silke; Hartung, Wolfram; Hedrich, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    Uptake of CO(2) by the leaf is associated with loss of water. Control of stomatal aperture by volume changes of guard cell pairs optimizes the efficiency of water use. Under water stress, the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) activates the guard-cell anion release channel SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1), and thereby triggers stomatal closure. Plants with mutated OST1 and SLAC1 are defective in guard-cell turgor regulation. To study the effect of stomatal movement on leaf turgor using intact leaves of Arabidopsis, we used a new pressure probe to monitor transpiration and turgor pressure simultaneously and non-invasively. This probe permits routine easy access to parameters related to water status and stomatal conductance under physiological conditions using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Long-term leaf turgor pressure recordings over several weeks showed a drop in turgor during the day and recovery at night. Thus pressure changes directly correlated with the degree of plant transpiration. Leaf turgor of wild-type plants responded to CO(2), light, humidity, ozone and abscisic acid (ABA) in a guard cell-specific manner. Pressure probe measurements of mutants lacking OST1 and SLAC1 function indicated impairment in stomatal responses to light and humidity. In contrast to wild-type plants, leaves from well-watered ost1 plants exposed to a dry atmosphere wilted after light-induced stomatal opening. Experiments with open stomata mutants indicated that the hydraulic conductance of leaf stomata is higher than that of the root-shoot continuum. Thus leaf turgor appears to rely to a large extent on the anion channel activity of autonomously regulated stomatal guard cells.

  9. ROS signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Qi, Junsheng; Song, Chun-Peng; Wang, Baoshan; Zhou, Jianmin; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Gong, Zhizhong

    2018-04-16

    Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO 2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO 2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles. These ROS form a sophisticated cellular signaling network, with the accumulation of apoplastic ROS an early hallmark of stomatal movement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ROS signaling network, primarily during drought stress and pathogen attack. We summarize the roles of apoplastic ROS in regulating stomatal movement, ABA and CO 2 signaling, and immunity responses. Finally, we discuss ROS accumulation and communication between organelles and cells. This information provides a conceptual framework for understanding how ROS signaling is integrated with various signaling pathways during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Rice Stomatal Closure Requires Guard Cell Plasma Membrane ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter RCN1/OsABCG5.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shuichi; Takano, Sho; Sato, Moeko; Furukawa, Kaoru; Nagasawa, Hidetaka; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Kasuga, Jun; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Nakazono, Mikio; Takamure, Itsuro; Kato, Kiyoaki

    2016-03-07

    Water stress is one of the major environmental stresses that affect agricultural production worldwide. Water loss from plants occurs primarily through stomatal pores. Here, we report that an Oryza sativa half-size ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G protein, RCN1/OsABCG5, is involved in stomatal closure mediated by phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in guard cells. We found that the GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5-fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane in guard cells. The percentage of guard cell pairs containing both ABA and GFP-RCN1/OsABCG5 increased after exogenous ABA treatment, whereas they were co-localized in guard cell pairs regardless of whether exogenous ABA was applied. ABA application resulted in a smaller increase in the percentage of guard cell pairs containing ABA in rcn1 mutant (A684P) and RCN1-RNAi than in wild-type plants. Furthermore, polyethylene glycol (drought stress)-inducible ABA accumulation in guard cells did not occur in rcn1 mutants. Stomata closure mediated by exogenous ABA application was strongly reduced in rcn1 mutants. Finally, rcn1 mutant plants had more rapid water loss from detached leaves than the wild-type plants. These results indicate that in response to drought stress, RCN1/OsABCG5 is involved in accumulation of ABA in guard cells, which is indispensable for stomatal closure. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stomatal and non-stomatal factors regulated the photosynthesis of soybean seedlings in the present of exogenous bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Liya; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on plants growth. Photosynthesis supplies the substances and energy required for plant growth, and regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Therefore, in this study, to reveal how BPA affects photosynthesis in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) from the perspective of stomatal and non-stomatal factors, the stomatal factors (stomatal conductance and behaviours) and non-stomatal factors (Hill reaction, apparent quantum efficiency, Rubisco activity, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation velocity, ribulose-1,5-bisphospate regeneration capacities mediated by maximum electron transport rates, and triose phosphate utilization rate) were investigated using a portable photosynthesis system. Moreover, the pollution of BPA in the environment was simulated. The results indicate that low-dose BPA enhanced net photosynthetic rate (P n ) primarily by promoting stomatal factors, resulting in increased relative growth rates and accelerated soybean seedling growth. High-dose BPA decreases the P n by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors, and this inhibition decreases the relative growth rates further reducing soybean seedling growth. Following the withdrawal of BPA, all of the indices were restored to varying degrees. In conclusion, low-dose BPA increased the P n by promoting stomatal factors while high-dose BPA decreased the P n by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors. These findings provide a model (or, hypothesis) for the effects of BPA on plant photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.; ...

    2015-03-02

    Stomatal conductance (g s) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of g s in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of g s that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed g s obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs accordingmore » to their marginal carbon cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model 1 and the leaf and wood economics spectrum 2,3. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. In conclusion, these findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of g s across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.« less

  13. Optimal stomatal behaviour around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan-Shih; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Duursma, Remko A.; Prentice, I. Colin; Wang, Han; Baig, Sofia; Eamus, Derek; de Dios, Victor Resco; Mitchell, Patrick; Ellsworth, David S.; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Wallin, Göran; Uddling, Johan; Tarvainen, Lasse; Linderson, Maj-Lena; Cernusak, Lucas A.; Nippert, Jesse B.; Ocheltree, Troy W.; Tissue, David T.; Martin-Stpaul, Nicolas K.; Rogers, Alistair; Warren, Jeff M.; de Angelis, Paolo; Hikosaka, Kouki; Han, Qingmin; Onoda, Yusuke; Gimeno, Teresa E.; Barton, Craig V. M.; Bennie, Jonathan; Bonal, Damien; Bosc, Alexandre; Löw, Markus; Macinins-Ng, Cate; Rey, Ana; Rowland, Lucy; Setterfield, Samantha A.; Tausz-Posch, Sabine; Zaragoza-Castells, Joana; Broadmeadow, Mark S. J.; Drake, John E.; Freeman, Michael; Ghannoum, Oula; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Kelly, Jeff W.; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro; Kolari, Pasi; Koyama, Kohei; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Meir, Patrick; Lola da Costa, Antonio C.; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Salinas, Norma; Sun, Wei; Wingate, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land-surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycle changes, a global-scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. Here, we present a database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We find that stomatal behaviour differs among PFTs according to their marginal carbon cost of water use, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model and the leaf and wood economics spectrum. We also demonstrate a global relationship with climate. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of gs across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of ecosystem productivity, energy balance and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  14. CDPKs CPK6 and CPK3 Function in ABA Regulation of Guard Cell S-Type Anion- and Ca2+- Permeable Channels and Stomatal Closure

    PubMed Central

    Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Yong-Fei; Andreoli, Shannon; Tiriac, Hervé; Alonso, Jose M; Harper, Jeffery F; Ecker, Joseph R; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction has been proposed to utilize cytosolic Ca2+ in guard cell ion channel regulation. However, genetic mutants in Ca2+ sensors that impair guard cell or plant ion channel signaling responses have not been identified, and whether Ca2+-independent ABA signaling mechanisms suffice for a full response remains unclear. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been proposed to contribute to central signal transduction responses in plants. However, no Arabidopsis CDPK gene disruption mutant phenotype has been reported to date, likely due to overlapping redundancies in CDPKs. Two Arabidopsis guard cell–expressed CDPK genes, CPK3 and CPK6, showed gene disruption phenotypes. ABA and Ca2+ activation of slow-type anion channels and, interestingly, ABA activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channels were impaired in independent alleles of single and double cpk3cpk6 mutant guard cells. Furthermore, ABA- and Ca2+-induced stomatal closing were partially impaired in these cpk3cpk6 mutant alleles. However, rapid-type anion channel current activity was not affected, consistent with the partial stomatal closing response in double mutants via a proposed branched signaling network. Imposed Ca2+ oscillation experiments revealed that Ca2+-reactive stomatal closure was reduced in CDPK double mutant plants. However, long-lasting Ca2+-programmed stomatal closure was not impaired, providing genetic evidence for a functional separation of these two modes of Ca2+-induced stomatal closing. Our findings show important functions of the CPK6 and CPK3 CDPKs in guard cell ion channel regulation and provide genetic evidence for calcium sensors that transduce stomatal ABA signaling. PMID:17032064

  15. Investigation into the importance of the stomatal pathway in the exchange of PCBs between air and plants.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jonathan L; Kurt, Perihan B; Thomas, Gareth O; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2002-10-15

    The transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from air to vegetation is an important air-surface exchange process that affects global cycling and can result in human and wildlife exposure via the terrestrial food chain. To improve understanding of this process, the role of stomata in uptake of gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated using Hemerocallis x hybrida "Black Eyed Stella", a plant with a high stomatal density. Uptake of PCBs was monitored over a 72-h period in the presence and absence of light. Uptake rates were significantly greater in illuminated (stomata open) plants than unilluminated (stomata closed) plants for 18 of the 28 measured PCB congeners (p < 0.05). Depuration of PCBs was monitored in a subsequent experiment over a period of 3 weeks. Levels after 3 weeks of depuration time were still much higher than the concentration prior to contamination. Tri- and tetrachlorinated PCBs showed the greatest depuration, with less than 20% and 50% of accumulated PCBs respectively remaining, while approximately 70% of higher chlorinated PCB congeners remained in the plants at the end of the experiment. Treatments with/without light (to control stomatal opening during uptake) and with/without abscisic acid (ABA) application (to control stomatal opening during depuration) were compared. After contamination indoors for 3 days, there was a significantly higher concentration of PCBs (p < 0.05) in the light contaminated plants than the dark-contaminated plants for 13 of the 28 measured PCB congeners. The ABA treatment affected depuration of PCB-18 only. "Light/ABA-treated" plants had a significantly slower depuration rate for PCB-18 than "light/untreated", "dark/ABA-treated", and "dark/untreated" plants (p < 0.05). The results of the study indicate that there is a stomatal effect on the rate of exchange of PCBs between Hemerocallis leaves and air.

  16. Vesicular stomatitis forecasting based on Google Trends

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Zhou, GuangYa; Chen, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Background Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. Methods American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends. After calculating the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, it was found that there was a relationship between outbreaks and keywords derived from Google Trends. Finally, the predicted model was constructed based on qualitative classification and quantitative regression. Results For the regression model, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the predicted outbreaks and actual outbreaks are 0.953 and 0.948, respectively. For the qualitative classification model, we constructed five classification predictive models and chose the best classification predictive model as the result. The results showed, SN (sensitivity), SP (specificity) and ACC (prediction accuracy) values of the best classification predictive model are 78.52%,72.5% and 77.14%, respectively. Conclusion This study applied Google search data to construct a qualitative classification model and a quantitative regression model. The results show that the method is effective and that these two models obtain more accurate forecast. PMID:29385198

  17. Abscisic acid-dependent regulation of small rubber particle protein gene expression in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum is mediated by TbbZIP1.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Julia; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Natural rubber is a high-molecular-mass biopolymer found in the latex of >2,500 plant species, including Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum and Taraxacum spp. The active sites of rubber biosynthesis are rubber particles, which comprise a hydrophobic rubber core surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer membrane containing species-dependent lipids and associated proteins. Small rubber particle proteins are the most abundant rubber particle-associated proteins in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TbSRPPs) and may promote rubber biosynthesis by stabilizing the rubber particle architecture. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding SRPPs and identified a bZIP transcription factor (TbbZIP.1) similar to the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI5-ABF-AREB subfamily, which is thought to include downstream targets of ABA and/or abiotic stress-inducible protein kinases. The TbbZIP.1 gene was predominantly expressed in laticifers and regulates the expression of TbSRPP genes in an ABA-dependent manner. The individual TbSRPP genes showed distinct induction profiles, suggesting diverse roles in rubber biosynthesis and stress adaptation. The potential involvement of TbSRPPs in the adaptation of T. brevicorniculatum plants to environmental stress is discussed based on our current knowledge of the stress-response roles of SRPPs and their homologs, and the protective function of latex and rubber against pathogens. Our data suggest that TbSRPPs contribute to stress tolerance in T. brevicorniculatum and that their effects are mediated by TbbZIP.1.

  18. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. A CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase TaCIPK2 Confers Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants through Regulating the Stomatal Movement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Li, Tingting; Wang, Meng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling pathways play key roles in the response to abiotic stresses. However, functional studies of CIPKs in the important staple crop wheat are very rare. In this study, we identified a CIPK gene from wheat, designated TaCIPK2. Expression analysis results showed that TaCIPK2 could be up-regulated in wheat leaves by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid and H2O2 treatments. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that TaCIPK2 was present in whole wheat epidermal cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that TaCIPK2 interacted with TaCBL1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing TaCIPK2 exhibited increased drought tolerance, indicated by a larger proportion of green cotyledons and higher survival rates under the osmotic and drought stress conditions compared with control plants. Additionally, physiological index analyses revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants had lower water loss rates and ion leakage, accumulated less malondialdehyde and H2O2, and had higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities than the control plants. The transgenic plants also exhibited faster stomatal closure following exposure to osmotic stress conditions. The seed germination rates and stomatal aperture of TaCIPK2-overexpressing tobacco plants decreased after exogenous abscisic acid treatment was applied, implying that the transgenic tobacco plants were more sensitive to exogenous abscisic acid than the control plants. Our results indicate that TaCIPK2 plays a positive regulatory role in drought stress responses in transgenic tobacco plants.

  20. Analysis of Cytokinin Mutants and Regulation of Cytokinin Metabolic Genes Reveals Important Regulatory Roles of Cytokinins in Drought, Salt and Abscisic Acid Responses, and Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Fujita, Yasunari; Le, Dung Tien; Kojima, Mikiko; Werner, Tomás; Vankova, Radomira; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Schmülling, Thomas; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2011-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) regulate plant growth and development via a complex network of CK signaling. Here, we perform functional analyses with CK-deficient plants to provide direct evidence that CKs negatively regulate salt and drought stress signaling. All CK-deficient plants with reduced levels of various CKs exhibited a strong stress-tolerant phenotype that was associated with increased cell membrane integrity and abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity rather than stomatal density and ABA-mediated stomatal closure. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ISOPENTENYL-TRANSFERASE genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive CKs and the majority of the Arabidopsis CYTOKININ OXIDASES/DEHYDROGENASES genes was repressed by stress and ABA treatments, leading to a decrease in biologically active CK contents. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for survival under abiotic stress conditions via the homeostatic regulation of steady state CK levels. Additionally, under normal conditions, although CK deficiency increased the sensitivity of plants to exogenous ABA, it caused a downregulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes, leading to a significant reduction in endogenous ABA levels in CK-deficient plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, this study provides direct evidence that mutual regulation mechanisms exist between the CK and ABA metabolism and signals underlying different processes regulating plant adaptation to stressors as well as plant growth and development. PMID:21719693

  1. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration

    PubMed Central

    Šantrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Šimková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Methods Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. 13C abundance (δ13C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. Key Results SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. Conclusions It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci–SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. PMID:24825295

  2. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Santrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Simková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-08-01

    Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. (13)C abundance (δ(13)C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci-SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Liaoning Forestry Vocational-Technical College, Shenyang 110101; Wang, Congpeng

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35)more » was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.« less

  4. Plant water potential improves prediction of empirical stomatal models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, William R L; Wolf, Adam; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Choat, Brendan; Chmura, Daniel J; Jansen, Steven; Kolb, Thomas; Li, Shan; Meinzer, Frederick; Pita, Pilar; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Sperry, John S; Wolfe, Brett T; Pacala, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model. We find that current leaf-level empirical models have consistent biases of over-prediction of stomatal conductance during dry conditions, particularly at low soil water potentials. Furthermore, the recently proposed stomatal conductance model yields increases in predictive capability compared to current models, and with particular improvement during drought conditions. Our results reveal that including stomatal sensitivity to declining water potential and consequent impairment of plant water transport will improve predictions during drought conditions and show that many biomes contain a diversity of plant stomatal strategies that range from risky to conservative stomatal regulation during water stress. Such improvements in stomatal simulation are greatly needed to help unravel and predict the response of ecosystems to future climate extremes.

  5. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Thiol-based redox proteins in abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate signaling in Brassica napus guard cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Ning; Song, Wen-yuan; Harmon, Alice C; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue

    2014-05-01

    Reversibly oxidized cysteine sulfhydryl groups serve as redox sensors or targets of redox sensing that are important in various physiological processes. However, little is known about redox-sensitive proteins in guard cells and how they function in stomatal signaling. In this study, Brassica napus guard-cell proteins altered by redox in response to abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were identified by complementary proteomics approaches, saturation differential in-gel electrophoresis and isotope-coded affinity tagging. In total, 65 and 118 potential redox-responsive proteins were identified in ABA- and MeJA-treated guard cells, respectively. All the proteins contain at least one cysteine, and over half of them are predicted to form intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Most of the proteins fall into the functional groups of 'energy', 'stress and defense' and 'metabolism'. Based on the peptide sequences identified by mass spectrometry, 30 proteins were common to ABA- and MeJA-treated samples. A total of 44 cysteines were mapped in the identified proteins, and their levels of redox sensitivity were quantified. Two of the proteins, a sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase and an isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, were confirmed to be redox-regulated and involved in stomatal movement. This study creates an inventory of potential redox switches, and highlights a protein redox regulatory mechanism in ABA and MeJA signal transduction in guard cells. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Ca 2+ Priming in Arabidopsis Guard Cell Stomatal Closure in Response to the Drought Hormone Abscisic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Aaron B.

    2014-11-01

    A primary objective of modern agriculture and biofuel production is to utilize arable land to its fullest potential. However, sub-optimal growing conditions—arising from abiotic stresses such as drought, soil salinity, low humidity, cold, and heat—reduce crop yield and quality. Optimal yield under both stressed and non-stressed conditions requires the plant to activate coping mechanisms at a level commensurate with the severity of the drought stress. The osmotic sensors and associated regulatory mechanisms that initiate drought- and salt-tolerance responses in plants are largely unknown. This research aimed to identify and characterize these initial sensory components.

  8. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. WRKY Transcription Factors: Key Components in Abscisic Acid Signaling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Review article WRKY transcription factors : key components in abscisic acid signalling Deena L. Rushton1, Prateek Tripathi1, Roel C. Rabara1, Jun Lin1...May 2011. *Correspondence (Tel +605 688 5749; fax +605 688 5624; email paul.rushton@sdstate.edu) Keywords: abscisic acid, WRKY transcription factor ...seed germination, drought, abiotic stress. Summary WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of many plant processes, including the responses

  10. Overproduction of Abscisic Acid in Tomato Increases Transpiration Efficiency and Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Influences Leaf Expansion1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Andrew J.; Andrews, John; Mulholland, Barry J.; McKee, John M.T.; Hilton, Howard W.; Horridge, Jon S.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Smeeton, Rachel C.; Smillie, Ian R.A.; Black, Colin R.; Taylor, Ian B.

    2007-01-01

    Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in δ13C and δ18O, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty. PMID:17277097

  11. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  12. Overproduction of abscisic acid in tomato increases transpiration efficiency and root hydraulic conductivity and influences leaf expansion.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew J; Andrews, John; Mulholland, Barry J; McKee, John M T; Hilton, Howard W; Horridge, Jon S; Farquhar, Graham D; Smeeton, Rachel C; Smillie, Ian R A; Black, Colin R; Taylor, Ian B

    2007-04-01

    Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in delta(13)C and delta(18)O, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty.

  13. The Dynamics of Embolism Refilling in Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Deficient Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Francesca; Perrone, Irene; Chitarra, Walter; Zwieniecka, Anna K.; Lovisolo, Claudio; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are in danger of embolism formation in xylem vessels when the balance between water transport capacity and transpirational demand is compromised. To maintain this delicate balance, plants must regulate the rate of transpiration and, if necessary, restore water transport in embolized vessels. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the dominant long-distance signal responsible for plant response to stress, and it is possible that it plays a role in the embolism/refilling cycle. To test this idea, a temporal analysis of embolism and refilling dynamics, transpiration rate and starch content was performed on ABA-deficient mutant tomato plants. ABA-deficient mutants were more vulnerable to embolism formation than wild-type plants, and application of exogenous ABA had no effect on vulnerability. However, mutant plants treated with exogenous ABA had lower stomatal conductance and reduced starch content in the xylem parenchyma cells. The lower starch content could have an indirect effect on the plant’s refilling activity. The results confirm that plants with high starch content (moderately stressed mutant plants) were more likely to recover from loss of water transport capacity than plants with low starch content (mutant plants with application of exogenous ABA) or plants experiencing severe water stress. This study demonstrates that ABA most likely does not play any direct role in embolism refilling, but through the modulation of carbohydrate content, it could influence the plant’s capacity for refilling. PMID:23263667

  14. Overexpression of the transcription factor NF-YC9 confers abscisic acid hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chao; Ma, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family proteins are involved in many developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plants, but whether and how they regulate phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) signaling need further studies. In the present study, we showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers ABA hypersensitivity in both the early seedling growth and stomatal response, while down-regulation of NF-YC9 does not affect ABA response in these processes. We also showed that over-expression of the NF-YC9 gene confers salt and osmotic hypersensitivity in early seedling growth, which is likely to be directly associated with the ABA hypersensitivity. Further, we observed that NF-YC9 physically interacts with the ABA-responsive bZIP transcription factor ABA-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), and facilitates the function of ABI5 to bind and activate the promoter of a target gene EM6. Additionally, NF-YC9 up-regulates expression of the ABI5 gene in response to ABA. These findings show that NF-YC9 may be involved in ABA signaling as a positive regulator and likely functions redundantly together with other NF-YC members, and support the model that the NF-YC9 mediates ABA signaling via targeting to and aiding the ABA-responsive transcription factors such as ABI5.

  15. A Rationally Designed Agonist Defines Subfamily IIIA Abscisic Acid Receptors As Critical Targets for Manipulating Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Aditya S; Peterson, Francis C; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Merilo, Ebe; Verstraeten, Inge; Park, Sang-Youl; Elzinga, Dezi; Kaundal, Amita; Helander, Jonathan; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Otani, Masato; Wu, Kevin; Jensen, Davin R; Kollist, Hannes; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2017-11-17

    Increasing drought and diminishing freshwater supplies have stimulated interest in developing small molecules that can be used to control transpiration. Receptors for the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have emerged as key targets for this application, because ABA controls the apertures of stomata, which in turn regulate transpiration. Here, we describe the rational design of cyanabactin, an ABA receptor agonist that preferentially activates Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) with low nanomolar potency. A 1.63 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of cyanabactin in complex with PYR1 illustrates that cyanabactin's arylnitrile mimics ABA's cyclohexenone oxygen and engages the tryptophan lock, a key component required to stabilize activated receptors. Further, its sulfonamide and 4-methylbenzyl substructures mimic ABA's carboxylate and C6 methyl groups, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that cyanabactin's compact structure provides ready access to high ligand efficiency on a relatively simple scaffold. Cyanabactin treatments reduce Arabidopsis whole-plant stomatal conductance and activate multiple ABA responses, demonstrating that its in vitro potency translates to ABA-like activity in vivo. Genetic analyses show that the effects of cyanabactin, and the previously identified agonist quinabactin, can be abolished by the genetic removal of PYR1 and PYL1, which form subclade A within the dimeric subfamily III receptors. Thus, cyanabactin is a potent and selective agonist with a wide spectrum of ABA-like activities that defines subfamily IIIA receptors as key target sites for manipulating transpiration.

  16. Mechanisms of stomatal development: an evolutionary view

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Plant development has a significant postembryonic phase that is guided heavily by interactions between the plant and the outside environment. This interplay is particularly evident in the development, pattern and function of stomata, epidermal pores on the aerial surfaces of land plants. Stomata have been found in fossils dating from more than 400 million years ago. Strikingly, the morphology of the individual stomatal complex is largely unchanged, but the sizes, numbers and arrangements of stomata and their surrounding cells have diversified tremendously. In many plants, stomata arise from specialized and transient stem-cell like compartments on the leaf. Studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana have established a basic molecular framework for the acquisition of cell fate and generation of cell polarity in these compartments, as well as describing some of the key signals and receptors required to produce stomata in organized patterns and in environmentally optimized numbers. Here we present parallel analyses of stomatal developmental pathways at morphological and molecular levels and describe the innovations made by particular clades of plants. PMID:22691547

  17. A new discrete dynamic model of ABA-induced stomatal closure predicts key feedback loops

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Biswa R.; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Zañudo, Jorge G. T.; Zhu, Mengmeng; Osman, Karim; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated. We integrated and processed hundreds of disparate observations regarding ABA signal transduction responses underlying stomatal closure into a network of 84 nodes and 156 edges and, as a result, established those relationships, including identification of a 36-node, strongly connected (feedback-rich) component as well as its in- and out-components. The network’s domination by a feedback-rich component may reflect a general feature of rapid signaling events. We developed a discrete dynamic model of this network and elucidated the effects of ABA plus knockout or constitutive activity of 79 nodes on both the outcome of the system (closure) and the status of all internal nodes. The model, with more than 1024 system states, is far from fully determined by the available data, yet model results agree with existing experiments in 82 cases and disagree in only 17 cases, a validation rate of 75%. Our results reveal nodes that could be engineered to impact stomatal closure in a controlled fashion and also provide over 140 novel predictions for which experimental data are currently lacking. Noting the paucity of wet-bench data regarding combinatorial effects of ABA and internal node activation, we experimentally confirmed several

  18. A novel root-to-shoot stomatal response to very high CO2 levels in the soil: electrical, hydraulic and biochemical signalling.

    PubMed

    Lake, Janice A; Walker, Heather J; Cameron, Duncan D; Lomax, Barry H

    2017-04-01

    Investigations were undertaken in the context of the potential environmental impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) transportation in the form of a hypothetical leak of extreme levels of CO 2 into the soil environment and subsequent effects on plant physiology. Laboratory studies using purpose built soil chambers, separating and isolating the soil and aerial environments, were used to introduce high levels of CO 2 gas exclusively into the rhizosphere. CO 2 concentrations greater than 32% in the isolated soil environment revealed a previously unknown whole plant stomatal response. Time course measurements of stomatal conductance (g s ), leaf temperature and leaf abscisic acid (ABA) show strong coupling between all three variables over a specific period (3 h following CO 2 gassing) occurring as a result of CO 2 -specific detection by roots. The coupling of g s and ABA subsequently breaks down resulting in a rapid and complete loss of turgor in the shoot. Root access to water is severely restricted as evidenced by the inability to counter turgor loss, however, the plant regains some turgor over time. Recovery of full turgor is not achieved over the longer term. Results suggest an immediate perception and whole plant response as changes in measured parameters (leaf temperature, g s and ABA) occur in the shoot, but the response is solely due to detection of very high CO 2 concentration at the root/soil interface which results in loss of stomatal regulation and disruption to control over water uptake. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    PubMed

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions.

  20. The tomato mutant ars1 (altered response to salt stress 1) identifies an R1-type MYB transcription factor involved in stomatal closure under salt acclimation.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juan F; Cara, Beatriz; Pérez-Martín, Fernando; Pineda, Benito; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Capel, Juan; Moreno, Vicente; Angosto, Trinidad; Lozano, Rafael; Bolarin, Maria C

    2016-06-01

    A screening under salt stress conditions of a T-DNA mutant collection of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) led to the identification of the altered response to salt stress 1 (ars1) mutant, which showed a salt-sensitive phenotype. Genetic analysis of the ars1 mutation revealed that a single T-DNA insertion in the ARS1 gene was responsible of the mutant phenotype. ARS1 coded for an R1-MYB type transcription factor and its expression was induced by salinity in leaves. The mutant reduced fruit yield under salt acclimation while in the absence of stress the disruption of ARS1 did not affect this agronomic trait. The stomatal behaviour of ars1 mutant leaves induced higher Na(+) accumulation via the transpiration stream, as the decreases of stomatal conductance and transpiration rate induced by salt stress were markedly lower in the mutant plants. Moreover, the mutation affected stomatal closure in a response mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The characterization of tomato transgenic lines silencing and overexpressing ARS1 corroborates the role of the gene in regulating the water loss via transpiration under salinity. Together, our results show that ARS1 tomato gene contributes to reduce transpirational water loss under salt stress. Finally, this gene could be interesting for tomato molecular breeding, because its manipulation could lead to improved stress tolerance without yield penalty under optimal culture conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Estimating maximum mean canopy stomatal conductance for use in models

    Treesearch

    Brent E. Ewers; Ram Oren; Kurt H. Johnsen; J.J Landsberg

    2001-01-01

    Fertilized (F) and irrigated and fertilized (IF) stands of Pinus taeda L. produced twice the leaf area index of irrigated (I) and control (C) stands. Based on sap flux-scaled mean stomatal conductance (GS), we found that stomatal conductance in F was half that in other treatments. During the growing season, GS was related to...

  2. Positive and negative peptide signals control stomatal density.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tomoo; Sugano, Shigeo S; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2011-06-01

    The stoma is a micro valve found on aerial plant organs that promotes gas exchange between the atmosphere and the plant body. Each stoma is formed by a strict cell lineage during the early stages of leaf development. Molecular genetics research using the model plant Arabidopsis has revealed the genes involved in stomatal differentiation. Cysteine-rich secretory peptides of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family play crucial roles as extracellular signaling factors. Stomatal development is orchestrated by the positive factor STOMAGEN/EPFL9 and the negative factors EPF1, EPF2, and CHALLAH/EPFL6 in combination with multiple receptors. EPF1 and EPF2 are produced in the stomatal lineage cells of the epidermis, whereas STOMAGEN and CHALLAH are derived from the inner tissues. These findings highlight the complex cell-to-cell and intertissue communications that regulate stomatal development. To optimize gas exchange, particularly the balance between the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and loss of water, plants control stomatal activity in response to environmental conditions. The CO(2) level and light intensity influence stomatal density. Plants sense environmental cues in mature leaves and adjust the stomatal density of newly forming leaves, indicating the involvement of long-distance systemic signaling. This review summarizes recent research progress in the peptide signaling of stomatal development and discusses the evolutionary model of the signaling machinery.

  3. Stomatal Spacing Safeguards Stomatal Dynamics by Facilitating Guard Cell Ion Transport Independent of the Epidermal Solute Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna; Blatt, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Stomata enable gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere through the stomatal pore. Control of the pore aperture depends on osmotic solute accumulation by, and its loss from the guard cells surrounding the pore. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal cell, and this spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function, although there are several genera that exhibit stomata in clusters. We made use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal patterning mutants to explore the impact of clustering on guard cell dynamics, gas exchange, and ion transport of guard cells. These studies showed that stomatal clustering in the Arabidopsis too many mouths (tmm1) mutant suppressed stomatal movements and affected CO2 assimilation and transpiration differentially between dark and light conditions and were associated with alterations in K(+) channel gating. These changes were consistent with the impaired dynamics of tmm1 stomata and were accompanied by a reduced accumulation of K(+) ions in the guard cells. Our findings underline the significance of spacing for stomatal dynamics. While stomatal spacing may be important as a reservoir for K(+) and other ions to facilitate stomatal movements, the effects on channel gating, and by inference on K(+) accumulation, cannot be explained on the basis of a reduced number of epidermal cells facilitating ion supply to the guard cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    PubMed

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  5. Abscisic Acid Levels and Seed Dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, E.; Tzou, D. S.; Galson, Eva C.

    1968-01-01

    Dormant seeds from Fraxinus species require cold-temperature after-ripening prior to germination. Earlier, we found that abscisic acid (ABA) will inhibit germination of excised nondormant embryos and that this can be reversed with a combination of gibberellic acid and kinetin. Using Milborrow's quantitative “racemate dilution” method the ABA concentration in 3 types of Fraxinus seed and pericarp were determined. While ABA was present in all tissues, the highest concentration was found in the seed and pericarp of dormant F. americana. During the chilling treatment of F. americana the ABA levels decreased 37% in the pericarp and 68% in the seed. The ABA concentration of the seed of the nondormant species, F. ornus, is as low as that found in F. americana seeds after cold treatment. Experiments with exogenously added ABA solutions indicate that it is unlikely that the ABA in the pericarp functions in the regulation of seed dormancy. However, the ABA in the seed does seem to have a regulatory role in germination. Images PMID:16656935

  6. Abscisic Acid and abiotic stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra

    2007-05-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis.

  7. Abscisic Acid and Abiotic Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Abiotic stress is severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on irrigated land worldwide. Overall, the susceptibility or tolerance to the stress in plants is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also cross-talk with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Plant responses to abiotic stress can be determined by the severity of the stress and by the metabolic status of the plant. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone critical for plant growth and development and plays an important role in integrating various stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses. Plants have to adjust ABA levels constantly in responce to changing physiological and environmental conditions. To date, the mechanisms for fine-tuning of ABA levels remain elusive. The mechanisms by which plants respond to stress include both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes. Various transcription factors such as DREB2A/2B, AREB1, RD22BP1 and MYC/MYB are known to regulate the ABA-responsive gene expression through interacting with their corrosponding cis-acting elements such as DRE/CRT, ABRE and MYCRS/MYBRS, respectively. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve stress tolerance in crops plants. This article first describes the general pathway for plant stress response followed by roles of ABA and transcription factors in stress tolerance including the regulation of ABA biosynthesis. PMID:19516981

  8. Generalized hydromechanical model for stomatal responses to hydraulic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H W; Choi, M Y

    2014-01-07

    Stomata respond in a common pattern to various hydraulic perturbations on any part of the 'soil-plant-air' system: initial transient 'wrong-way' responses and final stationary 'right-way' responses. In order to describe this pattern on the basis of statistical physics, we propose a simple model where turgor pressure of a cell is taken to be a power function of its volume, and obtain results in qualitative agreement with experimental data for responses to a variety of hydraulic perturbations: Firstly, stationary stomatal conductance as a function of the vapor pressure deficit divides into three regimes characterized by sensitivities of the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate with respect to vapor pressure deficit; secondly, for every hydraulic perturbation, the initial transient 'wrong-way' responses always appear; thirdly, on condition that water is supplied insufficiently, stomatal oscillations are often observed; finally, stomatal responses following leaf excision exhibit, after the initial transient wrong-way responses, slow relaxation to stomatal closing. In particular, comparison of areoles having different numbers of stomata demonstrates that areoles with small numbers of stomata tend to provoke lack of water in the soil as well as in the plant. In addition, our model also describes well dependence of the stomatal conductance on temperature. It may be extended further to describe stomatal responses to other environmental factors such as carbon dioxide, light, and temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Origins and Evolution of Stomatal Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The fossil record suggests stomata-like pores were present on the surfaces of land plants over 400 million years ago. Whether stomata arose once or whether they arose independently across newly evolving land plant lineages has long been a matter of debate. In Arabidopsis, a genetic toolbox has been identified that tightly controls stomatal development and patterning. This includes the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, FAMA, and ICE/SCREAMs (SCRMs), which promote stomatal formation. These factors are regulated via a signaling cascade, which includes mobile EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides to enforce stomatal spacing. Mosses and hornworts, the most ancient extant lineages to possess stomata, possess orthologs of these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal toolbox genes, and manipulation in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens has shown that the bHLH and EPF components are also required for moss stomatal development and patterning. This supports an ancient and tightly conserved genetic origin of stomata. Here, we review recent discoveries and, by interrogating newly available plant genomes, we advance the story of stomatal development and patterning across land plant evolution. Furthermore, we identify potential orthologs of the key toolbox genes in a hornwort, further supporting a single ancient genetic origin of stomata in the ancestor to all stomatous land plants. PMID:28356502

  10. OsASR5 enhances drought tolerance through a stomatal closure pathway associated with ABA and H2 O2 signalling in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjie; Li, Yang; Yin, Zhigang; Jiang, Jihong; Zhang, Minghui; Guo, Xiao; Ye, Zhujia; Zhao, Yan; Xiong, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhanying; Shao, Yujie; Jiang, Conghui; Zhang, Hongliang; An, Gynheung; Paek, Nam-Chon; Ali, Jauhar; Li, Zichao

    2017-02-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that directly implicate plant growth and crop productivity. Although many genes in response to drought stress have been identified, genetic improvement to drought resistance especially in food crops is showing relatively slow progress worldwide. Here, we reported the isolation of abscisic acid, stress and ripening (ASR) genes from upland rice variety, IRAT109 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and demonstrated that overexpression of OsASR5 enhanced osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis and rice by regulating leaf water status under drought stress conditions. Moreover, overexpression of OsASR5 in rice increased endogenous ABA level and showed hypersensitive to exogenous ABA treatment at both germination and postgermination stages. The production of H 2 O 2 , a second messenger for the induction of stomatal closure in response to ABA, was activated in overexpression plants under drought stress conditions, consequently, increased stomatal closure and decreased stomatal conductance. In contrast, the loss-of-function mutant, osasr5, showed sensitivity to drought stress with lower relative water content under drought stress conditions. Further studies demonstrated that OsASR5 functioned as chaperone-like protein and interacted with stress-related HSP40 and 2OG-Fe (II) oxygenase domain containing proteins in yeast and plants. Taken together, we suggest that OsASR5 plays multiple roles in response to drought stress by regulating ABA biosynthesis, promoting stomatal closure, as well as acting as chaperone-like protein that possibly prevents drought stress-related proteins from inactivation. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Stomatal innovation and the rise of seed plants.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Stomatal valves on the leaves of vascular plants not only prevent desiccation but also dynamically regulate water loss to maintain efficient daytime water use. This latter process involves sophisticated active control of stomatal aperture that may be absent from early-branching plant clades. To test this hypothesis, we compare the stomatal response to light intensity in 13 species of ferns and lycophytes with a diverse sample of seed plants to determine whether the capacity to optimise water use is an ancestral or derived feature of stomatal physiology. We found that in seed plants, the ratio of photosynthesis to water use remained high and constant at different light intensities, but fern and lycophyte stomata were incapable of sustaining homeostatic water use efficiency. We conclude that efficient water use in early seed plants provided them with a competitive advantage that contributed to the decline of fern and lycophyte dominated-ecosystems in the late Paleozoic. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Investigating Polyploidy: Using Marigold Stomates and Fingernail Polish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Kimberly L.; Leone, Rebecca S.; Kohlhepp, Kimberly; Hunter, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a science activity on polyploidy targeting middle and high school students which can be used to discuss topics such as chromosomes, cells, plant growth, and functions of stomates. Integrates mathematics in data collection. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  13. Investigations on stomatal uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS, OCS) and deposition velocities result in new estimates of global COS deposition to vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Soto, L.; Stanimirov, M.; Valdez, J.; von Hobe, M.; Schmitt, V.; Wild, A.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2003-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS, OCS) is a highly stable reduced sulfur gas species in the atmosphere. Due to its inertness within the troposphere it can be transported into the stratosphere where it contributes to form SO2 and sulfate aerosol. Additionally it may be involved in heterogeneous reactions in stratospheric ozone chemistry. One of the major sinks for this trace gas is the vegetation. Based on investigations with trees under a light and dark regime and reacting to the hormone abscisic acid we demonstrated the stomatal uptake of COS to be the dominating pathway for COS deposition to plant surfaces. Taking into account deposition velocities of COS, which are higher than for CO2, we recalculated the global COS deposition to vegetation based on a new refined estimation model.

  14. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  15. Abscisic Acid Metabolism in Relation to Water Stress and Leaf Age in Xanthium strumarium1

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Katrina; Zeevaart, Jan A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Intact plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were subjected to a water stress-recovery cycle. As the stress took effect, leaf growth ceased and stomatal resistance increased. The mature leaves then wilted, followed by the half expanded ones. Water, solute, and pressure potentials fell steadily in all leaves during the rest of the stress period. After 3 days, the young leaves lost turgor and the plants were rewatered. All the leaves rapidly regained turgor and the younger ones recommenced elongation. Stomatal resistance declined, but several days elapsed before pre-stress values were attained. Abscisic acid (ABA) and phaseic acid (PA) levels rose in all the leaves after the mature ones wilted. ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) levels increased to a lesser extent, and the young leaves contained little of this conjugate. PA leveled off in the older leaves during the last 24 hours of stress, and ABA levels declined slightly. The young leaves accumulated ABA and PA throughout the stress period and during the 14-hour period immediately following rewatering. The ABA and PA contents, expressed per unit dry weight, were highest in the young leaves. Upon rewatering, large quantities of PA appeared in the mature leaves as ABA levels fell to the pre-stress level within 14 hours. In the half expanded and young leaves, it took several days to reach pre-stress ABA values. ABA-GE synthesis ceased in the mature leaves, once the stress was relieved, but continued in the half expanded and young leaves for 2 days. Mature leaves, when detached and stressed, accumulated an amount of ABA similar to that in leaves on the intact plant. In contrast, detached and stressed young leaves produced little ABA. Detached mature leaves, and to a lesser extent the half expanded ones, rapidly catabolized ABA to PA and ABA-GE, but the young leaves did not. Studies with radioactive (±)-ABA indicated that in young leaves the conversion of ABA to PA took place at a much lower rate than in mature ones. Leaves of all

  16. Abscisic Acid Metabolism in Relation to Water Stress and Leaf Age in Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Cornish, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1984-12-01

    Intact plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were subjected to a water stress-recovery cycle. As the stress took effect, leaf growth ceased and stomatal resistance increased. The mature leaves then wilted, followed by the half expanded ones. Water, solute, and pressure potentials fell steadily in all leaves during the rest of the stress period. After 3 days, the young leaves lost turgor and the plants were rewatered. All the leaves rapidly regained turgor and the younger ones recommenced elongation. Stomatal resistance declined, but several days elapsed before pre-stress values were attained.Abscisic acid (ABA) and phaseic acid (PA) levels rose in all the leaves after the mature ones wilted. ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) levels increased to a lesser extent, and the young leaves contained little of this conjugate. PA leveled off in the older leaves during the last 24 hours of stress, and ABA levels declined slightly. The young leaves accumulated ABA and PA throughout the stress period and during the 14-hour period immediately following rewatering. The ABA and PA contents, expressed per unit dry weight, were highest in the young leaves. Upon rewatering, large quantities of PA appeared in the mature leaves as ABA levels fell to the pre-stress level within 14 hours. In the half expanded and young leaves, it took several days to reach pre-stress ABA values. ABA-GE synthesis ceased in the mature leaves, once the stress was relieved, but continued in the half expanded and young leaves for 2 days.Mature leaves, when detached and stressed, accumulated an amount of ABA similar to that in leaves on the intact plant. In contrast, detached and stressed young leaves produced little ABA. Detached mature leaves, and to a lesser extent the half expanded ones, rapidly catabolized ABA to PA and ABA-GE, but the young leaves did not. Studies with radioactive (+/-)-ABA indicated that in young leaves the conversion of ABA to PA took place at a much lower rate than in mature ones. Leaves of all

  17. The acclimation of Tilia cordata stomatal opening in response to light, and stomatal anatomy to vegetational shade and its components.

    PubMed

    Aasamaa, Krõõt; Aphalo, Pedro José

    2017-02-01

    Stomatal anatomical traits and rapid responses to several components of visible light were measured in Tilia cordata Mill. seedlings grown in an open, fully sunlit field (C-set), or under different kinds of shade. The main questions were: (i) stomatal responses to which visible light spectrum regions are modified by growth-environment shade and (ii) which separate component of vegetational shade is most effective in eliciting the acclimation effects of the full vegetational shade. We found that stomatal opening in response to red or green light did not differ between the plants grown in the different environments. Stomatal response to blue light was increased (in comparison with that of C-set) in the leaves grown in full vegetational shade (IABW-set), in attenuated UVAB irradiance (AB-set) or in decreased light intensity (neutral shade) plus attenuated UVAB irradiance (IAB-set). In all sets, the addition of green light-two or four times stronger-into induction light barely changed the rate of the blue-light-stimulated stomatal opening. In the AB-set, stomatal response to blue light equalled the strong IABW-set response. In attenuated UVB-grown leaves, stomatal response fell midway between IABW- and C-set results. Blue light response by neutral shade-grown leaves did not differ from that of the C-set, and the response by the IAB-set did not differ from that of the AB-set. Stomatal size was not modified by growth environments. Stomatal density and index were remarkably decreased only in the IABW- and IAB-sets. It was concluded that differences in white light responses between T. cordata leaves grown in different light environments are caused only by their different blue light response. Differences in stomatal sensitivity are not dependent on altered stomatal anatomy. Attenuated UVAB irradiance is the most efficient component of vegetational shade in stimulating acclimation of stomata, whereas decreased light intensity plays a minor role. © The Author 2016. Published

  18. Effect of Abscisic Acid on the Gain of the Feedback Loop Involving Carbon Dioxide and Stomata 1

    PubMed Central

    Dubbe, Dean R.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Raschke, Klaus

    1978-01-01

    Gains of the feedback loops involving intercellular CO2 concentration on one hand, and CO2 assimilation and stomata on the other (= assimilation loop with gain [GA] and conductance loop with gain [Gg]) were determined in detached leaves of Amaranthus powelli S. Wats., Avena sativa L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Zea mays in the absence and presence of 10−5 m (±) abscisic acid (ABA) in the transpiration stream. Determinations were made for an ambient CO2 concentration of 300 microliters per liter. In the absence of ABA, stomata were insensitive to CO2 (Gg between 0.00 and −0.02) in A. sativa, G. hirsutum, and X. strumarium, sensitive in A powelli (Gg = −0.46), and very sensitive in Z. mays (Gg = −3.6). Addition of ABA increased the absolute values of the gain of the conductance loop in A. powelli (Gg = −2.0), G. hirsutum (Gg = −0.31), and X. strumarium (Gg = −1.14). Stomata closed completely in A. sativa. In Z. mays, Gg decreased after application of ABA to a value of −0.86, but stomatal sensitivity to CO2 increased for intercellular CO2 concentrations < 100 microliters per liter. The gain of the assimilation loop increased after application of ABA in all cases, from values between 0.0 (A. powelli) and −0.21 (Z. mays) in the absence of ABA to values between −0.19 (A. powelli) and −0.43 (Z. mays) in the presence of ABA. In none of the species examined did ABA affect the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves. The application of ABA caused stomatal narrowing which affected transpiration more than the assimilation of CO2. In the case of A. powelli the transpiration ratio decreased without a concomitant reduction of the assimilation rate. PMID:16660528

  19. A new stomatal paradigm for earth system models? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M. D.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2013-12-01

    The land component of climate, and now earth system, models has simulated stomatal conductance since the introduction in the mid-1980s of the so-called second generation models that explicitly represented plant canopies. These second generation models used the Jarvis-style stomatal conductance model, which empirically relates stomatal conductance to photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, CO2 concentration, and other factors. Subsequent models of stomatal conductance were developed from a more mechanistic understanding of stomatal physiology, particularly that stomata are regulated so as to maximize net CO2 assimilation (An) and minimize water loss during transpiration (E). This concept is embodied in the Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model, which relates stomatal conductance (gs) to net assimilation (An), scaled by the ratio of leaf surface relative humidity to leaf surface CO2 concentration, or the Leuning variant which replaces relative humidity with a vapor pressure deficit term. This coupled gs-An model has been widely used in climate and earth system models since the mid-1990s. An alternative approach models stomatal conductance by directly optimizing water use efficiency, defined as the ratio An/gs or An/E. Conceptual developments over the past several years have shown that the Ball-Berry style model can be derived from optimization theory. However, an explicit optimization model has not been tested in an earth system model. We compare the Ball-Berry model with an explicit optimization model, both implemented in a new plant canopy parameterization developed for the Community Land Model, the land component of the Community Earth System Model. The optimization model is from the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere (SPA) model, which integrates plant and soil hydraulics, carbon assimilation, and gas diffusion. The canopy parameterization is multi-layer and resolves profiles of radiation, temperature, vapor pressure, leaf water stress

  20. Temperature Variation under Continuous Light Restores Tomato Leaf Photosynthesis and Maintains the Diurnal Pattern in Stomatal Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad S.; de Sousa, Alexandra; Soares, Cristiano; Kjaer, Katrine H.; Fidalgo, Fernanda; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2017-01-01

    The response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Aromata) to continuous light (CL) in relation to photosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated to improve the understanding of the development and/or alleviation of CL-induced leaf injury in constant and diurnal temperature fluctuations with similar daily light integral and daily mean temperature. The plants were grown in three photoperiodic treatments for 15 days; One treatment with a 16/8 h light/dark period and a light/dark temperature of 27/17°C (Control), two CL treatments with 24 h photoperiods, one with a constant temperature of 24°C (CLCT) and the other one with variable temperature of 27/17°C for 16/8 ho, respectively (CLVT). A diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance (gs) and [ABA] was observed in the plants grown in the control and CLVT conditions, while the plants in CLCT conditions experienced a significant decrease in stomatal conductance aligned with an increase in ABA. The net photosynthesis (A) was significantly reduced in CLCT, aligned with a significant decrease in the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax) and mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 (gm) in comparison to the control and CLVT. An increased production of H2O2 and O2•- linked with increased activities of antioxidative enzymes was seen in both CL treatments, but despite of this, leaf injuries were only observed in the CLCT treatment. The results suggest that the diurnal temperature fluctuations alleviated the CL injury symptoms, probably because the diurnal cycles of cellular mechanisms were maintained. The ROS were shown not to be directly involved in CL-induced leaf injury, since both ROS production and scavenging was highest in CLVT without leaf chlorotic symptoms. PMID:28979273

  1. Incorporation of Oxygen into Abscisic Acid and Phaseic Acid from Molecular Oxygen 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% 18O2 and 80% N2 indicates that one atom of 18O is incorporated in the 6′-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing 18O2 indicates that one atom of 18O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1′-, 4′-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1′- and 4′-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress. PMID:16663564

  2. Incorporation of oxygen into abscisic Acid and phaseic Acid from molecular oxygen.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Zeevaart, J A

    1984-05-01

    Abscisic acid accumulates in detached, wilted leaves of Xanthium strumarium. When these leaves are subsequently rehydrated, phaseic acid, a catabolite of abscisic acid, accumulates. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of phaseic acid isolated from stressed and subsequently rehydrated leaves placed in an atmosphere containing 20% (18)O(2) and 80% N(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is incorporated in the 6'-hydroxymethyl group of phaseic acid. This suggests that the enzyme that converts abscisic acid to phaseic acid is an oxygenase.Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of abscisic acid isolated from stressed leaves kept in an atmosphere containing (18)O(2) indicates that one atom of (18)O is present in the carboxyl group of abscisic acid. Thus, when abscisic acid accumulates in water-stressed leaves, only one of the four oxygens present in the abscisic acid molecule is derived from molecular oxygen. This suggests that either (a) the oxygen present in the 1'-, 4'-, and one of the two oxygens at the 1-position of abscisic acid arise from water, or (b) there exists a stored precursor with oxygen atoms already present in the 1'- and 4'-positions of abscisic acid which is converted to abscisic acid under conditions of water stress.

  3. Plant twitter: ligands under 140 amino acids enforcing stomatal patterning.

    PubMed

    Rychel, Amanda L; Peterson, Kylee M; Torii, Keiko U

    2010-05-01

    Stomata are an essential land plant innovation whose patterning and density are under genetic and environmental control. Recently, several putative ligands have been discovered that influence stomatal density, and they all belong to the epidermal patterning factor-like family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Two of these putative ligands, EPF1 and EPF2, are expressed exclusively in the stomatal lineage cells and negatively regulate stomatal density. A third, EPFL6 or CHALLAH, is also a negative regulator of density, but is expressed subepidermally in the hypocotyl. A fourth, EPFL9 or STOMAGEN, is expressed in the mesophyll tissues and is a positive regulator of density. Genetic evidence suggests that these ligands may compete for the same receptor complex. Proper stomatal patterning is likely to be an intricate process involving ligand competition, regional specificity, and communication between tissue layers. EPFL-family genes exist in the moss Physcomitrella patens, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and rice, Oryza sativa, and their sequence analysis yields several genes some of which are related to EPF1, EPF2, EPFL6, and EPFL9. Presence of these EPFL family members in the basal land plants suggests an exciting hypothesis that the genetic components for stomatal patterning originated early in land plant evolution.

  4. A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Regules, Jason A; Beigel, John H; Paolino, Kristopher M; Voell, Jocelyn; Castellano, Amy R; Hu, Zonghui; Muñoz, Paula; Moon, James E; Ruck, Richard C; Bennett, Jason W; Twomey, Patrick S; Gutiérrez, Ramiro L; Remich, Shon A; Hack, Holly R; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Josleyn, Matthew D; Kwilas, Steven A; Van Deusen, Nicole; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Jing, Wang; Smith, Kirsten S; Shi, Meng; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Sullivan, Nancy J; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Peel, Sheila A; Alimonti, Judie B; Hooper, Jay W; Silvera, Peter M; Martin, Brian K; Monath, Thomas P; Ramsey, W Jay; Link, Charles J; Lane, H Clifford; Michael, Nelson L; Davey, Richard T; Thomas, Stephen J

    2017-01-26

    The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate designed to prevent EVD. We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 39 adults at each site (78 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13. At each site, volunteers received one of three doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine (3 million plaque-forming units [PFU], 20 million PFU, or 100 million PFU) or placebo. Volunteers at one of the sites received a second dose at day 28. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, and headache. Transient rVSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients after dose 1. The rates of adverse events and viremia were lower after the second dose than after the first dose. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the groups that received 20 million PFU or 100 million PFU than in the group that received 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA and by pseudovirion neutralization assay. A second dose at 28 days after dose 1 significantly increased antibody titers at day 56, but the effect was diminished at 6 months. This Ebola vaccine candidate elicited anti-Ebola antibody responses. After vaccination, rVSV viremia occurred frequently but was transient. These results support further evaluation of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU for preexposure prophylaxis and suggest that a second dose may boost antibody responses

  5. CKB1 is involved in abscisic acid and gibberellic acid signaling to regulate stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Congying; Ai, Jianping; Chang, Hongping; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Cheng; He, Zhuang; Huang, Ji; Li, Jinyan; Guo, Xinhong

    2017-05-01

    Casein kinase II (CK2), an evolutionarily well-conserved Ser/Thr kinase, plays critical roles in all higher organisms including plants. CKB1 is a regulatory subunit beta of CK2. In this study, homozygous T-DNA mutants (ckb1-1 and ckb1-2) and over-expression plants (35S:CKB1-1, 35S:CKB1-2) of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied to understand the role of CKB1 in abiotic stress and gibberellic acid (GA) signaling. Histochemical staining showed that although CKB1 was expressed in all organs, it had a relatively higher expression in conducting tissues. The ckb1 mutants showed reduced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination and seedling growth. The increased stomatal aperture, leaf water loss and proline accumulation were observed in ckb1 mutants. In contrast, the ckb1 mutant had increased sensitivity to polyaluminum chloride during seed germination and hypocotyl elongation. We obtained opposite results in over-expression plants. The expression levels of a number of genes in the ABA and GA regulatory network had changed. This study demonstrates that CKB1 is an ABA signaling-related gene, which subsequently influences GA metabolism, and may play a positive role in ABA signaling.

  6. Regulation of Leaf Starch Degradation by Abscisic Acid Is Important for Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Plants[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, Matthias; Pazmino, Diana; Seung, David; Horrer, Daniel; Nigro, Arianna; Meier, Tiago; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Santelia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Starch serves functions that range over a timescale of minutes to years, according to the cell type from which it is derived. In guard cells, starch is rapidly mobilized by the synergistic action of β-AMYLASE1 (BAM1) and α-AMYLASE3 (AMY3) to promote stomatal opening. In the leaves, starch typically accumulates gradually during the day and is degraded at night by BAM3 to support heterotrophic metabolism. During osmotic stress, starch is degraded in the light by stress-activated BAM1 to release sugar and sugar-derived osmolytes. Here, we report that AMY3 is also involved in stress-induced starch degradation. Recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana amy3 bam1 double mutants are hypersensitive to osmotic stress, showing impaired root growth. amy3 bam1 plants close their stomata under osmotic stress at similar rates as the wild type but fail to mobilize starch in the leaves. 14C labeling showed that amy3 bam1 plants have reduced carbon export to the root, affecting osmolyte accumulation and root growth during stress. Using genetic approaches, we further demonstrate that abscisic acid controls the activity of BAM1 and AMY3 in leaves under osmotic stress through the AREB/ABF-SnRK2 kinase-signaling pathway. We propose that differential regulation and isoform subfunctionalization define starch-adaptive plasticity, ensuring an optimal carbon supply for continued growth under an ever-changing environment. PMID:27436713

  7. A toolbox of genes, proteins, metabolites and promoters for improving drought tolerance in soybean includes the metabolite coumestrol and stomatal development genes.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Reese, R Neil; Miller, Marissa A; Rohila, Jai S; Subramanian, Senthil; Shen, Qingxi J; Morandi, Dominique; Bücking, Heike; Shulaev, Vladimir; Rushton, Paul J

    2016-02-09

    The purpose of this project was to identify metabolites, proteins, genes, and promoters associated with water stress responses in soybean. A number of these may serve as new targets for the biotechnological improvement of drought responses in soybean (Glycine max). We identified metabolites, proteins, and genes that are strongly up or down regulated during rapid water stress following removal from a hydroponics system. 163 metabolites showed significant changes during water stress in roots and 93 in leaves. The largest change was a root-specific 160-fold increase in the coumestan coumestrol making it a potential biomarker for drought and a promising target for improving drought responses. Previous reports suggest that coumestrol stimulates mycorrhizal colonization and under certain conditions mycorrhizal plants have improved drought tolerance. This suggests that coumestrol may be part of a call for help to the rhizobiome during stress. About 3,000 genes were strongly up-regulated by drought and we identified regulators such as ERF, MYB, NAC, bHLH, and WRKY transcription factors, receptor-like kinases, and calcium signaling components as potential targets for soybean improvement as well as the jasmonate and abscisic acid biosynthetic genes JMT, LOX1, and ABA1. Drought stressed soybean leaves show reduced mRNA levels of stomatal development genes including FAMA-like, MUTE-like and SPEECHLESS-like bHLH transcription factors and leaves formed after drought stress had a reduction in stomatal density of 22.34 % and stomatal index of 17.56 %. This suggests that reducing stomatal density may improve drought tolerance. MEME analyses suggest that ABRE (CACGT/CG), CRT/DRE (CCGAC) and a novel GTGCnTGC/G element play roles in transcriptional activation and these could form components of synthetic promoters to drive expression of transgenes. Using transformed hairy roots, we validated the increase in promoter activity of GmWRKY17 and GmWRKY67 during dehydration and after 20

  8. Remote sensing of vegetation canopy photosynthetic and stomatal conductance efficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myneni, R. B.; Ganapol, B. D.; Asrar, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of remote sensing the canopy photosynthetic and stomatal conductance efficiencies is investigated with the aid of one- and three-dimensional radiative transfer methods coupled to a semi-empirical mechanistic model of leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Desertlike vegetation is modeled as clumps of leaves randomly distributed on a bright dry soil with partial ground cover. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), canopy photosynthetic (Ep), and stomatal efficiencies (Es) are calculated for various geometrical, optical, and illumination conditions. The contribution of various radiative fluxes to estimates of Ep is evaluated and the magnitude of errors in bulk canopy formulation of problem parameters are quantified. The nature and sensitivity of the relationship between Ep and Es to NDVI is investigated, and an algorithm is proposed for use in operational remote sensing.

  9. Calcium effects on stomatal movement in Commelina communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.; Ilan, N.; Grantz, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    Stomatal movements depends on both ion influx and efflux: attainment of steady state apertures reflects modulation of either or both processes. The role of Ca{sup 2+} in those two processes was investigated in isolated epidermal strips of Commelina communis, using the Ca{sup 2+} chelator EGTA to reduce apoplastic (Ca{sup 2+}). The results suggest that a certain concentration of Ca{sup 2+} is an absolute requirement for salt efflux and stomatal closure. EGTA (2 millimolar) increased KCl-dependent stomatal opening in darkness and completely inhibited the dark-induced closure of initially open stomata. Closure was inhibited even in a KCl-free medium. Thus, maintenance ofmore » stomata in the open state does not necessarily depend on continued K{sup +} influx but on the inhibition of salt efflux. Opening in the dark was stimulated by IAA in a concentration-dependent manner, up to 15.4 micrometer without reaching saturation, while the response to EGTA leveled off at 9.2 micrometer. IAA did not inhibit stomatal closure to the extent it stimulated opening. The response to IAA is thus consistent with a primary stimulation of opening, while EGTA can be considered a specific inhibitor of stomatal closing since it inhibits closure to a much larger degree than it stimulates opening. CO{sub 2} causes concentration-dependent reduction in the steady state stomatal aperture. EGTA completely reversed CO{sub 2}-induced closing of open stomata but only partially prevented the inhibition of opening.« less

  10. Role of leaf hydraulic conductance in the regulation of stomatal conductance in almond and olive in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Santana, Virginia; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Fernández, J Enrique; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The decrease of stomatal conductance (gs) is one of the prime responses to water shortage and the main determinant of yield limitation in fruit trees. Understanding the mechanisms related to stomatal closure in response to imposed water stress is crucial for correct irrigation management. The loss of leaf hydraulic functioning is considered as one of the major factors triggering stomatal closure. Thus, we conducted an experiment to quantify the dehydration response of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and its impact on gs in two Mediterranean fruit tree species, one deciduous (almond) and one evergreen (olive). Our hypothesis was that a higher Kleaf would be associated with a higher gs and that the reduction in Kleaf would predict the reduction in gs in both species. We measured Kleaf in olive and almond during a cycle of irrigation withholding. We also compared the results of two methods to measure Kleaf: dynamic rehydration kinetics and evaporative flux methods. In addition, determined gs, leaf water potential (Ψleaf), vein density, photosynthetic capacity and turgor loss point. Results showed that gs was higher in almond than in olive and so was Kleaf (Kmax = 4.70 and 3.42 mmol s(-1) MPa(-1) m(-2), in almond and olive, respectively) for Ψleaf > -1.2 MPa. At greater water stress levels than -1.2 MPa, however, Kleaf decreased exponentially, being similar for both species, while gs was still higher in almond than in olive. We conclude that although the Kleaf decrease with increasing water stress does not drive unequivocally the gs response to water stress, Kleaf is the variable most strongly related to the gs response to water stress, especially in olive. Other variables such as the increase in abscisic acid (ABA) may be playing an important role in gs regulation, although in our study the gs-ABA relationship did not show a clear pattern. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  11. Functional interaction of the SNARE protein NtSyp121 in Ca2+ channel gating, Ca2+ transients and ABA signalling of stomatal guard cells.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, Sergei; Hills, Adrian; Gay, Robert A; Blatt, Michael R

    2008-03-01

    There is now growing evidence that membrane vesicle trafficking proteins, especially of the superfamily of SNAREs, are critical for cellular signalling in plants. Work from this laboratory first demonstrated that a soluble, inhibitory (dominant-negative) fragment of the SNARE NtSyp121 blocked K+ and Cl- channel responses to the stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA), but left open a question about functional impacts on signal intermediates, especially on Ca2+-mediated signalling events. Here, we report one mode of action for the SNARE mediated directly through alterations in Ca2+ channel gating and its consequent effects on cytosolic-free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) elevation. We find that expressing the same inhibitory fragment of NtSyp121 blocks ABA-evoked stomatal closure, but only partially suppresses stomatal closure in the presence of the NO donor, SNAP, which promotes [Ca2+]i elevation independently of the plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. Consistent with these observations, Ca2+ channel gating at the plasma membrane is altered by the SNARE fragment in a manner effective in reducing the potential for triggering a rise in [Ca2+]i, and we show directly that its expression in vivo leads to a pronounced suppression of evoked [Ca2+]i transients. These observations offer primary evidence for the functional coupling of the SNARE with Ca2+ channels at the plant cell plasma membrane and, because [Ca2+]i plays a key role in the control of K+ and Cl- channel currents in guard cells, they underscore an important mechanism for SNARE integration with ion channel regulation during stomatal closure.

  12. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  13. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8’-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0–2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  14. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modelingmore » of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.« less

  15. The grapevine guard cell-related VvMYB60 transcription factor is involved in the regulation of stomatal activity and is differentially expressed in response to ABA and osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Under drought, plants accumulate the signaling hormone abscisic acid (ABA), which induces the rapid closure of stomatal pores to prevent water loss. This event is trigged by a series of signals produced inside guard cells which finally reduce their turgor. Many of these events are tightly regulated at the transcriptional level, including the control exerted by MYB proteins. In a previous study, while identifying the grapevine R2R3 MYB family, two closely related genes, VvMYB30 and VvMYB60 were found with high similarity to AtMYB60, an Arabidopsis guard cell-related drought responsive gene. Results Promoter-GUS transcriptional fusion assays showed that expression of VvMYB60 was restricted to stomatal guard cells and was attenuated in response to ABA. Unlike VvMYB30, VvMYB60 was able to complement the loss-of-function atmyb60-1 mutant, indicating that VvMYB60 is the only true ortholog of AtMYB60 in the grape genome. In addition, VvMYB60 was differentially regulated during development of grape organs and in response to ABA and drought-related stress conditions. Conclusions These results show that VvMYB60 modulates physiological responses in guard cells, leading to the possibility of engineering stomatal conductance in grapevine, reducing water loss and helping this species to tolerate drought under extreme climatic conditions. PMID:22018045

  16. Abscisic Acid and the Photoperiodic Induction of Dormancy in Salix viminalis L.

    PubMed

    Alvim, R; Saunders, P F; Barros, R S

    1979-04-01

    A series of growth room experiments was carried out aiming to establish the role of abscisic acid on dormancy of Salix viminalis L. The inhibitor content and abscisic acid levels of extracts from roots, sap, leaves, and apical tissues of willow were measured using biological assay and gas-liquid chromatography.No evidence was obtained that photoperiodically mediated dormancy is associated with changes in abscisic acid levels or beta-inhibitor activity.

  17. Abscisic Acid and the Photoperiodic Induction of Dormancy in Salix viminalis L 1

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Ronald; Saunders, Peter F.; Barros, Raimundo S.

    1979-01-01

    A series of growth room experiments was carried out aiming to establish the role of abscisic acid on dormancy of Salix viminalis L. The inhibitor content and abscisic acid levels of extracts from roots, sap, leaves, and apical tissues of willow were measured using biological assay and gas-liquid chromatography. No evidence was obtained that photoperiodically mediated dormancy is associated with changes in abscisic acid levels or β-inhibitor activity. PMID:16660810

  18. Optimal Stomatal Behaviour Around the World: Synthesis of a Global Stomatal Conductance Database and Scaling from Leaf to Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. S.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration and a key element of the global water cycle, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycles, a global scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. We present a unique database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We employed a model of optimal stomatal conductance to assess differences in stomatal behaviour, and estimated the model slope coefficient, g1, which is directly related to the marginal carbon cost of water, for each dataset. We found that g1 varies considerably among PFTs, with evergreen savanna trees having the largest g1 (least conservative water use), followed by C3 grasses and crops, angiosperm trees, gymnosperm trees, and C4 grasses. Amongst angiosperm trees, species with higher wood density had a higher marginal carbon cost of water, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model. There was an interactive effect between temperature and moisture availability on g1: for wet environments, g1 was largest in high temperature environments, indicated by high mean annual temperature during the period when temperature above 0oC (Tm), but it did not vary with Tm across dry environments. We examine whether these differences in leaf-scale behaviour are reflected in ecosystem-scale differences in water-use efficiency. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of stomatal conductance across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of productivity and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  19. Response of Cultured Maize Cells to (+)-Abscisic Acid, (-)-Abscisic Acid, and Their Metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Balsevich, J. J.; Cutler, A. J.; Lamb, N.; Friesen, L. J.; Kurz, E. U.; Perras, M. R.; Abrams, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The metabolism and effects of (+)-S- and (-)-R-abscisic acid (ABA) and some metabolites were studied in maize (Zea mays L. cv Black Mexican Sweet) suspension-cultured cells. Time-course studies of metabolite formation were performed in both cells and medium via analytical high-performance liquid chromatography. Metabolites were isolated and identified using physical and chemical methods. At 10 [mu]M concentration and 28[deg] C, (+)-ABA was metabolized within 24 h, yielding natural (-)-phaseic acid [(-)-PA] as the major product. The unnatural enantiomer (-)-ABA was less than 50% metabolized within 24 h and gave primarily (-)-7[prime]-hydroxyABA [(-)-7[prime]-HOABA], together with (+)-PA and ABA glucose ester. The distribution of metabolites in cells and medium was different, reflecting different sites of metabolism and membrane permeabilities of conjugated and nonconjugated metabolites. The results imply that (+)-ABA was oxidized to (-)-PA inside the cell, whereas (-)-ABA was converted to (-)-7[prime]-HOABA at the cell surface. Growth of maize cells was inhibited by both (+)- and (-)-ABA, with only weak contributions from their metabolites. The concentration of (+)-ABA that caused a 50% inhibition of growth of maize cells was approximately 1 [mu]M, whereas that for its metabolite (-)-PA was approximately 50 [mu]M. (-)-ABA was less active than (+)-ABA, with 50% growth inhibition observed at about 10 [mu]M. (-)-7[prime]-HOABA was only weakly active, with 50% inhibition caused by approximately 500 [mu]M. Time-course studies of medium pH indicated that (+)-ABA caused a transient pH increase (+0.3 units) at 6 h after addition that was not observed in controls or in samples treated with (-)-PA. The effect of (-)-ABA on medium Ph was marginal. No racemization at C-1[prime] of (+)-ABA, (-)-ABA, or metabolites was observed during the studies. PMID:12232311

  20. Jasmonate-mediated stomatal closure under elevated CO2 revealed by time-resolved metabolomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foliar stomatal movements are critical for regulating plant water status and gas exchange. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are known to induce stomatal closure. However, current knowledge on CO2 signal transduction in stomatal guard cells is limited. Here we report the metabolomic respo...

  1. Comparison of different stomatal conductance algorithms for ozone flux modelling

    Treesearch

    P. Buker; L.D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; H. M. Cambridge; C. M. Jacobs; W. J. Massman; J. Muller; N. Nikolov; K. Novak; E. Oksanen; M. Schaub; D. de la Torre

    2007-01-01

    A multiplicative and a semi-mechanistic, BWB-type [Ball, J.T., Woodrow, I.E., Berry, J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: Biggens, J. (Ed.), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol. IV. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224.] algorithm for calculating...

  2. WATER STRESS REDUCES OZONE INJURY VIA A STOMATAL MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various studies have shown that water-stressed plants are more tolerant of ozone exposures than are unstressed plants. Two probable explanations for this tolerance are (a) stomatal closure which reduces ozone uptake and (b) biochemical or anatomical changes within the leaves. Pha...

  3. Stomatal oscillations in olive trees: analysis and methodological implications.

    PubMed

    López-Bernal, Alvaro; García-Tejera, Omar; Testi, Luca; Orgaz, Francisco; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    Stomatal oscillations have long been disregarded in the literature despite the fact that the phenomenon has been described for a variety of plant species. This study aims to characterize the occurrence of oscillations in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) under different growing conditions and its methodological implications. Three experiments with young potted olives and one with large field-grown trees were performed. Sap flow measurements were always used to monitor the occurrence of oscillations, with additional determinations of trunk diameter variations and leaf-level stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and water potential also conducted in some cases. Strong oscillations with periods of 30-60 min were generally observed for young trees, while large field trees rarely showed significant oscillations. Severe water stress led to the disappearance of oscillations, but moderate water deficits occasionally promoted them. Simultaneous oscillations were also found for leaf stomatal conductance, leaf photosynthesis and trunk diameter, with the former presenting the highest amplitudes. The strong oscillations found in young potted olive trees preclude the use of infrequent measurements of stomatal conductance and related variables to characterize differences between trees of different cultivars or subjected to different experimental treatments. Under these circumstances, our results suggest that reliable estimates could be obtained using measurement intervals below 15 min.

  4. [Definition of risk of the aphthous stomatitis by hygienic indices].

    PubMed

    Koridze, Kh

    2005-04-01

    Investigation of the state of oral cavity in 61 patients with stomatitis and 62 patients with others diseases of not inflammatory origin was performed in Tbilisi VA hospital. Hygienic indices (HI), particularly Fiodorova-Volodkina index and Stellard index dedicated for assessment of hygiene of the oral cavity. In patients with aphthous stomatitis the average values of hygienic indices were higher in comparison with the control group. This indicates to the role of the hygienic status on the development of the illness. The relative chance of an aphthous stomatitis is low in the cases with good (OR=0,16, 95% CI:0,03-0,74) and satisfactory (OR=0,46, 95%; CI:0,22-0,95) hygienic indices, and is high when hygienic indices are bad (OR=10,56, 95%; CI:1,29-86,12) and very bad (OR=5,88, 95%; CI:1,23-28,09). Statistically significant correlations were documented between the severity of aphthous stomatitis and the levels of hygiene of the oral cavity.

  5. Linking stomatal sensitivity and whole-tree hydraulic architecture

    Treesearch

    Katherine A. McCulloh; David R. Woodruff

    2012-01-01

    Despite the complexity of the relationship between stomatal sensitivity, water loss and vulnerability to embolism, the goal of teasing apart the subtleties is a necessary one. As Litvak et al. (2012) mention, determining transpiration patterns based on vulnerability to embolism would be much easier than the lengthy and potentially expensive processes involved in sap...

  6. Natural variation in stomatal abundance of Arabidopsis thaliana includes cryptic diversity for different developmental processes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Dolores; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Fenoll, Carmen; Mena, Montaña

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Current understanding of stomatal development in Arabidopsis thaliana is based on mutations producing aberrant, often lethal phenotypes. The aim was to discover if naturally occurring viable phenotypes would be useful for studying stomatal development in a species that enables further molecular analysis. Methods Natural variation in stomatal abundance of A. thaliana was explored in two collections comprising 62 wild accessions by surveying adaxial epidermal cell-type proportion (stomatal index) and density (stomatal and pavement cell density) traits in cotyledons and first leaves. Organ size variation was studied in a subset of accessions. For all traits, maternal effects derived from different laboratory environments were evaluated. In four selected accessions, distinct stomatal initiation processes were quantitatively analysed. Key Results and Conclusions Substantial genetic variation was found for all six stomatal abundance-related traits, which were weakly or not affected by laboratory maternal environments. Correlation analyses revealed overall relationships among all traits. Within each organ, stomatal density highly correlated with the other traits, suggesting common genetic bases. Each trait correlated between organs, supporting supra-organ control of stomatal abundance. Clustering analyses identified accessions with uncommon phenotypic patterns, suggesting differences among genetic programmes controlling the various traits. Variation was also found in organ size, which negatively correlated with cell densities in both organs and with stomatal index in the cotyledon. Relative proportions of primary and satellite lineages varied among the accessions analysed, indicating that distinct developmental components contribute to natural diversity in stomatal abundance. Accessions with similar stomatal indices showed different lineage class ratios, revealing hidden developmental phenotypes and showing that genetic determinants of primary and

  7. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness changes carbon and water balance of temperate deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Katata, Genki; Deushi, Makoto; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Paoletti, Elena

    2015-05-06

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased by 60-100% in the Northern Hemisphere since the 19(th) century. The phytotoxic nature of ozone can impair forest productivity. In addition, ozone affects stomatal functions, by both favoring stomatal closure and impairing stomatal control. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness, i.e., a delay in stomatal responses to fluctuating stimuli, has the potential to change the carbon and water balance of forests. This effect has to be included in models for ozone risk assessment. Here we examine the effects of ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness on carbon assimilation and transpiration of temperate deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2009 by combining a detailed multi-layer land surface model and a global atmospheric chemistry model. An analysis of results by ozone FACE (Free-Air Controlled Exposure) experiments suggested that ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness can be incorporated into modelling based on a simple parameter (gmin, minimum stomatal conductance) which is used in the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal model. Our simulation showed that ozone can decrease water use efficiency, i.e., the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to transpiration, of temperate deciduous forests up to 20% when ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness is considered, and up to only 5% when the stomatal sluggishness is neglected.

  8. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  9. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-02

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress.

  10. Regulation of Stomatal Defense by Air Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Shweta; Chitrakar, Reejana; Thompson, Blaine K; Obulareddy, Nisita; Roy, Debanjana; Hambright, W Sealy; Melotto, Maeli

    2016-11-01

    It has long been observed that environmental conditions play crucial roles in modulating immunity and disease in plants and animals. For instance, many bacterial plant disease outbreaks occur after periods of high humidity and rain. A critical step in bacterial infection is entry into the plant interior through wounds and natural openings, such as stomata, which are adjustable microscopic pores in the epidermal tissue. Several studies have shown that stomatal closure is an integral part of the plant immune response to reduce pathogen invasion. In this study, we found that high humidity can effectively compromise Pseudomonas syringae-triggered stomatal closure in both Phaseolus vulgaris and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which is accompanied by early up-regulation of the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway and simultaneous down-regulation of salicylic acid (SA) pathway in guard cells. Furthermore, SA-dependent response, but not JA-dependent response, is faster in guard cells than in whole leaves, suggesting that the SA signaling in guard cells may be independent from other cell types. Thus, we conclude that high humidity, a well-known disease-promoting environmental condition, acts in part by suppressing stomatal defense and is linked to hormone signaling in guard cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Synergistic Effect of Light and Fusicoccin on Stomatal Opening 1

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Sarah M.; Schwartz, Amnon

    1992-01-01

    Upon incubation of epidermal peels of Commelina communis in 1 millimolar KCl, a synergistic effect of light and low fusicoccin (FC) concentrations on stomatal opening is observed. In 1 millimolar KCl, stomata remain closed even in the light. However, addition of 0.1 micromolar FC results in opening up to 12 micrometers. The same FC concentration stimulates less than 5 micrometers of opening in darkness. The synergistic effect (a) decreases with increasing FC or KCl concentrations; (b) is dark-reversible; (c) like stomatal opening in high KCl concentrations (120 millimolar) is partially inhibited by the K+ channel blocker, tetraethyl-ammonium+ (20 millimolar). In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments with guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba, FC (1 or 10 micromolar) stimulates an increase in outward current that is essentially voltage independent between - 100 and +60 millivolts, and occurs even when the membrane potential is held at a voltage (−60 millivolts) at which K+ channels are inactivated. These results are indicative of FC activation of a H+ pump. FC effects on the magnitude of inward and outward K+ currents are not observed. Epidermal peel and patch clamp data are both consistent with the hypothesis that the plasma membrane H+ ATPase of guard cells is a primary locus for the FC effect on stomatal apertures. PMID:16668799

  12. Pragmatic hydraulic theory predicts stomatal responses to climatic water deficits.

    PubMed

    Sperry, John S; Wang, Yujie; Wolfe, Brett T; Mackay, D Scott; Anderegg, William R L; McDowell, Nate G; Pockman, William T

    2016-11-01

    Ecosystem models have difficulty predicting plant drought responses, partially from uncertainty in the stomatal response to water deficits in soil and atmosphere. We evaluate a 'supply-demand' theory for water-limited stomatal behavior that avoids the typical scaffold of empirical response functions. The premise is that canopy water demand is regulated in proportion to threat to supply posed by xylem cavitation and soil drying. The theory was implemented in a trait-based soil-plant-atmosphere model. The model predicted canopy transpiration (E), canopy diffusive conductance (G), and canopy xylem pressure (P canopy ) from soil water potential (P soil ) and vapor pressure deficit (D). Modeled responses to D and P soil were consistent with empirical response functions, but controlling parameters were hydraulic traits rather than coefficients. Maximum hydraulic and diffusive conductances and vulnerability to loss in hydraulic conductance dictated stomatal sensitivity and hence the iso- to anisohydric spectrum of regulation. The model matched wide fluctuations in G and P canopy across nine data sets from seasonally dry tropical forest and piñon-juniper woodland with < 26% mean error. Promising initial performance suggests the theory could be useful in improving ecosystem models. Better understanding of the variation in hydraulic properties along the root-stem-leaf continuum will simplify parameterization. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Stomatal Spacing Safeguards Stomatal Dynamics by Facilitating Guard Cell Ion Transport Independent of the Epidermal Solute Reservoir12[CC-BY

    PubMed Central

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Stomata enable gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere through the stomatal pore. Control of the pore aperture depends on osmotic solute accumulation by, and its loss from the guard cells surrounding the pore. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal cell, and this spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function, although there are several genera that exhibit stomata in clusters. We made use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal patterning mutants to explore the impact of clustering on guard cell dynamics, gas exchange, and ion transport of guard cells. These studies showed that stomatal clustering in the Arabidopsis too many mouths (tmm1) mutant suppressed stomatal movements and affected CO2 assimilation and transpiration differentially between dark and light conditions and were associated with alterations in K+ channel gating. These changes were consistent with the impaired dynamics of tmm1 stomata and were accompanied by a reduced accumulation of K+ ions in the guard cells. Our findings underline the significance of spacing for stomatal dynamics. While stomatal spacing may be important as a reservoir for K+ and other ions to facilitate stomatal movements, the effects on channel gating, and by inference on K+ accumulation, cannot be explained on the basis of a reduced number of epidermal cells facilitating ion supply to the guard cells. PMID:27406168

  14. The Ecophysiology Of A Pinus Ponderosa Ecosystem Exposed To High Tropospheric Ozone: Implications For Stomatal And Non-Stomatal Ozone Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, S.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, A.

    2008-12-01

    Ecosystems remove ozone from the troposphere through both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition. The portion of ozone taken up through stomata has an oxidative effect causing damage. We used a multi-year dataset to assess the physiological controls over ozone deposition. Environmental parameters, CO2 and ozone fluxes were measured continuously from January 2001 to December 2006 above a ponderosa pine plantation near Blodgett Forest, Georgetown, California. We studied the dynamic of NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange, -838 g C m-2 yr-1) and water evapotranspiration on an annual and daily basis. These processes are tightly coupled to stomatal aperture which also controlled ozone fluxes. High levels of ozone concentrations (~ 100 ppb) were observed during the spring-summer period, with corresponding high levels of ozone fluxes (~ 30 μmol m-2 h-1). During the summer season, a large portion of the total ozone flux was due to non-stomatal processes, and we propose that a plant physiological control, releasing BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds), is mainly responsible. We analyzed the correlations of common ozone exposure metrics based on accumulation of concentrations (AOT40 and SUM0) with ozone fluxes (total, stomatal and non-stomatal). Stomatal flux showed poorer correlation with ozone concentrations than non-stomatal flux during summer and fall seasons, which largely corresponded to the growing period. We therefore suggest that AOT40 and SUM0 are poor predictors of ozone damage and that a physiologically based metric would be more effective.

  15. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan

    We report that ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96more » is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed

  16. The Small Ethylene Response Factor ERF96 is Involved in the Regulation of the Abscisic Acid Response in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Shanda; Tian, Hainan; ...

    2015-11-26

    We report that ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development including seed germination, leaf senescence, and fruit ripening, and of plant responses to environmental stimuli including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) are plant-specific transcription factors and are a subfamily of the AP2 (APETALA2)/ERF transcription factor family. The function of many members in this large gene family remains largely unknown. ERF96, a member of the Group IX ERF family transcription factors, has recently been shown to be a transcriptional activator that is involved in plant defense response in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ERF96more » is a positive regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) responses. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that there are a total four small ERFs in Arabidopsis including ERF95, ERF96, ERF97, and ERF98, and that ERF96 forms a cluster with ERF95 and ERF97. By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ERF96 is expressed in all tissues and organs examined except roots, with relatively high expression in flowers and seeds. Results from the protoplast transfection assay indicated that the EDLL motif-containing C-terminal domain is responsible for ERF96’s transcriptional activity. Although loss-of-function mutant of ERF96 was morphologically similar to wild type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing ERF96 had smaller rosette size and were delayed in flowering time. In ABA sensitivity assays, we found that ERF96 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to ABA in terms of ABA inhibition of seed germination, early seedling development and root elongation. Consistent with these observations, elevated transcript levels of some ABA-responsive genes including RD29A, ABI5, ABF3, ABF4, P5CS, and COR15A were observed in the transgenic plants in the presence of ABA. However, in the absence of ABA treatment, the transcript levels of these ABA-responsive genes remained largely unchanged. Our experiments also showed

  17. Involvement of abscisic acid in correlative control of flower abscission in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Yarrow, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were carried out in three parts: (1) analysis of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in abscising and non-abscising flowers, (2) partitioning of radio-labelled ABA and photoassimilates within the soybean raceme, and (3) shading experiments, wherein endogenous levels, metabolism and partitioning of ABA were determined. Endogenous concentrations of ABA failed to show any consistent relationship to abscission of soybean flowers. Partitioning of radiolabelled ABA and photoassimilates displayed consistently higher sink strengths (% DPM) for both /sup 3/H-ABA and /sup 14/C-photoassimilates for non-abscising flowers than for abscising flowers within control racemes. Shading flowers with aluminum foil, 48 hrs prior to sampling, resultedmore » in lowered endogenous ABA concentrations at 12, 17 and 22 days after anthesis (DAA), but not at 0 or 4 DAA. No differences were found in the catabolism of /sup 3/H-ABA between shaded (abscising) and non-shaded (non-abscising) flowers. Reduced partitioning of ABA and photoassimilates to shaded flowers resulted when shades were applied at 0, 4, 12, and 17 DAA, but not at 22 DAA.« less

  18. Do rice suspension-cultured cells treated with abscisic acid mimic developing seeds?

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Koya; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2015-08-01

    Starch synthesis is activated in the endosperm during seed development and also in rice suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid. In the anticipation that the mechanisms of starch synthesis are similar between the endosperm and the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, expression of genes involved in starch synthesis was evaluated in the suspension cells after abscisic acid treatment. However, it was found that the regulatory mechanism of starch synthesis in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid was different from that in developing seeds. Expression analyses of genes involved in oil bodies, which accumulate in the embryo and aleurone layer, and seed storage proteins, which accumulate mainly in the endosperm, showed that the former were activated in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, but the latter were not. Master regulators for embryogenesis, OsVP1 (homologue of AtABI3) and OsLFL1 (homologue of AtFUS3 or AtLFL2), were expressed in the suspension cells at levels comparable to those in the embryo. From these results, it is suggested that interactions between regulators and abscisic acid control the synthesis of phytic acid and oil bodies in the cultured cells and embryo. We suggest that the system of suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid helps to reveal the mechanisms of phytic acid and oil body synthesis in embryo.

  19. Abscisic Acid-Cytokinin Antagonism Modulates Resistance Against Pseudomonas syringae in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Großkinsky, Dominik K; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Phytohormones are known as essential regulators of plant defenses, with ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid as the central immunity backbone, while other phytohormones have been demonstrated to interact with this. Only recently, a function of the classic phytohormone cytokinin in plant immunity has been described in Arabidopsis, rice, and tobacco. Although interactions of cytokinins with salicylic acid and auxin have been indicated, the complete network of cytokinin interactions with other immunity-relevant phytohormones is not yet understood. Therefore, we studied the interaction of kinetin and abscisic acid as a negative regulator of plant immunity to modulate resistance in tobacco against Pseudomonas syringae. By analyzing infection symptoms, pathogen proliferation, and accumulation of the phytoalexin scopoletin as a key mediator of kinetin-induced resistance in tobacco, antagonistic interaction of these phytohormones in plant immunity was identified. Kinetin reduced abscisic acid levels in tobacco, while increased abscisic acid levels by exogenous application or inhibition of abscisic acid catabolism by diniconazole neutralized kinetin-induced resistance. Based on these results, we conclude that reduction of abscisic acid levels by enhanced abscisic acid catabolism strongly contributes to cytokinin-mediated resistance effects. Thus, the identified cytokinin-abscisic acid antagonism is a novel regulatory mechanism in plant immunity.

  20. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    PubMed Central

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  1. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK5, enhances abscisic acid sensitivity and confers drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Liang, Shan; Wu, Zhen; Bi, Chao; Yu, Yong-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2016-09-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) have been reported to regulate many developmental and defense process, but only a few members have been functionally characterized. In the present study, our observations suggest that one of the RLKs, a membrane-localized cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, CRK5, is involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Overexpression of CRK5 increases ABA sensitivity in ABA-induced early seedling growth arrest and promotion of stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening. Interestingly, and importantly, overexpression of CRK5 enhances plant drought tolerance without affecting plant growth at the mature stages and plant productivity. Transgenic lines overexpressing a mutated form of CRK5, CRK5 (K372E) with the change of the 372nd conserved amino acid residue from lysine to glutamic acid in its kinase domain, result in wild-type ABA and drought responses, supporting the role of CRK5 in ABA signaling. The loss-of-function mutation of the CRK5 gene does not affect the ABA response, while overexpression of two homologs of CRK5, CRK4 and CRK19, confers ABA responses, suggesting that these CRK members function redundantly. We further showed that WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 transcription factors repress the expression of CRK5, and that CRK5 likely functions upstream of ABI2 in ABA signaling. These findings help in understanding the complex ABA signaling network. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. CO2 sensing and CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance: advances and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Cawas; Hashimoto-Sugimoto, Mimi; Negi, Juntaro; Israelsson-Nordstrom, Maria; Azoulay-Shemer, Tamar; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Iba, Koh; Schroeder, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Guard cells form epidermal stomatal gas exchange valves in plants and regulate the aperture of stomatal pores in response to changes in the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in leaves. Moreover, the development of stomata is repressed by elevated CO2 in diverse plant species. Evidence suggests that plants can sense CO2 concentration changes via guard cells and via mesophyll tissues in mediating stomatal movements. We review new discoveries and open questions on mechanisms mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements and CO2 modulation of stomatal development, which together function in CO2-regulation of stomatal conductance and gas exchange in plants. Research in this area is timely in light of the necessity of selecting and developing crop cultivars which perform better in a shifting climate. PMID:26482956

  3. Manipulation of the apoplastic pH of intact plants mimics stomatal and growth responses to water availability and microclimatic variation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sally; Davies, William J

    2008-01-01

    The apoplastic pH of intact Forsythiaxintermedia (cv. Lynwood) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants has been manipulated using buffered foliar sprays, and thereby stomatal conductance (g(s)), leaf growth rate, and plant water loss have been controlled. The more alkaline the pH of the foliar spray, the lower the g(s) and/or leaf growth rate subsequently measured. The most alkaline pH that was applied corresponds to that measured in sap extracted from shoots of tomato and Forsythia plants experiencing, respectively, soil drying or a relatively high photon flux density (PFD), vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and temperature in the leaf microclimate. The negative correlation between PFD/VPD/temperature and g(s) determined in well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate was eliminated by spraying the plants with relatively alkaline but not acidic buffers, providing evidence for a novel pH-based signalling mechanism linking the aerial microclimate with stomatal aperture. Increasing the pH of the foliar spray only reduced g(s) in plants of the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient flacca mutant of tomato when ABA was simultaneously sprayed onto leaves or injected into stems. In well-watered Forsythia plants exposed to a naturally varying summer microclimate (variable PFD, VPD, and temperature), xylem pH and leaf ABA concentration fluctuated but were positively correlated. Manipulation of foliar apoplastic pH also affected the response of g(s) and leaf growth to ABA injected into stems of intact Forsythia plants. The techniques used here to control physiology and water use in intact growing plants could easily be applied in a horticultural context.

  4. Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Stomatal closure of Pelargonium × hortorum in response to soil water deficit is associated with decreased leaf water potential only under rapid soil drying.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Soil water deficits applied at different rates and for different durations can decrease both stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ). Understanding the physiological mechanisms regulating these responses is important in sustainable irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at various fractions of plant evapotranspiration (100, 75 and 50% ET) for 20 days or irrigation was withheld for 4 days. Xylem sap was collected and gs and Ψleaf were measured on days 15 and 20, and on days 16-19 for the respective treatments. Xylem sap pH and NO3 (-) and Ca(2+) concentrations did not differ between irrigation treatments. Xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([ABA]xyl ) increased within 24 h of irrigation being withheld whilst gs and Ψleaf decreased. Supplying irrigation at a fraction of daily ET produced a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs , but did not change Ψleaf . Treatment differences occurred independently of whether Ψleaf was measured in whole leaves with a pressure chamber, or in the lamina with a thermocouple psychrometer. Plants that were irrigated daily showed lower [ABA]xyl than plants from which irrigation was withheld, even at comparable soil moisture content. This implies that regular re-watering attenuates ABA signaling due to maintenance of soil moisture in the upper soil levels. Crucially, detached leaves supplied with synthetic ABA showed a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs as intact plants, suggesting that stomatal closure of P. hortorum in response to soil water deficit is primarily an ABA-induced response, independent of changes in Ψleaf . © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Tannic Acid-Dependent Modulation of Selected Lactobacillus plantarum Traits Linked to Gastrointestinal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Reverón, Inés; Rodríguez, Héctor; Campos, Gema; Curiel, José Antonio; Ascaso, Carmen; Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Prieto, Alicia; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; de Felipe, Félix López

    2013-01-01

    Background Owing to its antimicrobial properties dietary tannins may alter the functional efficacy of probiotic lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract influencing their growth, viability and molecular adaptation to the intestinal environment. Methods and Findings The effects of tannic acid on Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 were studied by in vitro growth monitoring and visualizing the morphological alteration on the cell wall using transmission electron microscopy. Growth upon tannic acid was characterized by dose-dependent reductions of initial viable counts and extended lag phases. Lag phase-cells growing upon 0.5 mM tannic acid were abnormally shaped and experienced disturbance on the cell wall such as roughness, occasional leakage and release of cell debris, but resumed growth later at tannic acid concentrations high as 2.5 mM. To gain insight on how the response to tannic acid influenced the molecular adaptation of L. plantarum to the GI-tract conditions, gene expression of selected biomarkers for GI-survival was assessed by RT-qPCR on cDNA templates synthetized from mRNA samples obtained from cells treated with 0.5 or 2 mM tannic acid. Tannic acid-dependent gene induction was confirmed for selected genes highly expressed in the gut or with confirmed roles in GI-survival. No differential expression was observed for the pbp2A gene, a biomarker negatively related with GI-survival. However PBP2A was not labeled by Bocillin FL, a fluorescent dye-labeled penicillin V derivative, in the presence of tannic acid which suggests for enhanced GI-survival reportedly associated with the inactivation of this function. Conclusions Probiotic L. plantarum WCFS1 is able to overcome the toxic effects of tannic acid. This dietary constituent modulates molecular traits linked to the adaptation to intestinal environment in ways previously shown to enhance GI-survival. PMID:23776675

  7. Responses of leaf stomatal density to water status and its relationship with photosynthesis in a grass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Responses of plant leaf stomatal conductance and photosynthesis to water deficit have been extensively reported; however, little is known concerning the relationships of stomatal density with regard to water status and gas exchange. The responses of stomatal density to leaf water status were determined, and correlation with specific leaf area (SLA) in a photosynthetic study of a perennial grass, Leymus chinensis, subjected to different soil moisture contents. Moderate water deficits had positive effects on stomatal number, but more severe deficits led to a reduction, described in a quadratic parabolic curve. The stomatal size obviously decreased with water deficit, and stomatal density was positively correlated with stomatal conductance (g(s)), net CO(2) assimilation rate (A(n)), and water use efficiency (WUE). A significantly negative correlation of SLA with stomatal density was also observed, suggesting that the balance between leaf area and its matter may be associated with the guard cell number. The present results indicate that high flexibilities in stomatal density and guard cell size will change in response to water status, and this process may be closely associated with photosynthesis and water use efficiency.

  8. Evolutionary Association of Stomatal Traits with Leaf Vein Density in Paphiopedilum, Orchidaceae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mei; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Both leaf attributes and stomatal traits are linked to water economy in land plants. However, it is unclear whether these two components are associated evolutionarily. Methodology/Principal Findings In characterizing the possible effect of phylogeny on leaf attributes and stomatal traits, we hypothesized that a correlated evolution exists between the two. Using a phylogenetic comparative method, we analyzed 14 leaf attributes and stomatal traits for 17 species in Paphiopedilum. Stomatal length (SL), stomatal area (SA), upper cuticular thickness (UCT), and total cuticular thickness (TCT) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism whereas stomatal density (SD) and stomatal index (SI) were significantly convergent. Leaf vein density was correlated with SL and SD whether or not phylogeny was considered. The lower epidermal thickness (LET) was correlated positively with SL, SA, and stomatal width but negatively with SD when phylogeny was not considered. When this phylogenetic influence was factored in, only the significant correlation between SL and LET remained. Conclusion/Significance Our results support the hypothesis for correlated evolution between stomatal traits and vein density in Paphiopedilum. However, they do not provide evidence for an evolutionary association between stomata and leaf thickness. These findings lend insight into the evolution of traits related to water economy for orchids under natural selection. PMID:22768224

  9. Over-expression of LeNCED1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with the rbcS3C promoter allows recovery of lines that accumulate very high levels of abscisic acid and exhibit severe phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tung, Swee Ang; Smeeton, Rachel; White, Charlotte A; Black, Colin R; Taylor, Ian B; Hilton, Howard W; Thompson, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Previous work where 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) was over-expressed using the constitutive Gelvin Superpromoter resulted in mild increases in abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation, accompanied by stomatal closure and increased water-use efficiency (WUE), but with apparently little impact on long-term biomass production. However, one of the negative effects of the over-expression of NCED using constitutive promoters in tomato was increased seed dormancy. Here we report the use of the rbcS3C promoter, from a gene encoding the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), to drive LeNCED1 transgene expression in tomato in a light-responsive and circadian manner. In comparison to the constitutive promoter, the rbcS3C promoter allowed the generation of transgenic plants with much higher levels of ABA accumulation in leaves and sap, but the effect on seed dormancy was diminished. These plants displayed the expected reductions in stomatal conductance and CO(2) assimilation, but they also exhibited a severe set of symptoms that included perturbed cotyledon release from the testa, increased photobleaching in young seedlings, substantially reduced chlorophyll and carotenoid content, interveinal leaf flooding, and greatly reduced growth. These symptoms illustrate adverse consequences of long-term, very high ABA accumulation. Only more moderate increases in ABA biosynthesis are likely to be useful in the context of agriculture. Implications are discussed for the design of transgenic 'high ABA' plants that exhibit increased WUE but have minimal negative phenotypic effects.

  10. A Highly Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination of Abscisic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Michler, Charles H.; Lineberger, R. Daniel; Chism, Grady W.

    1986-01-01

    An abscisic acid derivative was formed by reaction with pentafluorobenzyl bromide which allowed highly sensitive detection by gas-liquid chromatography with electron capture detection. In comparison to the methyl ester derivative, the pentafluorobenzyl derivative of abscisic acid was four times more sensitive to electron capture detection and was stable at room temperature in the presence of ultraviolet light. Derivatization was rapid and the molecular weight of the new compound was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:16665076

  11. Persistent negative temperature response of mesophyll conductance in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves under both high and low vapour pressure deficits: a role for abscisic acid?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changpeng; Ethier, Gilbert; Pepin, Steeve; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, André

    2017-09-01

    The temperature dependence of mesophyll conductance (g m ) was measured in well-watered red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants acclimated to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPDL) daytime differentials of contrasting amplitude, keeping a fixed diurnal leaf temperature (T leaf ) rise from 20 to 35 °C. Contrary to the great majority of g m temperature responses published to date, we found a pronounced reduction of g m with increasing T leaf irrespective of leaf chamber O 2 level and diurnal VPDL regime. Leaf hydraulic conductance was greatly enhanced during the warmer afternoon periods under both low (0.75 to 1.5 kPa) and high (0.75 to 3.5 kPa) diurnal VPDL regimes, unlike stomatal conductance (g s ), which decreased in the afternoon. Consequently, the leaf water status remained largely isohydric throughout the day, and therefore cannot be evoked to explain the diurnal decrease of g m . However, the concerted diurnal reductions of g m and g s were well correlated with increases in leaf abscisic acid (ABA) content, thus suggesting that ABA can induce a significant depression of g m under favourable leaf water status. Our results challenge the view that the temperature dependence of g m can be explained solely from dynamic leaf anatomical adjustments and/or from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions and lipid membranes.​. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Abscisic acid (ABA) and key proteins in its perception and signaling pathways are ancient, but their roles have changed through time.

    PubMed

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Atallah, Nadia M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; McAdam, Scott A M

    2017-09-02

    Homologs of the Arabidopsis core abscisic acid (ABA) signaling component OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1) are best known for their role in closing stomata in angiosperm species. We recently characterized a fern OST1 homolog, GAMETOPHYTES ABA INSENSITIVE ON ANTHERDIOGEN 1 (GAIA1), which is not required for stomatal closure in ferns, consistent with physiologic evidence that shows the stomata of these plants respond passively to changes in leaf water status. Instead, gaia1 mutants reveal a critical role in ABA signaling for spore dormancy and sex determination, in a system regulated by antagonism between ABA and the gibberellin (GA)-derived fern hormone antheridiogen (A CE ). ABA and key proteins, including ABA receptors from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family and negative regulators of ABA-signaling from Group A of the type-2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), in addition to OST1 homologs, can be found in all terrestrial land plant lineages, ranging from liverworts that lack stomata, to angiosperms. As land plants have evolved and diversified over the past 450 million years, so too have the roles of this important plant hormone and the genes involved in its signaling and perception.

  13. Arabidopsis plants deficient in plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase show alterations in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction: interaction between ABA and primary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Bermúdez, María Angeles; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) controls plant development and regulates plant responses to environmental stresses. A role for ABA in sugar regulation of plant development has also been well documented although the molecular mechanisms connecting the hormone with sugar signal transduction pathways are not well understood. In this work it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapcp1gapcp2) are ABA insensitive in growth, stomatal closure, and germination assays. The ABA levels of gapcp1gapcp2 were normal, suggesting that the ABA signal transduction pathway is impaired in the mutants. ABA modified gapcp1gapcp2 gene expression, but the mutant response to the hormone differed from that observed in wild-type plants. The gene expression of the transcription factor ABI4, involved in both sugar and ABA signalling, was altered in gapcp1gapcp2, suggesting that their ABA insensitivity is mediated, at least partially, through this transcriptional regulator. Serine supplementation was able partly to restore the ABA sensitivity of gapcp1gapcp2, indicating that amino acid homeostasis and/or serine metabolism may also be important determinants in the connections of ABA with primary metabolism. Overall, these studies provide new insights into the links between plant primary metabolism and ABA signalling, and demonstrate the importance of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in these interactions. PMID:21068209

  14. Abscisic acid triggers whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms to increase fruit calcium uptake and prevent blossom end rot development in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2011-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms.

  15. Two New Alleles of the abscisic aldehyde oxidase 3 Gene Reveal Its Role in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    González-Guzmán, Miguel; Abia, David; Salinas, Julio; Serrano, Ramón; Rodríguez, Pedro L.

    2004-01-01

    The abscisic aldehyde oxidase 3 (AAO3) gene product of Arabidopsis catalyzes the final step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. An aao3-1 mutant in a Landsberg erecta genetic background exhibited a wilty phenotype in rosette leaves, whereas seed dormancy was not affected (Seo et al., 2000a). Therefore, it was speculated that a different aldehyde oxidase would be the major contributor to ABA biosynthesis in seeds (Seo et al., 2000a). Through a screening based on germination under high-salt concentration, we isolated two mutants in a Columbia genetic background, initially named sre2-1 and sre2-2 (for salt resistant). Complementation tests with different ABA-deficient mutants indicated that sre2-1 and sre2-2 mutants were allelic to aao3-1, and therefore they were renamed as aao3-2 and aao3-3, respectively. Indeed, molecular characterization of the aao3-2 mutant revealed a T-DNA insertional mutation that abolished the transcription of AAO3 gene, while sequence analysis of AAO3 in aao3-3 mutant revealed a deletion of three nucleotides and several missense mutations. Physiological characterization of aao3-2 and aao3-3 mutants revealed a wilty phenotype and osmotolerance in germination assays. In contrast to aao3-1, both aao3-2 and aao3-3 mutants showed a reduced dormancy. Accordingly, ABA levels were reduced in dry seeds and rosette leaves of both aao3-2 and aao3-3. Taken together, these results indicate that AAO3 gene product plays a major role in seed ABA biosynthesis. PMID:15122034

  16. Biologically active peptides of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, R; Wade, M

    1985-01-01

    A peptide corresponding to the amino-terminal 25 amino acids of the mature vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein has recently been shown to be a pH-dependent hemolysin. In the present study, we analyzed smaller constituent peptides and found that the hemolytic domain resides within the six amino-terminal amino acids. Synthesis of variant peptides indicates that the amino-terminal lysine can be replaced by another positively charged amino acid (arginine) but that substitution with glutamic acid results in the total loss of the hemolytic function. Peptide-induced hemolysis was dependent upon buffer conditions and was inhibited when isotonicity was maintained with mannitol, sucrose, or raffinose. In sucrose, all hemolytic peptides were also observed to mediate hemagglutination. The large 25-amino acid peptide is also a pH-dependent cytotoxin for mammalian cells and appears to effect gross changes in cell permeability. Conservation of the amino terminus of vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus suggests that the membrane-destabilizing properties of this domain may be important for glycoprotein function. Images PMID:2981356

  17. Nitric Oxide (NO) Measurements in Stomatal Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Agurla, Srinivas; Gayatri, Gunja; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in plant cells acquired great importance, in view of the multifaceted function and involvement of NO as a signal in various plant processes. Monitoring of NO in guard cells is quite simple because of the large size of guard cells and ease of observing the detached epidermis under microscope. Stomatal guard cells therefore provide an excellent model system to study the components of signal transduction. The levels and functions of NO in relation to stomatal closure can be monitored, with the help of an inverted fluorescence or confocal microscope. We can measure the NO in guard cells by using flouroprobes like 4,5-diamino fluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA). This fluorescent dye, DAF-2DA, is cell permeable and after entry into the cell, the diacetate group is removed by the cellular esterases. The resulting DAF-2 form is membrane impermeable and reacts with NO to generate the highly fluorescent triazole (DAF-2T), with excitation and emission wavelengths of 488 and 530 nm, respectively. If time-course measurements are needed, the epidermis can be adhered to a cover-glass or glass slide and left in a small petri dishes. Fluorescence can then be monitored at required time intervals; with a precaution that excitation is done minimally, only when a fluorescent image is acquired. The present method description is for the epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pisum sativum and should work with most of the other dicotyledonous plants.

  18. Internal coordination between hydraulics and stomatal control in leaves.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; Jordan, Gregory J

    2008-11-01

    The stomatal response to changing leaf-atmospheric vapour pressure gradient (D(l)) is a crucial yet enigmatic process that defines the daily course of leaf gas exchange. Changes in the hydration of epidermal cells are thought to drive this response, mediated by the transpiration rate and hydraulic conductance of the leaf. Here, we examine whether species-specific variation in the sensitivity of leaves to perturbation of D(l) is related to the efficiency of water transport in the leaf (leaf hydraulic conductivity, K(leaf)). We found good correlation between maximum liquid (K(leaf)) and gas phase conductances (g(max)) in leaves, but there was no direct correlation between normalized D(l) sensitivity and K(leaf). The impact of K(leaf) on D(l) sensitivity in our diverse sample of eight species was important only after accounting for the strong relationship between K(leaf) and g(max). Thus, the ratio of g(max)/K(leaf) was strongly correlated with stomatal sensitivity to D(l). This ratio is an index of the degree of hydraulic buffering of the stomata against changes in D(l), and species with high g(max) relative to K(leaf) were the most sensitive to D(l) perturbation. Despite the potentially high adaptive significance of this phenomenon, we found no significant phylogenetic or ecological trend in our species.

  19. Reference Canopy Stomatal Conductance Explains Spatiotemporal Patterns of Tree Transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, M. M.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.; Traver, E.

    2007-12-01

    Increased heterogeneity in patterns of whole tree transpiration (EC) with increasing atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D) suggests a dynamic response of sap flow velocity (JS) to environmental drivers. We hypothesized that differences in reference stomatal conductance (GSref), stomatal conductance at D = 1kPa, would explain the spatiotemporal dynamics of JS. Using a coupled model of plant hydraulic and biochemical processes we tested this hypothesis with sap flux data for 106 aspen ( Populus tremuloides) and 108 sugar maple ( Acer saccharum) trees collected from plots using in 2-D cyclic sampling scheme during the summer of 2005 in northern Wisconsin. Inverse modeling is used to estimate GSref for each tree. For each species, trees from across the ranges of JS and diameter distributions are compared. GSref explained temporal variability in spatial patterns of EC We explore several possible mechanistic explanations for differences in GSref among trees. Topoedaphic factors are considered to determine if location within a stand has an effect. We also consider competition with neighboring individuals as a possible explanation. Variations in GSref in aspen were explained in part by competition for light between neighboring individuals, while competition for light was not a significant factor for sugar maple. Based on simulation analysis we identify possible biochemical feedbacks as drivers of the variability in plant hydraulics. Other factors examined included micro-topography within both sites.

  20. Genetic and antigenic relationships of veicular stomatitis viruses from South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) viruses have beenclassified into two serotypes: New Jersey (VSNJV) and Indiana (VSIV). Here, we have characterized field isolates causing vesicular stomatitis in Brazil and Argentina over a 35-year span. Cluster analysis based on either serological relatedness, as inferred ...

  1. Recent insights into brassinosteroid signaling in plants: its dual control of plant immunity and stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Cai, Guohua; Li, Dequan

    2012-11-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, plant innate immunity, and stomatal developments are three pathways that are initiated by receptor-like kinases. This commentary focuses on the latest findings in the role of BR signaling in plant immunity and stomatal development that provide some insight into the molecular mechanism of the BR signal pathway interacting with other receptor signaling pathways.

  2. Comparison of different stomatal conductance algorithms for ozone flux modelling [Proceedings

    Treesearch

    P. Buker; L. D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; G. Gerosa; C. Jacobs; W. J. Massman; J. Muller; N. Nikolov; K. Novak; E. Oksanen; D. De La Torre; J. -P. Tuovinen

    2006-01-01

    The ozone deposition model (D03SE) that has been developed and applied within the EMEP photooxidant model (Emberson et al., 2000, Simpson et al. 2003) currently estimates stomatal ozone flux using a stomatal conductance (gs) model based on the multiplicative algorithm initially developed by Jarvis (1976). This model links gs to environmental and phenological parameters...

  3. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detecta...

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Isolates Collected in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Isa, Pavel; Pauszek, Steven J; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2017-09-14

    We report two full-genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) obtained by Illumina next-generation sequencing of RNA isolated from epithelial suspensions of cattle naturally infected in Mexico. These genomes represent the first full-genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey viruses circulating in Mexico deposited in the GenBank database.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Isolates Collected in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Pavel; Pauszek, Steven J.; Rodriguez, Luis L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report two full-genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) obtained by Illumina next-generation sequencing of RNA isolated from epithelial suspensions of cattle naturally infected in Mexico. These genomes represent the first full-genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey viruses circulating in Mexico deposited in the GenBank database. PMID:28912331

  6. Impacts of tree height on leaf hydraulic architecture and stomatal control in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; K.A. McCulloh; J.M. Warren; F.C. Meinzer; B.L. Gartner

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms involved in the regulation of stomatal closure in Douglas-fir and evaluated the potential compensatory adjustments in response to increasing tree height. Stomatal closure was initiated at values of leaf water potential corresponding to nearly complete loss of leaf hydraulic conductance. Cryogenic scanning electron microscopic images...

  7. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2.

    PubMed

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M; Batke, Sven P; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency.

  8. Does Size Matter? Atmospheric CO2 May Be a Stronger Driver of Stomatal Closing Rate Than Stomatal Size in Taxa That Diversified under Low CO2

    PubMed Central

    Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; Haworth, Matthew; Yearsley, Jon M.; Batke, Sven P.; Lawson, Tracy; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    One strategy for plants to optimize stomatal function is to open and close their stomata quickly in response to environmental signals. It is generally assumed that small stomata can alter aperture faster than large stomata. We tested the hypothesis that species with small stomata close faster than species with larger stomata in response to darkness by comparing rate of stomatal closure across an evolutionary range of species including ferns, cycads, conifers, and angiosperms under controlled ambient conditions (380 ppm CO2; 20.9% O2). The two species with fastest half-closure time and the two species with slowest half-closure time had large stomata while the remaining three species had small stomata, implying that closing rate was not correlated with stomatal size in these species. Neither was response time correlated with stomatal density, phylogeny, functional group, or life strategy. Our results suggest that past atmospheric CO2 concentration during time of taxa diversification may influence stomatal response time. We show that species which last diversified under low or declining atmospheric CO2 concentration close stomata faster than species that last diversified in a high CO2 world. Low atmospheric [CO2] during taxa diversification may have placed a selection pressure on plants to accelerate stomatal closing to maintain adequate internal CO2 and optimize water use efficiency. PMID:27605929

  9. Mix-and-match: ligand-receptor pairs in stomatal development and beyond.

    PubMed

    Torii, Keiko U

    2012-12-01

    Stomata are small valves on the plant epidermis balancing gas exchange and water loss. Stomata are formed according to positional cues. In Arabidopsis, two EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR (EPF) peptides, EPF1 and EPF2, are secreted from stomatal precursors enforcing proper stomatal patterning. Here, I review recent studies revealing the ligand-receptor pairs and revising the previously predicted relations between receptors specifying stomatal patterning: ERECTA-family and TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). Furthermore, EPF-LIKE9 (EPFL9/Stomagen) promotes stomatal differentiation from internal tissues. Two EPFL peptides specify inflorescence architecture, a process beyond stomatal development, as ligands for ERECTA. Thus, broadly expressed receptor kinases may regulate multiple developmental processes through perceiving different peptide ligands, each with a specialized expression pattern. TMM in the epidermis may fine-tune multiple EPF/EPFL signals to prevent signal interference. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stomatal Complex Development and F-Actin Organization in Maize Leaf Epidermis Depend on Cellulose Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Achlati, Theonymphi; Daras, Gerasimos; Rigas, Stamatis

    2018-06-06

    Cellulose microfibrils reinforce the cell wall for morphogenesis in plants. Herein, we provide evidence on a series of defects regarding stomatal complex development and F-actin organization in Zea mays leaf epidermis, due to inhibition of cellulose synthesis. Formative cell divisions of stomatal complex ontogenesis were delayed or inhibited, resulting in lack of subsidiary cells and frequently in unicellular stomata, with an atypical stomatal pore. Guard cells failed to acquire a dumbbell shape, becoming rounded, while subsidiary cells, whenever present, exhibited aberrant morphogenesis. F-actin organization was also affected, since the stomatal complex-specific arrays were scarcely observed. At late developmental stages, the overall F-actin network was diminished in all epidermal cells, although thick actin bundles persisted. Taken together, stomatal complex development strongly depends on cell wall mechanical properties. Moreover, F-actin organization exhibits a tight relationship with the cell wall.

  11. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis: clinical characteristics and associated systemic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, R S

    1997-12-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), commonly known as canker sores, has been reported as recurrent oral ulcers, recurrent aphthous ulcers, or simple or complex aphthosis. RAS is the most common inflammatory ulcerative condition of the oral mucosa in North American patients. One of its variants is the most painful condition of the oral mucosa. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis has been the subject of active investigation along multiple lines of research, including epidemiology, immunology, clinical correlations, and therapy. Clinical evaluation of the patient requires correct diagnosis of RAS and classification of the disease based on morphology (MiAU, MjAU, HU) and severity (simple versus complex). The natural history of individual lesions of RAS is important, because it is the bench mark against which treatment benefits are measured. The lesions of RAS are not caused by a single factor but occur in an environment that is permissive for development of lesions. These factors include trauma, smoking, stress, hormonal state, family history, food hypersensitivity and infectious or immunologic factors. The clinician should consider these elements of a multifactorial process leading to the development of lesions of RAS. To properly diagnose and treat a patient with lesions of RAS, the clinician must identify or exclude associated systemic disorders or "correctable causes." Behçet's disease and complex aphthosis variants, such as ulcus vulvae acutum, mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage (MAGIC) syndrome, fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (FAPA) syndrome, and cyclic neutropenia, should be considered. The aphthous-like oral ulcerations of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease represent a challenging differential diagnosis. The association of lesions of RAS with hematinic deficiencies and gastrointestinal diseases provides an opportunity to identify a "correctable cause," which, with appropriate treatment, can result in a remission or

  12. Preliminary evidence that abscisic acid improves spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Cong-Cong; Ge, Jin-Fang; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2015-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a crucial phytohormone that exists in a wide range of animals, including humans, and has multiple bioactivities. As direct derivatives of carotenoids, ABA and retinoic acid (RA) share similar molecular structures, and RA has been reported to improve spatial memory in rodents. To explore the potential effects of ABA on spatial learning and memory in rodents, 20mg/kg ABA was administered to young rats for 6weeks, and its effects on behaviour performance were evaluated through a series of behavioural tests. ABA pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the exogenous ABA was distributed widely in the rat brain, characterised by rapid absorption and slow elimination. The behavioural tests showed that ABA increased both the duration spent in the target quadrant and the frequency it was entered in the probe test of the Morris water maze (MWM) and decreased the latency to locate the target quadrant. Moreover, ABA decreased the latency to enter the novel arm in the Y-maze test, accompanied by increases in the total entries and distance travelled in the three arms. However, there were no significant differences between the ABA-treated and control rats in the open field test and elevated plus-maze test. These results preliminarily indicate that ABA improves spatial memory in MWM and exploratory activity in Y-maze in young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abscisic acid controlled sex before transpiration in vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    McAdam, Scott A. M.; Brodribb, Timothy J.; Hedrich, Rainer; Atallah, Nadia M.; Cai, Chao; Geringer, Michael A.; Lind, Christof; Nichols, David S.; Stachowski, Kye; Sussmilch, Frances C.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in animals and plants shares common elements, including sperm and egg production, but unlike animals, little is known about the regulatory pathways that determine the sex of plants. Here we use mutants and gene silencing in a fern species to identify a core regulatory mechanism in plant sexual differentiation. A key player in fern sex differentiation is the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which regulates the sex ratio of male to hermaphrodite tissues during the reproductive cycle. Our analysis shows that in the fern Ceratopteris richardii, a gene homologous to core ABA transduction genes in flowering plants [SNF1-related kinase2s (SnRK2s)] is primarily responsible for the hormonal control of sex determination. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this ABA–SnRK2 signaling pathway has transitioned from determining the sex of ferns to controlling seed dormancy in the earliest seed plants before being co-opted to control transpiration and CO2 exchange in derived seed plants. By tracing the evolutionary history of this ABA signaling pathway from plant reproduction through to its role in the global regulation of plant–atmosphere gas exchange during the last 450 million years, we highlight the extraordinary effect of the ABA–SnRK2 signaling pathway in plant evolution and vegetation function. PMID:27791082

  14. Abscisic acid controlled sex before transpiration in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Banks, Jo Ann; Hedrich, Rainer; Atallah, Nadia M; Cai, Chao; Geringer, Michael A; Lind, Christof; Nichols, David S; Stachowski, Kye; Geiger, Dietmar; Sussmilch, Frances C

    2016-10-26

    Sexual reproduction in animals and plants shares common elements, including sperm and egg production, but unlike animals, little is known about the regulatory pathways that determine the sex of plants. Here we use mutants and gene silencing in a fern species to identify a core regulatory mechanism in plant sexual differentiation. A key player in fern sex differentiation is the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which regulates the sex ratio of male to hermaphrodite tissues during the reproductive cycle. Our analysis shows that in the fern Ceratopteris richardii, a gene homologous to core ABA transduction genes in flowering plants [SNF1-related kinase2s (SnRK2s)] is primarily responsible for the hormonal control of sex determination. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway has transitioned from determining the sex of ferns to controlling seed dormancy in the earliest seed plants before being co-opted to control transpiration and CO 2 exchange in derived seed plants. By tracing the evolutionary history of this ABA signaling pathway from plant reproduction through to its role in the global regulation of plant-atmosphere gas exchange during the last 450 million years, we highlight the extraordinary effect of the ABA-SnRK2 signaling pathway in plant evolution and vegetation function.

  15. Mechanisms of action and medicinal applications of abscisic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bassaganya-Riera, J; Skoneczka, J; Kingston, D G J; Krishnan, A; Misyak, S A; Guri, A J; Pereira, A; Carter, A B; Minorsky, P; Tumarkin, R; Hontecillas, R

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 1960's, abscisic acid (ABA) has received considerable attention as an important phytohormone, and more recently, as a candidate medicinal in humans. In plants it has been shown to regulate important physiological processes such as response to drought stress, and dormancy. The discovery of ABA synthesis in animal cells has generated interest in the possible parallels between its role in plant and animal systems. The importance of this molecule has prompted the development of several methods for the chemical synthesis of ABA, which differ significantly from the biosynthesis of ABA in plants through the mevalonic acid pathway. ABA recognition in plants has been shown to occur at both the intra- and extracellularly but little is known about the perception of ABA by animal cells. A few ABA molecular targets have been identified in vitro (e.g., calcium signaling, G protein-coupled receptors) in both plant and animal systems. A unique finding in mammalian systems, however, is that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR gamma, is upregulated by ABA in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Comparison of the human PPAR gamma gene network with Arabidopsis ABA-related genes reveal important orthologs between these groups. Also, ABA can ameliorate the symptoms of type II diabetes, targeting PPAR gamma in a similar manner as the thiazolidinediones class of anti-diabetic drugs. The use of ABA in the treatment of type II diabetes, offers encouragement for further studies concerning the biomedical applications of ABA.

  16. The Physiological Role of Abscisic Acid in Eliciting Turion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, C. C.; Fleming, A. J.; Chaloupkova, K.; Hanke, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    The exogenous application of hormones has led to their implication in a number of processes within the plant. However, proof of their function in vivo depends on quantitative data demonstrating that the exogenous concentration used to elicit a response leads to tissue hormone levels within the physiological range. Such proof is often lacking in many investigations. We are using abscisic acid (ABA)-induced turion formation in Spirodela polyrrhiza L. to investigate the mechanism by which a hormone can trigger a morphogenic switch. In this paper, we demonstrate that the exogenous concentration of ABA used to induce turions leads to tissue concentrations of ABA within the physiological range, as quantified by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography-electron capture detection analysis. These results are consistent with ABA having a physiological role in turion formation, and they provide an estimate of the changes in endogenous ABA concentration required if environmental effectors of turion formation (e.g. nitrate deficiency, cold) act via an increased level of ABA. In addition, we show that the (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of ABA are equally effective in inducing turions. Moreover, comparison of the ABA; levels attained after treatment with (+)-, (-)-, and ([plus or minus])-ABA and their effect on turion induction and comparison of the effectiveness of ABA on turion induction under different pH regimes suggest that ABA most likely interacts with a plasmalemma-located receptor system to induce turion formation. PMID:12228499

  17. Evolution of Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Signaling Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Felix; Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates seed dormancy, controls seedling development and triggers tolerance to abiotic stresses, including drought. Core ABA signaling components consist of a recently identified group of ABA receptor proteins of the PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/REGULATORY COMPONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR) family that act as negative regulators of members of the PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C (PP2C) family. Inhibition of PP2C activity enables activation of SNF1-RELATED KINASE 2 (SnRK2) protein kinases, which target downstream components, including transcription factors, ion channels and NADPH oxidases. These and other components form a complex ABA signaling network. Here, an in depth analysis of the evolution of components in this ABA signaling network shows that (i) PYR/RCAR ABA receptor and ABF-type transcription factor families arose during land colonization of plants and are not found in algae and other species, (ii) ABA biosynthesis enzymes have evolved to plant- and fungal-specific forms, leading to different ABA synthesis pathways, (iii) existing stress signaling components, including PP2C phosphatases and SnRK kinases, were adapted for novel roles in this plant-specific network to respond to water limitation. In addition, evolutionarily conserved secondary structures in the PYR/RCAR ABA receptor family are visualized. PMID:21549957

  18. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  20. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Interactions between red light, abscisic acid, and calcium in gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; LaFavre, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of red light on orthogravitropism of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots has been attributed to its effects on the transduction phase of gravitropism (AC Leopold, SH Wettlaufer [1988] Plant Physiol 87:803-805). In an effort to characterize the orthogravitropic transduction system, comparative experiments have been carried out on the effects of red light, calcium, and abscisic acid (ABA). The red light effect can be completely satisfied with added ABA (100 micromolar) or with osmotic shock, which is presumed to increase endogenous ABA. The decay of the red light effect is closely paralleled by the decay of the ABA effect. ABA and exogenous calcium show strong additive effects when applied to either Merit or a line of corn which does not require red light for orthogravitropism. Measurements of the ABA content show marked increases in endogenous ABA in the growing region of the roots after red light. The interpretation is offered that red light or ABA may serve to increase the cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium, and that this may be an integral part of orthogravitropic transduction.

  2. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae

    PubMed Central

    Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro-reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin, and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. PMID:28381619

  3. Abscisic acid perception and signaling: structural mechanisms and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ley Moy; Melcher, Karsten; Teh, Bin Tean; Xu, H Eric

    2014-01-01

    Adverse environmental conditions are a threat to agricultural yield and therefore exert a global effect on livelihood, health and the economy. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital plant hormone that regulates abiotic stress tolerance, thereby allowing plants to cope with environmental stresses. Previously, attempts to develop a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying ABA signaling have been hindered by difficulties in the identification of bona fide ABA receptors. The discovery of the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of ABA receptors therefore represented a major milestone in the effort to overcome these roadblocks; since then, many structural and functional studies have provided detailed insights into processes ranging from ABA perception to the activation of ABA-responsive gene transcription. This understanding of the mechanisms of ABA perception and signaling has served as the basis for recent, preliminary developments in the genetic engineering of stress-resistant crops as well as in the design of new synthetic ABA agonists, which hold great promise for the agricultural enhancement of stress tolerance. PMID:24786231

  4. Novel Abscisic Acid Antagonists Identified with Chemical Array Screening.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuya; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Yoshida, Kazuko; Umezawa, Taishi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is involved in multiple processes in plants, such as water stress control and seed dormancy. Major regulators of ABA signaling are the PYR/PYL/RCAR family receptor proteins, group A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), and subclass III of SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Novel ABA agonists and antagonists to modulate the functions of these proteins would not only contribute to clarification of the signaling mechanisms but might also be used to improve crop yields. To obtain small molecules that interact with Arabidopsis ABA receptor PYR1, we screened 24 275 compounds from a chemical library at the RIKEN Natural Products Depository by using a chemical array platform. Subsequent SnRK2 and PP2C assays narrowed down the candidates to two molecules. One antagonized ABA in a competitive manner and inhibited the formation of the PYR1-ABA-PP2C ternary complex. These compounds might have potential as bioprobes to analyze ABA signaling. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Structural basis and functions of abscisic acid receptors PYLs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing L.; Jiang, Lun; Xin, Qi; Liu, Yang; Tan, Jian X.; Chen, Zhong Z.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many developmental processes and responses to adaptive stresses in plants. Recently, a new family of nucleocytoplasmic PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYLs) has been identified as bona fide ABA receptors. PYLs together with protein phosphatases type-2C (PP2Cs), Snf1 (Sucrose-non-fermentation 1)-related kinases subfamily 2 (SnRK2s) and downstream substrates constitute the core ABA signaling network. Generally, PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s kinases by physical interaction and direct dephosphorylation. Upon ABA binding, PYLs change their conformations and then contact and inhibit PP2Cs, thus activating SnRK2s. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in research regarding the structures of the core signaling pathways of ABA, including the (+)-ABA, (−)-ABA and ABA analogs pyrabactin as well as 6AS perception by PYLs, SnRK2s mimicking PYLs in binding PP2Cs. PYLs inhibited PP2Cs in both the presence and absence of ABA and activated SnRK2s. The present review elucidates multiple ABA signal perception and transduction by PYLs, which might shed light on how to design small chemical compounds for improving plant performance in the future. PMID:25745428

  6. Abscisic acid enhances cold tolerance in honeybee larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Leonor; Negri, Pedro; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Maggi, Matías; Eguaras, Martín; Zocchi, Elena; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2017-04-12

    The natural composition of nutrients present in food is a key factor determining the immune function and stress responses in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera ). We previously demonstrated that a supplement of abscisic acid (ABA), a natural component of nectar, pollen, and honey, increases honeybee colony survival overwinter. Here we further explored the role of ABA in in vitro -reared larvae exposed to low temperatures. Four-day-old larvae (L4) exposed to 25°C for 3 days showed lower survival rates and delayed development compared to individuals growing at a standard temperature (34°C). Cold-stressed larvae maintained higher levels of ABA for longer than do larvae reared at 34°C, suggesting a biological significance for ABA. Larvae fed with an ABA-supplemented diet completely prevent the low survival rate due to cold stress and accelerate adult emergence. ABA modulates the expression of genes involved in metabolic adjustments and stress responses: Hexamerin 70b, Insulin Receptor Substrate, Vitellogenin , and Heat Shock Proteins 70. AmLANCL2, the honeybee ABA receptor, is also regulated by cold stress and ABA. These results support a role for ABA increasing the tolerance of honeybee larvae to low temperatures through priming effects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Specificity determinants for the abscisic acid response element.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Aditya Kumar; Lahiri, Ansuman

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) response elements (ABREs) are a group of cis-acting DNA elements that have been identified from promoter analysis of many ABA-regulated genes in plants. We are interested in understanding the mechanism of binding specificity between ABREs and a class of bZIP transcription factors known as ABRE binding factors (ABFs). In this work, we have modeled the homodimeric structure of the bZIP domain of ABRE binding factor 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtABF1) and studied its interaction with ACGT core motif-containing ABRE sequences. We have also examined the variation in the stability of the protein-DNA complex upon mutating ABRE sequences using the protein design algorithm FoldX. The high throughput free energy calculations successfully predicted the ability of ABF1 to bind to alternative core motifs like GCGT or AAGT and also rationalized the role of the flanking sequences in determining the specificity of the protein-DNA interaction.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Relationships of Stomatal Development and Function in a Temperate Forest Canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, G.; Richardson, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanisms that control stomatal development ultimately constrain leaf physiology by determining the anatomical maximum rate for gas-exchange (gsmax). However, we know comparatively less about how these regulatory processes define stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis or how this information translates between model systems and important crop or native plant species. Here, we test relationships between stomatal development and leaf physiology that have been established in model systems by sampling trees in a mature forest ecosystem. We found that plasticity in gsmax was limited throughout the canopy, despite other changes in leaf structure and function that are driven by environmental gradients in the canopy. However, the ratio between gs and gsmax was predictive of gas flux in the canopy and species-independent. Variation in the gs : gsmax ratio appeared to minimize the energy required to control aperture size via guard cell turgor pressure, thus compensating for the initial over-investment in stomatal production. gsmax also remained a strong predictor of photosynthetic potential and intrinsic water-use efficiency. The temporal relationship between gsmax and these functional leaf traits might depend on long-term adjustments in stomatal development, which was sensitive to increases in atmospheric CO2 in our study. The absence of a spatial response and the presence of a temporal response in stomatal development infers that multiple mechanisms may integrate environmental signaling in the developmental pathway. Collectively, this research helps to define the larger significance of the stomatal mechanisms being identified in model systems.

  9. Rational Discovery of (+) (S) Abscisic Acid as a Potential Antifungal Agent: a Repurposing Approach.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Mohammed A; Massarotti, Alberto; Mohamed, Maged E

    2018-06-04

    Fungal infections are spreading widely worldwide, and the types of treatment are limited due to the lack of diverse therapeutic agents and their associated side effects and toxicity. The discovery of new antifungal classes is vital and critical. We discovered the antifungal activity of abscisic acid through a rational drug design methodology that included the building of homology models for fungal chorismate mutases and a pharmacophore model derived from a transition state inhibitor. Ligand-based virtual screening resulted in some hits that were filtered using molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations studies. Both in silico methods and in vitro antifungal assays were used as tools to select and validate the abscisic acid repurposing. Abscisic acid inhibition assays confirmed the inhibitory effect of abscisic acid on chorismate mutase through the inhibition of phenylpyruvate production. The repositioning of abscisic acid, the well-known and naturally occurring plant growth regulator, as a potential antifungal agent because of its suggested action as an inhibitor to several fungal chorismate mutases was the main result of this work.

  10. Structure-Activity Correlations with Compounds Related to Abscisic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Sondheimer, Ernest; Walton, Daniel C.

    1970-01-01

    Inhibition of cell expansion of excised embryonic axes of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to evaluate the growth-inhibiting activity of abscisic acid and related compounds. None of the 13 compounds tested was as active as abscisic acid. 4-Hydroxyisophorone, a substance representative of the abscisic acid ring system was essentially inactive; cis, trans-3-methylsorbic acid, a compound resembling the side chain of abscisic acid, had low activity; and cis, trans-β-ionylideneacetic acid was one-sixth as active. Loss of the ring double bond results in a drastic decrease in biological activity. Comparison of our results with those reported previously leads to the suggestion that the double bond of the cyclohexyl moiety may have an important function in determining the degree of activity of cis, trans-ionylideneacetic acids. Two modes of action are discussed. It seems possible that the ring double bond is involved in covalent bonding in binding of the abscisic acid analogue to macromolecules. This may require formation of an intermediate epoxide. It can also be argued that stereochemical differences between cyclohexane derivatives are important factors in determining the degree of biological activity. PMID:5423465

  11. Evidence-based modelling of diverse plant water use strategies on stomatal and non-stomatal components under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhou, S.; Prentice, C.; Medlyn, B. E.; Sabaté, S.

    2013-12-01

    Models disagree on how to represent effects of drought stress on plant gas exchange. Some models assume drought stress affects the marginal water use efficiency of plants (marginal WUE; i.e. the change in photosynthesis per unit of change in transpiration) whereas others assume drought stress acts directly on photosynthetic capacity. It is not clear whether either of these approaches is sufficient to capture the drought response, or whether the effect of drought varies among species and functional types. A collection of Eucalyptus and Quercus species derived from different hydro-climate habitats, in together with two European riparian species, were conducted with drought treatments respectively in Australia and Spain for three months. Measurements included net CO2 assimilation rate versus substomatal CO2 concentration (A-Ci) curves, fluorescence, and predawn leaf water potential at increasing levels of water stress. The correlations with quantitative plant traits of leaf, stomata, vessel, and wood density, leaf nitrogen content and 13C discrimination were also explored. We analysed the effect of drought effect on leaf gas exchange with a recently developed stomatal model that reconciles the empirical and optimal approaches on predicting optimal stomatal conductance. The model's single parameter g1 is a decreasing function of marginal WUE. The two genera showed consistence on the contrasting response patterns between species derived from mesic and arid habitats, which differed greatly in their estimated g1 values under moist conditions, and in the rate at which g1 declined with water stress. They also differed greatly in the predawn water potential at which apparent carboxylation capacity (apparent Vcmax) and mesophyll conductance (gm) declined most steeply, and in the steepness of this decline. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient in water relation strategies from sclerophyll species to malacophyll species. Malacophylls had higher g1, apparent Vcmax

  12. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  13. Overexpression of Poplar Pyrabactin Resistance-Like Abscisic Acid Receptors Promotes Abscisic Acid Sensitivity and Drought Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingling; Yang, Lei; Liu, Xiaobing; Tang, Renjie; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Haiman; Wu, Mengting; Zhang, Jiang; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting productivity of plants, especially fast growing species with high water consumption like poplar. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that positively regulates seed dormancy and drought resistance. The PYR1 (Pyrabactin Resistance 1)/ PYRL (PYR-Like)/ RCAR (Regulatory Component of ABA Receptor) (PYR/PYL/RCAR) ABA receptor family has been identified and widely characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their functions in poplars remain unknown. Here, we report that 2 of 14 PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologues in poplar (Populus trichocarpa) (PtPYRLs) function as a positive regulator of the ABA signal transduction pathway. The Arabidopsis transient expression and yeast two-hybrid assays showed the interaction among PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, a clade A protein phosphatase 2C, and a SnRK2, suggesting that a core signalling complex for ABA signaling pathway exists in poplars. Phenotypic analysis of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 transgenic Arabidopsis showed that these two genes positively regulated the ABA responses during the seed germination. More importantly, the overexpression of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5 substantially improved ABA sensitivity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic plants. In summary, we comprehensively uncovered the properties of PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, which might be good target genes to genetically engineer drought-Resistant plants.

  14. BASL and EPF2 act independently to regulate asymmetric divisions during stomatal development

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The initiation of stomatal development in the developing Arabidopsis epidermis is characterized by an asymmetric ‘entry’ division in which a small cell, known as a meristemoid, and a larger daughter cell is formed. The meristemoid may undergo further asymmetric divisions, regenerating a meristemoid each time, before differentiating into a guard mother cell which divides symmetrically to form a pair of guard cells surrounding a stomatal pore. Recently EPF2 and BASL have emerged as regulators of these asymmetric divisions and here we present results indicating that these two factors operate independently to control stomatal development PMID:20220310

  15. The stomatal CO2 proxy does not saturate at high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: evidence from stomatal index responses of Araucariaceae conifers.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2011-09-01

    The inverse relationship between the number of stomata on a leaf surface and the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) in which the leaf developed allows plants to optimise water-use efficiency (WUE), but it also permits the use of fossil plants as proxies of palaeoatmospheric [CO(2)]. The ancient conifer family Araucariaceae is often represented in fossil floras and may act as a suitable proxy of palaeo-[CO(2)], yet little is known regarding the stomatal index (SI) responses of extant Araucariaceae to [CO(2)]. Four Araucaria species (Araucaria columnaris, A. heterophylla, A. angustifolia and A. bidwillii) and Agathis australis displayed no significant relationship in SI to [CO(2)] below current ambient levels (~380 ppm). However, representatives of the three extant genera within the Araucariaceae (A. bidwillii, A. australis and Wollemia nobilis) all exhibited significant reductions in SI when grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)] (1,500 ppm). Stomatal conductance was reduced and WUE increased when grown under elevated [CO(2)]. Stomatal pore length did not increase alongside reduced stomatal density (SD) and SI in the three araucariacean conifers when grown at elevated [CO(2)]. These pronounced SD and SI reductions occur at higher [CO(2)] levels than in other species with more recent evolutionary origins, and may reflect an evolutionary legacy of the Araucariaceae in the high [CO(2)] world of the Mesozoic Era. Araucariacean conifers may therefore be suitable stomatal proxies of palaeo-[CO(2)] during periods of "greenhouse" climates and high [CO(2)] in the Earth's history.

  16. Abscisic acid ameliorates the systemic sclerosis fibroblast phenotype in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bruzzone, Santina, E-mail: santina.bruzzone@unige.it; Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 9, 16132 Genova; Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16132 Genova

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA is an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABA reverts some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-B irradiation increases ABA content in SSc cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SSc fibroblasts could benefit from exposure to ABA and/or to UV-B. -- Abstract: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been recently identified as an endogenous hormone in humans, regulating different cell functions, including inflammatory processes, insulin release and glucose uptake. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in fibrosis of skin and internal organs. In this study, we investigated themore » effect of exogenous ABA on fibroblasts obtained from healthy subjects and from SSc patients. Migration of control fibroblasts induced by ABA was comparable to that induced by transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}). Conversely, migration toward ABA, but not toward TGF-{beta}, was impaired in SSc fibroblasts. In addition, ABA increased cell proliferation in fibroblasts from SSc patients, but not from healthy subjects. Most importantly, presence of ABA significantly decreased collagen deposition by SSc fibroblasts, at the same time increasing matrix metalloproteinase-1 activity and decreasing the expression level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1). Thus, exogenously added ABA appeared to revert some of the functions altered in SSc fibroblasts to a normal phenotype. Interestingly, ABA levels in plasma from SSc patients were found to be significantly lower than in healthy subjects. UV-B irradiation induced an almost 3-fold increase in ABA content in SSc cultures. Altogether, these results suggest that the fibrotic skin lesions in SSc patients could benefit from exposure to high(er) ABA levels.« less

  17. Abscisic Acid as Pathogen Effector and Immune Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Lievens, Laurens; Pollier, Jacob; Goossens, Alain; Beyaert, Rudi; Staal, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene signaling molecule produced in all kingdoms of life. To date, the best known functions of ABA are derived from its role as a major phytohormone in plant abiotic stress resistance. Different organisms have developed different biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways related to ABA. Despite this, there are also intriguing common themes where ABA often suppresses host immune responses and is utilized by pathogens as an effector molecule. ABA also seems to play an important role in compatible mutualistic interactions such as mycorrhiza and rhizosphere bacteria with plants, and possibly also the animal gut microbiome. The frequent use of ABA in inter-species communication could be a possible reason for the wide distribution and re-invention of ABA as a signaling molecule in different organisms. In humans and animal models, it has been shown that ABA treatment or nutrient-derived ABA is beneficial in inflammatory diseases like colitis and type 2 diabetes, which confer potential to ABA as an interesting nutraceutical or pharmacognostic drug. The anti-inflammatory activity, cellular metabolic reprogramming, and other beneficial physiological and psychological effects of ABA treatment in humans and animal models has sparked an interest in this molecule and its signaling pathway as a novel pharmacological target. In contrast to plants, however, very little is known about the ABA biosynthesis and signaling in other organisms. Genes, tools and knowledge about ABA from plant sciences and studies of phytopathogenic fungi might benefit biomedical studies on the physiological role of endogenously generated ABA in humans. PMID:28469630

  18. Abscisic Acid: A Novel Nutraceutical for Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zocchi, Elena; Hontecillas, Raquel; Leber, Andrew; Einerhand, Alexandra; Carbo, Adria; Bruzzone, Santina; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Philipson, Noah; Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Victoria; Sturla, Laura; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid is naturally present in fruits and vegetables, and it plays an important role in managing glucose homeostasis in humans. According to the latest U.S. dietary survey, about 92% of the population might have a deficient intake of ABA due to their deficient intake of fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes the in vitro, preclinical, mechanistic, and human translational findings obtained over the past 15 years in the study of the role of ABA in glycemic control. In 2007, dietary ABA was first reported to ameliorate glucose tolerance and obesity-related inflammation in mice. The most recent findings regarding the topic of ABA and its proposed receptor lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 in glycemic control and their interplay with insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 suggest a major role for ABA in the physiological response to a glucose load in humans. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that the ABA response might be dysfunctional in diabetic subjects. Follow on intervention studies in healthy individuals show that low-dose dietary ABA administration exerts a beneficial effect on the glycemia and insulinemia profiles after oral glucose load. These recent findings showing benefits in humans, together with extensive efficacy data in mouse models of diabetes and inflammatory disease, suggest the need for reference ABA values and its possible exploitation of the glycemia-lowering effects of ABA for preventative purposes. Larger clinical studies on healthy, prediabetic, and diabetic subjects are needed to determine whether addressing the widespread dietary ABA deficiency improves glucose control in humans. PMID:28660193

  19. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  20. Lassa-Vesicular Stomatitis Chimeric Virus Safely Destroys Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wollmann, Guido; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Davis, John N.; Cepko, Connie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-grade tumors in the brain are among the deadliest of cancers. Here, we took a promising oncolytic virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and tested the hypothesis that the neurotoxicity associated with the virus could be eliminated without blocking its oncolytic potential in the brain by replacing the neurotropic VSV glycoprotein with the glycoprotein from one of five different viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), rabies virus, and Lassa virus. Based on in vitro infections of normal and tumor cells, we selected two viruses to test in vivo. Wild-type VSV was lethal when injected directly into the brain. In contrast, a novel chimeric virus (VSV-LASV-GPC) containing genes from both the Lassa virus glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and VSV showed no adverse actions within or outside the brain and targeted and completely destroyed brain cancer, including high-grade glioblastoma and melanoma, even in metastatic cancer models. When mice had two brain tumors, intratumoral VSV-LASV-GPC injection in one tumor (glioma or melanoma) led to complete tumor destruction; importantly, the virus moved contralaterally within the brain to selectively infect the second noninjected tumor. A chimeric virus combining VSV genes with the gene coding for the Ebola virus glycoprotein was safe in the brain and also selectively targeted brain tumors but was substantially less effective in destroying brain tumors and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. A tropism for multiple cancer types combined with an exquisite tumor specificity opens a new door to widespread application of VSV-LASV-GPC as a safe and efficacious oncolytic chimeric virus within the brain. IMPORTANCE Many viruses have been tested for their ability to target and kill cancer cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has shown substantial promise, but a key problem is that if it enters the brain, it can generate adverse neurologic consequences, including death. We

  1. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. Material and Methods: The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Results: Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36–72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Conclusion: Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections. SUMMARY The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori

  2. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti- H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n -butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti- H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori -induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n -butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori Abscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase

  3. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  4. Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Cawas B.; Ghassemian, Majid; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Peck, Scott C.; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development1–3; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of stomatal gas exchange pores in the aerial epidermis. A diverse range of plant species show a decrease in stomatal density in response to the continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 (ref. 4). To date, one mutant that exhibits deregulation of this CO2-controlled stomatal development response, hic (which is defective in cell-wall wax biosynthesis, ref. 5), has been identified. Here we show that recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana β-carbonic anhydrase double mutants (ca1 ca4)6 exhibit aninversion in their response to elevated CO2, showing increased stomatal development at elevated CO2 levels. We characterized the mechanisms mediating this response and identified an extracellular signalling pathway involved in the regulation of CO2-controlled stomatal development by carbonic anhydrases. RNA-seq analyses of transcripts show that the extracellular pro-peptide-encoding gene EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2)7,8, but not EPF1 (ref. 9), is induced in wild-type leaves but not inca1 ca4 mutant leaves at elevated CO2 levels. Moreover, EPF2 is essential for CO2 control of stomatal development. Using cell-wall proteomic analyses and CO2-dependent transcriptomic analyses, we identified a novel CO2-induced extracellular protease, CRSP (CO2 RESPONSE SECRETED PROTEASE), as a mediator of CO2-controlled stomatal development. Our results identify mechanisms and genes that function in the repression of stomatal development in leaves during atmospheric CO2 elevation, including the carbonic-anhydrase-encoding genes CA1 and CA4 and the secreted protease CRSP, which cleaves the pro-peptide EPF2, in turn repressing stomatal development. Elucidation of these mechanisms advances the

  5. Carbonic anhydrases, EPF2 and a novel protease mediate CO2 control of stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Engineer, Cawas B; Ghassemian, Majid; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Peck, Scott C; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I

    2014-09-11

    Environmental stimuli, including elevated carbon dioxide levels, regulate stomatal development; however, the key mechanisms mediating the perception and relay of the CO2 signal to the stomatal development machinery remain elusive. To adapt CO2 intake to water loss, plants regulate the development of stomatal gas exchange pores in the aerial epidermis. A diverse range of plant species show a decrease in stomatal density in response to the continuing rise in atmospheric CO2 (ref. 4). To date, one mutant that exhibits deregulation of this CO2-controlled stomatal development response, hic (which is defective in cell-wall wax biosynthesis, ref. 5), has been identified. Here we show that recently isolated Arabidopsis thaliana β-carbonic anhydrase double mutants (ca1 ca4) exhibit an inversion in their response to elevated CO2, showing increased stomatal development at elevated CO2 levels. We characterized the mechanisms mediating this response and identified an extracellular signalling pathway involved in the regulation of CO2-controlled stomatal development by carbonic anhydrases. RNA-seq analyses of transcripts show that the extracellular pro-peptide-encoding gene EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 2 (EPF2), but not EPF1 (ref. 9), is induced in wild-type leaves but not in ca1 ca4 mutant leaves at elevated CO2 levels. Moreover, EPF2 is essential for CO2 control of stomatal development. Using cell-wall proteomic analyses and CO2-dependent transcriptomic analyses, we identified a novel CO2-induced extracellular protease, CRSP (CO2 RESPONSE SECRETED PROTEASE), as a mediator of CO2-controlled stomatal development. Our results identify mechanisms and genes that function in the repression of stomatal development in leaves during atmospheric CO2 elevation, including the carbonic-anhydrase-encoding genes CA1 and CA4 and the secreted protease CRSP, which cleaves the pro-peptide EPF2, in turn repressing stomatal development. Elucidation of these mechanisms advances the understanding

  6. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A photosynthesis-based two-leaf canopy stomatal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model with single-layer sunlit and shaded leaf canopy scaling is implemented and evaluated in a diagnostic box model with the Pleim-Xiu land surface model (PX LSM) and ozone deposition model components taken directly from the meteorology and air quality modeling system—WRF/CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecast model and Community Multiscale Air Quality model). The photosynthesis-based model for PX LSM (PX PSN) is evaluated at a FLUXNET site for implementation against different parameterizations and the current PX LSM approach with a simple Jarvis function (PX Jarvis). Latent heat flux (LH) from PX PSN is further evaluated at five FLUXNET sites with different vegetation types and landscape characteristics. Simulated ozone deposition and flux from PX PSN are evaluated at one of the sites with ozone flux measurements. Overall, the PX PSN simulates LH as well as the PX Jarvis approach. The PX PSN, however, shows distinct advantages over the PX Jarvis approach for grassland that likely result from its treatment of C3 and C4 plants for CO2 assimilation. Simulations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) rather than LAI measured at each site assess how the model would perform with grid averaged data used in WRF/CMAQ. MODIS LAI estimates degrade model performance at all sites but one site having exceptionally old and tall trees. Ozone deposition velocity and ozone flux along with LH

  8. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Suman; Tiwari, Ritudhwaj; Gupta, Sharad; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Nayak, Debasis

    2018-02-23

    Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment.

  9. Clinical study of 200 patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Archilla, Alberto; Raissouni, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) affects approximately 20% of the general population. Its etiology is still unknown. To analyze this entity's clinical features. Data such as age, gender, family history of RAS, age at first episode onset, prodromal symptoms, number, size, morphology and localization of lesions, RAS clinical form, annual rate of recurrence, predisposing factors, symptoms and time for symptoms and lesions disappearance were assessed in 200 patients with RAS. Patients had RAS minor forms. Main clinical characteristics were family history of RAS (89%), first episode at ≥ 10 years of age (69%), prodromal symptoms (66%), one lesion per episode (63%), < 0.5 cm lesions (64%), rounded morphology (55%), localization at the tongue (27%), 3 recurrent episodes per year (36%), stress as predisposing factor (34%), symptom disappearance in 2 days (54%) and healing of lesions in 8 days (40%). Even when RAS is a common disorder of the oral mucosa, there is no curative treatment available. Therapeutic measures seek to reduce the pain and size of lesions, accelerate the time of recovery and decrease the rate of relapses. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  10. Epizootic vesicular stomatitis in Colorado, 1982: epidemiologic and entomologic studies.

    PubMed

    Walton, T E; Webb, P A; Kramer, W L; Smith, G C; Davis, T; Holbrook, F R; Moore, C G; Schiefer, T J; Jones, R H; Janney, G C

    1987-01-01

    An epizootic of vesicular stomatitis (VS) caused by the New Jersey serotype of VS virus affected livestock and humans in 14 western states in 1982-1983. Epidemiological observations were made on at least 10% of the cattle in 4 dairy herds that were located in the vicinity of Grand Junction, Colorado. High rates of neutralizing antibody to the New Jersey serotype were seen in all cattle regardless of whether livestock in the dairy had clinical VS or a decrease in mild production. Antibody titers remained high in these cattle for as long as 2 years after the epizootic. No virus isolations were made from 32 humans with clinical signs compatible with viral disease. Entomological information was obtained during the epizootic from 23 premises in northwestern Colorado. Insect collections yielded 4 isolates from Culicoides spp. midges, 2 from C. variipennis, and 1 each from C. stellifer and C. (Selfia) spp. This is the first report of VS virus isolations from field-collected Culicoides.

  11. Evolution of Fitness in Experimental Populations of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Elena, S. F.; Gonzalez-Candelas, F.; Novella, I. S.; Duarte, E. A.; Clarke, D. K.; Domingo, E.; Holland, J. J.; Moya, A.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of fitness in experimental clonal populations of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been compared under different genetic (fitness of initial clone) and demographic (population dynamics) regimes. In spite of the high genetic heterogeneity among replicates within experiments, there is a clear effect of population dynamics on the evolution of fitness. Those populations that went through strong periodic bottlenecks showed a decreased fitness in competition experiments with wild type. Conversely, mutant populations that were transferred under the dynamics of continuous population expansions increased their fitness when compared with the same wild type. The magnitude of the observed effect depended on the fitness of the original viral clone. Thus, high fitness clones showed a larger reduction in fitness than low fitness clones under dynamics with included periodic bottleneck. In contrast, the gain in fitness was larger the lower the initial fitness of the viral clone. The quantitative genetic analysis of the trait ``fitness'' in the resulting populations shows that genetic variation for the trait is positively correlated with the magnitude of the change in the same trait. The results are interpreted in terms of the operation of MULLER's ratchet and genetic drift as opposed to the appearance of beneficial mutations. PMID:8849878

  12. Oncotargeting by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV): Advances in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bishnoi, Suman; Tiwari, Ritudhwaj; Gupta, Sharad; Byrareddy, Siddappa N.; Nayak, Debasis

    2018-01-01

    Modern oncotherapy approaches are based on inducing controlled apoptosis in tumor cells. Although a number of apoptosis-induction approaches are available, site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents still remain the biggest hurdle in achieving the desired cancer treatment benefit. Additionally, systemic treatment-induced toxicity remains a major limiting factor in chemotherapy. To specifically address drug-accessibility and chemotherapy side effects, oncolytic virotherapy (OV) has emerged as a novel cancer treatment alternative. In OV, recombinant viruses with higher replication capacity and stronger lytic properties are being considered for tumor cell-targeting and subsequent cell lysing. Successful application of OVs lies in achieving strict tumor-specific tropism called oncotropism, which is contingent upon the biophysical interactions of tumor cell surface receptors with viral receptors and subsequent replication of oncolytic viruses in cancer cells. In this direction, few viral vector platforms have been developed and some of these have entered pre-clinical/clinical trials. Among these, the Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based platform shows high promise, as it is not pathogenic to humans. Further, modern molecular biology techniques such as reverse genetics tools have favorably advanced this field by creating efficient recombinant VSVs for OV; some have entered into clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the current status of VSV based oncotherapy, challenges, and future perspectives regarding its therapeutic applications in the cancer treatment. PMID:29473868

  13. Direct Control of SPEECHLESS by PIF4 in the High-Temperature Response of Stomatal Development.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Song, Zhuojun; Zhou, Zimin; Davies, Kelli A; Chang, Jessica; Yang, Xin; Wang, Shenqi; Lucyshyn, Doris; Tay, Irene Hui Zhuang; Wigge, Philip A; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2018-04-23

    Environmental factors shape the phenotypes of multicellular organisms. The production of stomata-the epidermal pores required for gas exchange in plants-is highly plastic and provides a powerful platform to address environmental influence on cell differentiation [1-3]. Rising temperatures are already impacting plant growth, a trend expected to worsen in the near future [4]. High temperature inhibits stomatal production, but the underlying mechanism is not known [5]. Here, we show that elevated temperature suppresses the expression of SPEECHLESS (SPCH), the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that serves as the master regulator of stomatal lineage initiation [6, 7]. Our genetic and expression analyses indicate that the suppression of SPCH and stomatal production is mediated by the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4), a core component of high-temperature signaling [8]. Importantly, we demonstrate that, upon exposure to high temperature, PIF4 accumulates in the stomatal precursors and binds to the promoter of SPCH. In addition, we find SPCH feeds back negatively to the PIF4 gene. We propose a model where warm-temperature-activated PIF4 binds and represses SPCH expression to restrict stomatal production at elevated temperatures. Our work identifies a molecular link connecting high-temperature signaling and stomatal development and reveals a direct mechanism by which production of a specific cell lineage can be controlled by a broadly expressed environmental signaling factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Levis, S.; Bonan, G.; Sparks, J. P.

    2012-08-01

    Plants exchange greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water with the atmosphere through the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration, making them essential in climate regulation. Carbon dioxide and water exchange are typically coupled through the control of stomatal conductance, and the parameterization in many models often predict conductance based on photosynthesis values. Some environmental conditions, like exposure to high ozone (O3) concentrations, alter photosynthesis independent of stomatal conductance, so models that couple these processes cannot accurately predict both. The goals of this study were to test direct and indirect photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modifications based on O3 damage to tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) in a coupled Farquhar/Ball-Berry model. The same modifications were then tested in the Community Land Model (CLM) to determine the impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP) and transpiration at a constant O3 concentration of 100 parts per billion (ppb). Modifying the Vcmax parameter and directly modifying stomatal conductance best predicts photosynthesis and stomatal conductance responses to chronic O3 over a range of environmental conditions. On a global scale, directly modifying conductance reduces the effect of O3 on both transpiration and GPP compared to indirectly modifying conductance, particularly in the tropics. The results of this study suggest that independently modifying stomatal conductance can improve the ability of models to predict hydrologic cycling, and therefore improve future climate predictions.

  15. TOO MANY MOUTHS promotes cell fate progression in stomatal development of Arabidopsis stems.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Neela S; Veley, Kira M; Nadeau, Jeanette A; Lucas, Jessica R; Bhave, Sanjay L; Sack, Fred D

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), which encodes a receptor-like protein, cause stomatal patterning defects in Arabidopsis leaves but eliminate stomatal formation in stems. Stomatal development in wild-type and tmm stems was analyzed to define TMM function. Epidermal cells in young tmm stems underwent many asymmetric divisions characteristic of entry into the stomatal pathway. The resulting precursor cells, meristemoids, appropriately expressed cell fate markers such as pTMM:GFP. However, instead of progressing developmentally by forming a guard mother cell, the meristemoids arrested, dedifferentiated, and enlarged. Thus asymmetric divisions are necessary but not sufficient for stomatal formation in stems, and TMM promotes the fate and developmental progression of early precursor cells. Comparable developmental and mature stomatal phenotypes were also found in tmm hypocotyls and in the proximal flower stalk. TMM is also a positive regulator of meristemoid division in leaves suggesting that TMM generally promotes meristemoid activity. Our results are consistent with a model in which TMM interacts with other proteins to modulate precursor cell fate and progression in an organ and domain-specific manner. Finally, the consistent presence of a small number of dedifferentiated meristemoids in mature wild-type stems suggests that precursor cell arrest is a normal feature of Arabidopsis stem development.

  16. Stomatal control and hydraulic conductance, with special reference to tall trees.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J

    2004-08-01

    A better understanding of the mechanistic basis of stomatal control is necessary to understand why modes of stomatal response differ among individual trees, and to improve the theoretical foundation for predictive models and manipulative experiments. Current understanding of the mechanistic basis of stomatal control is reviewed here and discussed in relation to the plant hydraulic system. Analysis focused on: (1) the relative role of hydraulic conductance in the vicinity of the stomatal apparatus versus whole-plant hydraulic conductance; (2) the influence of guard cell inflation characteristics and the mechanical interaction between guard cells and epidermal cells; and (3) the system requirements for moderate versus dramatic reductions in stomatal conductance with increasing evaporation potential. Special consideration was given to the potential effect of changes in hydraulic properties as trees grow taller. Stomatal control of leaf gas exchange is coupled to the entire plant hydraulic system and the basis of this coupling is the interdependence of guard cell water potential and transpiration rate. This hydraulic feedback loop is always present, but its dynamic properties may be altered by growth or cavitation-induced changes in hydraulic conductance, and may vary with genetically related differences in hydraulic conductances. Mechanistic models should include this feedback loop. Plants vary in their ability to control transpiration rate sufficiently to maintain constant leaf water potential. Limited control may be achieved through the hydraulic feedback loop alone, but for tighter control, an additional element linking transpiration rate to guard cell osmotic pressure may be needed.

  17. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Hyungmin; Van Epps, Victor; Wegley, Nicholas; Doty, Sharon L.; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions. PMID:29552021

  18. Optimal stomatal behavior with competition for water and risk of hydraulic impairment.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Adam; Anderegg, William R L; Pacala, Stephen W

    2016-11-15

    For over 40 y the dominant theory of stomatal behavior has been that plants should open stomates until the carbon gained by an infinitesimal additional opening balances the additional water lost times a water price that is constant at least over short periods. This theory has persisted because of its remarkable success in explaining strongly supported simple empirical models of stomatal conductance, even though we have also known for over 40 y that the theory is not consistent with competition among plants for water. We develop an alternative theory in which plants maximize carbon gain without pricing water loss and also add two features to both this and the classical theory, which are strongly supported by empirical evidence: (i) water flow through xylem that is progressively impaired as xylem water potential drops and (ii) fitness or carbon costs associated with low water potentials caused by a variety of mechanisms, including xylem damage repair. We show that our alternative carbon-maximization optimization is consistent with plant competition because it yields an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS)-species with the ESS stomatal behavior that will outcompete all others. We further show that, like the classical theory, the alternative theory also explains the functional forms of empirical stomatal models. We derive ways to test between the alternative optimization criteria by introducing a metric-the marginal xylem tension efficiency, which quantifies the amount of photosynthesis a plant will forego from opening stomatal an infinitesimal amount more to avoid a drop in water potential.

  19. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration.

    PubMed

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species.

  20. Expression of Arabidopsis Hexokinase in Citrus Guard Cells Controls Stomatal Aperture and Reduces Transpiration

    PubMed Central

    Lugassi, Nitsan; Kelly, Gilor; Fidel, Lena; Yaniv, Yossi; Attia, Ziv; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Raveh, Eran; Carmi, Nir; Granot, David

    2015-01-01

    Hexokinase (HXK) is a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing. It has recently been shown that HXK in guard cells mediates stomatal closure and coordinates photosynthesis with transpiration in the annual species tomato and Arabidopsis. To examine the role of HXK in the control of the stomatal movement of perennial plants, we generated citrus plants that express Arabidopsis HXK1 (AtHXK1) under KST1, a guard cell-specific promoter. The expression of KST1 in the guard cells of citrus plants has been verified using GFP as a reporter gene. The expression of AtHXK1 in the guard cells of citrus reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration with no negative effect on the rate of photosynthesis, leading to increased water-use efficiency. The effects of light intensity and humidity on stomatal behavior were examined in rooted leaves of the citrus plants. The optimal intensity of photosynthetically active radiation and lower humidity enhanced stomatal closure of AtHXK1-expressing leaves, supporting the role of sugar in the regulation of citrus stomata. These results suggest that HXK coordinates photosynthesis and transpiration and stimulates stomatal closure not only in annual species, but also in perennial species. PMID:26734024

  1. Solanum lycopersicum IAA15 functions in the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide mechanism of action by mediating abscisic acid signalling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Yanling; Liu, Xin; Gao, Song; Qi, Mingfang; Li, Tianlai

    2015-07-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an important plant growth regulator, is the herbicide most commonly used worldwide to control weeds. However, broad-leaf fruits and vegetables are extremely sensitive to herbicides, which can cause damage and result in lost crops when applied in a manner inconsistent with the directions. Despite detailed knowledge of the mechanism of 2,4-D, the regulation of auxin signalling is still unclear. For example, although the major mediators of auxin signalling, including auxin/indole acetic acid (AUX/IAA) proteins and auxin response factors (ARFs), are known to mediate auxinic herbicides, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, the effects of 2,4-D on AUX/IAA gene expression in tomato were investigated, and the two most notably up-regulated genes, SlIAA15 and SlIAA29, were selected for further study. Western blotting revealed the substantial accumulation of both SlIAA15 and SlIAA29, and the expression levels of the corresponding genes were increased following abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene treatment. Overexpressing SlIAA15, but not SlIAA29, induced a 2,4-D herbicide damage phenotype. The 35S::SlIAA15 line exhibited a strong reduction in leaf stomatal density and altered expression of some R2R3 MYB genes that are putatively involved in the regulation of stomatal differentiation. Further study revealed that root elongation in 35S::SlIAA15 was sensitive to ABA treatment, and was most probably due to the altered expression of an ABA signal transduction gene. In addition, the altered auxin sensitivities of SlIAA15 transformants were also explored. These results suggested that SlIAA15 plays an important role in determining the effects of the herbicide 2,4-D. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  3. Exogenous abscisic acid significantly affects proteome in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) exposed to drought stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an important economic crop, and drought is the most important abiotic stress affecting yield and quality. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone responsible for activating drought resistance. Increased understanding of ABA effects on tea plant unde...

  4. Abscisic acid (ABA) receptors: light at the end of the tunnel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in several aspects of plant growth and development. Understanding how this hormonal stimulus is sensed and transduced turned out to be one of the major tasks in the field of plant signaling. A series of recent papers proposed several different prote...

  5. The putative glutamate receptor 1.1 (AtGLR1.1) in Arabidopsis thaliana regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and signaling to control development and water loss.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiman; Mehta, Sohum; Turano, Frank J

    2004-10-01

    The involvement of the putative glutamate receptor 1.1 (AtGLR1.1) gene in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and signaling was investigated in Arabidopsis. Seeds from AtGLR1.1-deficient (antiAtGLR1.1) lines had increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA with regard to the effect of the hormone on the inhibition of seed germination and root growth. Seed germination, which was inhibited by an animal ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-[1H,4H]-dione, was restored by co-incubation with an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridone. These results confirm that germination in antiAtGLR1.1 lines was inhibited by increased ABA. When antiAtGLR1.1 and WT seeds were co-incubated in fluridone and exogenous ABA, the antiAtGLR1.1 seeds were more sensitive to ABA. In addition, the antiAtGLR1.1 lines exhibited altered expression of ABA biosynthetic (ABA) and signaling (ABI) genes, when compared with WT. Combining the physiological and molecular results suggest that ABA biosynthesis and signaling in antiAtGLR1.1 lines are altered. ABA levels in leaves of antiAtGLR1.1 lines are higher than those in WT. In addition, the antiAtGLR1.1 lines had reduced stomatal apertures, and exhibited enhanced drought tolerance due to deceased water loss compared with WT lines. The results from these experiments imply that ABA biosynthesis and signaling can be regulated through AtGLR1.1 to trigger pre- and post-germination arrest and changes in whole plant responses to water stress. Combined with our earlier results, these findings suggest that AtGLR1.1 integrates and regulates the different aspects of C, N and water balance that are required for normal plant growth and development.

  6. Drought, Abscisic Acid and Transpiration Rate Effects on the Regulation of PIP Aquaporin Gene Expression and Abundance in Phaseolus vulgaris Plants

    PubMed Central

    AROCA, RICARDO; FERRANTE, ANTONIO; VERNIERI, PAOLO; CHRISPEELS, MAARTEN J.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought causes a decline of root hydraulic conductance, which aside from embolisms, is governed ultimately by aquaporins. Multiple factors probably regulate aquaporin expression, abundance and activity in leaf and root tissues during drought; among these are the leaf transpiration rate, leaf water status, abscisic acid (ABA) and soil water content. Here a study is made of how these factors could influence the response of aquaporin to drought. • Methods Three plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) or aquaporins were cloned from Phaseolus vulgaris plants and their expression was analysed after 4 d of water deprivation and also 1 d after re-watering. The effects of ABA and of methotrexate (MTX), an inhibitor of stomatal opening, on gene expression and protein abundance were also analysed. Protein abundance was examined using antibodies against PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporins. At the same time, root hydraulic conductance (L), transpiration rate, leaf water status and ABA tissue concentration were measured. • Key Results None of the treatments (drought, ABA or MTX) changed the leaf water status or tissue ABA concentration. The three treatments caused a decline in the transpiration rate and raised PVPIP2;1 gene expression and PIP1 protein abundance in the leaves. In the roots, only the drought treatment raised the expression of the three PIP genes examined, while at the same time diminishing PIP2 protein abundance and L. On the other hand, ABA raised both root PIP1 protein abundance and L. • Conclusions The rise of PvPIP2;1 gene expression and PIP1 protein abundance in the leaves of P. vulgaris plants subjected to drought was correlated with a decline in the transpiration rate. At the same time, the increase in the expression of the three PIP genes examined caused by drought and the decline of PIP2 protein abundance in the root tissues were not correlated with any of the parameters measured. PMID:17028296

  7. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  8. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean (Vicia faba) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug (Nezara viridula) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host–plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H2O2. However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H2O2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H2O2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired. PMID:28642773

  9. Arabidopsis C3HC4-RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP4 positively regulates stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Qiaohong; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Hao; Wang, Jianmei; Li, Xufeng; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of proteins via the ubiquitin system is an important step in many stress signaling pathways in plants. E3 ligases recognize ligand proteins and dictate the high specificity of protein degradation, and thus, play a pivotal role in ubiquitination. Here, we identified a gene, named Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive RING protein 4 (AtAIRP4), which is induced by ABA and other stress treatments. AtAIRP4 encodes a cellular protein with a C3HC4-RING finger domain in its C-terminal side, which has in vitro E3 ligase activity. Loss of AtAIRP4 leads to a decrease in sensitivity of root elongation and stomatal closure to ABA, whereas overexpression of this gene in the T-DNA insertion mutant atairp4 effectively recovered the ABA-associated phenotypes. AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stresses during seed germination, and showed drought avoidance compared with the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. In addition, the expression levels of ABA- and drought-induced marker genes in AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were markedly higher than those in the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. Hence, these results indicate that AtAIRP4 may act as a positive regulator of ABA-mediated drought avoidance and a negative regulator of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Abscisic Acid–Responsive Guard Cell Metabolomes of Arabidopsis Wild-Type and gpa1 G-Protein Mutants[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaofen; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Zhu, Mengmeng; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Albert, Reka; Chen, Sixue; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Individual metabolites have been implicated in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells, but a metabolite profile of this specialized cell type is lacking. We used liquid chromatography–multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for targeted analysis of 85 signaling-related metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell protoplasts over a time course of ABA treatment. The analysis utilized ∼350 million guard cell protoplasts from ∼30,000 plants of the Arabidopsis Columbia accession (Col) wild type and the heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit mutant, gpa1, which has ABA-hyposensitive stomata. These metabolomes revealed coordinated regulation of signaling metabolites in unrelated biochemical pathways. Metabolites clustered into different temporal modules in Col versus gpa1, with fewer metabolites showing ABA-altered profiles in gpa1. Ca2+-mobilizing agents sphingosine-1-phosphate and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose exhibited weaker ABA-stimulated increases in gpa1. Hormone metabolites were responsive to ABA, with generally greater responsiveness in Col than in gpa1. Most hormones also showed different ABA responses in guard cell versus mesophyll cell metabolomes. These findings suggest that ABA functions upstream to regulate other hormones, and are also consistent with G proteins modulating multiple hormonal signaling pathways. In particular, indole-3-acetic acid levels declined after ABA treatment in Col but not gpa1 guard cells. Consistent with this observation, the auxin antagonist α-(phenyl ethyl-2-one)-indole-3-acetic acid enhanced ABA-regulated stomatal movement and restored partial ABA sensitivity to gpa1. PMID:24368793

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence water relations, gas exchange, abscisic acid and growth of micropropagated chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum) plantlets during acclimatization and post-acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Luna, Andrés A; Davies, Fred T

    2003-09-01

    Little is known about the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) on physiological changes of micropropagated plantlets during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. Using chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis), measurements were made of water relations, gas exchange, abscisic acid (ABA), plantlet growth and AMF development. Plantlets had low photosynthetic rates (A) and poor initial growth during acclimatization. Relative water content (RWC) decreased during the first days after transfer from tissue culture containers to ex vitro conditions. Consequently, transpiration rates (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) declined, confirming that in vitro formed stomata were functional and able to respond ex vitro to partial desiccation--thus avoiding excessive leaf dehydration and plant death. Colonization by AMF occurred within 3 days after inoculation. Colonized plantlets had lower leaf ABA and higher RWC than noncolonized (NonAMF) plantlets during peak plant dehydration (6 days after plant transfer)--and a higher A and gs as early as days 5 and 7. During post-acclimatization [after day 8, when RWC increased and stabilized], A increased in all plantlets; however, more dramatic changes occurred with AMF plantlets. Within 48 days, 45% of the roots sampled of inoculated plantlets were colonized and had extensive arbuscule development. At this time, AMF plantlets also had greater E, A, leaf chlorophyll, leaf elemental N, P and K, leaf dry biomass and leaf area, fruit production and differences in carbon partitioning [lower root/shoot ratio and higher leaf area ratio] compared with NonAMF plantlets. Rapid AMF colonization enhanced physiological adjustments, which helped plantlets recover rapidly during acclimatization and obtain greater growth during post-acclimatization.

  12. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing the Type 1 Inositol 5-Phosphatase Exhibit Increased Drought Tolerance and Altered Abscisic Acid Signaling[W

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Imara Y.; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Moore, Candace D.; Stevenson-Paulik, Jill; Boss, Wendy F.

    2008-01-01

    The phosphoinositide pathway and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) are implicated in plant responses to stress. To determine the downstream consequences of altered InsP3-mediated signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the mammalian type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), which specifically hydrolyzes soluble inositol phosphates and terminates the signal. Rapid transient Ca2+ responses to a cold or salt stimulus were reduced by ∼30% in these transgenic plants. Drought stress studies revealed, surprisingly, that the InsP 5-ptase plants lost less water and exhibited increased drought tolerance. The onset of the drought stress was delayed in the transgenic plants, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels increased less than in the wild-type plants. Stomatal bioassays showed that transgenic guard cells were less responsive to the inhibition of opening by ABA but showed an increased sensitivity to ABA-induced closure. Transcript profiling revealed that the drought-inducible ABA-independent transcription factor DREB2A and a subset of DREB2A-regulated genes were basally upregulated in the InsP 5-ptase plants, suggesting that InsP3 is a negative regulator of these DREB2A-regulated genes. These results indicate that the drought tolerance of the InsP 5-ptase plants is mediated in part via a DREB2A-dependent pathway and that constitutive dampening of the InsP3 signal reveals unanticipated interconnections between signaling pathways. PMID:18849493

  13. Abscisic acid-activated SNRK2 protein kinases function in the gene-regulation pathway of ABA signal transduction by phosphorylating ABA response element-binding factors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuhko; Murata, Michiharu; Minami, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kagaya, Yasuaki; Hobo, Tokunori; Yamamoto, Akiko; Hattori, Tsukaho

    2005-12-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces gene expression via the ABA-response element (ABRE) present in the promoters of ABA-regulated genes. A group of bZIP proteins have been identified as ABRE-binding factors (ABFs) that activate transcription through this cis element. A rice ABF, TRAB1, has been shown to be activated via ABA-dependent phosphorylation. While a large number of signalling factors have been identified that are involved in stomatal regulation by ABA, relatively less is known about the ABA-signalling pathway that leads to gene expression. We have shown recently that three members of the rice SnRK2 protein kinase family, SAPK8, SAPK9 and SAPK10, are activated by ABA signal as well as by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that transient overexpression in cultured cell protoplasts of these ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases leads to the activation of an ABRE-regulated promoter, suggesting that these kinases are involved in the gene-regulation pathway of ABA signalling. We further show several lines of evidence that these ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases directly phosphorylate TRAB1 in response to ABA. Kinetic analysis of SAPK10 activation and TRAB1 phosphorylation indicated that the latter immediately followed the former. TRAB1 was found to be phosphorylated not only in response to ABA, but also in response to hyperosmotic stress, which was interpreted as the consequence of phosphorylation of TRAB1 by hyperosmotically activated SAPKs. Physical interaction between TRAB1 and SAPK10 in vivo was demonstrated by a co-immunoprecipitation experiment. Finally, TRAB1 was phosphorylated in vitro by the ABA-activated SnRK2 protein kinases at Ser102, which is phosphorylated in vivo in response to ABA and is critical for the activation function.

  14. Mucosal and salivary microbiota associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Yun Sik; Baek, Keum Jin; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Park, Hee Kyung; Choi, Youngnim

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis. Although recent studies of the oral microbiota by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes have suggested that imbalances in the oral microbiota may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of RAS, no specific bacterial species associated with RAS have been identified. The present study aimed to characterize the microbiota in the oral mucosa and saliva of RAS patients in comparison with control subjects at the species level. The bacterial communities of the oral mucosa and saliva from RAS patients with active lesions (RAS, n = 18 for mucosa and n = 8 for saliva) and control subjects (n = 18 for mucosa and n = 7 for saliva) were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. There were no significant differences in the alpha diversity between the controls and the RAS, but the mucosal microbiota of the RAS patients showed increased inter-subject variability. A comparison of the relative abundance of each taxon revealed decreases in the members of healthy core microbiota but increases of rare species in the mucosal and salivary microbiota of RAS patients. Particularly, decreased Streptococcus salivarius and increased Acinetobacter johnsonii in the mucosa were associated with RAS risk. A dysbiosis index, which was developed using the relative abundance of A. johnsonii and S. salivarius and the regression coefficients, correctly predicted 83 % of the total cases for the absence or presence of RAS. Interestingly, A. johnsonii substantially inhibited the proliferation of gingival epithelial cells and showed greater cytotoxicity against the gingival epithelial cells than S. salivarius. RAS is associated with dysbiosis of the mucosal and salivary microbiota, and two species associated with RAS have been identified. This knowledge may provide a diagnostic tool and new targets for therapeutics for RAS.

  15. Stomatal Opening in Isolated Epidermal Strips of Vicia faba. I. Response to Light and to CO2-free Air 1

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, R. A.

    1968-01-01

    This paper reports a consistent and large opening response to light + CO2-free air in living stomata of isolated epidermal strips of Vicia faba. The response was compared to that of non-isolated stomata in leaf discs floating on water; stomatal apertures, guard cell solute potentials and starch contents were similar in the 2 situations. To obtain such stomatal behavior, it was necessary to float epidermal strips on dilute KCl solutions. This suggests that solute uptake is necessary for stomatal opening. The demonstration of normal stomatal behavior in isolated epidermal strips provides a very useful system in which to investigate the mechanism of stomatal opening. It was possible to show independent responses in stomatal aperture to light and to CO2-free air. PMID:16656995

  16. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups

    PubMed Central

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A.; Bar-On, Benny

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. Methods A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns (Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum) and angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata (Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum). Key Results Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. Conclusions The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn

  17. Stomatal vs. genome size in angiosperms: the somatic tail wagging the genomic dog?

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, J. G.; Sharafi, M.; Jalili, A.; Díaz, S.; Montserrat-Martí, G.; Palmer, C.; Cerabolini, B.; Pierce, S.; Hamzehee, B.; Asri, Y.; Jamzad, Z.; Wilson, P.; Raven, J. A.; Band, S. R.; Basconcelo, S.; Bogard, A.; Carter, G.; Charles, M.; Castro-Díez, P.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Funes, G.; Jones, G.; Khoshnevis, M.; Pérez-Harguindeguy, N.; Pérez-Rontomé, M. C.; Shirvany, F. A.; Vendramini, F.; Yazdani, S.; Abbas-Azimi, R.; Boustani, S.; Dehghan, M.; Guerrero-Campo, J.; Hynd, A.; Kowsary, E.; Kazemi-Saeed, F.; Siavash, B.; Villar-Salvador, P.; Craigie, R.; Naqinezhad, A.; Romo-Díez, A.; de Torres Espuny, L.; Simmons, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is a function, and the product, of cell volume. As such it is contingent on ecological circumstance. The nature of ‘this ecological circumstance’ is, however, hotly debated. Here, we investigate for angiosperms whether stomatal size may be this ‘missing link’: the primary determinant of genome size. Stomata are crucial for photosynthesis and their size affects functional efficiency. Methods Stomatal and leaf characteristics were measured for 1442 species from Argentina, Iran, Spain and the UK and, using PCA, some emergent ecological and taxonomic patterns identified. Subsequently, an assessment of the relationship between genome-size values obtained from the Plant DNA C-values database and measurements of stomatal size was carried out. Key Results Stomatal size is an ecologically important attribute. It varies with life-history (woody species < herbaceous species < vernal geophytes) and contributes to ecologically and physiologically important axes of leaf specialization. Moreover, it is positively correlated with genome size across a wide range of major taxa. Conclusions Stomatal size predicts genome size within angiosperms. Correlation is not, however, proof of causality and here our interpretation is hampered by unexpected deficiencies in the scientific literature. Firstly, there are discrepancies between our own observations and established ideas about the ecological significance of stomatal size; very large stomata, theoretically facilitating photosynthesis in deep shade, were, in this study (and in other studies), primarily associated with vernal geophytes of unshaded habitats. Secondly, the lower size limit at which stomata can function efficiently, and the ecological circumstances under which these minute stomata might occur, have not been satisfactorally resolved. Thus, our hypothesis, that the optimization of stomatal size for functional efficiency is a major ecological determinant of genome size, remains unproven

  18. Nocturnal and daytime stomatal conductance respond to root-zone temperature in 'Shiraz' grapevines.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Clarke, Simon J

    2013-03-01

    Daytime root-zone temperature may be a significant factor regulating water flux through plants. Water flux can also occur during the night but nocturnal stomatal response to environmental drivers such as root-zone temperature remains largely unknown. Here nocturnal and daytime leaf gas exchange was quantified in 'Shiraz' grapevines (Vitis vinifera) exposed to three root-zone temperatures from budburst to fruit-set, for a total of 8 weeks in spring. Despite lower stomatal density, night-time stomatal conductance and transpiration rates were greater for plants grown in warm root-zones. Elevated root-zone temperature resulted in higher daytime stomatal conductance, transpiration and net assimilation rates across a range of leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficits, air temperatures and light levels. Intrinsic water-use efficiency was, however, lowest in those plants with warm root-zones. CO(2) response curves of foliar gas exchange indicated that the maximum rate of electron transport and the maximum rate of Rubisco activity did not differ between the root-zone treatments, and therefore it was likely that the lower photosynthesis in cool root-zones was predominantly the result of a stomatal limitation. One week after discontinuation of the temperature treatments, gas exchange was similar between the plants, indicating a reversible physiological response to soil temperature. In this anisohydric grapevine variety both night-time and daytime stomatal conductance were responsive to root-zone temperature. Because nocturnal transpiration has implications for overall plant water status, predictive climate change models using stomatal conductance will need to factor in this root-zone variable.

  19. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; Baillie, Alice; Lundgren, Marjorie; Verhertbruggen, Yves; Scheller, Henrik V; Knox, J Paul; Fleming, Andrew J; Gray, Julie E

    2016-11-07

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape [1]. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils [2], our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins. We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO 2 , substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Stomatal cell wall composition: distinctive structural patterns associated with different phylogenetic groups.

    PubMed

    Shtein, Ilana; Shelef, Yaniv; Marom, Ziv; Zelinger, Einat; Schwartz, Amnon; Popper, Zoë A; Bar-On, Benny; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Stomatal morphology and function have remained largely conserved throughout ∼400 million years of plant evolution. However, plant cell wall composition has evolved and changed. Here stomatal cell wall composition was investigated in different vascular plant groups in attempt to understand their possible effect on stomatal function. A renewed look at stomatal cell walls was attempted utilizing digitalized polar microscopy, confocal microscopy, histology and a numerical finite-elements simulation. The six species of vascular plants chosen for this study cover a broad structural, ecophysiological and evolutionary spectrum: ferns ( Asplenium nidus and Platycerium bifurcatum ) and angiosperms ( Arabidopsis thaliana and Commelina erecta ) with kidney-shaped stomata, and grasses (angiosperms, family Poaceae) with dumbbell-shaped stomata ( Sorghum bicolor and Triticum aestivum ). Three distinct patterns of cellulose crystallinity in stomatal cell walls were observed: Type I (kidney-shaped stomata, ferns), Type II (kidney-shaped stomata, angiosperms) and Type III (dumbbell-shaped stomata, grasses). The different stomatal cell wall attributes investigated (cellulose crystallinity, pectins, lignin, phenolics) exhibited taxon-specific patterns, with reciprocal substitution of structural elements in the end-walls of kidney-shaped stomata. According to a numerical bio-mechanical model, the end walls of kidney-shaped stomata develop the highest stresses during opening. The data presented demonstrate for the first time the existence of distinct spatial patterns of varying cellulose crystallinity in guard cell walls. It is also highly intriguing that in angiosperms crystalline cellulose appears to have replaced lignin that occurs in the stomatal end-walls of ferns serving a similar wall strengthening function. Such taxon-specific spatial patterns of cell wall components could imply different biomechanical functions, which in turn could be a consequence of differences in

  1. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat; ...

    2016-10-06

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils, our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins.more » We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the  pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO 2, substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology.« less

  2. Stomatal control in tomato with ABA-deficient roots: response of grafted plants to soil drying.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, N Michele; Shashidhar, V R; James, Richard A; Munns, Rana

    2002-06-01

    The hypothesis that ABA produced by roots in drying soil is responsible for stomatal closure was tested with grafted plants constructed from the ABA-deficient tomato mutants, sitiens and flacca and their near-isogenic wild-type parent. Three types of experiments were conducted. In the first type, reciprocal grafts were made between the wild type and sitiens or flacca. Stomatal conductance accorded with the genotype of the shoot, not the root. Stomates closed in all of the grafted plants in response to soil drying, regardless of the root genotype, i.e. regardless of the ability of the roots to produce ABA. In the second type of experiment, wild-type shoots were grafted onto a split-root system consisting of one wild-type root grafted to one mutant (flacca or sitiens) root. Water was withheld from one root system, while the other was watered well so that the shoots did not experience any decline in water potential or loss of turgor. Stomates closed to a similar extent when water was withheld from the mutant roots or the wild-type roots. In the third type of experiment, grafted plants with wild-type shoots and either wild-type or sitiens roots were established in pots that could be placed inside a pressure chamber, and the pressure increased as the soil dried so that the shoots remained fully turgid throughout. Stomates closed as the soil dried, regardless of whether the roots were wild type or sitiens. These experiments demonstrate that stomatal closure in response to soil drying can occur in the absence of leaf water deficit, and does not require ABA production by roots. A chemical signal from roots leading to a change in apoplastic ABA levels in leaves may be responsible for the stomatal closure.

  3. Stomatal Function Requires Pectin De-methyl-esterification of the Guard Cell Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbury, Sam; Hunt, Lee; Elhaddad, Nagat

    Stomatal opening and closure depends on changes in turgor pressure acting within guard cells to alter cell shape. The extent of these shape changes is limited by the mechanical properties of the cells, which will be largely dependent on the structure of the cell walls. Although it has long been observed that guard cells are anisotropic due to differential thickening and the orientation of cellulose microfibrils, our understanding of the composition of the cell wall that allows them to undergo repeated swelling and deflation remains surprisingly poor. Here, we show that the walls of guard cells are rich in un-esterified pectins.more » We identify a pectin methylesterase gene, PME6, which is highly expressed in guard cells and required for stomatal function. pme6-1 mutant guard cells have walls enriched in methyl-esterified pectin and show a decreased dynamic range in response to triggers of stomatal opening/closure, including elevated osmoticum, suggesting that abrogation of stomatal function reflects a mechanical change in the guard cell wall. Altered stomatal function leads to increased conductance and evaporative cooling, as well as decreased plant growth. The growth defect of the  pme6-1 mutant is rescued by maintaining the plants in elevated CO 2, substantiating gas exchange analyses, indicating that the mutant stomata can bestow an improved assimilation rate. Restoration of PME6 rescues guard cell wall pectin methyl-esterification status, stomatal function, and plant growth. Our results establish a link between gene expression in guard cells and their cell wall properties, with a corresponding effect on stomatal function and plant physiology.« less

  4. Nocturnal and daytime stomatal conductance respond to root-zone temperature in ‘Shiraz’ grapevines

    PubMed Central

    Rogiers, Suzy Y.; Clarke, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Daytime root-zone temperature may be a significant factor regulating water flux through plants. Water flux can also occur during the night but nocturnal stomatal response to environmental drivers such as root-zone temperature remains largely unknown. Methods Here nocturnal and daytime leaf gas exchange was quantified in ‘Shiraz’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) exposed to three root-zone temperatures from budburst to fruit-set, for a total of 8 weeks in spring. Key Results Despite lower stomatal density, night-time stomatal conductance and transpiration rates were greater for plants grown in warm root-zones. Elevated root-zone temperature resulted in higher daytime stomatal conductance, transpiration and net assimilation rates across a range of leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficits, air temperatures and light levels. Intrinsic water-use efficiency was, however, lowest in those plants with warm root-zones. CO2 response curves of foliar gas exchange indicated that the maximum rate of electron transport and the maximum rate of Rubisco activity did not differ between the root-zone treatments, and therefore it was likely that the lower photosynthesis in cool root-zones was predominantly the result of a stomatal limitation. One week after discontinuation of the temperature treatments, gas exchange was similar between the plants, indicating a reversible physiological response to soil temperature. Conclusions In this anisohydric grapevine variety both night-time and daytime stomatal conductance were responsive to root-zone temperature. Because nocturnal transpiration has implications for overall plant water status, predictive climate change models using stomatal conductance will need to factor in this root-zone variable. PMID:23293018

  5. Stomatal response of swordfern to volcanogenic CO2 and SO2 from Kilauea volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Lawrence H.; Smith, David L.; Allan, Amanda

    2007-08-01

    The experimentally determined relationship between atmospheric pCO2 and plant stomata has been used to interpret large but transient changes in atmospheric composition, such as may have resulted from the eruptions of flood basalt. However, this relationship has not been tested in the field, i.e. in the vicinity of active volcanoes, to examine the specific effects of volcanogenic emissions. Moreover, the interpretation of paleoatmospheric pCO2 from fossil stomatal data assumes that the stomatal response resulted solely from variation in pCO2 and ignores the potential effect of outgassed SO2. We hypothesize that volcanogenic SO2 also has a significant effect on leaf stomata and test this hypothesis by measuring the stomatal index of the common swordfern (Nephrolepis exaltata) in the plumes of the actively outgassing vents of Kilauea volcano. We find that, compared to control locations, stomatal index is lowest at sample sites in the plume of Halema'uma'u Crater, where concentrations of both CO2 and SO2 are much higher than background. However, sites located directly in the plume of Pu'u O'o, where SO2 levels are high, but CO2 levels are not, also yield low values of stomatal index. We propose that shifts in the stomatal index of fossil leaves may record transient atmospheric increases in both SO2 and CO2, such as may be caused by eruptions of flood basalts. Calculations of pCO2 based on stomatal frequency are likely to be exaggerated.

  6. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Contrasting responses of leaf stomatal characteristics to climate change: a considerable challenge to predict carbon and water cycles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weiming; Zhong, Yangquanwei; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2017-09-01

    Stomata control the cycling of water and carbon between plants and the atmosphere; however, no consistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the response of stomatal frequency to climate change. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of 1854 globally obtained data series to determine the response of stomatal frequency to climate change, which including four plant life forms (over 900 species), at altitudes ranging from 0 to 4500 m and over a time span of more than one hundred thousand years. Stomatal frequency decreased with increasing CO 2 concentration and increased with elevated temperature and drought stress; it was also dependent on the species and experimental conditions. The response of stomatal frequency to climate change showed a trade-off between stomatal control strategies and environmental factors, such as the CO 2 concentration, temperature, and soil water availability. Moreover, threshold effects of elevated CO 2 and temperature on stomatal frequency were detected, indicating that the response of stomatal density to increasing CO 2 concentration will decrease over the next few years. The results also suggested that the stomatal index may be more reliable than stomatal density for determination of the historic CO 2 concentration. Our findings indicate that the contrasting responses of stomata to climate change bring a considerable challenge in predicting future water and carbon cycles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Lisa; Easlon, Hsien M; Levine, Diedre; Donovan, Lisa; Richards, James H

    2014-06-01

    Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3-5 h before dawn. This pre-dawn stomatal opening has been hypothesized to enhance early-morning photosynthesis (A) by reducing diffusion limitations to CO2 at dawn. We tested this hypothesis in cultivated Helianthus annuus using whole-shoot gas exchange, leaf level gas exchange and modelling approaches. One hour pre-dawn low-humidity treatments were used to reduce pre-dawn stomatal conductance (g). At the whole-shoot level, a difference of pre-dawn g (0.40 versus 0.17 mol m(-2) s(-1)) did not significantly affect A during the first hour after dawn. Shorter term effects were investigated with leaf level gas exchange measurements and a difference of pre-dawn g (0.10 versus 0.04 mol m(-2) s(-1)) affected g and A for only 5 min after dawn. The potential effects of a wider range of stomatal apertures were explored with an empirical model of the relationship between A and intercellular CO2 concentration during the half-hour after dawn. Modelling results demonstrated that even extremely low pre-dawn stomatal conductance values have only a minimal effect on early-morning A for a few minutes after dawn. Thus, we found no evidence that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances A.

  9. Vanadate inhibition of stomatal opening in epidermal peels of Commelina communis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.; Illan, N.; Assmann, S.M.

    There are conflicting reports on the effectiveness of the plasmamembrane H{sup +} ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, in inhibiting stomatal opening. We have observed that vanadate inhibited light-stimulated stomatal opening in epidermal peels of Commelina communis only at KCl concentrations lower than 50 mM. When KCl was replaced with n-methylglucamine chloride, vanadate was still ineffective at high salt concentrations. However, in the absence of Cl{sup {minus}}, when KOH was buffered with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, vanadate inhibition of stomatal opening occurred even at high salt concentrations (K{sup +} = 70 mM). An inhibitor of anion uptake, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (200 {mu}M), partially prevented vanadatemore » inhibition of stomatal opening; other inhibitors (DIDS, SITS, Zn{sup 2+}) were ineffective. These results suggest that inhibition of stomatal opening by vanadate requires its entry into guard cells through an anion uptake system. Decreasing vanadate inhibition at high Cl{sup {minus}}/vanadate ratios may result from competition between vanadate and Cl{sup {minus}} for a common uptake mechanism.« less

  10. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming.

    PubMed

    Marchin, Renée M; Broadhead, Alice A; Bostic, Laura E; Dunn, Robert R; Hoffmann, William A

    2016-10-01

    Future climate change is expected to increase temperature (T) and atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) in many regions, but the effect of persistent warming on plant stomatal behaviour is highly uncertain. We investigated the effect of experimental warming of 1.9-5.1 °C and increased VPD of 0.5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata, and thereby less efficient water use. Stomatal acclimation maintained homeostasis of leaf T and carbon gain despite increased VPD, revealing that short-term stomatal responses to VPD may not be representative of long-term exposure. Acclimation responses differ from expectations of decreasing gs with increasing VPD and may necessitate revision of current models based on this assumption. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Movement of Abscisic Acid into the Apoplast in Response to Water Stress in Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Cornish, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-07-01

    The effect of water stress on the redistribution of abcisic acid (ABA) in mature leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. was investigated using a pressure dehydration technique. In both turgid and stressed leaves, the ABA in the xylem exudate, the ;apoplastic' ABA, increased before ;bulk leaf' stress-induced ABA accumulation began. In the initially turgid leaves, the ABA level remained constant in both the apoplast and the leaf as a whole until wilting symptoms appeared. Following turgor loss, sufficient quantities of ABA moved into the apoplast to stimulate stomatal closure. Thus, the initial increase of apoplastic ABA may be relevant to the rapid stomatal closure seen in stressed leaves before their bulk leaf ABA levels rise.Following recovery from water stress, elevated levels of ABA remained in the apoplast after the bulk leaf contents had returned to their prestress values. This apoplastic ABA may retard stomatal reopening during the initial recovery period.

  12. Tree-Level Hydrodynamic Approach for Improved Stomatal Conductance Parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfenderesgi, G.; Bohrer, G.; Matheny, A. M.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The land-surface models do not mechanistically resolve hydrodynamic processes within the tree. The Finite-Elements Tree-Crown Hydrodynamics model version 2 (FETCH2) is based on the pervious FETCH model approach, but with finite difference numerics, and simplified single-beam conduit system. FETCH2 simulates water flow through the tree as a simplified system of porous media conduits. It explicitly resolves spatiotemporal hydraulic stresses throughout the tree's vertical extent that cannot be easily represented using other stomatal-conductance models. Empirical equations relate water potential at the stem to stomata conductance at leaves connected to the stem (through unresolved branches) at that height. While highly simplified, this approach bring some realism to the simulation of stomata conductance because the stomata can respond to stem water potential, rather than an assumed direct relationship with soil moisture, as is currently the case in almost all models. By enabling mechanistic simulation of hydrological traits, such as xylem conductivity, conductive area per DBH, vertical distribution of leaf area and maximal and minimal water content in the xylem, and their effect of the dynamics of water flow in the tree system, the FETCH2 modeling system enhanced our understanding of the role of hydraulic limitations on an experimental forest plot short-term water stresses that lead to tradeoffs between water and light availability for transpiring leaves in forest ecosystems. FETCH2 is particularly suitable to resolve the effects of structural differences between tree and species and size groups, and the consequences of differences in hydraulic strategies of different species. We leverage on a large dataset of sap flow from 60 trees of 4 species at our experimental plot at the University of Michigan Biological Station. Comparison of the sap flow and transpiration patterns in this site and an undisturbed control site shows significant difference in hydraulic strategies

  13. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO 2 records based on stomatal frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Friederike; Kouwenberg, Lenny L. R.; van Hoof, Thomas B.; Visscher, Henk

    2004-10-01

    The majority of the stomatal frequency-based estimates of CO2 for the Holocene do not support the widely accepted concept of comparably stable CO2 concentrations throughout the past 11,500 years. To address the critique that these stomatal frequency variations result from local environmental change or methodological insufficiencies, multiple stomatal frequency records were compared for three climatic key periods during the Holocene, namely the Preboreal oscillation, the 8.2 kyr cooling event and the Little Ice Age. The highly comparable fluctuations in the palaeo-atmospheric CO2 records, which were obtained from different continents and plant species (deciduous angiosperms as well as conifers) using varying calibration approaches, provide strong evidence for the integrity of leaf-based CO2 quantification.

  14. Physiological Regulation of Stomatal Conductance in Boreal Forest Species: Do Species Differ and Does it Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, J. A.; Wolf, A.; Vygodskaya, N. N.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of energy and water balance over Boreal forest ecosystems have generally shown very large ratios of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux (Bowen ratio) - especially on fine summer days. This strong control on evaporation at the plant scale can restrict precipitation and effect hydrometeorlogy at the regional scale. The large Bowen ratio is, in part, explained by the low maximum stomatal conductance of Boreal forest tree species and is probably related to their very low photosynthetic capacity. However, mid-day conductance can be much lower than expected on this basis and reflects the additional effect of a dynamic feedback system between stomatal conductance and the properties of the atmospheric boundary layer. Low stomatal conductance leads to a large sensible heat flux which, in turn, leads to a deeper, warmer and dryer atmospheric boundary layer and to a greater evaporative demand on the plant, causing the stomata close still more. Predicting the response of this non-linear system presents a major challenge. Physiological studies conducted in the Canadian Boreal forest show very large differences in the tendency of species to experience mid day stomatal closure. Jack pine was found to be quite susceptible while black spruce the most resistant to mid day stomatal closure. These species had very similar photosynthetic capacity (Vmax) and Ball-Berry stomatal sensitivity coefficients. Jack pine was, however, more sensitive to inhibition of photosynthesis by elevated temperatures and, as a consequence, stomata closed as temperature and the vapor pressure deficit increased during mid day. In contrast, black spruce was much less effected. These differences could have profound implications for simulating regional scale hydrometeorology over large areas dominated by monospecific stands in the NEESPI domain.

  15. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; Ries, Amber; Böhmer, Maik; You, Lei; Xiao, Chuanlei; Engineer, Cawas B.; Boron, Walter F.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO2 signal in guard cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. Here, we express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutant plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO3− concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Moreover, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO3− concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO2-regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified. PMID:26243620

  16. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic effects of stomatal density in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyejung; Feakins, Sarah J.; Sternberg, Leonel da S. L.

    2016-04-01

    Stomata are key gateways mediating carbon uptake and water loss from plants. Varied stomatal densities in fossil leaves raise the possibility that isotope effects associated with the openness of exchange may have mediated plant wax biomarker isotopic proxies for paleovegetation and paleoclimate in the geological record. Here we use Arabidopsis thaliana, a widely used model organism, to provide the first controlled tests of stomatal density on carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of cuticular waxes. Laboratory grown wildtype and mutants with suppressed and overexpressed stomatal densities allow us to directly test the isotope effects of stomatal densities independent of most other environmental or biological variables. Hydrogen isotope (D/H) measurements of both plant waters and plant wax n-alkanes allow us to directly constrain the isotopic effects of leaf water isotopic enrichment via transpiration and biosynthetic fractionations, which together determine the net fractionation between irrigation water and n-alkane hydrogen isotopic composition. We also measure carbon isotopic fractionations of n-alkanes and bulk leaf tissue associated with different stomatal densities. We find offsets of +15‰ for δD and -3‰ for δ13C for the overexpressed mutant compared to the suppressed mutant. Since the range of stomatal densities expressed is comparable to that found in extant plants and the Cenozoic fossil record, the results allow us to consider the magnitude of isotope effects that may be incurred by these plant adaptive responses. This study highlights the potential of genetic mutants to isolate individual isotope effects and add to our fundamental understanding of how genetics and physiology influence plant biochemicals including plant wax biomarkers.

  17. Differential role of ethylene and hydrogen peroxide in dark-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Kar, R K; Parvin, N; Laha, D

    2013-12-15

    Regulation of stomatal aperture is crucial in terrestrial plants for controlling water loss and gaseous exchange with environment. While much is known of signaling for stomatal opening induced by blue light and the role of hormones, little is known about the regulation of stomatal closing in darkness. The present study was aimed to verify their role in stomatal regulation in darkness. Epidermal peelings from the leaves of Commelina benghalensis were incubated in a defined medium in darkness for 1 h followed by a 1 h incubation in different test solutions [H2O2, propyl gallate, ethrel (ethylene), AgNO3, sodium orthovanadate, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, CaCl2, LaCl3, separately and in combination] before stomatal apertures were measured under the microscope. In the dark stomata remained closed under treatments with ethylene and propyl gallate but opened widely in the presence of H2O2 and AgNO3. The opening effect was largely unaffected by supplementing the treatment with Na-vanadate (PM H+ ATPase inhibitor) and tetraethyl ammonium chloride (K(+)-channel inhibitor) except that opening was significantly inhibited by the latter in presence of H2O2. On the other hand, H2O2 could not override the closing effect of ethylene at any concentrations while a marginal opening of stomata was found when Ag NO3 treatment was given together with propyl gallate. CaCl2 treatment opened stomata in the darkness while LaCl3 maintained stomata closed. A combination of LaCl3 and propyl gallate strongly promoted stomatal opening. A probable action of ethylene in closing stomata of Commelina benghalensis in dark has been proposed.

  18. Distinct Cellular Locations of Carbonic Anhydrases Mediate Carbon Dioxide Control of Stomatal Movements

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Honghong; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Occhipinti, Rossana; ...

    2015-09-28

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2) in leaves closes stomatal apertures. Research has shown key functions of the β-carbonic anhydrases (βCA1 and βCA4) in rapid CO 2-induced stomatal movements by catalytic transmission of the CO 2 signal in guard cells. But, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, because initial studies indicate that these Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) βCAs are targeted to distinct intracellular compartments upon expression in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) cells. Which cellular location of these enzymes plays a key role in native guard cells in CO 2-regulated stomatal movements remains unknown. We express fluorescently tagged CAs in guard cells of ca1ca4 double-mutantmore » plants and show that the specific locations of βCA4 at the plasma membrane and βCA1 in native guard cell chloroplasts each can mediate rapid CO 2 control of stomatal movements. Localization and complementation analyses using a mammalian αCAII-yellow fluorescent protein in guard cells further show that cytoplasmic localization is also sufficient to restore CO 2 regulation of stomatal conductance. Mathematical modeling of cellular CO 2 catalysis suggests that the dynamics of the intracellular HCO 3 - concentration change in guard cells can be driven by plasma membrane and cytoplasmic localizations of CAs but not as clearly by chloroplast targeting. Therefore, modeling supports the notion that the intracellular HCO 3 - concentration dynamics in guard cells are a key mechanism in mediating CO 2 -regulated stomatal movements but that an additional chloroplast role of CAs exists that has yet to be identified.« less

  19. Nup82 functions redundantly with Nup136 in a salicylic acid-dependent defense response of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kentaro; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2017-05-04

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) comprises more than 30 nucleoporins (Nups). NPC mediates macromolecular trafficking between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, but specific roles of individual Nups are poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that the novel nucleoporin unique to angiosperm plants (designated as Nup82) functions in a salicylic acid-dependent defense in a redundant manner with Nup136, which is a component of the nuclear basket in the NPC. Arabidopsis thaliana Nup82 had a similar amino acid sequence to the N-terminal half of Nup136 and a Nup82-GFP fusion was localized on the nuclear envelope. Immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses revealed that Nup82 interacts with the NPC components Nup136 and RAE1. The double knockout mutant nup82 nup136 showed severe growth defects, while the single knockout mutant nup82 did not, suggesting that Nup82 functions redundantly with Nup136. nup82 nup136 impaired benzothiadiazole (an analog of salicylic acid)-induced resistance to the virulent bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of nup82 nup136 indicates that deficiency of Nup82 and Nup136 causes noticeable downregulation of immune-related genes. These results suggest that Nup82 and Nup136 are redundantly involved in transcriptional regulation of salicylic acid-responsive genes through nuclear transport of signaling molecules.

  20. Reconstructing Atmospheric CO2 Through The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Using Stomatal Index and Stomatal Density Values From Ginkgo adiantoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, R. S.; Wing, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a geologically brief interval of intense global warming 56 million years ago. It is arguably the best geological analog for a worst-case scenario of anthropogenic carbon emissions. The PETM is marked by a ~4-6‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and extensive marine carbonate dissolution, which together are powerful evidence for a massive addition of carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. In spite of broad agreement that the PETM reflects a large carbon cycle perturbation, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2) during the event are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to produce a high resolution reconstruction of pCO2 using stomatal frequency proxies (both stomatal index and stomatal density) before, during, and after the PETM. These proxies rely upon a genetically controlled mechanism whereby plants decrease the proportion of gas-exchange pores (stomata) in response to increased pCO2. Terrestrial sections in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, contain macrofossil plants with cuticle immediately bracketing the PETM, as well as dispersed plant cuticle from within the body of the CIE. These fossils allow for the first stomatal-based reconstruction of pCO2 near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary; we also use them to determine the relative timing of pCO2 change in relation to the CIE that defines the PETM. Preliminary results come from macrofossil specimens of Ginkgo adiantoides, collected from an ~200ka interval prior to the onset of the CIE (~230-30ka before), and just after the 'recovery interval' of the CIE. Stomatal index values decreased by 37% within an ~70ka time interval at least 100ka prior to the onset of the CIE. The decrease in stomatal index is interpreted as a significant increase in pCO2, and has a magnitude equivalent to the entire range of stomatal index adjustment observed in modern Ginkgo biloba during the anthropogenic CO2 rise during the last 150 years. The inferred CO2 increase prior to the

  1. Abscisic Acid Metabolism by a Cell-free Preparation from Echinocystis lobata Liquid Endoserum 1

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Douglas F.; Walton, Daniel C.

    1976-01-01

    A cell-free enzyme system capable of metabolizing abscisic acid has been obtained from Eastern Wild Cucumber (Echinocystis lobata Michx.) liquid endosperm. The reaction products were determined to be phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) by co-chromatography on thin layer chromatograms as the free acids, methyl esters, and their respective oxidation or reduction products. The crude enzyme preparation was separated by centrifugation into a particulate abscisic acid (ABA)-hydroxylating activity and a soluble PA-reducing activity. The particulate ABA-hydroxylating enzyme showed a requirement for O2 and NADPH, inhibition by CO, and high substrate specificity for (+)-ABA. Acetylation of short term incubation mixtures gave evidence for the presence of 6′-hydroxymethyl-ABA as an intermediate in PA formation. Determinations of endogenous ABA and DPA concentrations suggest that the ABA-hydroxylating and PA-reducing enzymes are extensively metabolizing ABA in the intact E. lobata seed. PMID:16659768

  2. Starch Biosynthesis in Guard Cells But Not in Mesophyll Cells Is Involved in CO2-Induced Stomatal Closing1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Starch metabolism is involved in stomatal movement regulation. However, it remains unknown whether starch-deficient mutants affect CO2-induced stomatal closing and whether starch biosynthesis in guard cells and/or mesophyll cells is rate limiting for high CO2-induced stomatal closing. Stomatal responses to [CO2] shifts and CO2 assimilation rates were compared in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants that were either starch deficient in all plant tissues (ADP-Glc-pyrophosphorylase [ADGase]) or retain starch accumulation in guard cells but are starch deficient in mesophyll cells (plastidial phosphoglucose isomerase [pPGI]). ADGase mutants exhibited impaired CO2-induced stomatal closure, but pPGI mutants did not, showing that starch biosynthesis in guard cells but not mesophyll functions in CO2-induced stomatal closing. Nevertheless, starch-deficient ADGase mutant alleles exhibited partial CO2 responses, pointing toward a starch biosynthesis-independent component of the response that is likely mediated by anion channels. Furthermore, whole-leaf CO2 assimilation rates of both ADGase and pPGI mutants were lower upon shifts to high [CO2], but only ADGase mutants caused impairments in CO2-induced stomatal closing. These genetic analyses determine the roles of starch biosynthesis for high CO2-induced stomatal closing. PMID:27208296

  3. Effects of a Rebamipide Mouthwash on Stomatitis Caused by Cancer Chemotherapy-Evaluation of the Efficacy by Patients Themselves.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naoko; Kawano, Yayoi; Sakai, Hideki; Hayashi, Seitaku; Akizuki, Norikazu; Komoda, Masayo; Hanawa, Takehisa

    2017-08-01

     Anticancer drug-induced stomatitis develops in 30% to 40% of cancer cases that undergo chemotherapy. However, medications for this condition are not commercially available in Japan. Upon obtaining approval of the ethics committee, a mouthwash containing rebamipide as the active ingredient (rebamipide mouthwash) was administered to one inpatient and four outpatients, who had developed stomatitis caused by cancer chemotherapy. Starting from 14 d after the administration of the rebamipide mouthwash, the patients scored a stomatitis survey on oral state, pain level, and diet and recorded the number of times they gargled, as well as any stomatitis observations, in a stomatitis diary. The total scores for the points for each of the three types of survey sections were classified into Grades 0 to 4 and evaluated as a stomatitis evaluation score (SES). The SES became "0" in three out of the five patients within 14 d of treatment. No change in SES was found in one patient. In the remaining patients, SES became "0" once but increased again later. Using image analysis software (ImageJ), the area at which the stomatitis was observed was measured. When comparing SES and change in the area in patients who agreed to participate, gradual reductions in the extent of stomatitis was observed even during the period when SES did not change. Having patients fill in an observation chart was effective for grasping changes in symptoms in outpatients.

  4. Organ-specific effects of brassinosteroids on stomatal production coordinate with the action of Too Many Mouths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Yang, Kezhen; Le, Jie

    2015-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, stomatal development initiates after protodermal cells acquire stomatal lineage cell fate. Stomata or their precursors communicate with their neighbor epidermal cells to ensure the "one cell spacing" rule. The signals from EPF/EPFL peptide ligands received by Too Many Mouths (TMM) and ERECTA-family receptors are supposed to be transduced by YODA MAPK cascade. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) is another key regulator of stomatal cell fate determination and asymmetric entry divisions, and SPCH activity is regulated by YODA MAPK cascade. Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, one of the most well characterized signal transduction pathways in plants, contributes to the control of stomatal production. But opposite organ-specific effects of BR on stomatal production were reported. Here we confirm that stomatal production in hypocotyls is controlled by BR levels. YODA and CYCD4 are not essential for BR stomata-promoting function. Furthermore, we found that BR could confer tmm hypocotyls clustered stomatal phenotype, indicating that the BR organ-specific effects on stomatal production might coordinate with the TMM organ-specific actions. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Height-related trends in stomatal sensitivity to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit in a tall conifer

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; F.C. Meinzer; K.A. McCulloh

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal responses to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (LVPD), leaf water potential components, and cuticular properties were characterized for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) foliage collected from treetops along a height gradient from 5 m to 58 m in order to explore height-related trends in stomatal sensitivity to LVPD and to investigate...

  6. Model-based analysis of avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata)

    PubMed Central

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Resistance of plants to ozone stress can be classified as either avoidance or tolerance. Avoidance of ozone stress may be explained by decreased stomatal conductance during ozone exposure because stomata are the principal interface for entry of ozone into plants. In this study, a coupled photosynthesis–stomatal model was modified to test whether the presence of ozone can induce avoidance of ozone stress by stomatal closure. Methods The response of Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata), a representative deciduous tree species, to ozone was studied in a free-air ozone exposure experiment in Japan. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured under ambient and elevated ozone. An optimization model of stomata involving water, CO2 and ozone flux was tested using the leaf gas exchange data. Key Results The data suggest that there are two phases in the avoidance of ozone stress via stomatal closure for Siebold's beech: (1) in early summer ozone influx is efficiently limited by a reduction in stomatal conductance, without any clear effect on photosynthetic capacity; and (2) in late summer and autumn the efficiency of ozone stress avoidance was decreased because the decrease in stomatal conductance was small and accompanied by an ozone-induced decline of photosynthetic capacity. Conclusions Ozone-induced stomatal closure in Siebold's beech during early summer reduces ozone influx and allows the maximum photosynthetic capacity to be reached, but is not sufficient in older leaves to protect the photosynthetic system. PMID:23904447

  7. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status

    Treesearch

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Duncan D. Smith; David R. Woodruff; Danielle E. Marias; Katherine A. McCulloh; Ava R. Howard; Alicia L. Magedman

    2017-01-01

    Species’ differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this...

  8. Abscisic acid is not necessary for gravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of Zea mays L. cv. Tx 5855 treated with fluridone are strongly graviresponsive, but have undetectable levels of abscisic acid (ABA). Primary roots of the carotenoid-deficient w-3, vp-5, and vp-7 mutants of Z. mays are also graviresponsive despite having undetectable amounts of ABA. Graviresponsive roots of untreated and wild-type seedlings contain 286 to 317 ng ABA g-1 f. wt, respectively. These results indicate that ABA is not necessary for root gravicurvature.

  9. [Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase from Pseudostellariae Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Long, Deng-Kai; Zhou, Tao; Ding, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Jiang, Wei-Ke

    2016-07-01

    Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase was one of key enzymes genes in the metabolism of abscisic acid (ABA). Seven menbers of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase were identified from Pseudostellaria heterophylla transcriptome sequencing results by using sequence homology. The expression profiles of these genes were analyzed by transcriptome data. The coding sequence of ABA8ox1 was cloned and analyzed by informational technology. The full-length cDNA of ABA8ox1 was 1 401 bp,with 480 encoded amino acids. The predicated isoelectric point (pI) and relative molecular mass (MW) were 8.55 and 53 kDa,respectively. Transmembrane structure analysis showed that there were 21 amino acids in-side and 445 amino acids out-side. High level of transcripts can detect in bark of root and fibrous root. Multi-alignment and phylogenetic analysis both show that ABA8ox1 had a high similarity with the CYP707As from other plants,especially with AtCYP707A1 and AtCYP707A3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. These results lay a foundation for molecular mechanism of tuberous root expanding and response to adversity stress. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Enhanced determination of abscisic acid (ABA) and abscisic acid glucose ester (ABA-GE) in Cistus albidus plants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem mode.

    PubMed

    López-Carbonell, Marta; Gabasa, Marta; Jáuregui, Olga

    2009-04-01

    An improved, quick and simple method for the extraction and quantification of the phytohormones (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its major glucose conjugate, abscisic acid glucose ester (ABA-GE) in plant samples is described. The method includes the addition of deuterium-labeled internal standards to the leaves at the beginning of the extraction for quantification, a simple extraction/centrifugation process and the injection into the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) system in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Quality parameters of the method (detection limits, repeatability, reproducibility and linearity) have been studied. The objective of this work is to show the applicability of this method for quantifying the endogenous content of both ABA and ABA-GE in Cistus albidus plants that have been grown during an annual cycle under Mediterranean field conditions. Leaf samples from winter plants have low levels of ABA which increase in spring and summer showing two peaks that corresponded to April and August. These increases are coincident with the high temperature and solar radiation and the low RWC and RH registered along the year. On the other hand, the endogenous levels of ABA-GE increase until maximum values in July just before the ABA content reaches its highest concentration, decreasing in August and during autumn and winter. Our results suggest that the method is useful for quantifying both compounds in this plant material and represents the advantage of a short-time sample preparation with a high accuracy and viability.

  11. Nucleic Acid-Dependent Conformational Changes in CRISPR-Cas9 Revealed by Site-Directed Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Reyes, Carolina; Tangprasertchai, Narin S; Yogesha, S D; Nguyen, Richard H; Zhang, Xiaojun; Rajan, Rakhi; Qin, Peter Z

    2017-06-01

    In a type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, RNAs that are encoded at the CRISPR locus complex with the CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein Cas9 to form an RNA-guided nuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNAs at specific sites. In recent years, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully adapted for genome engineering in a wide range of organisms. Studies have indicated that a series of conformational changes in Cas9, coordinated by the RNA and the target DNA, direct the protein into its active conformation, yet details on these conformational changes, as well as their roles in the mechanism of function of Cas9, remain to be elucidated. Here, nucleic acid-dependent conformational changes in Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) were investigated using the method of site-directed spin labeling (SDSL). Single nitroxide spin labels were attached, one at a time, at one of the two native cysteine residues (Cys80 and Cys574) of SpyCas9, and the spin-labeled proteins were shown to maintain their function. X-band continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the nitroxide attached at Cys80 revealed conformational changes of SpyCas9 that are consistent with a large-scale domain re-arrangement upon binding to its RNA partner. The results demonstrate the use of SDSL to monitor conformational changes in CRISPR-Cas9, which will provide key information for understanding the mechanism of CRISPR function.

  12. Adjustments in hydraulic architecture of Pinus palustris maintain similar stomatal conductance in xerix and mesic habitats

    Treesearch

    R.N. Addington; L.A. Donovan; R.J. Mitchell; J.M. Vose; S.D. Pecot; S.B. Jack; U.G. Hacke; J.S. Sperry; R. Oren

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships between whole-tree hydranlic architecture and stomatal conductance in Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) across habitats that differed in soil properties and habitat structure. Trees occupying a xeric habitat (characterized by sandy, well-drained soils, higher nitrogen availability and lower overstory tree density)...

  13. Disruption of ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 gene does not affect phototropin-mediated stomatal opening.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Toshifumi; Takemiya, Atsushi; Harada, Akiko; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2013-03-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), blue light-receptor protein kinases in plants, mediate stomatal opening by activating the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in guard cells, but the signaling from phototropins to the H(+)-ATPase remains unknown. A recent study concluded that ROOT PHOTOTROPISM2 (RPT2) is involved in the primary step of this process. However, this conclusion is based solely on the determination of stomatal apertures in the epidermis. We investigated the role of RPT2 in blue light-dependent stomatal opening in more detail. We generated double mutants of rpt2 and phototropins (phot1 or phot2) in the Col ecotype background and obtained the typical phenotypes of rpt2 mutants, including the impairment in phototropism. In contrast, neither blue light-dependent H(+) pumping nor blue light-dependent H(+)-ATPase activation in guard cells was affected in the rpt2 mutants of rpt2, phot1 rpt2, and phot2 rpt2. Stomata in these rpt2 mutants opened widely by blue light in both epidermal peels and intact leaves, and no difference in the responses was found between the wild type and the mutants. From these results, we concluded that RPT2 gene disruption does not affect blue light-dependent stomatal opening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the stomatal conductance formulation in the EMEP ozone deposition model for Picea abies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, G.; Emberson, L. D.

    It is widely acknowledged that the possible impacts of ozone on forest trees are more closely related to ozone flux through the stomata than to external ozone exposure. However, the application of the flux approach on a European scale requires the availability of appropriate models, such as the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) ozone deposition model, for estimating ozone flux and cumulative ozone uptake. Within this model stomatal conductance is the key variable, since it determines the amount of ozone absorbed by the leaves. This paper describes the suitability of the existing EMEP ozone deposition model parameterisation and formulation to represent stomatal behaviour determined from field measurements on adult Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in the Central European Alps. Parameters affecting maximum stomatal conductance (e.g. seasonal phenology, needle position, needle age, nutrient deficiency and ozone itself) and stomatal response functions to temperature, irradiance, vapour pressure deficit, and soil water content are investigated. Finally, current limitations and possible alterations of the EMEP model will be discussed with respect to spatial scales of available input data for future flux modelling.

  15. REDUCED STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE IN SWEETGUM (LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA) SUSTAINED OVER LONG-TERM CO2 ENRICHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over four years (1998-2001), we examined the effects of CO2 enrichment on stomatal conductance (gs) of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) grown at the Duke Forest Free Air Carbon CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Gas exchange measurements were...

  16. Comparison of arabidopsis stomatal density mutants indicates variation in water stress responses and potential epistatic effects

    Treesearch

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    Recent physiological analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal density (SD) mutants indicated that SD was not the major factor controlling aboveground biomass accumulation. Despite the general theory that plants with fewer stomata have limited biomass acquisition capabilities, epf1 and several other Arabidopsis mutants varied significantly in leaf fresh...

  17. Contributions of hydrology to Vesicular Stomatitis Virus emergence in the Western United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Relationships between environmental variables associated with the spread of vector-borne pathogens, such as RNA viruses transmitted to humans and animals, remain poorly understood. Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by a vector-borne, zoonotic RNA virus (VSV), and is the most common vesicular dise...

  18. Clustered Stomates in "Begonia": An Exercise in Data Collection & Statistical Analysis of Biological Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Joann M.; Korn, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a laboratory exercise in data collection and statistical analysis in biological space using clustered stomates on leaves of "Begonia" plants. The exercise can be done in middle school classes by students making their own slides and seeing imprints of cells, or at the high school level through collecting data of…

  19. Phytomelatonin receptor PMTR1-mediated signaling regulates stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Li, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Jia-Rong; Shan, Chi; Rengel, Zed; Song, Zhong-Bang; Chen, Qi

    2018-04-27

    Melatonin has been detected in plants in 1995; however, the function and signaling pathway of this putative phytohormone are largely undetermined due to a lack of knowledge about its receptor. Here, we discovered the first phytomelatonin receptor (CAND2/PMTR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin governs the receptor-dependent stomatal closure. The application of melatonin induced stomatal closure through the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit-regulated H 2 O 2 and Ca 2+ signals. The Arabidopsis mutant lines lacking AtCand2 that encodes a candidate G protein-coupled receptor were insensitive to melatonin-induced stomatal closure. Accordingly, the melatonin-induced H 2 O 2 production and Ca 2+ influx were completely abolished in cand2. CAND2 is a membrane protein that interacts with GPA1 and the expression of AtCand2 was tightly regulated by melatonin in various organs and guard cells. CAND2 showed saturable and specific 125 I-melatonin binding, with apparent K d (dissociation constant) of 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/L (r 2  = .99), demonstrating this protein is a phytomelatonin receptor (PMTR1). Our results suggest that the phytomelatonin regulation of stomatal closure is dependent on its receptor CAND2/PMTR1-mediated H 2 O 2 and Ca 2+ signaling transduction cascade. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, and leaf area index estimation using remote sensing and OBIA techniques

    Treesearch

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G. Hoogenboom

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed images including LANDSAT, SPOT, NAIP orthoimagery, and LiDAR and relevant processing tools can be used to predict plant stomatal conductance (gs), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy temperature, vegetation density, albedo, and soil moisture using vegetation indices like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or soil adjusted...

  1. Genetic variability for stomatal conductance in Pima cotton and its relation to improvements of heat adaptation.

    PubMed Central

    Radin, J W; Lu, Z; Percy, R G; Zeiger, E

    1994-01-01

    Responses of stomata to environment have been intensively studied, but little is known of genetic effects on stomatal conductance or their consequences. In Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.), a crop that is bred for irrigated production in very hot environments, stomatal conductance varies genetically over a wide range and has increased with each release of new higher-yielding cultivars. A cross between heat-adapted (high-yielding) and unadapted genotypes produced F2 progeny cosegregating for stomatal conductance and leaf temperature. Within segregating populations in the field, conductance was negatively correlated with foliar temperature because of evaporative cooling. Plants were selected from the F2 generation specifically and solely for differing stomatal conductance. Among F3 and F4 populations derived from these selections, conductance and leaf cooling were significantly correlated with fruiting prolificacy during the hottest period of the year and with yield. Conductance was not associated with other factors that might have affected yield potential (single-leaf photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential). As breeders have increased the yield of this crop, genetic variability for conductance has allowed inadvertent selection for "heat avoidance" (evaporative cooling) in a hot environment. PMID:11607487

  2. Predicting stomatal responses to the environment from the optimization of photosynthetic gain and hydraulic cost.

    PubMed

    Sperry, John S; Venturas, Martin D; Anderegg, William R L; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mackay, D Scott; Wang, Yujie; Love, David M

    2017-06-01

    Stomatal regulation presumably evolved to optimize CO 2 for H 2 O exchange in response to changing conditions. If the optimization criterion can be readily measured or calculated, then stomatal responses can be efficiently modelled without recourse to empirical models or underlying mechanism. Previous efforts have been challenged by the lack of a transparent index for the cost of losing water. Yet it is accepted that stomata control water loss to avoid excessive loss of hydraulic conductance from cavitation and soil drying. Proximity to hydraulic failure and desiccation can represent the cost of water loss. If at any given instant, the stomatal aperture adjusts to maximize the instantaneous difference between photosynthetic gain and hydraulic cost, then a model can predict the trajectory of stomatal responses to changes in environment across time. Results of this optimization model are consistent with the widely used Ball-Berry-Leuning empirical model (r 2  > 0.99) across a wide range of vapour pressure deficits and ambient CO 2 concentrations for wet soil. The advantage of the optimization approach is the absence of empirical coefficients, applicability to dry as well as wet soil and prediction of plant hydraulic status along with gas exchange. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gaseous NO2 effects on stomatal behavior, photosynthesis and respiration of hybrid poplar leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we used poplar as a model plant and investigated the effects of gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2, 4 microliter per liter) on stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, dark- and photorespiration of Populus alba x Populus berolinensis hybrid leaves using the photosynthesis system and scanning...

  4. Genome sequences of nine vesicular stomatitis virus isolates from South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report nine full-genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis virus obtrained by Illumina next-generation sequencing of RNA, isolated from either cattle epithelial suspensions or cell culture supernatants. Seven of these viral genomes belonged to the New Jersey serotype/species, clade III, while two...

  5. Exposure to moderate concentrations of tropospheric ozone impairs tree stomatal response to carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Onandia, Gabriela; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Barth, Sabine; King, John S; Uddling, Johan

    2011-10-01

    With rising concentrations of both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and tropospheric ozone (O(3)), it is important to better understand the interacting effects of these two trace gases on plant physiology affecting land-atmosphere gas exchange. We investigated the effect of growth under elevated CO(2) and O(3), singly and in combination, on the primary short-term stomatal response to CO(2) concentration in paper birch at the Aspen FACE experiment. Leaves from trees grown in elevated CO(2) and/or O(3) exhibited weaker short-term responses of stomatal conductance to both an increase and a decrease in CO(2) concentration from current ambient level. The impairement of the stomatal CO(2) response by O(3) most likely developed progressively over the growing season as assessed by sap flux measurements. Our results suggest that expectations of plant water-savings and reduced stomatal air pollution uptake under rising atmospheric CO(2) may not hold for northern hardwood forests under concurrently rising tropospheric O(3). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stomatal structure and physiology do not explain differences in water use among montane eucalypts.

    PubMed

    Gharun, Mana; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Adams, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the regulation of water use at the whole-tree scale is critical to advancing the utility of physiological ecology, for example in its role in predictive hydrology of forested catchments. For three eucalypt species that dominate high-elevation catchments in south-eastern Australia, we examined if whole-tree water use could be related to three widely discussed regulators of water use: stomatal anatomy, sensitivity of stomata [i.e. stomatal conductance (g(s))] to environmental influences, and sapwood area. While daily tree water use varied sixfold among species, sap velocity and sapwood area varied in parallel. Combined, stomatal structure and physiology could not explain differences in species-specific water use. Species which exhibited the fastest (Eucalyptus delegatensis) and slowest (Eucalyptus pauciflora) rates of water use both exhibited greater capacity for physiological control of g(s) [indicated by sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit (VPD)] and a reduced capacity to limit g(s) anatomically [indicated by greater potential g(s) (g(max))]. Conversely, g(s) was insensitive to VPD and g(max) was lowest for Eucalyptus radiata, the species showing intermediate rates of water use. Improved knowledge of stomatal anatomy will help us to understand the capacity of species to regulate leaf-level water loss, but seems likely to remain of limited use for explaining rates of whole-tree water use in montane eucalypts at the catchment scale.

  7. How do leaf hydraulics limit stomatal conductance at high water vapour pressure deficits?

    PubMed

    Bunce, James A

    2006-08-01

    A reduction in leaf stomatal conductance (g) with increasing leaf-to-air difference in water vapour pressure (D) is nearly ubiquitous. Ecological comparisons of sensitivity have led to the hypothesis that the reduction in g with increasing D serves to maintain leaf water potentials above those that would cause loss of hydraulic conductance. A reduction in leaf water potential is commonly hypothesized to cause stomatal closure at high D. The importance of these particular hydraulic factors was tested by exposing Abutilon theophrasti, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum and Xanthium strumarium to D high enough to reduce g and then decreasing ambient carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), and observing the resulting changes in g, transpiration rate and leaf water potential, and their reversibility. Reducing the [CO2] at high D increased g and transpiration rate and lowered leaf water potential. The abnormally high transpiration rates did not result in reductions in hydraulic conductance. Results indicate that low water potential effects on g at high D could be overcome by low [CO2], and that even lower leaf water potentials did not cause a reduction in hydraulic conductance in these well-watered plants. Reduced g at high D in these species resulted primarily from increased stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] at high D, and this increased sensitivity may mediate stomatal responses to leaf hydraulics at high D.

  8. Thermal infrared imaging of the temporal variability in stomatal conductance for fruit trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struthers, Raymond; Ivanova, Anna; Tits, Laurent; Swennen, Rony; Coppin, Pol

    2015-07-01

    Repeated measurements using thermal infrared remote sensing were used to characterize the change in canopy temperature over time and factors that influenced this change on 'Conference' pear trees (Pyrus communis L.). Three different types of sensors were used, a leaf porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance, a thermal infrared camera to measure the canopy temperature and a meteorological sensor to measure weather variables. Stomatal conductance of water stressed pear was significantly lower than in the control group 9 days after stress began. This decrease in stomatal conductance reduced transpiration, reducing evaporative cooling that increased canopy temperature. Using thermal infrared imaging with wavelengths between 7.5 and13 μm, the first significant difference was measured 18 days after stress began. A second order derivative described the average rate of change of the difference between the stress treatment and control group. The average rate of change for stomatal conductance was 0.06 (mmol m-2 s-1) and for canopy temperature was -0.04 (°C) with respect to days. Thermal infrared remote sensing and data analysis presented in this study demonstrated that the differences in canopy temperatures between the water stress and control treatment due to stomata regulation can be validated.

  9. Impact of Canopy Coupling on Canopy Average Stomatal Conductance Across Seven Tree Species in Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Mackay, D. S.; Samanta, S.; Ahl, D. E.; Burrows, S. S.; Gower, S. T.

    2001-12-01

    Land use changes over the last century in northern Wisconsin have resulted in a heterogeneous landscape composed of the following four main forest types: northern hardwoods, northern conifer, aspen/fir, and forested wetland. Based on sap flux measurements, aspen/fir has twice the canopy transpiration of northern hardwoods. In addition, daily transpiration was only explained by daily average vapor pressure deficit across the cover types. The objective of this study was to determine if canopy average stomatal conductance could be used to explain the species effects on tree transpiration. Our first hypothesis is that across all of the species, stomatal conductance will respond to vapor pressure deficit so as to maintain a minimum leaf water potential to prevent catostrophic cavitiation. The consequence of this hypothesis is that among species and individuals there is a proportionality between high stomatal conductance and the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. Our second hypothesis is that species that do not follow the proportionality deviate because the canopies are decoupled from the atmosphere. To test our two hypotheses we calculated canopy average stomatal conductance from sap flux measurements using an inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. We estimated the canopy coupling using a leaf energy budget model that requires leaf transpiration and canopy aerodynamic conductance. We optimized the parameters of the aerodynamic conductance model using a Monte Carlo technique across six parameters. We determined the optimal model for each species by selecting parameter sets that resulted in the proportionality of our first hypothesis. We then tested the optimal energy budget models of each species by comparing leaf temperature and leaf width predicted by the models to measurements of each tree species. In red pine, sugar maple, and trembling aspen trees under high canopy coupling conditions, we found the hypothesized proportionality

  10. Stomatal Density Influences Leaf Water and Leaf Wax D/H Values in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Feakins, S. J.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of plant leaf wax is a powerful tool to study the hydrology of past and present environments. The δD value of leaf waxes is known to primarily reflect the δD value of source water, modified by biological fractionations commonly summarized as the 'net or apparent' fractionation. It remains a challenge, however, to quantitatively relate the isotopic composition of the end product (wax) back to that of the precursor (water) because multiple isotope effects contributing to the net fractionation are not yet well understood. Transgenic variants have heretofore unexplored potential to isolate individual isotope effects. Here we report the first hydrogen isotopic measurements from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with calculations of leaf water enrichment, net and biosynthetic fractionation values from measured δD of plant waters and leaf wax n-alkanes. We employed transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, engineered to have different stomatal density, by differential expression of the stomatal growth hormone stomagen. Comparison of variants and wild types allow us to isolate the effects of stomatal density on leaf water and the net fractionation expressed by leaf wax biomarkers. Results show that transgenic leaves with denser pores have more enriched leaf water and leaf wax δD values than wild type and even more so than transgenic leaves with sparse stomata (difference of 10 ‰). Our findings that stomatal density controls leaf water and leaf wax δD values adds insights into the cause of variations in net fractionations between species, as well as suggesting that geological variations in stomatal density may modulate the sedimentary leaf wax δD record. In nature, stomatal density varies between species and environments, and all other factors being equal, this will contribute to variations in fractionations observed. Over geological history, lower stomatal densities occur at times of elevated pCO2; our findings predict reduced leaf

  11. Response of Leaf Water Potential, Stomatal Resistance, and Leaf Rolling to Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, John C.; Cruz, Rolando T.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous studies have associated increased stomatal resistance with response to water deficit in cereals. However, consideration of change in leaf form seems to have been neglected. The response of adaxial and abaxial stomatal resistance and leaf rolling in rice to decreasing leaf water potential was investigated. Two rice cultivars were subjected to control and water stress treatments in a deep (1-meter) aerobic soil. Concurrent measurements of leaf water potential, stomatal resistance, and degree of leaf rolling were made through a 29-day period after cessation of irrigation. Kinandang Patong, an upland adapted cultivar, maintained higher dawn and midday leaf water potential than IR28, a hybrid selected in irrigated conditions. This was not explained by differences in leaf diffusive resistance or leaf rolling, and is assumed to result from a difference in root system extent. Stomatal resistance increased more on the abaxial than the adaxial leaf surface in both cultivars. This was associated with a change in leaf form or rolling inward of the upper leaf surface. Both responses, increased stomatal resistance and leaf rolling, were initiated in a similar leaf water potential range (−8 to −12 bars). Leaves of IR28 became fully rolled at leaf water potential of about −22 bars; however, total leaf diffusive resistance was only about 4 to 5 seconds per centimeter (conductance 0.25 to 0.2 centimeter per second) at that stage. Leaf diffusive resistance and degree of leaf rolling were linearly related to leaf water potential. Thus, leaf rolling in rice may be used as an estimate of the other two less obvious effects of water deficit. PMID:16661206

  12. The dependence of leaf hydraulic conductance on irradiance during HPFM measurements: any role for stomatal response?

    PubMed

    Tyree, Melvin T; Nardini, Andrea; Salleo, Sebastiano; Sack, Lawren; El Omari, Bouchra

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines the dependence of whole leaf hydraulic conductance to liquid water (K(L)) on irradiance when measured with a high pressure flowmeter (HPFM). During HPFM measurements, water is perfused into leaves faster than it evaporates hence water infiltrates leaf air spaces and must pass through stomates in the liquid state. Since stomates open and close under high versus low irradiance, respectively, the possibility exists that K(L) might change with irradiance if stomates close tightly enough to restrict water movement. However, the dependence of K(L) on irradiance could be due to a direct effect of irradiance on the hydraulic properties of other tissues in the leaf. In the present study, K(L) increased with irradiance for 6 of the 11 species tested. Whole leaf conductance to water vapour, g(L), was used as a proxy for stomatal aperture and the time-course of changes in K(L) and g(L) was studied during the transition from low to high irradiance and from high to low irradiance. Experiments showed that in some species K(L) changes were not paralleled by g(L) changes. Measurements were also done after perfusion of leaves with ABA which inhibited the g(L) response to irradiance. These leaves showed the same K(L) response to irradiance as control leaves. These experimental results and theoretical calculations suggest that the irradiance dependence of K(L) is more consistent with an effect on extravascular (and/or vascular) tissues rather than stomatal aperture. Irradiance-mediated stimulation of aquaporins or hydrogel effects in leaf tracheids may be involved.

  13. A Modeling Approach to Quantify the Effects of Stomatal Behavior and Mesophyll Conductance on Leaf Water Use Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Moualeu-Ngangue, Dany P.; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Stützel, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is considered as a determinant of yield under stress and a component of crop drought resistance. Stomatal behavior regulates both transpiration rate and net assimilation and has been suggested to be crucial for improving crop WUE. In this work, a dynamic model was used to examine the impact of dynamic properties of stomata on WUE. The model includes sub-models of stomatal conductance dynamics, solute accumulation in the mesophyll, mesophyll water content, and water flow to the mesophyll. Using the instantaneous value of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and transpiration rate were simulated using a biochemical model and Penman-Monteith equation, respectively. The model was parameterized for a cucumber leaf and model outputs were evaluated using climatic data. Our simulations revealed that WUE was higher on a cloudy than a sunny day. Fast stomatal reaction to light decreased WUE during the period of increasing light (e.g., in the morning) by up to 10.2% and increased WUE during the period of decreasing light (afternoon) by up to 6.25%. Sensitivity of daily WUE to stomatal parameters and mesophyll conductance to CO2 was tested for sunny and cloudy days. Increasing mesophyll conductance to CO2 was more likely to increase WUE for all climatic conditions (up to 5.5% on the sunny day) than modifications of stomatal reaction speed to light and maximum stomatal conductance. PMID:27379150

  14. Systems Analysis of Guard Cell Membrane Transport for Enhanced Stomatal Dynamics and Water Use Efficiency1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhou; Hills, Adrian; Blatt, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Stomatal transpiration is at the center of a crisis in water availability and crop production that is expected to unfold over the next 20 to 30 years. Global water usage has increased 6-fold in the past 100 years, twice as fast as the human population, and is expected to double again before 2030, driven mainly by irrigation and agriculture. Guard cell membrane transport is integral to controlling stomatal aperture and offers important targets for genetic manipulation to improve crop performance. However, its complexity presents a formidable barrier to exploring such possibilities. With few exceptions, mutations that increase water use efficiency commonly have been found to do so with substantial costs to the rate of carbon assimilation, reflecting the trade-off in CO2 availability with suppressed stomatal transpiration. One approach yet to be explored in detail relies on quantitative systems analysis of the guard cell. Our deep knowledge of transport and homeostasis in these cells gives real substance to the prospect for reverse engineering of stomatal responses, using in silico design in directing genetic manipulation for improved water use and crop yields. Here we address this problem with a focus on stomatal kinetics, taking advantage of the OnGuard software and models of the stomatal guard cell recently developed for exploring stomatal physiology. Our analysis suggests that manipulations of single transporter populations are likely to have unforeseen consequences. Channel gating, especially of the dominant K+ channels, appears the most favorable target for experimental manipulation. PMID:24596330

  15. Influence of exogenously applied abscisic acid on carotenoid content and water uptake in flowers of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Baldermann, Susanne; Yang, Ziyin; Sakai, Miwa; Fleischmann, Peter; Morita, Akio; Todoroki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2013-05-01

    Carotenoids are a major class of plant pigments and fulfill many functions in different organisms that either produce or consume them. Although the color of the stamina of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers is clearly due to the presence of carotenoids, the carotenoid profile and content remain to be discovered. We investigated the carotenoid profile of tea flowers and determined changes in concentrations over the floral development. The flowers contained oxygenated xanthophylls such as neoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin, as well as the hydrocarbons β-carotene and α-carotene. Flowers of the tea plant contain to vegetables comparable amounts of carotenoids. The content of 9'-cis-epoxycarotenoids, which serve as abscisic acid precursors, as well as changes in concentration of abscisic acid were studied. The concentrations of carotenoids decreased whereas the abscisic acid content increased over the floral development. Exogenously applied S-abscisic acid affected water uptake, flower opening and carotenoid accumulation. In summary, this paper reports, for the first time, the carotenoid profile and content of tea flowers. The study revealed that carotenoids in tea flowers are an interesting target in respect of possible applications of tea flower extracts as well as biological functions of abscisic acid during floral development. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Investigation into the Physiological Significance of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid in Perkinsus marinus, an Oyster Parasite Harboring a Nonphotosynthetic Plastid.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Shigeo; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Kita, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Motomichi

    2017-07-01

    Some organisms have retained plastids even after they have lost the ability to photosynthesize. Several studies of nonphotosynthetic plastids in apicomplexan parasites have shown that the isopentenyl pyrophosphate biosynthesis pathway in the organelle is essential for their survival. A phytohormone, abscisic acid, one of several compounds biosynthesized from isopentenyl pyrophosphate, regulates the parasite cell cycle. Thus, it is possible that the phytohormone is universally crucial, even in nonphotosynthetic plastids. Here, we examined this possibility using the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus, which is a plastid-harboring cousin of apicomplexan parasites and has independently lost photosynthetic ability. Fluridone, an inhibitor of abscisic acid biosynthesis, blocked parasite growth and induced cell clustering. Nevertheless, abscisic acid and its intermediate carotenoids did not affect parasite growth or rescue the parasite from inhibition. Moreover, abscisic acid was not detected from the parasite using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Our findings show that abscisic acid does not play any significant roles in P. marinus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  17. A steady-state stomatal model of balanced leaf gas exchange, hydraulics and maximal source-sink flux.

    PubMed

    Hölttä, Teemu; Lintunen, Anna; Chan, Tommy; Mäkelä, Annikki; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2017-07-01

    Trees must simultaneously balance their CO2 uptake rate via stomata, photosynthesis, the transport rate of sugars and rate of sugar utilization in sinks while maintaining a favourable water and carbon balance. We demonstrate using a numerical model that it is possible to understand stomatal functioning from the viewpoint of maximizing the simultaneous photosynthetic production, phloem transport and sink sugar utilization rate under the limitation that the transpiration-driven hydrostatic pressure gradient sets for those processes. A key feature in our model is that non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis increase with decreasing leaf water potential and/or increasing leaf sugar concentration and are thus coupled to stomatal conductance. Maximizing the photosynthetic production rate using a numerical steady-state model leads to stomatal behaviour that is able to reproduce the well-known trends of stomatal behaviour in response to, e.g., light, vapour concentration difference, ambient CO2 concentration, soil water status, sink strength and xylem and phloem hydraulic conductance. We show that our results for stomatal behaviour are very similar to the solutions given by the earlier models of stomatal conductance derived solely from gas exchange considerations. Our modelling results also demonstrate how the 'marginal cost of water' in the unified stomatal conductance model and the optimal stomatal model could be related to plant structural and physiological traits, most importantly, the soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and soil moisture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Seasonal Variation in the Hormone Content of Willow: II. Effect of Photoperiod on Growth and Abscisic Acid Content of Trees under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvim, R

    1978-11-01

    Levels of abscisic acid were followed in the xylem sap, mature leaves, and apices of field-grown willow (Salix viminalis L.) during the summer months, under natural and artificially extended photoperiods. Although the long day treatment prevented the general onset of dormancy, the plants grown under natural daylengths showed lower concentration of abscisic acid than those kept under long days.

  19. Phytohormone abscisic acid elicits antinociceptive effects in rats through the activation of opioid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ.

    PubMed

    Mollashahi, Mahtab; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2018-08-05

    The phytohormone abscisic acid exists in animal tissues particularly in the brain. However, its neurophysiological effects have not yet been fully clarified. This study was designed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive effects of abscisic acid on animal models of pain and determine its possible signaling mechanism. Tail-flick, hot-plate and formalin tests were used to assess the nociceptive threshold. All experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. To determine the role of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and opioid receptors on the induction of abscisic acid antinociception, specific antagonists were injected 15 min before abscisic acid. The data showed that abscisic acid (5, 10 and 15 µg/rat, i.c.v.) significantly decreased pain responses in formalin test. In addition, it could also produce dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Administration of PPARβ/δ antagonist (GSK0660, 80 nM, i.c.v.) significantly attenuated the antinociceptive effect of abscisic acid in all tests. The antinociceptive effects of abscisic acid were completely inhibited by naloxone (6 µg, i.c.v.) during the time course of tail-flick and hot-plate tests. The results indicated that the central injection of abscisic acid has potent pain-relieving property which is mediated partly via the PPAR β/δ and opioid signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of abscisic acid signaling in land plants: characterization of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1-like type 2C protein phosphatase in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Tougane, Ken; Komatsu, Kenji; Bhyan, Salma Begum; Sakata, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki; Takezawa, Daisuke

    2010-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is postulated to be a ubiquitous hormone that plays a central role in seed development and responses to environmental stresses of vascular plants. However, in liverworts (Marchantiophyta), which represent the oldest extant lineage of land plants, the role of ABA has been least emphasized; thus, very little information is available on the molecular mechanisms underlying ABA responses. In this study, we isolated and characterized MpABI1, an ortholog of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1), from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The MpABI1 cDNA encoded a 568-amino acid protein consisting of the carboxy-terminal protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) domain and a novel amino-terminal regulatory domain. The MpABI1 transcript was detected in the gametophyte, and its expression level was increased by exogenous ABA treatment in the gemma, whose growth was strongly inhibited by ABA. Experiments using green fluorescent protein fusion constructs indicated that MpABI1 was mainly localized in the nucleus and that its nuclear localization was directed by the amino-terminal domain. Transient overexpression of MpABI1 in M. polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens cells resulted in suppression of ABA-induced expression of the wheat Em promoter fused to the beta -glucuronidase gene. Transgenic P. patens expressing MpABI1 and its mutant construct, MpABI1-d2, lacking the amino-terminal domain, had reduced freezing and osmotic stress tolerance, and associated with reduced accumulation of ABA-induced late embryogenesis abundant-like boiling-soluble proteins. Furthermore, ABA-induced morphological changes leading to brood cells were not prominent in these transgenic plants. These results suggest that MpABI1 is a negative regulator of ABA signaling, providing unequivocal molecular evidence of PP2C-mediated ABA response mechanisms functioning in liverworts.

  1. Stomatal control of leaf fluxes of carbonyl sulfide and CO2 in a Typha freshwater marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wu; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Lett, Céline; Seibt, Ulli

    2018-06-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an emerging tracer to constrain land photosynthesis at canopy to global scales, because leaf COS and CO2 uptake processes are linked through stomatal diffusion. The COS tracer approach requires knowledge of the concentration normalized ratio of COS uptake to photosynthesis, commonly known as the leaf relative uptake (LRU). LRU is known to increase under low light, but the environmental controls over LRU variability in the field are poorly understood due to scant leaf scale observations. Here we present the first direct observations of LRU responses to environmental variables in the field. We measured leaf COS and CO2 fluxes at a freshwater marsh in summer 2013. Daytime leaf COS and CO2 uptake showed similar peaks in the mid-morning and late afternoon separated by a prolonged midday depression, highlighting the common stomatal control on diffusion. At night, in contrast to CO2, COS uptake continued, indicating partially open stomata. LRU ratios showed a clear relationship with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), converging to 1.0 at high PAR, while increasing sharply at low PAR. Daytime integrated LRU (calculated from daytime mean COS and CO2 uptake) ranged from 1 to 1.5, with a mean of 1.2 across the campaign, significantly lower than the previously reported laboratory mean value (˜ 1.6). Our results indicate two major determinants of LRU - light and vapor deficit. Light is the primary driver of LRU because CO2 assimilation capacity increases with light, while COS consumption capacity does not. Superimposed upon the light response is a secondary effect that high vapor deficit further reduces LRU, causing LRU minima to occur in the afternoon, not at noon. The partial stomatal closure induced by high vapor deficit suppresses COS uptake more strongly than CO2 uptake because stomatal resistance is a more dominant component in the total resistance of COS. Using stomatal conductance estimates, we show that LRU variability can be

  2. Tolerance of citrus plants to the combination of high temperatures and drought is associated to the increase in transpiration modulated by a reduction in abscisic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Rivero, Rosa M; Martínez, Vicente; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Arbona, Vicent

    2016-04-27

    In natural environments, several adverse environmental conditions occur simultaneously constituting a unique stress factor. In this work, physiological parameters and the hormonal regulation of Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin, two citrus genotypes, in response to the combined action of high temperatures and water deprivation were studied. The objective was to characterize particular responses to the stress combination. Experiments indicated that Carrizo citrange is more tolerant to the stress combination than Cleopatra mandarin. Furthermore, an experimental design spanning 24 h stress duration, heat stress applied alone induced higher stomatal conductance and transpiration in both genotypes whereas combined water deprivation partially counteracted this response. Comparing both genotypes, Carrizo citrange showed higher phostosystem-II efficiency and lower oxidative damage than Cleopatra mandarin. Hormonal profiling in leaves revealed that salicylic acid (SA) accumulated in response to individual stresses but to a higher extent in samples subjected to the combination of heat and drought (showing an additive response). SA accumulation correlated with the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related gene 2 (CsPR2), as a downstream response. On the contrary, abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation was higher in water-stressed plants followed by that observed in plants under stress combination. ABA signaling in these plants was confirmed by the expression of responsive to ABA-related gene 18 (CsRAB18). Modulation of ABA levels was likely carried out by the induction of 9-neoxanthin cis-epoxicarotenoid dioxygenase (CsNCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CsCYP707A) while conversion to ABA-glycosyl ester (ABAGE) was a less prominent process despite the strong induction of ABA O-glycosyl transferase (CsAOG). Cleopatra mandarin is more susceptible to the combination of high temperatures and water deprivation than Carrizo citrange. This is likely a result of a higher transpiration rate in

  3. Sinapic acid or its derivatives interfere with abscisic acid homeostasis during Arabidopsis thaliana seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bi, Baodi; Tang, Jingliang; Han, Shuang; Guo, Jinggong; Miao, Yuchen

    2017-06-06

    Sinapic acid and its esters have broad functions in different stages of seed germination and plant development and are thought to play a role in protecting against ultraviolet irradiation. To better understand the interactions between sinapic acid esters and seed germination processes in response to various stresses, we analyzed the role of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of sinapic acid esters involved in seed germination and early seedling growth. We found that exogenous sinapic acid promotes seed germination in a dose-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that exogenous sinapic acid increased the sinapoylcholine content of imbibed seeds. Furthermore, sinapic acid affected ABA catabolism, resulting in reduced ABA levels and increased levels of the ABA-glucose ester. Using mutants deficient in the synthesis of sinapate esters, we showed that the germination of mutant sinapoylglucose accumulator 2 (sng2) and bright trichomes 1 (brt1) seeds was more sensitive to ABA than the wild-type. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants deficient in either abscisic acid deficient 2 (ABA2) or abscisic acid insensitive 3 (ABI3) displayed increased expression of the sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase (SCT) and sinapoylcholine esterase (SCE) genes with sinapic acid treatment. This treatment also affected the accumulation of sinapoylcholine and free choline during seed germination. We demonstrated that sinapoylcholine, which constitutes the major phenolic component in seeds among various minor sinapate esters, affected ABA homeostasis during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis. Our findings provide insights into the role of sinapic acid and its esters in regulating ABA-mediated inhibition of Arabidopsis seed germination in response to drought stress.

  4. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings.

  5. Abscisic acid and other plant hormones: Methods to visualize distribution and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Hsu, Po-Kai; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of plant behavior on a cellular scale in a minimal invasive manner is key to understanding plant adaptations to their environment. Plant hormones regulate multiple aspects of growth and development and mediate environmental responses to ensure a successful life cycle. To monitor the dynamics of plant hormone actions in intact tissue, we need qualitative and quantitative tools with high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we describe a set of biological instruments (reporters) for the analysis of the distribution and signaling of various plant hormones. Furthermore, we provide examples of their utility for gaining novel insights into plant hormone action with a deeper focus on the drought hormone abscisic acid. PMID:26577078

  6. Profiling Abscisic Acid-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Composition in Mosses.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Suhas; Devaiah, Shivakumar; Kilaru, Aruna

    2017-01-01

    In plants, change in lipid composition is a common response to various abiotic stresses. Lipid constituents of bryophytes are of particular interest as they differ from that of flowering plants. Unlike higher plants, mosses have high content of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Such lipids are considered to be important for survival of nonvascular plants. Here, using abscisic acid (ABA )-induced changes in lipid composition in Physcomitrella patens as an example, a protocol for total lipid extraction and quantification by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) is described.

  7. Abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes and ansamycins from Amycolatopsis alba DSM 44262.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xiao-Man; Lu, Chun-Hua

    2017-10-01

    Two new abscisic acid-type sesquiterpenes (1, 2), and one new ansamycin (3), together with four known ansamycins, namely ansacarbamitocins 4-7, were isolated from the fermentation extract of Amycolatopsis alba DSM 44262. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated to be (E)-3-methyl-5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)pent-2-enoic acid (1) and (E)-3-methyl-5-(2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl)pent-2-enoic acid (2), and 9-O-methylansacarbamitocin A1 (3), on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data, respectively. The antimicrobial activities were also evaluated for all seven compounds.

  8. Stomatal clustering in Begonia associates with the kinetics of leaf gaseous exchange and influences water use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stomata are microscopic pores formed by specialized cells in the leaf epidermis and permit gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal pavement cell and, individually, overlay a single substomatal cavity within the leaf. This spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function. Yet, there are several genera naturally exhibiting stomata in clusters and therefore deviating from the one-cell spacing rule with multiple stomata overlaying a single substomatal cavity. We made use of two Begonia species to investigate whether clustering of stomata alters guard cell dynamics and gas exchange under different light and dark treatments. Begonia plebeja, which forms stomatal clusters, exhibited enhanced kinetics of stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation upon light stimuli that in turn were translated into greater water use efficiency. Our findings emphasize the importance of spacing in stomatal clusters for gaseous exchange and plant performance under environmentally limited conditions. PMID:28369641

  9. Improved infiltration series for studying stomatal opening as illustrated with coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Alvim, P.deT.; Havis, J.R.

    1956-01-01

    Very satisfactory results have been obtained in estimation of the degree of stomatal opening of several plant species by using infiltration series prepared with Nujol mineral oil diluted with xylol, kerosene, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, or Bayol-D. All of these materials, except Nujol, infiltrate the leaves when the stomata are only slightly open. Nujol does not penetrate even wide open stomata, except for plants with particularly large stomata. The results with coffee plants show that leaves exposed to direct sunlight decreased their stomatal aperture during periods of strong illumination in the middle of the day (more than about 8000 fc). 9 references,more » 2 figures.« less

  10. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, E.; Schwartz, A.

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  11. Tubulin perturbation leads to unexpected cell wall modifications and affects stomatal behaviour in Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Swamy, Prashant S.; Hu, Hao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; ...

    2015-08-05

    Cortical microtubules are integral to plant morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, and stomatal behaviour, presumably by governing cellulose microfibril orientation. Genetic manipulation of tubulins often leads to abnormal plant development, making it difficult to probe additional roles of cortical microtubules in cell wall biogenesis. Here, it is shown that expressing post-translational C-terminal modification mimics of α-tubulin altered cell wall characteristics and guard cell dynamics in transgenic Populus tremula x alba that otherwise appear normal. 35S promoter-driven transgene expression was high in leaves but unusually low in xylem, suggesting high levels of tubulin transgene expression were not tolerated in wood-forming tissues duringmore » regeneration of transformants. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents were unaffected in transgenic wood, but expression of cell wall-modifying enzymes, and extractability of lignin-bound pectin and xylan polysaccharides were increased in developing xylem. The results suggest that pectin and xylan polysaccharides deposited early during cell wall biogenesis are more sensitive to subtle tubulin perturbation than cellulose and matrix polysaccharides deposited later. Tubulin perturbation also affected guard cell behaviour, delaying drought-induced stomatal closure as well as light-induced stomatal opening in leaves. Pectins have been shown to confer cell wall flexibility critical for reversible stomatal movement, and results presented here are consistent with microtubule involvement in this process. In conclusion, taken together, the data show the value of growth-compatible tubulin perturbations for discerning microtubule functions, and add to the growing body of evidence for microtubule involvement in non-cellulosic polysaccharide assembly during cell wall biogenesis.« less

  12. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, E; Schwartz, A

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  13. Applicability of common stomatal conductance models in maize under varying soil moisture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuling; He, Qijin; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2018-07-01

    In the context of climate warming, the varying soil moisture caused by precipitation pattern change will affect the applicability of stomatal conductance models, thereby affecting the simulation accuracy of carbon-nitrogen-water cycles in ecosystems. We studied the applicability of four common stomatal conductance models including Jarvis, Ball-Woodrow-Berry (BWB), Ball-Berry-Leuning (BBL) and unified stomatal optimization (USO) models based on summer maize leaf gas exchange data from a soil moisture consecutive decrease manipulation experiment. The results showed that the USO model performed best, followed by the BBL model, BWB model, and the Jarvis model performed worst under varying soil moisture conditions. The effects of soil moisture made a difference in the relative performance among the models. By introducing a water response function, the performance of the Jarvis, BWB, and USO models improved, which decreased the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) by 15.7%, 16.6% and 3.9%, respectively; however, the performance of the BBL model was negative, which increased the NRMSE by 5.3%. It was observed that the models of Jarvis, BWB, BBL and USO were applicable within different ranges of soil relative water content (i.e., 55%-65%, 56%-67%, 37%-79% and 37%-95%, respectively) based on the 95% confidence limits. Moreover, introducing a water response function, the applicability of the Jarvis and BWB models improved. The USO model performed best with or without introducing the water response function and was applicable under varying soil moisture conditions. Our results provide a basis for selecting appropriate stomatal conductance models under drought conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrical signaling, stomatal conductance, ABA and Ethylene content in avocado trees in response to root hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gurovich, Luis; Schaffer, Bruce; García, Nicolás; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees are among the most sensitive of fruit tree species to root hypoxia as a result of flooded or poorly drained soil. Similar to drought stress, an early physiological response to root hypoxia in avocado is a reduction of stomatal conductance. It has been previously determined in avocado trees that an extracellular electrical signal between the base of stem and leaves is produced and related to reductions in stomatal conductance in response to drought stress. The current study was designed to determine if changes in the extracellular electrical potential between the base of the stem and leaves in avocado trees could also be detected in response to short-term (min) or long-term (days) root hypoxia, and if these signals could be related to stomatal conductance (gs), root and leaf ABA and ACC concentrations, ethylene emission from leaves and leaf abscission. In contrast to previous observations for drought-stressed trees, short-term or long-term root hypoxia did not stimulate an electrical potential difference between the base of the stem and leaves. Short-term hypoxia did not result in a significant decrease in gs compared with plants in the control treatment, and no differences in ABA concentration were found between plants subjected to hypoxia and control plants. Long-term hypoxia in the root zone resulted in a significant decrease in gs, increased leaf ethylene and increased leaf abscission. The results indicate that for avocado trees exposed to root hypoxia, electrical signals do not appear to be the primary root-to-shoot communication mechanism involved in signaling for stomatal closure as a result of hypoxia in the root zone. PMID:19649181

  15. Stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit relates to climate of origin in Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Aimee E; Haigh, Anthony M; Ellsworth, David S

    2015-03-01

    Selecting plantation species to balance water use and production requires accurate models for predicting how species will tolerate and respond to environmental conditions. Although interspecific variation in water use occurs, species-specific parameters are rarely incorporated into physiologically based models because often the appropriate species parameters are lacking. To determine the physiological control over water use in Eucalyptus, five stands of Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden were measured for sap flux rates and their stomatal response to vapour pressure deficit (D) was assessed. Maximal canopy conductance and whole-canopy stomatal sensitivity to D and reduced water availability were lower in species originating from more arid climates of origin than those from humid climates. Species from humid climates showed a larger decline in maximal sap flux density (JSmax) with reduced water availability, and a lower D at which stomatal closure occurred than species from more arid climates, implying larger sensitivity to water availability and D in these species. We observed significant (P < 0.05) correlations of species climate of origin with mean vessel diameter (R(2) = 0.90), stomatal sensitivity to D (R(2) = 0.83) and the size of the decline in JSmax to restricted water availability (R(2) = 0.94). Thus aridity of climate of origin appears to have a selective role in constraining water-use response among the five Eucalyptus plantation species. These relationships emphasize that within this congeneric group of species, climate aridity constrains water use. These relationships have implications for species choices for tree plantation success against drought-induced losses and the ability to manage Eucalyptus plantations against projected changes in water availability and evaporation in the future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Outbreaks of Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus in horses and cattle in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Olinda, Roberio G; Maia, Lisanka A; de Aguiar, Gildeni M N; Neto, Eldinê G M; Simões, Sara V D; de Lima, Tatiane G; Dantas, Antônio F M; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-11-01

    The current article describes outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in horses and cattle in Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte states, northeastern Brazil, between June and August 2013. The reported cases affected 15-20 horses and 6 cattle distributed over 6 small farms in 4 municipalities, but additional data indicated the involvement of a large number of animals on several farms. The disease was characterized by blisters; eruptive lesions in coronary bands, lips, mouth, and muzzle; salivation; claudication and loss of condition. Swollen lower limbs and lips, and ulcerated and erosive areas in the lips and muzzle were observed in some horses. A necrotizing vesiculopustular dermatitis and stomatitis was observed histologically. Vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from the vesicular fluid of a horse lesion and shown to be serologically related to the VS Indiana serogroup (VSIV) by virus neutralization. Convalescent sera of affected horses and cattle, and from healthy contacts, harbored high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the isolated virus (named VSIV-3 2013SaoBento/ParaibaE). Genomic sequences of VSIV subtype 3 (Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus) were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction out of clinical specimens from a cow and a horse from different farms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the phosphoprotein gene indicated that the 2 isolates were derived from the same virus and clustered them in VSIV-3, along with VS viruses identified in southeastern and northeastern Brazil in the last decades. Thus, the present report demonstrates the circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazil and urges for more effective diagnosis and surveillance. © 2014 The Author(s).

  17. Unraveling the Effects of Plant Hydraulics on Stomatal Closure during Water Stress in Walnut

    PubMed Central

    Cochard, Hervé; Coll, Lluis; Le Roux, Xavier; Améglio, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify the relevant hydraulic parameters associated with stomatal regulation during water stress and to test the hypothesis of a stomatal control of xylem embolism in walnut (Juglans regia × nigra) trees. The hydraulic characteristics of the sap pathway were experimentally altered with different methods to alter plant transpiration (Eplant) and stomatal conductance (gs). Potted trees were exposed to a soil water depletion to alter soil water potential (Ψsoil), soil resistance (Rsoil), and root hydraulic resistances (Rroot). Soil temperature was changed to alter Rroot alone. Embolism was created in the trunk to increase shoot resistance (Rshoot). Stomata closed in response to these stresses with the effect of maintaining the water pressure in the leaf rachis xylem (Prachis) above −1.4 MPa and the leaf water potential (Ψleaf) above −1.6 MPa. The same dependence of Eplant and gs on Prachis or Ψleaf was always observed. This suggested that stomata were not responding to changes in Ψsoil, Rsoil, Rroot, or Rshoot per se but rather to their impact on Prachis and/or Ψleaf. Leaf rachis was the most vulnerable organ, with a threshold Prachis for embolism induction of −1.4 MPa. The minimum Ψleaf values corresponded to leaf turgor loss point. This suggested that stomata are responding to leaf water status as determined by transpiration rate and plant hydraulics and that Prachis might be the physiological parameter regulated by stomatal closure during water stress, which would have the effect of preventing extensive developments of cavitation during water stress. PMID:11788773

  18. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anav, Alessandro; Proietti, Chiara; Menut, Laurent; Carnicelli, Stefano; De Marco, Alessandra; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, in the last decade, the role of water availability has often been neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies as well as in integrated risk assessments, despite the fact that plants remove a large amount of atmospheric compounds from the lower troposphere through stomata. The main aim of this study is to evaluate, within the chemistry transport model CHIMERE, the effect of soil water limitation on stomatal conductance and assess the resulting changes in atmospheric chemistry testing various hypotheses of water uptake by plants in the rooting zone. Results highlight how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in the semi-arid environments: in particular, over Europe the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition in one year without considering any soil water limitation to stomatal conductance is about 8.5 TgO3, while using a dynamic layer that ensures that plants maximize the water uptake from soil, we found a reduction of about 10 % in the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition ( ˜ 7.7 TgO3). Although dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere, with a significant impact on ozone concentration (up to 4 ppb) extending from the surface to the upper troposphere (up to 650 hPa). Our results shed light on the importance of improving the parameterizations of processes occurring at plant level (i.e. from the soil to the canopy) as they have significant implications for concentration of gases in the lower troposphere and resulting risk assessments for vegetation or human health.

  19. Species climate range influences hydraulic and stomatal traits in Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Aimee E; Creek, Danielle; Peters, Jennifer M R; Ellsworth, David S; Choat, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    Plant hydraulic traits influence the capacity of species to grow and survive in water-limited environments, but their comparative study at a common site has been limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether selective pressures on species originating in drought-prone environments constrain hydraulic traits among related species grown under common conditions. Leaf tissue water relations, xylem anatomy, stomatal behaviour and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were measured on six Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden to determine whether these traits were related to current species climate range and to understand linkages between the traits. Hydraulically weighted xylem vessel diameter, leaf turgor loss point, the water potential at stomatal closure and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were significantly ( P < 0·05) correlated with climate parameters from the species range. There was a co-ordination between stem and leaf parameters with the water potential at turgor loss, 12 % loss of conductivity and the point of stomatal closure significantly correlated. The correlation of hydraulic, stomatal and anatomical traits with climate variables from the species' original ranges suggests that these traits are genetically constrained. The conservative nature of xylem traits in Eucalyptus trees has important implications for the limits of species responses to changing environmental conditions and thus for species survival and distribution into the future, and yields new information for physiological models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Dynamics of canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration, and evaporation in a temperate deciduous forest, validated by carbonyl sulfide uptake

    DOE PAGES

    Wehr, Richard; Commane, Roisin; Munger, J. William; ...

    2017-01-26

    Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface–atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem–atmosphere exchange ofmore » OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed

  1. Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Against Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever in Nonhuman Primate Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-19

    fever in Nonhuman Primate Models" Date d?JO )oi Date )&*7 Date Dissertation and Abstract Approved: Robert Friedm ,M.D. Department of Pathology Committee...thesis manuscript entitled: "Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors Against Marburg Hemorrhagic fever ...stomatitis virus vectors against Marburg hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primate models By Kathleen Daddario-DiCaprio Dissertation

  2. Dynamics of canopy stomatal conductance, transpiration, and evaporation in a temperate deciduous forest, validated by carbonyl sulfide uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Wehr, Richard; Commane, Roisin; Munger, J. William

    Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface–atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem–atmosphere exchange ofmore » OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed

  3. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory

    Treesearch

    Kimberly A. Novick; Chelcy F. Miniat; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion–tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a ‘demand limitation’ driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) ‘hydraulic limitation’ of water movement from the roots to the leaves...

  4. Ferns are less dependent on passive dilution by cell expansion to coordinate leaf vein and stomatal spacing than angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Gregory J.; Brodribb, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Producing leaves with closely spaced veins is a key innovation linked to high rates of photosynthesis in angiosperms. A close geometric link between veins and stomata in angiosperms ensures that investment in enhanced venous water transport provides the strongest net carbon return to the plant. This link is underpinned by “passive dilution” via expansion of surrounding cells. However, it is not known whether this ‘passive dilution’ mechanism is present in plant lineages other than angiosperms and is another key feature of the angiosperms’ evolutionary success. Consequently, we sought to determine whether the ‘passive dilution’ mechanism is; (i) exclusive to the angiosperms, (ii) a conserved mechanism that evolved in the common ancestor of ferns and angiosperms, or (iii) has evolved continuously over time. To do this we first we assessed the plasticity of vein and stomatal density and epidermal cell size in ferns in response to light environment. We then compared the relationships between these traits found among ferns with modelled relationships that assume vein and stomatal density respond passively to epidermal cell expansion, and with those previously observed in angiosperms. Vein density, stomatal density and epidermal cell size were linked in ferns with remarkably similar relationships to those observed in angiosperms, except that fern leaves had fewer veins per stomata. However, plasticity was limited in ferns and stomatal spacing was dependent on active stomatal differentiation as well as passive cell expansion. Thus, ferns (like angiosperms) appear to coordinate vein and stomatal density with epidermal cell expansion to some extent to maintain a constant ratio between veins and stomata in the leaf. The different general relationships between vein density and stomatal density in ferns and angiosperms suggests the groups have different optimum balances between the production of vein tissue dedicated to water supply and stomatal tissue for gas

  5. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.; Beerling, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO2 between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO2 (gcmax) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO2, the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO2 over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest gcmax values required to counter CO2“starvation” at low atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO2 impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO2 regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high gcmax under falling atmospheric CO2 and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO2 and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time. PMID:19506250

  6. Stomatal conductance of lettuce grown under or exposed to different light qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Hye; Goins, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this research was to examine the effects of differences in light spectrum on the stomatal conductance (Gs) and dry matter production of lettuce plants grown under a day/night cycle with different spectra, and also the effects on Gs of short-term exposure to different spectra. METHODS: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants were grown with 6 h dark and 18 h light under four different spectra, red-blue (RB), red-blue-green (RBG), green (GF) and white (CWF), and Gs and plant growth were measured. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Conductance of plants grown for 23 d under CWF rose rapidly on illumination to a maximum in the middle of the light period, then decreased again before the dark period when it was minimal. However, the maximum was smaller in plants grown under RB, RGB and GF. This demonstrates that spectral quality during growth affects the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance. Although Gs was smaller in plants grown under RGB than CWF, dry mass accumulation was greater, suggesting that Gs did not limit carbon assimilation under these spectral conditions. Temporarily changing the spectral quality of the plants grown for 23 d under CWF, affected stomatal responses reversibly, confirming studies on epidermal strips. This study provides new information showing that Gs is responsive to spectral quality during growth and, in the short-term, is not directly coupled to dry matter accumulation.

  7. Effects of kinetics of light-induced stomatal responses on photosynthesis and water-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    McAusland, Lorna; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvère; Davey, Philip; Baker, Neil R; Brendel, Oliver; Lawson, Tracy

    2016-09-01

    Both photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs ) respond to changing irradiance, yet stomatal responses are an order of magnitude slower than photosynthesis, resulting in noncoordination between A and gs in dynamic light environments. Infrared gas exchange analysis was used to examine the temporal responses and coordination of A and gs to a step increase and decrease in light in a range of different species, and the impact on intrinsic water use efficiency was evaluated. The temporal responses revealed a large range of strategies to save water or maximize photosynthesis in the different species used in this study but also displayed an uncoupling of A and gs in most of the species. The shape of the guard cells influenced the rapidity of response and the overall gs values achieved, with different impacts on A and Wi . The rapidity of gs in dumbbell-shaped guard cells could be attributed to size, whilst in elliptical-shaped guard cells features other than anatomy were more important for kinetics. Our findings suggest significant variation in the rapidity of stomatal responses amongst species, providing a novel target for improving photosynthesis and water use. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. INFLUENCE OF OZONE THERAPY ON ORAL TISSUE IN MODELING OF CHRONIC RECURRENT APHTHOUS STOMATITIS.

    PubMed

    Kovach, I; Kravchenko, L; Khotimska, Yu; Nazaryan, R; Gargin, V

    2017-03-01

    Chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis (CRAS) belongs to the group of chronic, inflammatory, ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ozone on the morphofunctional peculiarities of the soft tissues in modeling chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis. We performed experimental investigation for study of the morpho-functional state of tissues of the oral mucosa in CRAS with using of previously proposed and widely used modeling scheme with ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide. Two groups of animals were formed (Dutch rabbits, males, aging three-month, weighting 2-2.4 kg). Group of 8 animals with obtained mucosal changes was our comparison group. Other group of 8 animals with obtained mucosal changes was treated by ozone therapy. Histological investigation has been performed. Microscopical examination of tissue had shown that ozone therapy reduces inflammation and edema and is useful in wound healing in soft tissue as disappearance of necrobiotic processes, epithelialization of aphthous defect, growth of akantotic bands, pronounced reducing of inflammatory cells and changing of cellular ratio (with of neutrophils part from 38.30±2.46% to 6.34±0.63%, eosinophils from 5.49±0.23% to 2.87±0.05%), restoration of the cellular layers of the epithelium, moderately pronounced sclerosis of the papillary layer of the lamina propria. Described results allow to conclude that correction of tissual changes in chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis could be obtained with ozone therapy using.

  9. Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Thomas D.; Raschke, Klaus

    1981-01-01

    Flux response curves were determined at 16 wavelengths of light for the conductance for water vapor of the lower epidermis of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. An action spectrum of stomatal opening resulted in which blue light (wavelengths between 430 and 460 nanometers) was nearly ten times more effective than red light (wavelengths between 630 and 680 nanometers) in producing a conductance of 15 centimoles per square meter per second. Stomata responded only slightly to green light. An action spectrum of stomatal responses to red light corresponded to that of CO2 assimilation; the inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, eliminated the response to red light. This indicates that light absorption by chlorophyll is the cause of stomatal sensitivity to red light. Determination of flux response curves on leaves in the normal position (upper epidermis facing the light) or in the inverted position (lower epidermis facing the light) led to the conclusion that the photoreceptors for blue as well as for red light are located on or near the surfaces of the leaves; presumably they are in the guard cells themselves. PMID:16662069

  10. Effect of Light Quality on Stomatal Opening in Leaves of Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, T D; Raschke, K

    1981-11-01

    Flux response curves were determined at 16 wavelengths of light for the conductance for water vapor of the lower epidermis of detached leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. An action spectrum of stomatal opening resulted in which blue light (wavelengths between 430 and 460 nanometers) was nearly ten times more effective than red light (wavelengths between 630 and 680 nanometers) in producing a conductance of 15 centimoles per square meter per second. Stomata responded only slightly to green light. An action spectrum of stomatal responses to red light corresponded to that of CO(2) assimilation; the inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport, cyanazine (2-chloro-4[1-cyano-1-methylethylamino]-6-ethylamino-s-triazine) and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, eliminated the response to red light. This indicates that light absorption by chlorophyll is the cause of stomatal sensitivity to red light. Determination of flux response curves on leaves in the normal position (upper epidermis facing the light) or in the inverted position (lower epidermis facing the light) led to the conclusion that the photoreceptors for blue as well as for red light are located on or near the surfaces of the leaves; presumably they are in the guard cells themselves.

  11. Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time.

    PubMed

    Franks, Peter J; Beerling, David J

    2009-06-23

    Stomatal pores are microscopic structures on the epidermis of leaves formed by 2 specialized guard cells that control the exchange of water vapor and CO(2) between plants and the atmosphere. Stomatal size (S) and density (D) determine maximum leaf diffusive (stomatal) conductance of CO(2) (g(c(max))) to sites of assimilation. Although large variations in D observed in the fossil record have been correlated with atmospheric CO(2), the crucial significance of similarly large variations in S has been overlooked. Here, we use physical diffusion theory to explain why large changes in S necessarily accompanied the changes in D and atmospheric CO(2) over the last 400 million years. In particular, we show that high densities of small stomata are the only way to attain the highest g(cmax) values required to counter CO(2)"starvation" at low atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. This explains cycles of increasing D and decreasing S evident in the fossil history of stomata under the CO(2) impoverished atmospheres of the Permo-Carboniferous and Cenozoic glaciations. The pattern was reversed under rising atmospheric CO(2) regimes. Selection for small S was crucial for attaining high g(cmax) under falling atmospheric CO(2) and, therefore, may represent a mechanism linking CO(2) and the increasing gas-exchange capacity of land plants over geologic time.

  12. Serum cytokine profile and clinicopathological findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper; Zachariae, Claus; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine if clinical and histopathological variables in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), and generalized stomatitis display different cytokine profiles and if concomitant contact allergy influences this profile. Forty‐nine patients and 29 healthy age‐ and gender‐matched subjects were included. Demographic and clinical data immunohistochemical findings in mucosal specimens, results of contact allergy testing, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‐α, interferon‐γ, interleukin (IL)‐6, IL‐10, IL‐12p40, and IL‐12p70 were analyzed and compared between groups. Nineteen patients had OLP, primarily with ulcerative lesions on the buccal mucosa, 19 patients had OLL, and 11 patients had generalized stomatitis. All patients had oral symptoms, mainly stinging and burning. Nineteen patients and 10 healthy subjects had contact allergies, primarily to fragrance ingredients. Patient groups did not differ with regard to oral symptoms, clinical pattern of the lesions, or contact allergy. Serum cytokine levels did not differ between the different patient groups and were not related to histopathological findings. The patients had higher levels of IL‐6 than the healthy subjects. Interferon‐γ, IL‐12p40, and IL‐12p70 were below detection limit. Our findings indicate that OLP, OLL, and generalized stomatitis cannot be discriminated by means of the selected serum cytokines, and that the presence of concomitant contact allergy does not influence the cytokine expression. PMID:29744205

  13. An ancestral stomatal patterning module revealed in the non-vascular land plant Physcomitrella patens

    PubMed Central

    Chater, Caspar C.; Kamisugi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    The patterning of stomata plays a vital role in plant development and has emerged as a paradigm for the role of peptide signals in the spatial control of cellular differentiation. Research in Arabidopsis has identified a series of epidermal patterning factors (EPFs), which interact with an array of membrane-localised receptors and associated proteins (encoded by ERECTA and TMM genes) to control stomatal density and distribution. However, although it is well-established that stomata arose very early in the evolution of land plants, until now it has been unclear whether the established angiosperm stomatal patterning system represented by the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module reflects a conserved, universal mechanism in the plant kingdom. Here, we use molecular genetics to show that the moss Physcomitrella patens has conserved homologues of angiosperm EPF, TMM and at least one ERECTA gene that function together to permit the correct patterning of stomata and that, moreover, elements of the module retain function when transferred to Arabidopsis. Our data characterise the stomatal patterning system in an evolutionarily distinct branch of plants and support the hypothesis that the EPF/TMM/ERECTA module represents an ancient patterning system. PMID:27407102

  14. The Membrane Transport System of the Guard Cell and Its Integration for Stomatal Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jezek, Mareike; Blatt, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Stomatal guard cells are widely recognized as the premier plant cell model for membrane transport, signaling, and homeostasis. This recognition is rooted in half a century of research into ion transport across the plasma and vacuolar membranes of guard cells that drive stomatal movements and the signaling mechanisms that regulate them. Stomatal guard cells surround pores in the epidermis of plant leaves, controlling the aperture of the pore to balance CO 2 entry into the leaf for photosynthesis with water loss via transpiration. The position of guard cells in the epidermis is ideally suited for cellular and subcellular research, and their sensitivity to endogenous signals and environmental stimuli makes them a primary target for physiological studies. Stomata underpin the challenges of water availability and crop production that are expected to unfold over the next 20 to 30 years. A quantitative understanding of how ion transport is integrated and controlled is key to meeting these challenges and to engineering guard cells for improved water use efficiency and agricultural yields. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  15. Recalibrating the Ginkgo Stomatal Index Proxy for Past CO2 with Herbarium Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, G. D.; Retallack, G.

    2015-12-01

    The stomatal index of plant cuticles is inversely related to atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as calibrated from greenhouse experiments and herbarium specimens. Such calibration data for Ginkgo biloba are available for the ongoing rise in atmospheric CO2 and for high levels of CO2 anticipated in the future, but lacking for low CO2 levels of preindustrial and glacial ages. The oldest modern specimen that we have been able to obtain consists of leaf fragments collected in 1829 and provided by Arne Anderberg from the Swedish Natural History Museum. The specimen was labeled "Argentina", but also "Hortus Botanicus Augustinus", a garden founded in 1638 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Ginkgo has a very thin cuticle that is difficult to prepare, but images very similar to cuticular preparation can be obtained by backscatter SEM imagery. We also obtained secondary SEM images of the same areas and counted 13 images with 6,184 cells from five leaf fragments. Our analyses yield a stomatal index of 10.9 ± 0.9 % for an atmospheric CO2 of 286 ppm, as determined by ice core data from Ciais and Sabine for IPCC-2013. This value is lower than from previous calibration curves for this level of CO2 and changes their curvature. With additional late nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first century leaves, we can improve both the precision and lower limits of the transfer function for atmospheric CO2 from Ginkgo stomatal index last revised in 2009.

  16. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Carlos M; Rodriguez, Luis; Rodas, Juan D; Arboleda, John Jairo

    2010-01-01

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study, we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detectable antibodies against VSNJV prior to being inoculated with 10(6.5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID(50)) of VSNJV by two routes; intraepithelial/subepithelial (IE/SE) inoculation and scarification in the muzzle (SM). Clinical response was monitored daily and animals were tested for viral shedding. All infected animals developed vesicles and ulcers on the tongue and inflammation of the nasal alar folds. Virus was isolated from esophagus-pharynx, nasal, and from ocular swabs and lesions samples. The failure to detect viremia in these animals indicates that a source other than blood may be required for transmission to insect vectors. Our results suggest that D. marsupialis could play a role in the maintenance of VSNJV outside of domestic animal populations and could provide a model to study vesicular stomatitis virus pathogenesis.

  17. Phenomics allows identification of genomic regions affecting maize stomatal conductance with conditional effects of water deficit and evaporative demand.

    PubMed

    Prado, Santiago Alvarez; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Grau, Antonin; Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Millet, Emilie J; Welcker, Claude; Tardieu, François

    2018-02-01

    Stomatal conductance is central for the trades-off between hydraulics and photosynthesis. We aimed at deciphering its genetic control and that of its responses to evaporative demand and water deficit, a nearly impossible task with gas exchanges measurements. Whole-plant stomatal conductance was estimated via inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation from data of transpiration and plant architecture collected in a phenotyping platform. We have analysed jointly 4 experiments with contrasting environmental conditions imposed to a panel of 254 maize hybrids. Estimated whole-plant stomatal conductance closely correlated with gas-exchange measurements and biomass accumulation rate. Sixteen robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by genome wide association studies and co-located with QTLs of transpiration and biomass. Light, vapour pressure deficit, or soil water potential largely accounted for the differences in allelic effects between experiments, thereby providing strong hypotheses for mechanisms of stomatal control and a way to select relevant candidate genes among the 1-19 genes harboured by QTLs. The combination of allelic effects, as affected by environmental conditions, accounted for the variability of stomatal conductance across a range of hybrids and environmental conditions. This approach may therefore contribute to genetic analysis and prediction of stomatal control in diverse environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Responses of two semiarid conifer tree species to reduced precipitation and warming reveal new perspectives for stomatal regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Forner, Nuria; Adams, Henry D.; Sevanto, Sanna

    Here, relatively anisohydric species are predicted to be more predisposed to hydraulic failure than relatively isohydric species, as they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins. We subjected co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus monosperma and isohydric Pinus edulis trees to warming, reduced precipitation, or both, and measured their gas exchange and hydraulic responses. We found that reductions in stomatal conductance and assimilation by heat and drought were more frequent during relatively moist periods, but these effects were not exacerbated in the combined heat and drought treatment. Counter to expectations, both species exhibited similar gs temporal dynamics in response to drought. Further, whereas P.more » edulis exhibited chronic embolism, J. monosperma showed very little embolism due to its conservative stomatal regulation and maintenance of xylem water potential above the embolism entry point. This tight stomatal control and low levels of embolism experienced by juniper refuted the notion that very low water potentials during drought are associated with loose stomatal control and with the hypothesis that anisohydric species are more prone to hydraulic failure than isohydric species. Because direct association of stomatal behaviour with embolism resistance can be misleading, we advocate consideration of stomatal behaviour relative to embolism resistance for classifying species drought response strategies.« less

  19. Sucrose breakdown within guard cells provides substrates for glycolysis and glutamine biosynthesis during light-induced stomatal opening.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, David B; Perez Souza, Leonardo; Antunes, Werner C; Araújo, Wagner L; Daloso, Danilo M; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2018-05-01

    Sucrose has long been thought to play an osmolytic role in stomatal opening. However, recent evidence supports the idea that the role of sucrose in this process is primarily energetic. Here we used a combination of stomatal aperture assays and kinetic [U- 13 C]-sucrose isotope labelling experiments to confirm that sucrose is degraded during light-induced stomatal opening and to define the fate of the C released from sucrose breakdown. We additionally show that addition of sucrose to the medium did not enhance light-induced stomatal opening. The isotope experiment showed a consistent 13 C enrichment in fructose and glucose, indicating that during light-induced stomatal opening sucrose is indeed degraded. We also observed a clear 13 C enrichment in glutamate and glutamine (Gln), suggesting a concerted activation of sucrose degradation, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is in contrast to the situation for Gln biosynthesis in leaves under light, which has been demonstrated to rely on previously stored C. Our results thus collectively allow us to redraw current models concerning the influence of sucrose during light-induced stomatal opening, in which, instead of being accumulated, sucrose is degraded providing C skeletons for Gln biosynthesis. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Responses of two semiarid conifer tree species to reduced precipitation and warming reveal new perspectives for stomatal regulation

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia-Forner, Nuria; Adams, Henry D.; Sevanto, Sanna; ...

    2015-08-08

    Here, relatively anisohydric species are predicted to be more predisposed to hydraulic failure than relatively isohydric species, as they operate with narrower hydraulic safety margins. We subjected co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus monosperma and isohydric Pinus edulis trees to warming, reduced precipitation, or both, and measured their gas exchange and hydraulic responses. We found that reductions in stomatal conductance and assimilation by heat and drought were more frequent during relatively moist periods, but these effects were not exacerbated in the combined heat and drought treatment. Counter to expectations, both species exhibited similar gs temporal dynamics in response to drought. Further, whereas P.more » edulis exhibited chronic embolism, J. monosperma showed very little embolism due to its conservative stomatal regulation and maintenance of xylem water potential above the embolism entry point. This tight stomatal control and low levels of embolism experienced by juniper refuted the notion that very low water potentials during drought are associated with loose stomatal control and with the hypothesis that anisohydric species are more prone to hydraulic failure than isohydric species. Because direct association of stomatal behaviour with embolism resistance can be misleading, we advocate consideration of stomatal behaviour relative to embolism resistance for classifying species drought response strategies.« less

  1. C2-Domain Abscisic Acid-Related Proteins Mediate the Interaction of PYR/PYL/RCAR Abscisic Acid Receptors with the Plasma Membrane and Regulate Abscisic Acid Sensitivity in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lesia; Diaz, Maira; Rodrigues, Americo; Izquierdo-Garcia, Ana C.; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Fernandez, Maria A.; Antoni, Regina; Fernandez, Daniel; Marquez, Jose A.; Mulet, Jose M.; Albert, Armando; Rodriguez, Pedro L.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-delimited abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction plays a critical role in early ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanisms linking core signaling components to the plasma membrane are unclear. We show that transient calcium-dependent interactions of PYR/PYL ABA receptors with membranes are mediated through a 10-member family of C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we found that PYL4 interacted in an ABA-independent manner with CAR1 in both the plasma membrane and nucleus of plant cells. CAR1 belongs to a plant-specific gene family encoding CAR1 to CAR10 proteins, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that PYL4-CAR1 as well as other PYR/PYL-CAR pairs interacted in plant cells. The crystal structure of CAR4 was solved, which revealed that, in addition to a classical calcium-dependent lipid binding C2 domain, a specific CAR signature is likely responsible for the interaction with PYR/PYL receptors and their recruitment to phospholipid vesicles. This interaction is relevant for PYR/PYL function and ABA signaling, since different car triple mutants affected in CAR1, CAR4, CAR5, and CAR9 genes showed reduced sensitivity to ABA in seedling establishment and root growth assays. In summary, we identified PYR/PYL-interacting partners that mediate a transient Ca2+-dependent interaction with phospholipid vesicles, which affects PYR/PYL subcellular localization and positively regulates ABA signaling. PMID:25465408

  2. Abscisic Acid Metabolism in Salt-Stressed Cells of Dunaliella salina

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, A. Keith; Rose, Peter D.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelationship between abscisic acid (ABA) production and β-carotene accumulation was investigated in salt-stressed cells of the halotolerant green alga Dunaliella salina var bardawil. Cells were supplied with either R-[2-14C]mevalonolactone or [14C] sodium bicarbonate for 20 hours and then exposed to increased salinity (1.5 to 3.0 molar NaCl) for various lengths of time. Incorporation of label into abscisic acid and phaseic acid and the distribution of [14C]ABA between the cells and incubation media were monitored. [14C]ABA and [14C]phaseic acid were identified as products of both R-[2-14C]mevalonolactone and [14C]sodium bicarbonate metabolism. ABA metabolism was enhanced by hypersalinity stress. Actinomycin D, chloramphenicol, and cycloheximide abolished the stress-induced production of ABA, suggesting a role for gene activation in the process. Kinetic analysis of both ABA and β-carotene production demonstrated two stages of accelerated β-carotene production. In addition, ABA levels increased rapidly, and this increase occurred coincident with the early period of accelerated β-carotene production. A possible role for ABA as a regulator of carotenogenesis in cells of D. salina is therefore discussed. PMID:16668469

  3. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based abscisic acid biosensor using aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun; Li, Wei; Chang, Keke; Liu, Juan; Guo, Qingqian; Sun, Haifeng; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in abiotic stress response and physiological signal transduction resisting to the adverse environment. Therefore, it is very essential for the quantitative detection of abscisic acid (ABA) due to its indispensable role in plant physiological activities. Herein, a new detection method based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) using aptamer-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is developed without using expensive instrument and antibody. In the presence of ABA, ABA specifically bind with their aptamers to form the ABA-aptamer complexes with G-quadruplex-like structure and lose the ability to stabilize AuNPs against NaCl-induced aggregation. Meanwhile, the changes of the LSPR spectra of AuNP solution occur and therefore the detection of ABA achieved. Under optimized conditions, this method showed a good linear range covering from 5×10−7 M to 5×10−5 M with a detection limit of 0.33 μM. In practice, the usage of this novel method has been demonstrated by its application to detect ABA from fresh leaves of rice with the relative error of 6.59%-7.93% compared with ELISA bioassay. The experimental results confirmed that this LSPR-based biosensor is simple, selective and sensitive for the detection of ABA. The proposed LSPR method could offer a new analytical platform for the detection of other plant hormones by changing the corresponding aptamer. PMID:28953934

  4. Non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis in Cinnamomum camphora seedings exposed to elevated O3.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is the most phytotoxic air pollutant for global forests, with decreased photosynthesis widely regarded as one of its most common effects. However, controversy exists concerning the mechanism that underlies the depressing effects of O3 on CO2 assimilation. In the present study, seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora, a subtropical evergreen tree species that has rarely been studied, were exposed to ambient air (AA), ambient air plus 60 [ppb] O3 (AA+60), or ambient air plus 120 [ppb] O3 (AA+120) in open-top chambers (OTCs) for 2 years. Photosynthetic CO2 exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated in the second growing season (2010). We aim to determine whether stomatal or non-stomatal limitation is responsible for the photosynthesis reduction and to explore the potential implications for forest ecosystem functions. Results indicate that elevated O3 (E-O3) reduced the net photosynthetic rates (PN) by 6.0-32.2%, with significant differences between AA+60 and AA+120 and across the four measurement campaigns (MCs). The actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in saturated light (Fv'/Fm') was also significantly decreased by E-O3, as was the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). Moreover, E-O3 significantly and negatively impacted the maximum rates of carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport (Jmax). Although neither the stomatal conductance (gs) nor the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) was decreased by E-O3, PN/gs was significantly reduced. Therefore, the observed reduction in PN in the present study should not be attributed to the unavailability of CO2 due to stomatal limitation, but rather to the O3-induced damage to Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the photochemical apparatus. This suggests that the down-regulation of stomatal conductance could fail to occur, and the biochemical processes in protoplasts would become more susceptible to injuries under long-term O3 exposure, which may have

  5. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Yotsui, Izumi; Serada, Satoshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Saruhashi, Masashi; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Quatrano, Ralph S; Sakata, Yoichi

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  6. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    SciTech Connect

    Yotsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.yotsui@riken.jp; Serada, Satoshi, E-mail: serada@nibiohn.go.jp; Naka, Tetsuji, E-mail: tnaka@nibiohn.go.jp

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation,more » it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for

  7. Effects of norflurazon, an inhibitor of carotenogenesis, on abscisic acid and xanthoxin in the caps of gravistimulated maize roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Sun, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    Maize seeds were germinated in the dark in the presence of the carotenoid synthesis inhibitor norflurazon and the levels of abscisic acid, xanthoxin and total carotenoids were measured in the root cap and in the adjacent 1.5 mm segment. In norflurazon-treated roots abscisic acid levels were markedly reduced, but an increase occurred in the levels of xanthoxin, a compound structurally and physiologically similar to abscisic acid. In the cultivar of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Merit) used for this work, brief illumination of the root is required for gravitropic curving. Following illumination both control and norflurazon-treated roots showed normal gravitropic curvature; however, the rate of curvature was delayed in norflurazon-treated roots. Our data from norflurazon-treated roots are consistent with a role for xanthoxin in maize root gravitropism. The increase in xanthoxin in the presence of an inhibitor of carotenoid synthesis suggests that xanthoxin and abscisic acid originate, at least in part, via different metabolic pathways.

  8. Effects of Abscisic Acid and Ethylene on the Gibberellic Acid-Induced Synthesis of α-Amylase by Isolated Wheat Aleurone Layers 1

    PubMed Central

    Varty, Keith; Arreguín, Barbarín L.; Gómez, Miguel T.; López, Pablo Jaime T.; Gómez, Miguel Angel L.

    1983-01-01

    Gibberellic acid-induced α-amylase synthesis in wheat aleurone layers (Triticum aestivum L. var Potam S-70) escaped from transcriptional control 30 h after addition of the hormone, as evidenced by the tissue's loss of susceptibility to cordycepin. Abscisic acid inhibited the accumulation of α-amylase activity when added to the tissue during this cordycepin-insensitive phase of enzyme induction. α-Amylase synthesis was not restored by the addition of cordycepin, indicating that the response to abscisic acid was not dependent upon the continuous synthesis of a short lived RNA. When ethylene was added simultaneously or some time after abscisic acid, the accumulation of α-amylase activity was sustained or quickly restored. The loss of susceptibility to cordycepin was completely prevented when aleurone layers were incubated with a combination of gibberellic and abscisic acids from the start of the induction period. This effect of abscisic acid was not reversed by ethylene. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that abscisic acid inhibits both the transcription and translation of α-amylase mRNA, and that only the latter site of action is susceptible to reversal by ethylene. The rate of incorporation of [methyl-14C]choline into phospholipids was also inhibited by abscisic acid. Ethylene reversed this effect. The effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on phospholipid synthesis were not dependent upon the presence of gibberellic acid. No direct relationship was found between the control of α-amylase synthesis and membrane formation by abscisic acid and ethylene. PMID:16663284

  9. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses

    DOE PAGES

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; ...

    2015-09-04

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. Furthemore, these analyses, which were confirmed usingmore » bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. Our analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases.« less

  10. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  11. Negative Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signaling by the Fagus sylvatica FsPP2C1 Plays A Role in Seed Dormancy Regulation and Promotion of Seed Germination1

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mary Paz; Rodríguez, Dolores; Nicolás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Pedro Luis; Nicolás, Gregorio; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    FsPP2C1 was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as a functional protein phosphatase type-2C (PP2C) with all the conserved features of these enzymes and high homology to ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA, PP2Cs identified as negative regulators of ABA signaling. The expression of FsPP2C1 was induced upon abscisic acid (ABA) treatment and was also up-regulated during early weeks of stratification. Furthermore, this gene was specifically expressed in ABA-treated seeds and was hardly detectable in vegetative tissues. In this report, to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C1 function in seed dormancy and germination, we used an overexpression approach in Arabidopsis because transgenic work is not feasible in beech. Constitutive expression of FsPP2C1 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter confers ABA insensitivity in Arabidopsis seeds and, consequently, a reduced degree of seed dormancy. Additionally, transgenic 35S:FsPP2C1 plants are able to germinate under unfavorable conditions, as inhibitory concentrations of mannitol, NaCl, or paclobutrazol. In vegetative tissues, Arabidopsis FsPP2C1 transgenic plants show ABA-resistant early root growth and diminished induction of the ABA-response genes RAB18 and KIN2, but no effect on stomatal closure regulation. Seed and vegetative phenotypes of Arabidopsis 35S:FsPP2C1 plants suggest that FsPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling. The ABA inducibility of FsPP2C1 expression, together with the transcript accumulation mainly in seeds, suggest that it could play an important role modulating ABA signaling in beechnuts through a negative feedback loop. Finally, we suggest that negative regulation of ABA signaling by FsPP2C1 is a factor contributing to promote the transition from seed dormancy to germination during early weeks of stratification. PMID:12970481

  12. The Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase AHA1 Plays a Major Role in Stomatal Opening in Response to Blue Light.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Shota; Takemiya, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Toshifumi; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Shimazaki, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Stomata open in response to a beam of weak blue light under strong red light illumination. A blue light signal is perceived by phototropins and transmitted to the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase that drives stomatal opening. To identify the components in this pathway, we screened for mutants impaired in blue light-dependent stomatal opening. We analyzed one such mutant, provisionally named blus2 (blue light signaling2), and found that stomatal opening in leaves was impaired by 65%, although the magnitude of red light-induced opening was not affected. Blue light-dependent stomatal opening in the epidermis and H(+) pumping in guard cell protoplasts were inhibited by 70% in blus2 Whole-genome resequencing identified a mutation in the AHA1 gene of the mutant at Gly-602. T-DNA insertion mutants of AHA1 exhibited a similar phenotype to blus2; this phenotype was complemented by the AHA1 gene. We renamed blus2 as aha1-10 T-DNA insertion mutants of AHA2 and AHA5 did not show any impairment in stomatal response, although the transcript levels of AHA2 and AHA5 were higher than those of AHA1 in wild-type guard cells. Stomata in ost2, a constitutively active AHA1 mutant, did not respond to blue light. A decreased amount of H(+)-ATPase in aha1-10 accounted for the reduced stomatal blue light responses and the decrease was likely caused by proteolysis of misfolded AHA1. From these results, we conclude that AHA1 plays a major role in blue light-dependent stomatal opening in Arabidopsis and that the mutation made the AHA1 protein unstable in guard cells. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence tracks the trend of canopy stomatal conductance and transpiration at diurnal and seasonal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shan, N.; Ju, W.; Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is the process of plant water loss through the stomata on the leaf surface and plays a key role in the energy and water balance of the land surface. Plant stomata function as a control interface for regulating photosynthetic uptake of CO2 and transpiration, strongly linked to plant productivity. Stomatal conductance is fundamental to larger-scale regional prediction of carbon-water cycles and their feedbacks to climate. The widely used Ball-Berry model coupled photosynthesis to a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance. However large uncertainties remain in simulation of carbon assimilation rate in ecosystem and regional scales. The strong correlations of solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and GPP have been demonstrated and provides an important opportunity to accurately monitor photosynthetic activity and water exchange. In this presentation, we compared both canopy-observed SIF and satellite-derived SIF with tower-based canopy stomatal conductance from hourly to 8-day scales in forest and cropland ecosystem. Using the model of stomatal conductance based on SIF, the transpiration was estimated at hourly and daily scales and compared with flux tower measurements. The results showed that the seasonal pattern of canopy stomatal conductance agreed better with SIF compared to NDVI and their relationship was higher during sunny days for forest ecosystem. Canopy stomatal conductance correlated with both tower-observed SIF and SIF from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2. Estimation of transpiration from SIF performed well in both forest and cropland ecosystem. This remotely sensed approaches from SIF for modelling stomatal conductance opens a new era to analysis and simulation of coupled carbon and water cycles under climate change.

  14. The antagonistic regulation of abscisic acid-inhibited root growth by brassinosteroids is partially mediated via direct suppression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 expression by BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaorui; Bai, Yang; Shang, Jianxiu; Xin, Ruijiao; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are plant hormones that antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development; however, the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk of these two hormones are still not well understood. BRs regulate plant growth and development by activating BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Here we show that the crosstalk between BRs and ABA signalling is partially mediated by BZR1 regulated gene expression. bzr1-1D is a dominant mutant with enhanced BR signalling; our results showed that bzr1-1D mutant is less sensitive to ABA-inhibited primary root growth. By RNA sequencing, a subset of BZR1 regulated ABA-responsive root genes were identified. Of these genes, the expression of a major ABA signalling component ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) was found to be suppressed by BR and by BZR1. Additional evidences showed that BZR1 could bind strongly with several G-box cis-elements in the promoter of ABI5, suppress the expression of ABI5 and make plants less sensitive to ABA. Our study demonstrated that ABI5 is a direct target gene of BZR1, and modulating the expression of ABI5 by BZR1 plays important roles in regulating the crosstalk between the BR and ABA signalling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. C2-domain abscisic acid-related proteins mediate the interaction of PYR/PYL/RCAR abscisic acid receptors with the plasma membrane and regulate abscisic acid sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lesia; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Diaz, Maira; Rodrigues, Americo; Izquierdo-Garcia, Ana C; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Fernandez, Maria A; Antoni, Regina; Fernandez, Daniel; Marquez, Jose A; Mulet, Jose M; Albert, Armando; Rodriguez, Pedro L

    2014-12-01

    Membrane-delimited abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction plays a critical role in early ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanisms linking core signaling components to the plasma membrane are unclear. We show that transient calcium-dependent interactions of PYR/PYL ABA receptors with membranes are mediated through a 10-member family of C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we found that PYL4 interacted in an ABA-independent manner with CAR1 in both the plasma membrane and nucleus of plant cells. CAR1 belongs to a plant-specific gene family encoding CAR1 to CAR10 proteins, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that PYL4-CAR1 as well as other PYR/PYL-CAR pairs interacted in plant cells. The crystal structure of CAR4 was solved, which revealed that, in addition to a classical calcium-dependent lipid binding C2 domain, a specific CAR signature is likely responsible for the interaction with PYR/PYL receptors and their recruitment to phospholipid vesicles. This interaction is relevant for PYR/PYL function and ABA signaling, since different car triple mutants affected in CAR1, CAR4, CAR5, and CAR9 genes showed reduced sensitivity to ABA in seedling establishment and root growth assays. In summary, we identified PYR/PYL-interacting partners that mediate a transient Ca(2+)-dependent interaction with phospholipid vesicles, which affects PYR/PYL subcellular localization and positively regulates ABA signaling. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating Latest Cretaceous and Tertiary Atmospheric PCO2 from Stomatal Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, D. L.; Wing, S. L.; Beerling, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    Most modern C3 seed plants show an inverse relationship between PCO2 and stomatal index (SI), where SI is the proportion of epidermal cells that are stomatal packages. This plant-atmosphere response therefore provides a reliable approach for estimating paleo-CO2 levels. Since stomatal responses to CO2 are generally species-specific, one is limited in paleo-reconstructions to species that exist both in the fossil record and living today. Fossils morphologically similar to living Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides extend back to the early and late Cretaceous, respectively, indicating that the fossil and living forms are very closely related. Measurements of SI made on fossil Ginkgo and Metasequoia were calibrated with historical collections of G. biloba and M. glyptostroboides leaves from sites that developed during the anthropogenically-driven CO2 increases of the past 145 years (288-369 ppmv) and with saplings of G. biloba and M. glyptostroboides grown in CO2 controlled growth chambers (350-800 ppmv). Both nonlinear regressions are highly significant (Ginkgo: n = 40, r2 = 0.91; Metasequoia: n = 18; r2 = 0.85). Results from a sequence of 23 latest Cretaceous to early Eocene-aged Ginkgo-bearing sites indicate that CO2 remained between 300 and 450 ppmv with the exception of one high estimate ( ~800 ppmv) near the Paleocene/Eocene boundary, and results from 4 middle Miocene-aged Ginkgo- and Metasequoia-bearing sites indicate that CO2 was between 320 and 400 ppmv. If correct, the CO2 values estimated here are too low to explain via the CO2 greenhouse effect alone the higher global mean temperatures (e.g., 3-4 ° C for the early Eocene) inferred from models and geological data for these two intervals.

  17. High and Dry? Stomatal Regulation and the Water Use Efficiency of Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibt, U.; Maseyk, K. S.; Sun, W.; Lett, C.; Pivovaroff, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The water use efficiency (WUE, ratio of carbon assimilated to water transpired) of vegetation plays an important role in determining the exchange of water between ecosystems and the atmosphere and thus affects the global water cycle. It also shapes the water-energy balance of ecosystems as a decrease in water fluxes may lead to an increase in surface temperature. A large number of studies have reported systematic changes in WUE from the stand to landscape scale, however, there is no general agreement on the sign and magnitude of the observed trends. The divergent responses reflect that the WUE of vegetation is shaped by a complex interplay of factors acting on a wide range of temporal scales: On diurnal to seasonal time scales, if evaporative demand is altered by atmospheric moisture or temperature, plants respond by adjusting stomatal conductance with associated changes in both transpiration and photosynthetic carbon uptake. On seasonal to interannual time scales, leaf size, structure and activity may adapt to water stress. This can alter boundary layer and mesophyll conductances, radiation profiles, and the surface energy balance. On longer time scales, the carbon-water balance of ecosystems is additionally affected by the ongoing global rise in CO2 and temperatures. Stomatal regulation is a central factor across all scales. We present new results on leaf and stand scale WUE from a range of ecosystems (arctic, boreal, semi-arid, tropical), and discuss the role of stomatal regulation on diurnal and seasonal changes in WUE in response to water stress and on potential long-term trends in WUE in response to climate change.

  18. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for infectious stomatitis in snakes: Clinical views and microbiological findings.

    PubMed

    Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira de; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Knöbl, Terezinha; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Sellera, Fábio Parra

    2017-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been broadly investigated as an alternative to treat localized infections, without leading to the selection of resistant microorganisms. Infectious stomatitis is a multifactorial disease frequently reported in captive snakes characterized by infection of the oral mucosa and surrounding tissues. In this study, we investigated methylene blue (MB)-mediated APDT to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes and verified the resistance phenotype and genotype before and after APDT. Three Boid snakes presented petechiae, edema and caseous material in their oral cavities. MB (0.01%) was applied on the lesions and after 5min they were irradiated using a red laser (λ=660nm), fluence of 280J/cm 2 , 8J and 80s per point, 100mW, spot size 0.028cm 2 and fluence rate of 3.5W/cm 2 . APDT was repeated once a week during 3 months. Samples of the lesions were collected to identify bacteria and antibiotic resistance profiles. To analyze the clonality of bacterial isolates before and after APDT, isolates were subjected to ERIC PCR analysis. Snakes presented clinical improvement such as reduction of inflammatory signs and caseous material. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were present in all snakes; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii were also identified in some animals. We also observed that the oral microbiota was completely replaced following APDT. However, K. pneumoniae isolates before and after APDT were a single clone with 100% of genetic similarity that lost resistance phenotype for seven antibiotics of four classes. These results show that APDT can be used to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaf temperature and stomatal influences on sap velocity diurnal hysteresis in the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Gimenez, B.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Koven, C.; Powell, T.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J.; Varadharajan, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, but remains poorly characterized, especially in tropical ecosystems. In this study we show a tight positive correlation between sap velocity (at 1 m of height) and leaf surface temperature (LST, 20-30 m of height) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As leaf temperatures varied throughout the day, sap velocity responded with little delay (<15 min). Positive sap velocity was often observed at night, but also closely followed night time LSTs. When plotted versus LST, sap velocity showed an exponential increase before reaching a reflection point and a plateau and is characterized as a sigmoidal curve, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity was evident with morning periods showing higher temperature sensitivities than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf observations showed a morning peak in stomatal conductance ( 10:00-10:30), but a mid-day to afternoon peak in transpiration and leaf temperature (12:00-14:00). Our observations suggest the sap velocity-LST hysteresis pattern arises due to the temporal offset between stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) and demonstrates the dominating effect of VPD over stomatal conductance in maintaining high transpiration/sap flow rates under elevated temperatures. Our results have important implications for modeling tropical forest transpiration and suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes at the ecosystem to regional scales based on remote sensed vegetation temperature.

  20. Contribution of competition for light to within-species variability in stomatal conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, Michael M.; Mackay, D. Scott; Ewers, Brent E.; Traver, Elizabeth; Kruger, Eric L.

    2010-05-01

    Sap flux (JS) measurements were collected across two stands dominated by either trembling aspen or sugar maple in northern Wisconsin. Observed canopy transpiration (EC-obs) values derived from JS were used to parameterize the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator ecosystem model. Modeled values of stomatal conductance (GS) were used to determine reference stomatal conductance (GSref), a proxy for GS that removes the effects of temporal responses to vapor pressure deficit (D) on spatial patterns of GS. Values of GSref were compared to observations of soil moisture, several physiological variables, and a competition index (CI) derived from a stand inventory, to determine the underlying cause of observed variability. Considerable variability in GSref between individual trees was found, with values ranging from 20 to 200 mmol m-2 s-1 and 20 to 100 mmol m-2 s-1 at the aspen and maple stands, respectively. Model-derived values of GSref and a sensitivity to D parameter (m) showed good agreement with a known empirical relationship for both stands. At both sites, GSref did not vary with topographic position, as indicated by surface soil moisture. No relationships were observed between GSref and tree height (HT), and a weak correlation with sapwood area (AS) was only significant for aspen. Significant nonlinear inverse relationships between GSref and CI were observed at both stands. Simulations with uniform reductions in incident photosynthetically active radiation (Q0) resulted in better agreement between observed and simulated EC. Our results suggest a link between photosynthesis and plant hydraulics whereby individual trees subject to photosynthetic limitation as a result of competitive shading exhibit a dynamic stomatal response resulting in a more conservative strategy for managing hydrologic resources.

  1. Stomatal control and leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances under rapid environmental fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani; Zwieniecki, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy may experience rapid and extreme fluctuations in ambient conditions. A shaded leaf, for example, may become exposed to an order of magnitude increase in solar radiation within a few seconds, due to sunflecks or canopy motions. Considering typical time scales for stomatal adjustments, (2 to 60 minutes), the gap between these two time scales raised the question whether leaves rely on their hydraulic and thermal capacitances for passive protection from hydraulic failure or over-heating until stomata have adjusted. We employed a physically based model to systematically study effects of short-term fluctuations in irradiance on leaf temperatures and transpiration rates. Considering typical amplitudes and time scales of such fluctuations, the importance of leaf heat and water capacities for avoiding damaging leaf temperatures and hydraulic failure were investigated. The results suggest that common leaf heat capacities are not sufficient to protect a non-transpiring leaf from over-heating during sunflecks of several minutes duration whereas transpirative cooling provides effective protection. A comparison of the simulated time scales for heat damage in the absence of evaporative cooling with observed stomatal response times suggested that stomata must be already open before arrival of a sunfleck to avoid over-heating to critical leaf temperatures. This is consistent with measured stomatal conductances in shaded leaves and has implications for water use efficiency of deep canopy leaves and vulnerability to heat damage during drought. Our results also suggest that typical leaf water contents could sustain several minutes of evaporative cooling during a sunfleck without increasing the xylem water supply and thus risking embolism. We thus submit that shaded leaves rely on hydraulic capacitance and evaporative cooling to avoid over-heating and hydraulic failure during exposure to typical sunflecks, whereas thermal capacitance provides limited protection

  2. Airborne signals from Trichoderma fungi stimulate iron uptake responses in roots resulting in priming of jasmonic acid-dependent defences in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2017-11-01

    Root colonization by Trichoderma fungi can trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR). In Arabidopsis, Trichoderma-ISR relies on the transcription factor MYB72, which plays a dual role in the onset of ISR and the activation of Fe uptake responses. Volatile compounds (VCs) from rhizobacteria are important elicitors of MYB72 in Arabidopsis roots. Here, we investigated the mode of action of VCs from Trichoderma fungi in the onset of ISR and Fe uptake responses. VCs from Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma harzianum were applied in an in vitro split-plate system with Arabidopsis or tomato seedlings. Locally, Trichoderma-VCs triggered MYB72 expression and molecular, physiological and morphological Fe uptake mechanisms in Arabidopsis roots. In leaves, Trichoderma-VCs primed jasmonic acid-dependent defences, leading to an enhanced resistance against Botrytis cinerea. By using Arabidopsis micrografts of VCs-exposed rootstocks and non-exposed scions, we demonstrated that perception of Trichoderma-VCs by the roots leads to a systemic signal that primes shoots for enhanced defences. Trichoderma-VCs also elicited Fe deficiency responses and shoot immunity in tomato, suggesting that this phenomenon is expressed in different plant species. Our results indicate that Trichoderma-VCs trigger locally a readjustment of Fe homeostasis in roots, which links to systemic elicitation of ISR by priming of jasmonic acid-dependent defences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities of various beech plants (Fagaceae): testing and application of a mechanistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, M.; Roth-Nebelsick, A.; Konrad, W.

    2006-12-01

    A mechanistic model (Konrad &Roth-Nebelsick a, in prep.) was applied for the reconstruction of atmospheric carbon dioxide using stomatal densities and photosynthesis parameters of extant and fossil Fagaceae. The model is based on an approach which couples diffusion and the biochemical process of photosynthesis. Atmospheric CO2 is calculated on the basis of stomatal diffusion and photosynthesis parameters of the considered taxa. The considered species include the castanoid Castanea sativa, two quercoids Quercus petraea and Quercus rhenana and an intermediate species Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis. In the case of Quercus petraea literature data were used. Stomatal data of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis, Quercus rhenana and Castanea sativa were determined by the authors. Data of the extant Castanea sativa were collected by applying a peeling method and by counting of stomatal densities on the digitalized images of the peels. Additionally, isotope data of leaf samples of Castanea sativa were determined to estimate the ratio of intercellular to ambient carbon dioxide. The CO2 values calculated by the model (on the basis of stomatal data and measured or estimated biochemical parameters) are in good agreement with literature data, with the exception of the Late Eocene. The results thus demonstrate that the applied approach is principally suitable for reconstructing palaeoatmospheric CO2.

  4. Daily changes in VPD during leaf development in high air humidity increase the stomatal responsiveness to darkness and dry air.

    PubMed

    Arve, Louise E; Kruse, Ole Mathis Opstad; Tanino, Karen K; Olsen, Jorunn E; Futsæther, Cecilia; Torre, Sissel

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that plants developed under high relative air humidity (RH>85%) develop malfunctioning stomata and therefor have increased transpiration and reduced desiccation tolerance when transferred to lower RH conditions and darkness. In this study, plants developed at high RH were exposed to daily VPD fluctuations created by changes in temperature and/or RH to evaluate the potential improvements in stomatal functioning. Daily periods with an 11°C temperature increase and consequently a VPD increase (vpd: 0.36-2.37KPa) reduced the stomatal apertures and improved the stomatal functionality and desiccation tolerance of the rosette plant Arabidopsis thaliana. A similar experiment was performed with only a 4°C temperature increase and/or a RH decrease on tomato. The results showed that a daily change in VPD (vpd: 0.36-1.43KPa) also resulted in improved stomatal responsiveness and decreased water usage during growth. In tomato, the most effective treatment to increase the stomatal responsiveness to darkness as a signal for closure was daily changes in RH without a temperature increase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. An Optimal Frequency in Ca2+ Oscillations for Stomatal Closure Is an Emergent Property of Ion Transport in Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    Minguet-Parramona, Carla; Wang, Yizhou; Hills, Adrian; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere; Griffiths, Howard; Rogers, Simon; Lawson, Tracy; Lew, Virgilio L; Blatt, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) have been proposed to encode information that controls stomatal closure. [Ca(2+)]i oscillations with a period near 10 min were previously shown to be optimal for stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the studies offered no insight into their origins or mechanisms of encoding to validate a role in signaling. We have used a proven systems modeling platform to investigate these [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and analyze their origins in guard cell homeostasis and membrane transport. The model faithfully reproduced differences in stomatal closure as a function of oscillation frequency with an optimum period near 10 min under standard conditions. Analysis showed that this optimum was one of a range of frequencies that accelerated closure, each arising from a balance of transport and the prevailing ion gradients across the plasma membrane and tonoplast. These interactions emerge from the experimentally derived kinetics encoded in the model for each of the relevant transporters, without the need of any additional signaling component. The resulting frequencies are of sufficient duration to permit substantial changes in [Ca(2+)]i and, with the accompanying oscillations in voltage, drive the K(+) and anion efflux for stomatal closure. Thus, the frequency optima arise from emergent interactions of transport across the membrane system of the guard cell. Rather than encoding information for ion flux, these oscillations are a by-product of the transport activities that determine stomatal aperture. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} depends on soil type in Quercus prinus

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Quercus prinus (L.) seedlings grown outdoors at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) CO{sub 2} with a fertile soil had no photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} and no stomatal response to growth or measurement CO{sub 2}. In contrast, seedlings grown with soil collected from a Q. prinus stand had photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation, and stomatal conductance was sensitive to measurement CO{sub 2}. In plants grown with the native soil, light-saturated stomatal conductance measured at the growth CO{sub 2} was reduced by 54% at elevated CO{sub 2}, compared to the short-term reduction of 36%. Photosynthetic acclimation in plants grownmore » with the native soil reduced the stimulation of light-saturated photosynthesis at elevated CO{sub 2} from a factor of 1.9 to a factor of 1.3. In contrast to the dependence of photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation on soil type, the response of leaf respiration to elevated CO{sub 2} was the same for both soils. Respiration of leaves was reduced in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment by 41 % on a leaf area basis. However, this effect was immediately reversible by altering the measurement CO{sub 2}, indicating that no acclimation of respiration occurred.« less

  7. Stomatal kinetics and photosynthetic gas exchange along a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric regulation of plant water status.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Smith, Duncan D; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E; McCulloh, Katherine A; Howard, Ava R; Magedman, Alicia L

    2017-08-01

    Species' differences in the stringency of stomatal control of plant water potential represent a continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviours. However, little is known about how quasi-steady-state stomatal regulation of water potential may relate to dynamic behaviour of stomata and photosynthetic gas exchange in species operating at different positions along this continuum. Here, we evaluated kinetics of light-induced stomatal opening, activation of photosynthesis and features of quasi-steady-state photosynthetic gas exchange in 10 woody species selected to represent different degrees of anisohydry. Based on a previously developed proxy for the degree of anisohydry, species' leaf water potentials at turgor loss, we found consistent trends in photosynthetic gas exchange traits across a spectrum of isohydry to anisohydry. More anisohydric species had faster kinetics of stomatal opening and activation of photosynthesis, and these kinetics were closely coordinated within species. Quasi-steady-state stomatal conductance and measures of photosynthetic capacity and performance were also greater in more anisohydric species. Intrinsic water-use efficiency estimated from leaf gas exchange and stable carbon isotope ratios was lowest in the most anisohydric species. In comparisons between gas exchange traits, species rankings were highly consistent, leading to species-independent scaling relationships over the range of isohydry to anisohydry observed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Involvement of polyamine oxidase in abscisic acid-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense in leaves of maize.

    PubMed

    Xue, Beibei; Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2009-03-01

    Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product.

  9. Emerging roles of protein kinase CK2 in abscisic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Belmiro; Pagès, Montserrat; Riera, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development as well as responses to multiple stresses. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination have pivotal roles in the regulation of ABA signaling. In addition to the positive regulator sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2), the relevance of the role of other protein kinases, such as CK2, has been recently highlighted. We have recently established that CK2 phosphorylates the maize ortholog of open stomata 1 OST1, ZmOST1, suggesting a role of CK2 phosphorylation in the control of ZmOST1 protein degradation (Vilela et al., 2015). CK2 is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes recent advances that taken together suggest a prominent role of protein kinase CK2 in ABA signaling and related processes.

  10. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  11. A survey of the pyrabactin resistance-like abscisic acid receptor gene family in poplar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingling; Li, Hejuan; Peng, Yajing; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2017-08-03

    The conserved PYR/PYL/RCAR family acts as abscisic acid (ABA) receptors for land plants to adapt to terrestrial environments. Our recent study reported that the exogenous overexpression of poplar PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, the PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs, promoted the sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis to ABA responses. Here, we surveyed the PtPYRL family in poplar, and revealed that although the sequence and structure are relatively conserved among these receptors, PtPYRL members have differential expression patterns and the sensitivity to ABA or drought treatment, suggesting that PtPYRLs might be good candidates to a future biotechnological use to enhance poplar resistance to water-stress environments.

  12. To Stimulate or Inhibit? That Is the Question for the Function of Abscisic Acid.

    PubMed

    Humplík, Jan F; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Physiologically, abscisic acid (ABA) is believed to be a general inhibitor of plant growth, including during the crucial early development of seedlings. However, this view contradicts many reports of stimulatory effects of ABA that, so far, have not been considered in the debate concerning ABA's function in plant development. To address this apparent contradiction, we propose a hypothetical mechanism to explain how ABA might contribute to the promotion of cell expansion. We wish to overturn conventional views on ABA's role during juvenile plant development and put forward the idea that, as for other phytohormones, the role of ABA is determined by dose and sensitivity and ranges from stimulatory to inhibitory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new look at stress: abscisic acid patterns and dynamics at high-resolution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander M

    2016-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone promoting abiotic stress tolerance as well as developmental processes such as seed dormancy. A spatiotemporal map of ABA concentrations would greatly advance our understanding of the cell type and timing of ABA action. Organ and tissue-level ABA measurements, as well as indirect in vivo measurements such as cell-specific transcriptional analysis of ABA metabolic enzymes and ABA-responsive promoters, have all contributed to current views of the localization and timing of ABA accumulations. Recently developed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors for ABA that sense ABA levels directly promise to add unprecedented resolution to in vivo ABA spatiotemporal mapping and expand our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling ABA levels in space and time. © 2015 Carnegie Institution for Science New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Rapid Quantification of Abscisic Acid by GC-MS/MS for Studies of Abiotic Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Drought and low water potential induce large increases in Abscisic Acid (ABA ) content of plant tissue. This increased ABA content is essential to regulate downstream stress resistance responses; however, the mechanisms regulating ABA accumulation are incompletely known. Thus, the ability to accurately quantify ABA at high throughput and low cost is important for plant stress research. We have combined and modified several previously published protocols to establish a rapid ABA analysis protocol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Derivatization of ABA is performed with (trimethylsilyl)-diazomethane rather than the harder to prepare diazomethane. Sensitivity of the analysis is sufficient that small samples of low water potential treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings can be routinely analyzed in reverse genetic studies of putative stress regulators as well as studies of natural variation in ABA accumulation.

  15. A Central Role of Abscisic Acid in Stress-Regulated Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kempa, Stefan; Krasensky, Julia; Dal Santo, Silvia; Kopka, Joachim; Jonak, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Background Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and development. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the response and adaptation to environmental constraints. However, apart from the well established role of ABA in regulating gene expression programmes, little is known about its function in plant stress metabolism. Principal Findings Using an integrative multiparallel approach of metabolome and transcriptome analyses, we studied the dynamic response of the model glyophyte Arabidopsis thaliana to ABA and high salt conditions. Our work shows that salt stress induces complex re-adjustment of carbohydrate metabolism and that ABA triggers the initial steps of carbon mobilisation. Significance These findings open new perspectives on how high salinity and ABA impact on central carbohydrate metabolism and highlight the power of iterative combinatorial approaches of non-targeted and hypothesis-driven experiments in stress biology. PMID:19081841

  16. Abscisic acid is a negative regulator of root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Han, Woong; Rong, Honglin; Zhang, Hanma; Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

    2009-01-23

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in root gravitropism and has led to an intense debate over whether ABA acts similar to auxin by translating the gravitational signal into directional root growth. While tremendous advances have been made in the past two decades in establishing the role of auxin in root gravitropism, little progress has been made in characterizing the role of ABA in this response. In fact, roots of plants that have undetectable levels of ABA and that display a normal gravitropic response have raised some serious doubts about whether ABA plays any role in root gravitropism. Here, we show strong evidence that ABA plays a role opposite to that of auxin and that it is a negative regulator of the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis roots.

  17. Synchronization of Somatic Embryogenesis in Date Palm Suspension Culture Using Abscisic Acid.

    PubMed

    Alwael, Hussain A; Naik, Poornananda M; Al-Khayri, Jameel M

    2017-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is considered the most effective method for commercial propagation of date palm. However, the limitation of obtaining synchronized development of somatic embryos remains an impediment. The synchronization of somatic embryo development is ideal for the applications to produce artificial seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) is associated with stress response and influences in vitro growth and development. This chapter describes an effective method to achieve synchronized development of somatic embryos in date palm cell suspension culture. Among the ABA concentrations tested (0, 1, 10, 50, 100 μM), the best synchronized growth was obtained in response to 50-100 μM. Here we provide a comprehensive protocol for in vitro plant regeneration of date palm starting with shoot-tip explant, callus initiation and growth, cell suspension establishment, embryogenesis synchronization with ABA treatment, somatic embryo germination, and rooting as well as acclimatized plantlet establishment.

  18. Maternal synthesis of abscisic acid controls seed development and yield in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anne; Godin, Béatrice; Bonnet, Magda; Sotta, Bruno; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2004-04-01

    The role of maternally derived abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development has been studied using ABA-deficient mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viviani. ABA deficiency induced seed abortion, resulting in reduced seed yield, and delayed growth of the remaining embryos. Mutant grafting onto wild-type stocks and reciprocal crosses indicated that maternal ABA, synthesized in maternal vegetative tissues and translocated to the seed, promoted early seed development and growth. Moreover ABA deficiency delayed both seed coat pigmentation and capsule dehiscence. Mutant grafting did not restore these phenotypes, indicating that ABA synthesized in the seed coat and capsule envelope may have a positive effect on capsule and testa maturation. Together these results shed light on the positive role of maternal ABA during N. plumbaginifolia seed development.

  19. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance: potential and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Brilli, Federico; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Xu, Xiaobin; Bingemer, Heinz; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the link between the leaf exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) and the assumptions that need to be made in order to use COS as a tracer for canopy net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance, are reviewed. The ratios of COS to CO2 and H2O deposition velocities used to this end are shown to vary with the ratio of the internal to ambient CO2 and H2O mole fractions and the relative limitations by boundary layer, stomatal and internal conductance for COS. It is suggested that these deposition velocity ratios exhibit considerable variability, a finding that challenges current parameterizations, which treat these as vegetation-specific constants. COS is shown to represent a better tracer for CO2 than H2O. Using COS as a tracer for stomatal conductance is hampered by our present poor understanding of the leaf internal conductance to COS. Estimating canopy level CO2 and H2O fluxes requires disentangling leaf COS exchange from other ecosystem sources/sinks of COS. We conclude that future priorities for COS research should be to improve the quantitative understanding of the variability in the ratios of COS to CO2 and H2O deposition velocities and the controlling factors, and to develop operational methods for disentangling ecosystem COS exchange into contributions by leaves and other sources/sinks. To this end, integrated studies, which concurrently quantify the ecosystem-scale CO2, H2O and COS exchange and the corresponding component fluxes, are urgently needed. We investigate the potential of carbonyl sulfide (COS) for being used as a tracer for canopy net photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance by examining the theoretical basis of the link between leaf COS, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) exchange. Our analysis identifies several limitations that need to be overcome to this end, however at present we lack appropriate ecosystem-scale field measurements for

  20. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong; Liu, Fulai

    2014-09-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg(-1) soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) under P0. Midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs) was similar for DI and PRD, which was significantly lower than that of FI. Leaf contents of C, N, K, Ca and Mg were higher in PRD than in DI plants, particularly under P0. When analyzed across the three irrigation regimes, it was found that the P1 plants had significantly higher leaf contents of P and Mg, but significantly lower leaf K content compared to the P0 plants. Linear correlation analyses revealed that SS was positively correlated with Ψleaf and Δ(13)C; whereas SD was negatively correlated with Ψleaf, Δ(13)C and SLA, and positively correlated with leaf C, N and Ca contents. And gs was positively correlated with SS but negatively correlated with SD. Collectively, under low P level, the smaller and denser stomata in PRD plants may bring about a more efficient stomatal control over gas exchange, hereby potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf Δ(13)C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of CO2 on stomatal conductance: do stomata open at very high CO2 concentrations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Potato and wheat plants were grown for 50 d at 400, 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 carbon dioxide (CO2). and sweetpotato and soybean were grown at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in controlled environment chambers to study stomatal conductance and plant water use. Lighting was provided with fluorescent lamps as a 12 h photoperiod with 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 PAR. Mid-day stomatal conductances for potato were greatest at 400 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-day conductances for wheat were greatest at 400 micromoles mol-1 and least at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Mid-dark period conductances for potato were significantly greater at 10000 micromoles mol-1 than at 400 or 1000 micromoles mol-1, whereas dark conductance for wheat was similar in all CO2 treatments. Temporarily changing the CO2 concentration from the native 1000 micromoles mol-1 to 400 micromoles mol-1 increased mid-day conductance for all species, while temporarily changing from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 also increased conductance for potato and sweetpotato. Temporarily changing the dark period CO2 from 1000 to 10000 micromoles mol-1 increased conductance for potato, soybean and sweetpotato. In all cases, the stomatal responses were reversible, i.e. conductances returned to original rates following temporary changes in CO2 concentration. Canopy water use for potato was greatest at 10000, intermediate at 400, and least at 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2, whereas canopy water use for wheat was greatest at 400 and similar at 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1 CO2. Elevated CO2 treatments (i.e. 1000 and 10000 micromoles mol-1) resulted in increased plant biomass for both wheat and potato relative to 400 micromoles mol-1, and no injurious effects were apparent from the 10000 micromoles mol-1 treatment. Results indicate that super-elevated CO2 (i.e. 10000 micromoles mol-1) can increase stomatal conductance in some species, particularly during the dark period, resulting in

  2. Abscisic acid is involved in the iron-induced synthesis of maize ferritin.

    PubMed Central

    Lobréaux, S; Hardy, T; Briat, J F

    1993-01-01

    The ubiquitous iron storage protein ferritin has a highly conserved structure in plants and animals, but a distinct cytological location and a different level of control in response to iron excess. Plant ferritins are plastid-localized and transcriptionally regulated in response to iron, while animal ferritins are found in the cytoplasm and have their expression mainly controlled at the translational level. In order to understand the basis of these differences, we developed hydroponic cultures of maize plantlets which allowed an increase in the intracellular iron concentration, leading to a transient accumulation of ferritin mRNA and protein (Lobréaux,S., Massenet,O. and Briat,J.F., 1992, Plant Mol. Biol., 19, 563-575). Here, it is shown that iron induces ferritin and RAB (Responsive to Abscisic Acid) mRNA accumulation relatively with abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation. Ferritin mRNA also accumulates in response to exogenous ABA. Synergistic experiments demonstrate that the ABA and iron responses are linked, although full expression of the ferritin genes cannot be entirely explained by an increase in ABA concentration. Inducibility of ferritin mRNA accumulation by iron is dramatically decreased in the maize ABA-deficient mutant vp2 and can be rescued by addition of exogenous ABA, confirming the involvement of ABA in the iron response in plants. Therefore, it is concluded that a major part of the iron-induced biosynthesis of ferritin is achieved through a pathway involving an increase in the level of the plant hormone ABA. The general conclusion of this work is that the synthesis of the same protein in response to the same environmental signal can be controlled by separate and distinct mechanisms in plants and animals. Images PMID:8440255

  3. Selection and Characterization of Single Stranded DNA Aptamers for the Hormone Abscisic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Victor M.; Millo, Enrico; Sturla, Laura; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Bagnasco, Luca; Guida, Lucrezia; D'Arrigo, Cristina; De Flora, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Martin, Elena M.; Bellotti, Marta; Zocchi, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a small molecule involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants. Recently, ABA has been also identified as an endogenous hormone in mammals, regulating different cell functions including inflammatory processes, stem cell expansion, insulin release, and glucose uptake. Aptamers are short, single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotidesable to recognize target molecules with high affinity. The small size of the ABA molecule represented a challenge for aptamer development and the aim of this study was to develop specific anti-ABA DNA aptamers. Biotinylated abscisic acid (bio-ABA) was immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. DNA aptamers against bio-ABA were selected with 7 iterative rounds of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method (SELEX), each round comprising incubation of the ABA-binding beads with the ssDNA sequences, DNA elution, electrophoresis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. The binding affinity of several clones was determined using bio-ABA immobilized on streptavidin-coated plates. Aptamer 2 and aptamer 9 showed the highest binding affinity, with dissociation constants values of 0.98±0.14 μM and 0.80±0.07 μM, respectively. Aptamers 2 and 9 were also able to bind free, unmodified ABA and to discriminate between different ABA enantiomers and isomers. Our findings indicate that ssDNA aptamers can selectively bind ABA and could be used for the development of ABA quantitation assays. PMID:23971905

  4. Movement of Abscisic Acid into the Apoplast in Response to Water Stress in Xanthium strumarium L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Katrina; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of water stress on the redistribution of abcisic acid (ABA) in mature leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. was investigated using a pressure dehydration technique. In both turgid and stressed leaves, the ABA in the xylem exudate, the `apoplastic' ABA, increased before `bulk leaf' stress-induced ABA accumulation began. In the initially turgid leaves, the ABA level remained constant in both the apoplast and the leaf as a whole until wilting symptoms appeared. Following turgor loss, sufficient quantities of ABA moved into the apoplast to stimulate stomatal closure. Thus, the initial increase of apoplastic ABA may be relevant to the rapid stomatal closure seen in stressed leaves before their bulk leaf ABA levels rise. Following recovery from water stress, elevated levels of ABA remained in the apoplast after the bulk leaf contents had returned to their prestress values. This apoplastic ABA may retard stomatal reopening during the initial recovery period. PMID:16664294

  5. Herpetic stomatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fever, often as high as 104°F (40°C), which may occur 1 to 2 days before blisters and ulcers appear Irritability Mouth pain Swollen gums Symptoms may be so uncomfortable that your child doesn't want to eat or drink. Exams and Tests Your child's health care provider can ...

  6. [Prevention of the recurrent herpetic stomatitis in employees of Kazan city industrial enterprises frequently suffering from acute respiratory viral infections].

    PubMed

    Kuznetzova, O Yu; Gorshenina, A P; Maximovskaya, L N

    Research objective was to study the efficacy of ingavirin for prevention of recurrent herpetic stomatitis in employees of Kazan city industrial enterprises frequently suffering from acute respiratory viral infections. 128 employees aged from 18 to 56 years were included in the study. Clinical and immunological efficiency of ingavirin prevention of recurrent herpetic stomatitis is proved by estimation of oral cavity local immunity (SlgA, lisozyme), humoral immunity (IgE and IgG) and cellular immunity (RBTL with FGA, defined T-lymphocytes). After administration of ingavirin significant (p<0.05) increase of lisozyme and SlgA, RBTL with FGA, number of T-lymphocytes and IgG concentration was observed. The obtained data allow to recommend ingavirin for prevention of recurrent herpetic stomatitis.

  7. Abscisic Acid Flux Alterations Result in Differential Abscisic Acid Signaling Responses and Impact Assimilation Efficiency in Barley under Terminal Drought Stress1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Christiane; Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga T.; Reddy, Palakolanu S.; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Rajesh, Kalladan; Korzun, Viktor; Wobus, Ulrich; Lee, Justin; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2014-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a central player in plant responses to drought stress. How variable levels of ABA under short-term versus long-term drought stress impact assimilation and growth in crops is unclear. We addressed this through comparative analysis, using two elite breeding lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare) that show senescence or stay-green phenotype under terminal drought stress and by making use of transgenic barley lines that express Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (AtNCED6) coding sequence or an RNA interference (RNAi) sequence of ABA 8′-hydroxylase under the control of a drought-inducible barley promoter. The high levels of ABA and its catabolites in the senescing breeding line under long-term stress were detrimental for assimilate productivity, whereas these levels were not perturbed in the stay-green type that performed better. In transgenic barley, drought-inducible AtNCED expression afforded temporal control in ABA levels such that the ABA levels rose sooner than in wild-type plants but also subsided, unlike as in the wild type , to near-basal levels upon prolonged stress treatment due to down-regulation of endogenous HvNCED genes. Suppressing of ABA catabolism with the RNA interference approach of ABA 8′-hydroxylase caused ABA flux during the entire period of stress. These transgenic plants performed better than the wild type under stress to maintain a favorable instantaneous water use efficiency and better assimilation. Gene expression analysis, protein structural modeling, and protein-protein interaction analyses of the members of the PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1/PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENT OF ABA RECEPTORS, TYPE 2C PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE Sucrose non-fermenting1-related protein kinase2, and ABA-INSENSITIVE5/ABA-responsive element binding factor family identified specific members that could potentially impact ABA metabolism and stress adaptation in barley. PMID:24610749

  8. Black fly involvement in the epidemic transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (Rhabdoviridae: Vesiculovirus).

    PubMed

    Mead, Daniel G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Murphy, Molly D; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Stallknecht, David E

    2004-01-01

    The transmission routes of Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV), a causative agent of vesicular stomatitis, an Office International des Epizooties List-A disease, are not completely understood. Epidemiological and entomological studies conducted during the sporadic epidemics in the western United States have identified potential virus transmission routes involving insect vectors and animal-to-animal contact. In the present study we experimentally tested the previously proposed transmission routes which were primarily based on field observations. Results obtained provide strong evidence for the following: (1) hematophagous insects acquire VSNJV by unconventional routes while blood feeding on livestock, (2) clinical course of VSNJV infection in livestock following transmission by an infected insect is related to insect bite site, (3) infection of livestock via insect bite can result in multiple transmission possibilities, including animal-to-animal contact. Taken together, these data significantly add to our understanding of the transmission routes of a causative agent of one of the oldest known infectious diseases of livestock, for which the details have remained largely unknown despite decades of research.

  9. Genetic and antigenic relationships of vesicular stomatitis viruses from South America.

    PubMed

    Pauszek, Steven J; Barrera, Jose Del C; Goldberg, Tony; Allende, Rossana; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2011-11-01

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) viruses have been classified into two serotypes: New Jersey (VSNJV) and Indiana (VSIV). Here, we have characterized field isolates causing vesicular stomatitis in Brazil and Argentina over a 35-year span. Cluster analysis based on either serological relatedness, as inferred from virus neutralization and complement fixation assays, or nucleotide sequences of two separate genes (phosphoprotein or glycoprotein) grouped the field isolates into two distinct monophyletic groups within the Indiana serogroup. One group included seven viruses from Brazil and Argentina that were serologically classified as Indiana-2 and Cocal virus (COCV). The other group contained three viruses from Brazil that were serologically classified as Indiana-3 and the prototype of this group, Alagoas virus (VSAV). Interestingly, two vesiculoviruses that were isolated from insects but do not cause disease in animals, one from Brazil (Maraba virus; MARAV) and the other from Colombia (CoAr 171638), grouped into two separate genetic lineages within the Indiana serotype. Our data provide support for the classification of viruses causing clinical VS in livestock in Brazil and Argentina into two distinct groups: Indiana-2 (VSIV-2) and Indiana-3 (VSIV-3). We suggest using nomenclature for these viruses that includes the serotype, year and place of occurrence, and affected host. This nomenclature is consistent with that currently utilized to describe field isolates of VSNJV or VSIV in scientific literature.

  10. OsPRX2 contributes to stomatal closure and improves potassium deficiency tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yanmei; Xiao, Kaizhuan; Wei, Yidong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Cai, Qiuhua; Chen, Liping; Xie, Huaan; Zhang, Jianfu

    2018-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) which are thiol-based peroxidases have been implicated in the toxic reduction and intracellular concentration regulation of hydrogen peroxide. In Arabidopsis thaliana At2-CysPrxB (At5g06290) has been demonstrated to be essential in maintaining the water-water cycle for proper H 2 O 2 scavenging. Although the mechanisms of 2-Cys Prxs have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, the function of 2-Cys Prxs in rice is unclear. In this study, a rice homologue gene of At2-CysPrxB, OsPRX2 was investigated aiming to characterize the effect of 2-Cys Prxs on the K + -deficiency tolerance in rice. We found that OsPRX2 was localized in the chloroplast. Overexpressed OsPRX2 causes the stomatal closing and K + -deficiency tolerance increasing, while knockout of OsPRX2 lead to serious defects in leaves phenotype and the stomatal opening under the K + -deficiency tolerance. Detection of K + accumulation, antioxidant activity of transgenic plants under the starvation of potassium, further confirmed that OsPRX2 is a potential target for engineering plants with improved potassium deficiency tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seawater spray injury to Quercus acutissima leaves: crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Kyosang; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Effects of seawater spray on leaf structure were investigated in Quercus acutissima by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Two-year-old seedlings of Q. acutissima were sprayed with seawater and kept in a greenhouse maintained at 25°C. The most recognizable symptoms of seawater-sprayed seedlings included leaf necrosis, crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the leaf surface was covered with additional layers of remnants of seawater spray. Composed of sodium and chloride, cube-shaped crystals (halite) were prevalently found on trichomes and epidermis, and formed aggregates. Meanwhile, wedge-shaped crystals were deposited on epidermis and consisted of calcium and sulfur. As a result of stomatal clogging by crystal deposition on the abaxial surface, it was conceivable that plant respiration became severely hampered. Transmission electron microscopy showed degenerated cytoplasm of seawater-sprayed leaves. It was common to observe severe plasmolysis and disrupted chloroplasts with a reduced number of thylakoids in grana. These results indicate that foliar applications of seawater were sufficient to induce necrosis of Q. acutissima seedlings as an abiotic disturbance factor. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Guard cells elongate: relationship of volume and surface area during stomatal movement.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Tobias; Gall, Lars; Semrau, Stefan; Homann, Ulrike; Thiel, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Stomata in the epidermis of photosynthetically active plant organs are formed by pairs of guard cells, which create a pore, to facilitate CO2 and water exchange with the environment. To control this gas exchange, guard cells actively change their volume and, consequently, surface area to alter the aperture of the stomatal pore. Due to the limited elasticity of the plasma membrane, such changes in surface area require an exocytic addition or endocytic retrieval of membrane during stomatal movement. Using confocal microscopic data, we have reconstructed detailed three-dimensional models of open and closed stomata to precisely quantify the necessary area to be exo- and endocytosed by the guard cells. Images were obtained under a strong emphasis on a precise calibration of the method and by avoiding unphysiological osmotical imbalance, and hence osmocytosis. The data reveal that guard cells of Vicia faba L., whose aperture increases by 111.89+/-22.39%, increase in volume and surface area by 24.82+/-6.26% and 14.99+/-2.62%, respectively. In addition, the precise volume to surface area relationship allows quantitative modeling of the three-dimensional changes. While the major volume change is caused by a slight increase in the cross section of the cells, an elongation of the guard cells achieves the main aperture change.

  13. Efficacy of Propolis on the Denture Stomatitis Treatment in Older Adults: A Multicentric Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Gisela de M. S.; Lia, Erica N.; Berretta, Andresa A.; Nascimento, Andresa P.; Torres, Elina C.; Buszinski, Andrei F. M.; de Campos, Tatiana A.; Martins, Vicente de P.

    2017-01-01

    Our hypothesis tested the efficacy and safety of a mucoadhesive oral gel formulation of Brazilian propolis extract compared to miconazole oral gel for the treatment of denture stomatitis due to Candida spp. infection in older adults. Forty patients were randomly allocated in a noninferiority clinical trial into two groups. The control group (MIC) received 20 mg/g miconazole oral gel and the study group (PROP) received mucoadhesive formulation containing standardized extract of 2% (20 mg/g) propolis (EPP-AF®) during 14 days. Patients were examined on days 1, 7, and 14. The Newton's score was used to classify the severity of denture stomatitis. The colony forming unity count (CFU/mL) was quantified and identified (CHROMagar Candida®) before and after the treatment. Baseline characteristics did not differ between groups. Both treatments reduced Newton's score (P < 0.0001), indicating a clinical improvement of the symptoms of candidiasis with a clinical cure rate of 70%. The microbiological cure with significant reduction in fungal burden on T14 was 70% in the miconazole group and 25% in the EPP-AF group. The EPP-AF appears to be noninferior to miconazole considering the clinical cure rate and could be recommended as an alternative treatment in older patients. PMID:28396692

  14. Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit reflect tissue-specific differences in hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Ocheltree, T W; Nippert, J B; Prasad, P V V

    2014-01-01

    The vapor pressure deficit (D) of the atmosphere can negatively affect plant growth as plants reduce stomatal conductance to water vapor (g(wv)) in response to increasing D, limiting the ability of plants to assimilate carbon. The sensitivity of g(wv) to changes in D varies among species and has been correlated with the hydraulic conductance of leaves (K(leaf) ), but the hydraulic conductance of other tissues has also been implicated in plant responses to changing D. Among the 19 grass species, we found that K(leaf) was correlated with the hydraulic conductance of large longitudinal veins (K(lv), r(2) = 0.81), but was not related to K(root) (r(2) = 0.01). Stomatal sensitivity to D was correlated with K(leaf) relative to total leaf area (r(2) = 0.50), and did not differ between C3 and C4 species. Transpiration (E) increased in response to D, but 8 of the 19 plants showed a decline in E at high D, indicative of an 'apparent feedforward' response. For these individuals, E began to decline at lower values of D in plants with low K(root) (r(2) = 0.72). These results show the significance of both leaf and root hydraulic conductance as drivers of plant responses to evaporative demand. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Manipulating stomatal density enhances drought tolerance without deleterious effect on nutrient uptake.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, Christopher; Doheny-Adams, Timothy; Hunt, Lee; Cameron, Duncan D; Gray, Julie E

    2015-10-01

    Manipulation of stomatal density was investigated as a potential tool for enhancing drought tolerance or nutrient uptake. Drought tolerance and soil water retention were assessed using Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor mutants manipulated to have increased or decreased stomatal density. Root nutrient uptake via mass flow was monitored under differing plant watering regimes using nitrogen-15 ((15) N) isotope and mass spectrometry. Plants with less than half of their normal complement of stomata, and correspondingly reduced levels of transpiration, conserve soil moisture and are highly drought tolerant but show little or no reduction in shoot nitrogen concentrations especially when water availability is restricted. By contrast, plants with over twice the normal density of stomata have a greater capacity for nitrogen uptake, except when water availability is restricted. We demonstrate the possibility of producing plants with reduced transpiration which have increased drought tolerance, with little or no loss of nutrient uptake. We demonstrate that increasing transpiration can enhance nutrient uptake when water is plentiful. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Gas Exchange and Phytoluminography of Single Red Kidney Bean Leaves during Periods of Induced Stomatal Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Ellenson, James L.; Raba, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    This report examines the capabilities of a new approach to the study of gas exchange and electron transport properties of single, intact leaves. The method combines conventional aspects of analysis with an image intensification system that records the spatial distribution of delayed light emission (DLE) over single leaf surfaces. The combined system was used to investigate physiological perturbations induced by exposure of single leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris cv `California Light Red' to a combination of SO2 (0.5 microliters per liter) and ozone (0.1 microliters per liter). Exposure of one-half of a leaf to this combination induced DLE and stomatal oscillations, but only in the half of the leaf exposed to the combined gases. Examination of phytoluminographs taken during these oscillations revealed distinct leaf patches where the greatest changes in DLE intensity occurred. This phenomenon is interpreted to be evidence that control of stomatal activity of intact plant leaves occurs within discrete leaf areas defined within the vascular network. Images Fig. 6 PMID:16662989

  17. Differences in the response sensitivity of stomatal index to atmospheric CO2 among four genera of Cupressaceae conifers.

    PubMed

    Haworth, Matthew; Heath, James; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2010-03-01

    The inverse relationship between stomatal density (SD: number of stomata per mm(2) leaf area) and atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) permits the use of plants as proxies of palaeo-atmospheric CO2. Many stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2] are based upon multiple fossil species. However, it is unclear how plants respond to [CO2] across genus, family or ecotype in terms of SD or stomatal index (SI: ratio of stomata to epidermal cells). This study analysed the stomatal numbers of conifers from the ancient family Cupressaceae, in order to examine the nature of the SI-[CO2] relationship, and potential implications for stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2]. Methods Stomatal frequency measurements were taken from historical herbarium specimens of Athrotaxis cupressoides, Tetraclinis articulata and four Callitris species, and live A. cupressoides grown under CO2-enrichment (370, 470, 570 and 670 p.p.m. CO2). T. articulata, C. columnaris and C. rhomboidea displayed significant reductions in SI with rising [CO2]; by contrast, A. cupressoides, C. preissii and C. oblonga show no response in SI. However, A. cupressoides does reduce SI to increases in [CO2] above current ambient (approx. 380 p.p.m. CO2). This dataset suggests that a shared consistent SI-[CO2] relationship is not apparent across the genus Callitris. Conclusions The present findings suggest that it is not possible to generalize how conifer species respond to fluctuations in [CO2] based upon taxonomic relatedness or habitat. This apparent lack of a consistent response, in conjunction with high variability in SI, indicates that reconstructions of absolute palaeo-[CO2] based at the genus level, or upon multiple species for discrete intervals of time are not as reliable as those based on a single or multiple temporally overlapping species.

  18. Differences in the response sensitivity of stomatal index to atmospheric CO2 among four genera of Cupressaceae conifers

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Matthew; Heath, James; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The inverse relationship between stomatal density (SD: number of stomata per mm2 leaf area) and atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) permits the use of plants as proxies of palaeo-atmospheric CO2. Many stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2] are based upon multiple fossil species. However, it is unclear how plants respond to [CO2] across genus, family or ecotype in terms of SD or stomatal index (SI: ratio of stomata to epidermal cells). This study analysed the stomatal numbers of conifers from the ancient family Cupressaceae, in order to examine the nature of the SI–[CO2] relationship, and potential implications for stomatal reconstructions of palaeo-[CO2]. Methods Stomatal frequency measurements were taken from historical herbarium specimens of Athrotaxis cupressoides, Tetraclinis articulata and four Callitris species, and live A. cupressoides grown under CO2-enrichment (370, 470, 570 and 670 p.p.m. CO2). Key Results T. articulata, C. columnaris and C. rhomboidea displayed significant reductions in SI with rising [CO2]; by contrast, A. cupressoides, C. preissii and C. oblonga show no response in SI. However, A. cupressoides does reduce SI to increases in [CO2] above current ambient (approx. 380 p.p.m. CO2). This dataset suggests that a shared consistent SI–[CO2] relationship is not apparent across the genus Callitris. Conclusions The present findings suggest that it is not possible to generalize how conifer species respond to fluctuations in [CO2] based upon taxonomic relatedness or habitat. This apparent lack of a consistent response, in conjunction with high variability in SI, indicates that reconstructions of absolute palaeo-[CO2] based at the genus level, or upon multiple species for discrete intervals of time are not as reliable as those based on a single or multiple temporally overlapping species. PMID:20089556

  19. The dilemma of saving water or being cool: What determines the stomatal response under a changing climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Kirchner, James W.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Stomata play a critical role in terrestrial water and carbon cycles, regulating the trade-off between photosynthetic carbon gain and water loss in leaves. They adjust their aperture in response to a number of physiological and environmental factors, yet the mechanisms driving this response, particularly under climate extremes, remain poorly understood. Partial or complete stomatal closure reduces plant water stress under water-limited or high atmospheric evaporative demand conditions, but at the cost of reduced productivity, elevated heat, leaf shedding, and mortality. A proper account of such complex stomatal behavior is of particular importance for current ecosystem models that poorly capture observed vegetation responses in the context of climate change which is predicted to cause more frequent and intense temperature extremes along with an increase in the frequency of drought in many regions in the future. This study seeks to explore stomatal responses to environmental change accounted for by a varying soil-plant resistance under different atmospheric and soil moisture conditions. To this end, we developed a physically based transpiration model that couples stomatal control of leaf gas exchange to the leaf surface energy balance and the entire plant hydraulic system by considering the interdependence of the guard cell water potential (or turgor pressure) and transpiration rates. Model simulations of diurnal variations in transpiration rates were in good agreement with field observations, and facilitated quantitative prediction of stomatal and xylem flow regulation under a wide range of environmental conditions. Preliminary results demonstrate how soil and plant hydraulic conductances regulating stomatal opening and closure can help mitigate climatic water deficit (e.g., at midday) by boosting evaporative cooling. Our results are expected to advance physical understanding of the water cycle in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, and shed light on observed

  20. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO2 concentration from stomatal and climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, Wilfried; Katul, Gabriel; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Grein, Michaela

    2017-06-01

    To address questions related to the acceleration or deceleration of the global hydrological cycle or links between the carbon and water cycles over land, reliable data for past climatic conditions based on proxies are required. In particular, the reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric CO2 content (Ca) is needed to assist the separation of natural from anthropogenic Ca variability and to explore phase relations between Ca and air temperature Ta time series. Both Ta and Ca are needed to fingerprint anthropogenic signatures in vapor pressure deficit, a major driver used to explain acceleration or deceleration phases in the global hydrological cycle. Current approaches to Ca reconstruction rely on a robust inverse correlation between measured stomatal density in leaves (ν) of many plant taxa and Ca. There are two methods that exploit this correlation: The first uses calibration curves obtained from extant species assumed to represent the fossil taxa, thereby restricting the suitable taxa to those existing today. The second is a hybrid eco-hydrological/physiological approach that determines Ca with the aid of systems of equations based on quasi-instantaneous leaf-gas exchange theories and fossil stomatal data collected along with other measured leaf anatomical traits and parameters. In this contribution, a reduced order model (ROM) is proposed that derives Ca from a single equation incorporating the aforementioned stomatal data, basic climate (e.g. temperature), estimated biochemical parameters of assimilation and isotope data. The usage of the ROM is then illustrated by applying it to isotopic and anatomical measurements from three extant species. The ROM derivation is based on a balance between the biochemical demand and atmospheric supply of CO2 that leads to an explicit expression linking stomatal conductance to internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and Ca. The resulting expression of stomatal conductance from the carbon economy of the leaf is then equated to another

  1. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jane E; Adams, Christopher A; Holsinger, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    Trait-environment relationships are commonly interpreted as evidence for local adaptation in plants. However, even when selection analyses support this interpretation, the mechanisms underlying differential benefits are often unknown. This study addresses this gap in knowledge using the broadly distributed South African shrub Protea repens. Specifically, the study examines whether broad-scale patterns of trait variation are consistent with spatial differences in selection and ecophysiology in the wild. In a common garden study of plants sourced from 19 populations, associations were measured between five morphological traits and three axes describing source climates. Trait-trait and trait-environment associations were analysed in a multi-response model. Within two focal populations in the wild, selection and path analyses were used to test associations between traits, fecundity and physiological performance. Across 19 populations in a common garden, stomatal density increased with the source population's mean annual temperature and decreased with its average amount of rainfall in midsummer. Concordantly, selection analysis in two natural populations revealed positive selection on stomatal density at the hotter, drier site, while failing to detect selection at the cooler, moister site. Dry-site plants with high stomatal density also had higher stomatal conductances, cooler leaf temperatures and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates than those with low stomatal density, but no such relationships were present among wet-site plants. Leaf area, stomatal pore index and specific leaf area in the garden also co-varied with climate, but within-population differences were not associated with fitness in either wild population. The parallel patterns of broad-scale variation, differences in selection and differences in trait-ecophysiology relationships suggest a mechanism for adaptive differentiation in stomatal density. Densely packed stomata may improve performance by

  2. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jane E.; Adams, Christopher A.; Holsinger, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Trait–environment relationships are commonly interpreted as evidence for local adaptation in plants. However, even when selection analyses support this interpretation, the mechanisms underlying differential benefits are often unknown. This study addresses this gap in knowledge using the broadly distributed South African shrub Protea repens. Specifically, the study examines whether broad-scale patterns of trait variation are consistent with spatial differences in selection and ecophysiology in the wild. Methods In a common garden study of plants sourced from 19 populations, associations were measured between five morphological traits and three axes describing source climates. Trait–trait and trait–environment associations were analysed in a multi-response model. Within two focal populations in the wild, selection and path analyses were used to test associations between traits, fecundity and physiological performance. Key Results Across 19 populations in a common garden, stomatal density increased with the source population’s mean annual temperature and decreased with its average amount of rainfall in midsummer. Concordantly, selection analysis in two natural populations revealed positive selection on stomatal density at the hotter, drier site, while failing to detect selection at the cooler, moister site. Dry-site plants with high stomatal density also had higher stomatal conductances, cooler leaf temperatures and higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates than those with low stomatal density, but no such relationships were present among wet-site plants. Leaf area, stomatal pore index and specific leaf area in the garden also co-varied with climate, but within-population differences were not associated with fitness in either wild population. Conclusions The parallel patterns of broad-scale variation, differences in selection and differences in trait–ecophysiology relationships suggest a mechanism for adaptive differentiation in

  3. Testing Earth System Models with Earth System Data: using C isotopes in atmospheric CO2 to probe stomatal response to future climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Miller, J. B.; Bowling, D. R.; Tans, P. P.; Baker, I. T.

    2013-12-01

    The global cycles of water and carbon are inextricably linked through photosynthesis. This link is largely governed by stomatal conductance that regulates water loss to the atmosphere and carbon gain to the biosphere. Although extensive research has focused on the response of stomatal conductance to increased atmospheric CO2, much less research has focused on the response of stomatal conductance to concomitant climate change. Here we make use of intensive and extensive measurements of C isotopes in source CO2 to the atmosphere (del-bio) to make inferences about stomatal response to climatic factors at a single forest site and across a network of global observation sites. Based on intensive observations at the Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site we discover that del-bio is an excellent physical proxy of stomatal response during the growing season and this response is highly sensitive to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We use these intensive single forest site observations to inform our analysis of the global observation network, focusing in on the growing season across an array of terrestrial sites. We find that stomatal response across most of these terrestrial sites is also highly sensitive to VPD. Lastly, we simulate the response of future climate change on stomatal response and discover that future increases in VPD may limit the biosphere's capacity to assimilate future CO2 emissions. These results have direct implications for the benchmarking of Earth System Models as stomatal conductance in many of these models does not vary as a function of VPD.

  4. Diel trends in stomatal response to ozone and water deficit: a unique relationship of midday values to growth and allometry in Pima cotton?

    Treesearch

    D. A. Grantz; R. Paudel; H.-B. Vu; A. Shrestha; Nancy Grulke; L. J. De Kok

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to ozone (O3) and water deficit (WD) are commonly observed, although less is known about their interaction. Stomatal conductance (gs) is both an impact of these stressors and a protective response to them. Stomatal closure reduces inward flux of O3 and outward flux...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1281 - S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)-3-methyl-penta-(2Z,4E...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1281 S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-cyclohex-2... from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of S-Abscisic Acid in or on all food...

  6. Recognition of fibronectin by Penicillium marneffei conidia via a sialic acid-dependent process and its relationship to the interaction between conidia and laminin.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, A J; Jeavons, L; Youngchim, S; Vanittanakom, N

    1999-10-01

    Adhesion of Penicillium marneffei conidia to the extracellular matrix protein laminin via a sialic acid-dependent process has previously been demonstrated. This study describes the interaction of P. marneffei conidia with fibronectin and examines the relationship of this process to the recognition of laminin via conidia. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that fibronectin bound to the surface of conidia and to phialides, but not to hyphae, in a pattern similar to that reported for laminin. Conidia were able to bind to fibronectin immobilized on microtiter plates in a concentration-dependent manner. However, binding to fibronectin (at any given concentration of protein and conidia) was less than that to laminin under equivalent conditions. Soluble fibronectin and antifibronectin antibody inhibited adherence of conidia to fibronectin in the plate adherence assay; soluble laminin also caused pronounced inhibition. Various monosaccharides and several peptides had no effect on adherence to fibronectin. However, N-acetylneuraminic acid abolished adherence to fibronectin, indicating that the interaction was mediated through a sialic acid-dependent process; the latter parallels observations of laminin binding by conidia. Fibronectin binding (and binding of laminin) was considerably reduced by prolonged preincubation of conidia with chymotrypsin, suggesting the protein nature of the binding site. Conidia from older cultures were more adherent to both immobilized fibronectin and laminin than conidia from younger cultures. Ligand affinity binding demonstrated the presence of a 20-kDa protein with the ability to bind both fibronectin and laminin. There would therefore appear to be a common receptor for the binding of fibronectin and laminin on the surface of P. marneffei, and the interaction described here maybe important in mediating attachment of the fungus to host tissue.

  7. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  8. Light Moderates the Induction of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase by NaCl and Abscisic Acid in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum 1

    PubMed Central

    McElwain, Elizabeth F.; Bohnert, Hans J.; Thomas, John C.

    1992-01-01

    In Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is synthesized de novo in response to osmotic stress, as part of the switch from C3-photosynthesis to Crassulacean acid metabolism. To better understand the environmental signals involved in this pathway, we have investigated the effects of light on the induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNA and protein in response to stress by 400 millimolar NaCl or 10 micromolar abscisic acid in hydroponically grown plants. When plants were grown in high-intensity fluorescent or incandescent light (850 microeinsteins per square meter per second), NaCl and abscisic acid induced approximately an eightfold accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNA when compared to untreated controls. Levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein were high in these abscisic acid- and NaCl-treated plants, and detectable in the unstressed control. Growth in high-intensity incandescent (red) light resulted in approximately twofold higher levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase mRNA in the untreated plants when compared to control plants grown in high-intensity fluorescent light. In low light (300 microeinsteins per square meter per second fluorescent), only NaCl induced mRNA levels significantly above the untreated controls. Low light grown abscisic acid- and NaCl-treated plants contained a small amount of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase protein, whereas the (untreated) control plants did not contain detectable amounts of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Environmental stimuli, such as light and osmotic stress, exert a combined effect on gene expression in this facultative halophyte. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668999

  9. Abscisic acid related compounds and lignans in prunes (Prunus domestica L.) and their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC).

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Kayano, Shin-ichi; Fukutsuka, Naoko; Aoki, Asuka; Kasamatsu, Kumi; Yamasaki, Yuka; Mitani, Takahiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2004-01-28

    Four new abscisic acid related compounds (1-4), together with (+)-abscisic acid (5), (+)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate (6), (6S,9R)-roseoside (7), and two lignan glucosides ((+)-pinoresinol mono-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8) and 3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxymethyl)-2- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-(2R,3S)-dihydrobenzofuran (9)) were isolated from the antioxidative ethanol extract of prunes (Prunus domestica L.). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of NMR and MS spectrometric data to be rel-5-(3S,8S-dihydroxy-1R,5S-dimethyl-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo[3,2,1]oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid (1), rel-5-(3S,8S-dihydroxy-1R,5S-dimethyl-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo[3,2,1]oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid 3'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2), rel-5-(1R,5S-dimethyl-3R,4R,8S-trihydroxy-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo[3,2,1]oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid (3), and rel-5-(1R,5S-dimethyl-3R,4R,8S-trihydroxy-7-oxabicyclo[3,2,1]- oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid (4). The antioxidant activities of these isolated compounds were evaluated on the basis of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The ORAC values of abscisic acid related compounds (1-7) were very low. Two lignans (8 and 9) were more effective antioxidants whose ORAC values were 1.09 and 2.33 micromol of Trolox equiv/micromol, respectively.

  10. Quantification of ozone exposure- and stomatal uptake-yield response relationships for soybean in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Liu, Xiaobing; Hu, Enzhu

    2017-12-01

    High ground-level O 3 is a new threat to agricultural production in Northeast China with the increasing ambient O 3 concentration. Little is known about its impacts on soybean production in this key agricultural region. Accumulated O 3 exposure-response and stomatal O 3 flux-response relationships were developed during two continuous growing seasons to evaluate O 3 -induced yield reduction of four typical soybean cultivars in Northeast China. Results showed that critical levels of AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 concentrations over a threshold of 40nmol·mol -1 ), SUM06 (sum of all hourly average O 3 concentrations over 0.06μmol·mol -1 ) and W126 (sum of O 3 concentrations weighted by a sigmoidal function) in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield were 4.2, 7.6 and 6.8μmol·mol -1 ·h, respectively. The effect of O 3 on plants was influenced by leaf position in canopy. An improved Jarvis stomatal conductance model including leaf (node) position fitted well with field measurements. The best linear relationship between stomatal O 3 flux and relative soybean yield was obtained when phytotoxic ozone dose was integrated over a threshold of 9.6nmol·m -2 ·s -1 (POD 9.6 ) to represent the detoxification capacity of soybean. POD 9.6 and the commonly used POD 6 in relation to 5% reduction in relative seed yield of soybean were 0.9mmol·m -2 and 1.8mmol·m -2 , respectively. O 3 concentrations above ~38nmol·mol -1 contributed to POD 9.6 and caused seed yield loss in soybean. Current annual yield loss of soybean at ambient O 3 was estimated to range between 23.4% and 30.2%. The O 3 dose-response relationships and corresponding thresholds obtained here will benefit regional O 3 risk assessment on soybean production in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low relative humidity triggers RNA-directed de novo DNA methylation and suppression of genes controlling stomatal development

    PubMed Central

    Tricker, Penny J.; Gibbings, J. George; Rodríguez López, Carlos M.; Hadley, Paul; Wilkinson, Mike J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental cues influence the development of stomata on the leaf epidermis, and allow plants to exert plasticity in leaf stomatal abundance in response to the prevailing growing conditions. It is reported that Arabidopsis thaliana ‘Landsberg erecta’ plants grown under low relative humidity have a reduced stomatal index and that two genes in the stomatal development pathway, SPEECHLESS and FAMA, become de novo cytosine methylated and transcriptionally repressed. These environmentally-induced epigenetic responses were abolished in mutants lacking the capacity for de novo DNA methylation, for the maintenance of CG methylation, and in mutants for the production of short-interfering non-coding RNAs (siRNAs) in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. Induction of methylation was quantitatively related to the induction of local siRNAs under low relative humidity. Our results indicate the involvement of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene suppression at these loci in response to environmental stress. Thus, in a physiologically important pathway, a targeted epigenetic response to a specific environmental stress is reported and several of its molecular, mechanistic components are described, providing a tractable platform for future epigenetics experiments. Our findings suggest epigenetic regulation of stomatal development that allows for anatomical and phenotypic plasticity, and may help to explain at least some of the plant’s resilience to fluctuating relative humidity. PMID:22442411

  12. Oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell t