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Sample records for absence baseline characteristics

  1. Some characteristics of repeated sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, David

    1972-01-01

    Ferguson, D. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 420-431. Some characteristics of repeated sickness absence. Several studies have shown that frequency of absence attributed to sickness is not distributed randomly but tends to follow the negative binomial distribution, and this has been taken to support the concept of `proneness' to such absence. Thus, the distribution of sickness absence resembles that of minor injury at work demonstrated over 50 years ago. Because the investigation of proneness to absence does not appear to have been reported by others in Australia, the opportunity was taken, during a wider study of health among telegraphists in a large communications undertaking, to analyse some characteristics of repeated sickness absence. The records of medically certified and uncertified sickness absence of all 769 telegraphists continuously employed in all State capitals over a two-and-a-half-year period were compared with those of 411 clerks and 415 mechanics and, in Sydney, 380 mail sorters and 80 of their supervisors. All telegraphists in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane, and all mail sorters in Sydney, who were available and willing were later medically examined. From their absence pattern repeaters (employees who had had eight or more certified absences in two and a half years) were separated into three types based on a presumptive origin in chance, recurrent disease and symptomatic non-specific disorder. The observed distribution of individual frequency of certified absence over the full two-and-a-half-year period of study followed that expected from the univariate negative binomial, using maximum likelihood estimators, rather than the poisson distribution, in three of the four occupational groups in Sydney. Limited correlational and bivariate analysis supported the interpretation of proneness ascribed to the univariate fit. In the two groups studied, frequency of uncertified absence could not be fitted by the negative binomial, although the numbers of

  2. Influence of change in psychosocial work characteristics on sickness absence: The Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Head, Jenny; Kivimäki, Mika; Martikainen, Pekka; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E; Marmot, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    To study the influence of change in self perceived psychosocial work characteristics on subsequent rates of sickness absence. Prospective cohort study of British civil service employees. Job control, job demands, and work social supports were measured in 1985/88 and in 1991/93. Analyses included 3817 British civil servants with sickness absence records at baseline (1985-89) and for two follow up periods, early (1994-95) and later follow up (1996-98). Change in work characteristics predicted subsequent incidence of long spells of sickness absence (>7 days) in the early follow up period after adjustment for covariates including baseline work characteristics, health status, and sickness absence. Adjusted rate ratios were 1.23 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.46) for decreased compared with stable decision latitude; 1.17 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.36) for increased compared with stable job demands and 0.79 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.93) for increased compared with stable work social support. These associations were also seen in a sub-sample who did not change employment grade. In the later follow up period, associations between work change and long spells of sickness absence were similar for decision latitude, less pronounced for job demands, and no longer apparent for social supports. Changes in work characteristics were not associated with subsequent short spells of sickness absence (absence. These findings suggest that workplace interventions to improve psychosocial working conditions may reduce levels of sickness absence.

  3. Atmospheric phase characteristics of the ALMA long baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Barkats, Denis; Corder, Stuartt A.; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the world's largest millimeter/ submillimeter (mm / Submm) interferometer. Along with science observations, ALMA has performed several long baseline campaigns in the last 6 years to characterize and optimize its long baseline capabilities. To achieve full long baseline capability of ALMA, it is important to understand the characteristics of atmospheric phase fluctuation at long baselines, since it is believed to be the main cause of mm/submm image degradation. For the first time, we present detailed properties of atmospheric phase fluctuation at mm/submm wavelength from baselines up to 15 km in length. Atmospheric phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length with a power-law slope close to 0.6, and many of the data display a shallower slope (02.-03) at baseline length greater than about 15 km. Some of the data, on the other hand, show a single slope up to the maximum baseline length of around 15 km. The phase correction method based on water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for cases with precipitable water vapor (PWV) greater than 1 mm, typically yielding a 50% decrease or more in the degree of phase fluctuation. However, signicant amount of atmospheric phase fluctuation still remains after the WVR phase correction: about 200 micron in rms excess path length (rms phase fluctuation in unit of length) even at PWV less than 1 mm. This result suggests the existence of other non-water-vapor sources of phase fluctuation. and emphasizes the need for additional phase correction methods, such as band-to-band and/or fast switching.

  4. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Stolley, Melinda; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa; Singh, Vicky; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, and weight loss can reduce the risk of developing these diseases. Obesity is highly prevalent among Black women, but weight loss treatment for black women has been understudied until recently. The Obesity Reduction black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) is a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a culturally proficient weight loss and weight loss maintenance program for black women. This paper describes the design of the trial, the intervention, and baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods Two hundred thirteen obese black women aged 30–65 years were randomized to the intervention group or a general health control group. The intervention consists of a 6-month weight loss program followed by a 1-year maintenance program. Weight, dietary intake, and energy expenditure are measured at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Results More than 40% of participants had a baseline body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2 (class III obesity). Intake of fat and saturated fat was higher and consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fiber was lower than currently recommended guidelines. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity was high (median 85 min/day). However, objectively measured physical activity among a subgroup of participants was lower (median 15 min/day). Conclusions Weight loss among obese black women has received inadequate attention in relation to the magnitude of the problem. Factors that contribute to successful weight loss and more importantly, weight loss maintenance need to be identified. PMID:18774895

  5. Two industrial cohorts: baseline characteristics and factors associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ulrike; Stanford, Joseph B; Thiese, Matthew S; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Gren, Lisa H; Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T

    2015-05-01

    To describe demographic and health characteristics, and factors associated with obesity among production workers. This cross-sectional study analyzed baseline data from two occupational cohorts. Regression modeling was used to assess associations between worker characteristics and obesity. A total of 1974 subjects were included in these analyses. The mean body mass index was 29.5 kg/m (SD = 6.5). Having smoked in the past and currently smoking decreased the odds of being obese in the WISTAH Distal Upper Extremity cohort, whereas those feeling depressed had increased odds of being obese. Being a Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian and married increased the odds of obesity in the BackWorks Low Back Pain cohort. Factors associated with obesity differed substantially between the two cohorts. Recognizing factors associated with obesity in specific work settings may provide opportunities for optimizing preventive workplace interventions.

  6. Baseline Characteristics of Patients Predicting Suitability for Rapid Naltrexone Induction

    PubMed Central

    Mogali, Shanthi; Khan, Nabil A.; Drill, Esther S.; Pavlicova, Martina; Sullivan, Maria A.; Nunes, Edward; Bisaga, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Extended-release (XR) injection naltrexone has proved promising in the treatment of opioid dependence. Induction onto naltrexone is often accomplished with a procedure known as rapid naltrexone induction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-treatment patient characteristics as predictors of successful completion of a rapid naltrexone induction procedure prior to XR naltrexone treatment. Methods A chart review of 150 consecutive research participants (N = 84 completers and N = 66 non-completers) undergoing a rapid naltrexone induction with the buprenorphone-clonidine procedure were compared on a number of baseline demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Logistic regression was used to identify client characteristics that may predict successful initiation of naltrexone after a rapid induction-detoxification. Results Patients who failed to successfully initiate naltrexone were younger (AOR: 1.040, CI: 1.006, 1.075), and using 10 or more bags of heroin (or equivalent) per day (AOR: 0.881, CI: 0.820, 0.946). Drug use other than opioids was also predictive of failure to initiate naltrexone in simple bivariate analyses, but was no longer significant when controlling for age and opioid use level. Conclusions Younger age, and indicators of greater substance dependence severity (more current opioid use, other substance use) predict difficulty completing a rapid naltrexone induction procedure. Such patients might require a longer period of stabilization and/or more gradual detoxification prior to initiating naltrexone. Scientific Significance Our study findings identify specific characteristics of patients who responded positively to rapid naltrexone induction. PMID:25907815

  7. Baseline characteristics and enrichment results from the SONAR trial.

    PubMed

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Andress, Dennis L; Bakris, George; Brennan, John J; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hou, Fan Fan; Kitzman, Dalane W; Kohan, Donald; Makino, Hirofumi; McMurray, John; Perkovic, Vlado; Tobe, Sheldon; Wigderson, Melissa; Yi, Tingting; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2018-03-31

    The SONAR trial uses an enrichment design based on the individual response to the selective endothelin receptor antagonist atrasentan on efficacy (the degree of the individual response in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR]) and safety/tolerability (signs of sodium retention and acute increases in serum creatinine) to assess the effects of this agent on major renal outcomes. The patient population and enrichment results are described here. Patients with type 2 diabetes with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 25 to 75 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and UACR between 300 and 5000 mg/g were enrolled. After a run-in period, eligible patients received 0.75 mg/d of atrasentan for 6 weeks. A total of 2648 responder patients in whom UACR decreased by ≥30% compared to baseline were enrolled, as were 1020 non-responders with a UACR decrease of <30%. Patients who experienced a weight gain of >3 kg and in whom brain natriuretic peptide exceeded ≥300 pg/mL, or who experienced an increase in serum creatinine >20% (0.5 mg/dL), were not randomized. Baseline characteristics were similar for atrasentan responders and non-responders. Upon entry to the study, median UACR was 802 mg/g in responders and 920 mg/g in non-responders. After 6 weeks of treatment with atrasentan, the UACR change in responders was -48.8% (95% CI, -49.8% to -47.9%) and in non-responders was -1.2% (95% CI, -6.4% to 3.9%). Changes in other renal risk markers were similar between responders and non-responders except for a marginally greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and eGFR in responders. The enrichment period has successfully identified a population with a profound UACR reduction without clinical signs of sodium retention in whom a large atrasentan effect on clinically important renal outcomes is possible. The SONAR trial aims to establish whether atrasentan confers renal protection. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley

  8. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  9. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wave phase characteristics measured between 2012 and 2014 of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline campaigns. This paper presents the first detailed investigation of the characteristics of phase fluctuation and phase correction methods obtained with baseline lengths up to ˜15 km. The basic phase fluctuation characteristics can be expressed with the spatial structure function (SSF). Most of the SSFs show that the phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length, with a power-law slope of ˜0.6. In many cases, we find that the slope becomes shallower (average of ˜0.2-0.3) at baseline lengths longer than ˜1 km, namely showing a turn-over in SSF. These power law slopes do not change with the amount of precipitable water vapor (PWV), but the fitted constants have a weak correlation with PWV, so that the phase fluctuation at a baseline length of 10 km also increases as a function of PWV. The phase correction method using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for the cases where PWV > 1 {mm}, which reduces the degree of phase fluctuations by a factor of two in many cases. However, phase fluctuations still remain after the WVR phase correction, suggesting the existence of other turbulent constituent that cause the phase fluctuation. This is supported by occasional SSFs that do not exhibit any turn-over; these are only seen when the PWV is low (i.e., when the WVR phase correction works less effectively) or after WVR phase correction. This means that the phase fluctuation caused by this turbulent constituent is inherently smaller than that caused by water vapor. Since in these rare cases there is no turn-over in the SSF up to the maximum baseline length of ˜15 km, this turbulent constituent must have scale height of 10 km or more, and thus cannot be water vapor, whose scale height is around 1 km. Based on the characteristics, this large scale height turbulent constituent is likely

  10. A Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles: Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankin, Jean H.; Nomura, Abraham M.Y.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Stram, Daniel O.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Earle, Maj E.; Nagamine, Faye S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the design and implementation of a large multiethnic cohort established to study diet and cancer in the United States. They detail the source of the subjects, sample size, questionnaire development, pilot work, and approaches to future analyses. The cohort consists of 215,251 adult men and women (age 45–75 years at baseline) living in Hawaii and in California (primarily Los Angeles County) with the following ethnic distribution: African-American (16.3%), Latino (22.0%), Japanese-American (26.4%), Native Hawaiian (6.5%), White (22.9%), and other ancestry (5.8%). From 1993 to 1996, participants entered the cohort by completing a 26-page, self-administered mail questionnaire that elicited a quantitative food frequency history, along with demographic and other information. Response rates ranged from 20% in Latinos to 49% in Japanese-Americans. As expected, both within and among ethnic groups, the questionnaire data show substantial variations in dietary intakes (nutrients as well as foods) and in the distributions of non-dietary risk factors (including smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, and physical activity). When compared with corresponding ethnic-specific cancer incidence rates, the findings provide tentative support for several current dietary hypotheses. As sufficient numbers of cancer cases are identified through surveillance of the cohort, dietary and other hypotheses will be tested in prospective analyses. PMID:10695593

  11. The Sister Study Cohort: Baseline Methods and Participant Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M. Elizabeth; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Juras, Paula S.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Suarez, Lourdes M.; Kleeberger, Cynthia A.; Shore, David L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Taylor, Jack A.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Sister Study was designed to address gaps in the study of environment and breast cancer by taking advantage of more frequent breast cancer diagnoses among women with a sister history of breast cancer and the presumed enrichment of shared environmental and genetic exposures. Objective: The Sister Study sought a large cohort of women never diagnosed with breast cancer but who had a sister (full or half) diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A multifaceted national effort employed novel strategies to recruit a diverse cohort, and collected biological and environmental samples and extensive data on potential breast cancer risk factors. Results: The Sister Study enrolled 50,884 U.S. and Puerto Rican women 35–74y of age (median 56 y). Although the majority were non-Hispanic white, well educated, and economically well off, substantial numbers of harder-to-recruit women also enrolled (race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white: 16%; no college degree: 35%; household income <$50,000: 26%). Although all had a biologic sister with breast cancer, 16.5% had average or lower risk of breast cancer according to the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (Gail score). Most were postmenopausal (66%), parous with a first full-term pregnancy <30y of age (79%), never-smokers (56%) with body mass indexes (BMIs) of <29.9 kg/m2 (70%). Few (5%) reported any cancer prior to enrollment. Conclusions: The Sister Study is a unique cohort designed to efficiently study environmental and genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Extensive exposure data over the life-course and baseline specimens provide important opportunities for studying breast cancer and other health outcomes in women. Collaborations are welcome. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1923 PMID:29373861

  12. Estimating effectiveness of HPV vaccination against HPV infection from post-vaccination data in the absence of baseline data.

    PubMed

    Vänskä, Simopekka; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim

    2018-04-28

    HPV vaccination programs have been introduced in large parts of the world, but monitoring of effectiveness is not routinely performed. Many countries introduced vaccination programs without establishing the baseline of HPV prevalences. We developed and validated methods to estimate protective effectiveness (PE) of vaccination from the post-vaccination data alone using references, which are invariant under HPV vaccination. Type-specific HPV prevalence data for 15-39 year-old women were collected from the pre- and post-vaccination era in a region in southern Sweden. In a region in middle Sweden, where no baseline data had been collected, only post-vaccination data was collected. The age-specific baseline prevalence of vaccine HPV types (vtHPV, HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) were reconstructed as Beta distributions from post-vaccination data by applying the reference odds ratios between the target HPV type and non-vaccine-type HPV (nvtHPV) prevalences. Older non-vaccinated age cohorts and the southern Sweden region were used as the references. The methods for baseline reconstructions were validated by computing the Bhattacharyya coefficient (BC), a measure for divergence, between reconstructed and actual observed prevalences for vaccine HPV types in Southern Sweden, and in addition, for non-vaccine types in both regions. The PE estimates among 18-21 year-old women were validated by comparing the PE estimates that were based on the reconstructed baseline prevalences against the PE estimates based on the actual baseline prevalences. In Southern Sweden the PEs against vtHPV were 52.2% (95% CI: 44.9-58.5) using the reconstructed baseline and 49.6% (43.2-55.5) using the actual baseline, with high BC 82.7% between the reconstructed and actual baseline. In the middle Sweden region where baseline data was missing, the PE was estimated at 40.5% (31.6-48.5). Protective effectiveness of HPV vaccination can be estimated from post-vaccination data alone via reconstructing the baseline

  13. 'Mental health day' sickness absence amongst nurses and midwives: workplace, workforce, psychosocial and health characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Perry, Lin; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Gallagher, Robyn; Nicholls, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    To examine the workforce, workplace, psychosocial and health characteristics of nurses and midwives in relation to their reported use of sickness absence described as 'mental health days'. The occupational stress associated with the nursing profession is increasingly recognized and nurse/midwifery absenteeism is a significant global problem. Taking a 'mental health day' as sickness absence is a common phenomenon in Australian health care. No previous studies have empirically explored the characteristics of nurses and midwives using such sickness absence. Online cross-sectional survey. Survey comprising validated tools and questions on workplace and health characteristics was distributed to nurses and midwives in New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 - February 2015. Sample characteristics were reported using descriptive statistics. Factors independently predictive of 'mental health day' reportage were determined using logistic regression. Fifty-four percentage of the n = 5041 nurse and midwife respondents took 'mental health days'. Those affected were significantly more likely to be at younger ages, working shifts with less time sitting at work; to report workplace abuse and plans to leave; having been admitted to hospital in previous 12 months; to be current smokers; to report mental health problems, accomplishing less due to emotional problems and current psychotropic medication use. Specific characteristics of nurses and midwives who report taking 'mental health day' sickness absence offer healthcare administrators and managers opportunities for early identification and intervention with workplace measures and support frameworks to promote well-being, health promotion and safety. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial work characteristics and long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders.

    PubMed

    van Hoffen, Marieke F A; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Heymans, Martijn W; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-02-09

    Psychosocial work characteristics are associated with all-cause long-term sickness absence (LTSA). This study investigated whether psychosocial work characteristics such as higher workload, faster pace of work, less variety in work, lack of performance feedback, and lack of supervisor support are prospectively associated with higher LTSA due to mental disorders. Cohort study including 4877 workers employed in the distribution and transport sector in The Netherlands. Psychosocial work characteristics were included in a logistic regression model estimating the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mental LTSA during 2-year follow-up. The ability of the regression model to discriminate between workers with and without mental LTSA was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Tow thousand seven hundred and eighty-two (57%) workers were included in the analysis; 73 (3%) had mental LTSA. Feedback about one's performance (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.70-0.96) was associated with mental LTSA. A prediction model including psychosocial work characteristics poorly discriminated (AUC = 0.65; 95% CI 0.56-0.74) between workers with and without mental LTSA. Feedback about one's performance is associated with lower rates of mental LTSA, but it is not useful to measure psychosocial work characteristics to identify workers at risk of mental LTSA.

  15. The Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial. Part 1. Baseline patient characteristics, fibroid burden, and impact on life.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Cohen, Marsha; Soucie, Jennifer; Garvin, Greg; Vanderburgh, Leslie; Bell, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    To determine baseline characteristics of women undergoing uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroids. Multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical treatment trial. Eight Ontario university and community hospitals. Five hundred fifty-five women undergoing UAE for fibroids. Baseline questionnaires completed before UAE. Questionnaires were analyzed for demographic, medical, and gynecologic histories. Fibroid symptoms, impact of symptoms, previous consultations, and treatments were also analyzed. The Ontario cohort (66% white, 23% black, 11% other races) had an average age of 43. Thirty-one percent were under age 40. Most women were university educated (68%) and working outside the home (85%). Women reported heavy menstrual bleeding (80%), urinary urgency/frequency (73%), pain during intercourse (41%), and work absences (40%). They experienced fibroid-related symptoms for an average of 5 years and consulted with on average of three gynecologists before UAE. High fibroid life-impact scores were reported by 58%. Black women were significantly younger (40.7 vs. 44.0 years), more likely to experience symptoms longer (7 vs. 5 years), and more likely to undergo myomectomy before UAE (24% vs. 9%) than white women. Our study illustrates that large numbers of women with highly symptomatic fibroid disease are averse to surgery despite their burden of suffering and are actively seeking alternatives to hysterectomy.

  16. The steroids for corneal ulcers trial: study design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V; Ray, Kathryn J; Hong, Kevin C; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lee, Salena M; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R

    2012-02-01

    To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbiological results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P = .04) and deeper infiltrates (P = .04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P = .002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n = 366, 72%). The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00324168.

  17. The Ahmed Versus Baerveldt study: design, baseline patient characteristics, and intraoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Panos G; Tsai, James C; Zurakowski, David; Kalenak, Jeffrey W; Cantor, Louis B; Ahmed, Iqbal I K

    2011-11-01

    To report the design, baseline patient characteristics, and intraoperative complications of the Ahmed Versus Baerveldt (AVB) Study. Multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Patients were recruited from 7 international clinical sites and treated by 10 surgeons between 2005 and 2009. Inclusion criteria required that patients be at least 18 years of age and have uncontrolled glaucoma refractory to medicinal, laser, and surgical therapy. Eligible patients were randomized to undergo implantation of an Ahmed-FP7 valve (New World Medical, Inc., Rancho Cucamonga, CA) or a Baerveldt-350 implant (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) using standardized surgical technique, to be followed for 5 years. The primary outcome measure was failure, defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) out of target range (5-18 mmHg with ≥ 20% reduction from baseline) for 2 consecutive visits after 3 months, vision-threatening complications, additional glaucoma procedures, or loss of light perception. Secondary outcome measures included IOP, medication use, visual acuity, complications, and interventions. A total of 238 patients were enrolled in the study; 124 received the Ahmed-FP7 valve implant and 114 received the Baerveldt-350 implant. The 2 treatment groups did not differ in any baseline characteristics with the exception of sex. The mean age of the study group was 66 ± 16 years, and 55% were women, with a greater proportion in the Baerveldt group (P=0.01). The mean baseline IOP of the study group was 31.4 ± 10.8 on a mean of 3.1 ± 1.0 glaucoma medications. The median Snellen visual acuity was 20/100, mean number of previous laser therapies was 0.9 ± 1.1, and mean number of previous surgeries was 1.7 ± 1.2. Five (4%) patients in the Ahmed group and 4 (4%) patients in the Baerveldt group experienced significant intraoperative complications. Aqueous drainage devices are being increasingly used for glaucoma refractory to conventional treatment, and the AVB Study compares the 2 most

  18. Assisted care as a baseline patient risk characteristic affecting the outcome of transcatheter aortic valve insertion.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Megan M; Greason, Kevin L; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Pochettino, Alberto; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Reeder, Guy S; Bresnahan, John F; Mathew, Verghese

    2017-06-01

    Objective measures of frailty have not been well defined as risk factors for a poor outcome after transcatheter aortic valve insertion. We hypothesized that assisted care as a baseline patient characteristic was a simple objective measure of frailty. We reviewed our experience to assess for an association between assisted care and outcome of operation. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 597 patients operated with transcatheter aortic valve insertion from November 2008 through July 2015. The study cohort included patients with a dichotomous baseline characteristic of receiving assisted care (AC group, n = 60, 10.1%) or not receiving assisted care (NC group, n = 537, 89.9%). The endpoints of the study were operative stroke/death and 1-year survival. The age of the patients was 80.6 ± 9.0 years, male sex was present in 349 (58.5%), and STS predicted risk of mortality was 9.2 ± 6.2%. Alternate access was used in 26 (43.3%) patients in the AC care group and in 220 (41.0%) in the NC group (P = 0.724). Operative stroke/death occurred in 4 (6.7%) patients in the AC group and in 25 (4.7%) in the NC group (P = 0.492). Mortality at 1 year in the AC group was 14.8 ± 5.2% and in the NC group was 12.9 ± 1.7%; (P = 0. 250). Assisted care as a baseline patient characteristic does not result in increased operative stroke/death or 1-year mortality in patients following transcatheter aortic valve insertion. Assisted care should not by itself preclude operation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Intervention characteristics that facilitate return to work after sickness absence: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2012-12-01

    In many Western countries, a vast amount of interventions exist that aim to facilitate return to work (RTW) after sickness absence. These interventions are usually focused on specific target populations such as employees with low back pain, stress-related complaints or adjustment disorders. The aim of the present study is to detect and identify characteristics of RTW interventions that generally facilitate return to work (i.e. in multiple target populations and across interventions). This type of knowledge is highly relevant to policy makers and health practitioners who want to deliver evidence based care that supports the employee's health and participation in labour. We performed a keyword search (systematic literature review) in seven databases (period: 1994-2010). In total, 23 articles were included and assessed for their methodological quality. The characteristics of the interventions were evaluated as well. Early interventions, initiated in the first 6 weeks of the RTW process were scarce. These were effective to support RTW though. Multidisciplinary interventions appeared effective to support RTW in multiple target groups (e.g. back pain and adjustment disorders). Time contingent interventions in which activities followed a pre-defined schedule were effective in all physical complaints studied in this review. Activating interventions such as gradual RTW were effective in physical complaints. They have not been studied for people with psychological complaints. Early- and multidisciplinary intervention and time-contingent-, activating interventions appear most effective to support RTW.

  20. The steps to health employee weight management randomized control trial: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Østbye, Truls; Stroo, Marissa; Brouwer, Rebecca J N; Peterson, Bercedis L; Eisenstein, Eric L; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joyner, Julie; Gulley, Libby; Dement, John M

    2013-07-01

    The workplace can be an important setting for addressing obesity. An increasing number of employers offer weight management programs. Present the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of the Steps to Health study (STH), a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two preexisting employee weight management programs offered at Duke University and Medical Center. 550 obese (BMI ≥30) employee volunteers were randomized 1:1 to two programs. Baseline data, collected between January 2011 and July 2012, included height/weight, accelerometry, workplace injuries, health care utilization, and questionnaires querying socio-cognitive factors, perceptions of health climate, physical activity, and dietary intake. In secondary analyses participants in the two programs will also be compared to a non-randomized observational control group of obese employees. At baseline, the mean age was 45 years, 83% were female, 41% white, and 53% black. Mean BMI was 37.2. Participants consumed a mean of 2.37 servings of fruits and vegetables per day (in the past week), participated in 11.5 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and spent 620 min being sedentary. STH addresses the need for evaluation of worksite interventions to promote healthy weight. In addition to having direct positive effects on workers' health, worksite programs have the potential to increase productivity and reduce health care costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of diabetes based on baseline metabolic characteristics in individuals at high risk.

    PubMed

    Defronzo, Ralph A; Tripathy, Devjit; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Maryann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2013-11-01

    Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined which characteristics at baseline predicted the development of T2DM versus maintenance of IGT or conversion to normal glucose tolerance. We studied 228 subjects at high risk with IGT who received treatment with placebo in ACT NOW and who underwent baseline anthropometric measures and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. In a univariate analysis, 45 of 228 (19.7%) IGT individuals developed diabetes. After adjusting for age, sex, and center, increased fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, G0-120 during OGTT, HbA1c, adipocyte insulin resistance index, ln fasting plasma insulin, and ln I0-120, as well as family history of diabetes and presence of metabolic syndrome, were associated with increased risk of diabetes. At baseline, higher insulin secretion (ln [I0-120/G0-120]) during the OGTT was associated with decreased risk of diabetes. Higher β-cell function (insulin secretion/insulin resistance or disposition index; ln [I0-120/G0-120 × Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity]; odds ratio 0.11; P < 0.0001) was the variable most closely associated with reduced risk of diabetes. In a stepwise multiple-variable analysis, only HbA1c and β-cell function (ln insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) predicted the development of diabetes (r = 0.49; P < 0.0001).

  2. The Female Athlete Body (FAB) study: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tiffany M; Pollard, Tarryn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Beyl, Robbie; Wesley, Nicole; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2017-09-01

    Eating Disorders (EDs) are serious psychiatric illnesses marked by psychiatric comorbidity, medical complications, and functional impairment. Research indicates that female athletes are often at greater risk for developing ED pathology versus non-athlete females. The Female Athlete Body (FAB) study is a three-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to assess the efficacy of a behavioral ED prevention program for female collegiate athletes when implemented by community providers. This paper describes the design, intervention, and participant baseline characteristics. Future papers will discuss outcomes. Female collegiate athletes (N=481) aged 17-21 were randomized by site, team, and sport type to either FAB or a waitlist control group. FAB consisted of three sessions (1.3h each) of a behavioral ED prevention program. Assessments were conducted at baseline (pre-intervention), post-intervention (3weeks), and six-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups. This study achieved 96% (N=481) of target recruitment (N=500). Few group differences emerged at baseline. Total sample analyses revealed moderately low baseline instances of ED symptoms and clinical cases. Health risks associated with EDs necessitate interventions for female athletes. The FAB study is the largest existing RCT for female athletes aimed at both reduction of ED risk factors and ED prevention. The methods presented and population recruited for this study represent an ideal intervention for assessing the effects of FAB on both the aforementioned outcomes. We anticipate that findings of this study (reported in future papers) will make a significant contribution to the ED risk factor reduction and prevention literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Esophageal baseline impedance levels in patients with pathophysiological characteristics of functional heartburn.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, I; de Bortoli, N; Savarino, E; Piaggi, P; Bellini, M; Antonelli, A; Savarino, V; Frazzoni, M; Marchi, S

    2014-04-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that low esophageal basal impedance may reflect impaired mucosal integrity and increased acid sensitivity. We aimed to compare baseline impedance levels in patients with heartburn and pathophysiological characteristics related to functional heartburn (FH) divided into two groups on the basis of symptom relief after proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients with heartburn and negative endoscopy were treated with esomeprazole or pantoprazole 40 mg daily for 8 weeks. According to MII-pH (off therapy) analysis, patients with normal acid exposure time (AET), normal reflux number, and lack of association between symptoms and refluxes were selected; of whom 30 patients with a symptom relief higher than 50% after PPIs composed Group A, and 30 patients, matched for sex and age, without symptom relief composed Group B. A group of 20 healthy volunteers (HVs) was enrolled. For each patient and HV, we evaluated the baseline impedance levels at channel 3, during the overnight rest, at three different times. Group A (vs Group B) showed an increase in the following parameters: mean AET (1.4 ± 0.8% vs 0.5 ± 0.6%), mean reflux number (30.4 ± 8.7 vs 24 ± 6.9), proximal reflux number (11.1 ± 5.2 vs 8.2 ± 3.6), acid reflux number (17.9 ± 6.1 vs 10.7 ± 6.9). Baseline impedance levels were lower in Group A than in Group B and in HVs (p < 0.001). Evaluating baseline impedance levels in patients with heartburn and normal AET could achieve a better understanding of pathophysiology in reflux disease patients, and could improve the distinction between FH and hypersensitive esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Baseline Characteristics of fall from Height Victims Presenting to Emergency Department; a Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali; Atighinasab, Batoul; Safari, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Trauma due to accidents or fall from height is a major cause of disability and mortality. The present study was designed aiming to evaluate the baseline characteristics of fall from height victims presenting to emergency department (ED). This prospective cross-sectional study evaluates the baseline characteristics of fall from height cases presenting to EDs of three educational Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, during one year. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and presented using descriptive statistics. 460 patients with the mean age of 27.89 ± 20.95 years were evaluated (76.5% male). 191 (41.5%) falls occurred when working, 27 (5.9%) during play, and 242 (52.6%) in other times. Among construction workers, 166 (81.4%) had not used any safety equipment. Fracture and dislocation with 180 (39.1%) cases and soft tissue injury with 166 (36.1%) were the most common injuries inflicted. Mean height of falling was 3.41 ± 0.34 (range: 0.5 - 20) meters. Finally, 8 (1.7%) of the patients died (50% intentional) and 63% were discharged from ED. A significant correlation was detected between mortality and the falls being intentional (p < 0.0001) as well as greater height of fall (p < 0.0001). Based on the findings, most fall from height victims in the present study were young men, single, construction workers, with less than high school diploma education level. Intentional fall and greater height of falling significantly correlated with mortality.

  5. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 3. Baseline characteristics of black and white patients.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the differences at baseline in demographic, medical, and ophthalmic characteristics between blacks and whites enrolled in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 332 black patients (451 eyes), 249 white patients (325 eyes), and 10 patients of other races (13 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma that could not be controlled by medical therapy alone participated. There was no intervention performed. The investigators compare the baseline demographic, medical, and ophthalmic characteristics of black and white patients, adjusting the comparisons for age and gender. Blacks in the study were younger than whites and had more systemic hypertension and diabetes than whites. The visual field defects of blacks on average were substantially more severe than those of whites. Intraocular pressures and visual acuity scores were similar in the two groups. Blacks were more hyperopic and had relatively fewer disk rim hemorrhages than whites. The findings of the current study concur with those of previous clinical studies of open-angle glaucoma that visual field defects are more severe in blacks than whites.

  6. Baseline Characteristics of African Americans in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)

    PubMed Central

    Still, Carolyn H.; Craven, Timothy E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Van Buren, Peter; Sink, Kaycee M.; Killeen, Anthony A.; Bates, Jeffrey T.; Bee, Alberta; Contreras, Gabriel; Oparil, Suzanne; Pedley, Carolyn; Wall, Barry; White, Suzanne; Woods, Delia; Rodriguez, Carlos; Wright, Jackson T.

    2015-01-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) will compare treatment to a systolic blood pressure goal of <120 mmHg to treatment to the currently recommended goal of <140 mmHg for effects on incident cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic outcomes including cognitive decline. Objectives The objectives of this analysis are to compare baseline characteristics of African American (AA) and non-AA SPRINT participants and explore factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) by race. Methods SPRINT enrolled 9,361 hypertensive participants over age 50. This cross-sectional analysis examines sociodemographics, baseline characteristics, and study measures among AAs compared to non-AAs. Results AAs made up 31% of participants. AAs (compared to non-AAs) were younger and less frequently male, had less education, and were more likely uninsured or covered by Medicaid. In addition, AAs scored lower on the cognitive screening test when compared to non-AAs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found BP control rates to <140/90 mmHg were higher for AAs who were male, had higher number of chronic diseases, were on diuretic treatment, and had better medication adherence. Conclusion SPRINT is well poised to examine the effects of SBP targets on clinical outcomes as well as predictors influencing BP control in AAs. PMID:26320890

  7. Re- and Demineralization Characteristics of Enamel Depending on Baseline Mineral Loss and Lesion Depth in situ.

    PubMed

    Wierichs, Richard J; Lausch, Julian; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, cross-over in situ study was to evaluate the re- and demineralization characteristics of sound enamel as well as lowly and highly demineralized caries-like enamel lesions after the application of different fluoride compounds. In each of three experimental legs of 4 weeks, 21 participants wore intraoral mandibular appliances containing 4 bovine enamel specimens (2 lowly and 2 highly demineralized). Each specimen included one sound enamel and either one lowly demineralized (7 days, pH 4.95) or one highly demineralized (21 days, pH 4.95) lesion, and was positioned 1 mm below the acrylic under a plastic mesh. The three randomly allocated treatments (application only) included the following dentifrices: (1) 1,100 ppm F as NaF, (2) 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 and (3) 0 ppm F (fluoride-free) as negative control. Differences in integrated mineral loss (x0394;x0394;Z) and lesion depth (x0394;LD) were calculated between values before and after the in situ period using transversal microradiography. Of the 21 participants, 6 did not complete the study and 2 were excluded due to protocol violation. Irrespectively of the treatment, higher baseline mineral loss and lesion depth led to a less pronounced change in mineral loss and lesion depth. Except for x0394;x0394;Z of the dentifrice with 0 ppm F, sound surfaces showed significantly higher x0394;x0394;Z and x0394;LD values compared with lowly and highly demineralized lesions (p < 0.05, t test). Re- and demineralization characteristics of enamel depended directly on baseline mineral loss and lesion depth. Treatment groups should therefore be well balanced with respect to baseline mineral loss and lesion depth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Ross A.; Crawley, William R.; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR, and Cosio-Lima, LM. Physical fitness of police academy cadets: baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1416–1424, 2016—Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk−1, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8–16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  9. Baseline Physiologic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Transgender Youth Seeking Care for Gender Dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Olson, Johanna; Schrager, Sheree M; Belzer, Marvin; Simons, Lisa K; Clark, Leslie F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics of participants in a prospective observational study of transgender youth (aged 12-24 years) seeking care for gender dysphoria at a large, urban transgender youth clinic. Eligible participants presented consecutively for care at between February 2011 and June 2013 and completed a computer-assisted survey at their initial study visit. Physiologic data were abstracted from medical charts. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, with limited comparisons between transmasculine and transfeminine participants. A total of 101 youth were evaluated for physiologic parameters, 96 completed surveys assessing psychosocial parameters. About half (50.5%) of the youth were assigned a male sex at birth. Baseline physiologic values were within normal ranges for assigned sex at birth. Youth recognized gender incongruence at a mean age of 8.3 years (standard deviation = 4.5), yet disclosed to their family much later (mean = 17.1; standard deviation = 4.2). Gender dysphoria was high among all participants. Thirty-five percent of the participants reported depression symptoms in the clinical range. More than half of the youth reported having thought about suicide at least once in their lifetime, and nearly a third had made at least one attempt. Baseline physiologic parameters were within normal ranges for assigned sex at birth. Transgender youth are aware of the incongruence between their internal gender identity and their assigned sex at early ages. Prevalence of depression and suicidality demonstrates that youth may benefit from timely and appropriate intervention. Evaluation of these youth over time will help determine the impact of medical intervention and mental health therapy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Baseline Physiologic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Transgender Youth Seeking Care for Gender Dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Johanna; Schrager, Sheree M.; Belzer, Marvin; Simons, Lisa K.; Clark, Leslie F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics of participants in a prospective observational study of transgender youth (aged 12–24 years) seeking care for gender dysphoria at a large, urban transgender youth clinic. Methods Eligible participants presented consecutively for care at between February 2011 and June 2013 and completed a computer-assisted survey at their initial study visit. Physiologic data were abstracted from medical charts. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, with limited comparisons between transmasculine and transfeminine participants. Results A total of 101 youth were evaluated for physiologic parameters, 96 completed surveys assessing psychosocial parameters. About half (50.5%) of the youth were assigned a male sex at birth. Baseline physiologic values were within normal ranges for assigned sex at birth. Youth recognized gender incongruence at a mean age of 8.3 years (standard deviation = 4.5), yet disclosed to their family much later (mean = 17.1; standard deviation = 4.2). Gender dysphoria was high among all participants. Thirty-five percent of the participants reported depression symptoms in the clinical range. More than half of the youth reported having thought about suicide at least once in their lifetime, and nearly a third had made at least one attempt. Conclusions Baseline physiologic parameters were within normal ranges for assigned sex at birth. Transgender youth are aware of the incongruence between their internal gender identity and their assigned sex at early ages. Prevalence of depression and suicidality demonstrates that youth may benefit from timely and appropriate intervention. Evaluation of these youth over time will help determine the impact of medical intervention and mental health therapy. PMID:26208863

  11. The dry eye assessment and management (DREAM©) study: Study design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Asbell, Penny A; Maguire, Maureen G; Peskin, Ellen; Bunya, Vatinee Y; Kuklinski, Eric J

    2018-06-05

    Describe trial design and baseline characteristics of participants in the DRy Eye Assessment and Management (DREAM©) Study. Prospective, multi-center, randomized, double-masked "real-world" clinical trial assessing efficacy and safety of oral omega-3 (ω3) supplementation for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 58.0 ± 13.2 years. Mean OSDI score at baseline was 44.4 ± 14.2. Mean conjunctival staining score (scale 0-6) was 3.0 ± 1.4, corneal staining score (scale 0-15) was 3.9 ± 2.7, tear break-up time was 3.1 ± 1.5 s, and Schirmer test was 9.6 ± 6.5 mm/5 min. DREAM© participants mirror real world patients who seek intervention for their DED-related symptoms despite their current treatments. Results regarding the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation will be helpful to clinicians and patients with moderate to severe DED who are considering omega-3 as a treatment. This trial design may be a model for future RCT's on nutritional supplements and DED treatments seeking to provide useful information for clinical practice. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02128763. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Baseline Demographic, Anthropometric, Psychosocial, and Behavioral Characteristics of Rural, Southern Women in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Objectives Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) characteristics of rural, Southern, pregnant women enrolled in a maternal, infant, and early childhood home visiting program are described. Methods Participants included 82 women early in their second trimester of pregnancy and residing in three Lower Mississippi Delta counties in the United States. Baseline data were collected through direct measurement and surveys. Results Participants were primarily African American (96 %), young (mean age = 23 years), single (93 %), and received Medicaid (92 %). Mean gestational age was 18 weeks, 67 % of participants were overweight or obese before becoming pregnant, and 16 % tested positive for major depression. Participants were sedentary (mean minutes of moderate intensity physical activity/week = 30), had low diet quality (mean Healthy Eating Index-2010 total score = 43 points), with only 38, 4, and 7 % meeting recommendations for saturated fat, fiber, and sodium intakes, respectively. Conclusions for Practice In the Lower Mississippi Delta, there is a need for interventions that are designed to help women achieve optimal GWG by improving their diet quality and increasing the amount of physical activity performed during pregnancy. Researchers also should consider addressing barriers to changing health behaviors during pregnancy that may be unique to this region of the United States.

  13. Baseline characteristics and recruitment strategies in a randomized clinical trial of African-American light smokers.

    PubMed

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nollen, Nicole L; Snow, Tricia M; Kaur, Harsohena; Choi, Won; Nazir, Niaman; Mayo, Matthew S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the design, recruitment, and baseline data of the first smoking-cessation clinical trial for African-American light smokers, Kick It at Swope II (KIS-II). KIS-II was a randomized trial testing the efficacy of nicotine gum (vs. placebo gum) in combination with counseling (motivational interviewing or health education). This study was conducted at an urban community-based clinic serving predominantly lower-income African-Americans. African-Americans who smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes per day were eligible. Of 1933 individuals screened, 1012 (52%) were eligible and 755 (75%) were enrolled in the study. Baseline assessment included smoking history and psychometric measures. The majority of participants were women (67%) with a mean age of 45.1 years (SD = 10.7). Participants smoked on average 7.6 cigarettes (SD = 3.21) per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide level of 13.9 ppm (SD = 8.9) and a mean serum cotinine level of 244.2 ng/mL (SD = 154.4), and reported high levels of motivation and confidence to quit smoking. African-American light smokers were motivated to stop smoking and to enroll in a smoking-cessation program. Characteristics of our sample suggest African-American light smokers are an appropriate group for inclusion in smoking-cessation interventions.

  14. The Mother-Infant Study Cohort (MISC): Methodology, challenges, and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Mona; Shaker Obaid, Reyad; Hasan, Hayder; Naja, Farah; Al Ghazal, Hessa; Jan Jan Mohamed, Hamid; Al Hilali, Marwa; Rayess, Rana; Izzaldin, Ghamra

    2018-01-01

    Background The United Arab Emirates (UAE) exhibits alarming high prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors. Emerging evidence highlighted the role of maternal and early child nutrition in preventing later-onset NCDs. The objectives of this article are to describe the design and methodology of the first Mother and Infant Study Cohort (MISC) in UAE; present the baseline demographic characteristics of the study participants; and discuss the challenges of the cohort and their respective responding strategies. Methods The MISC is an ongoing two-year prospective cohort study which recruited Arab pregnant women in their third trimester from prenatal clinics in Dubai, Sharjah and Ajman. Participants will be interviewed six times (once during pregnancy, at delivery, and at 2, 6, 12 and 24months postpartum). Perinatal information is obtained from hospital records. Collected data include socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry; infant feeding practices, cognitive development; along with maternal and infant blood profile and breast milk profile. Results The preliminary results reported that 256 completed baseline assessment (mean age: 30.5±6.0 years; 76.6% multiparous; about 60% were either overweight or obese before pregnancy). The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 19.2%. Upon delivery, 208 women-infant pairs were retained (mean gestational age: 38.5±1.5 weeks; 33.3% caesarean section delivery; 5.3% low birthweight; 5.7% macrosomic deliveries). Besides participant retention, the main encountered challenges pertained to cultural complexity, underestimation the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs, and biochemical data collection. Conclusions Despite numerous methodological, logistical and sociocultural challenges, satisfactory follow-up rates are recorded. Strategies addressing challenges are documented, providing information for planning and implementing future birth cohort studies locally and

  15. The Work-It Study for people with arthritis: Study protocol and baseline sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Keysor, Julie J; AlHeresh, Rawan; Vaughan, Molly; LaValley, Michael P; Allaire, Saralynn

    2016-06-14

    People with arthritis are at risk of work disability. Job accommodation and educational programs delivered before imminent work loss can minimize work disability, yet are not currently being widely implemented. The Work-It Study is a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a problem solving program delivered by physical and occupational therapy practitioners to prevent work loss over a two-year period among people with arthritis and rheumatological conditions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of the randomized controlled trial, and describe the baseline characteristics of the subjects and their work outcomes. 287 participants were recruited from the Boston area in Massachusetts, USA. Eligible participants were aged between 21-65, self-reported a physicians' diagnosis of arthritis, rheumatic condition, or chronic back pain, reported a concern about working now or in the near future due to your health, worked at least 15 hours a week, had plans to continue working, and worked or lived in Massachusetts. Subjects were recruited through community sources and rheumatology offices. Participants in the experimental group received a structured interview and an education and resource packet, while participants in the control received the resource packet only. The baseline characteristics and work related outcomes of the participants were analyzed. To our knowledge, the Work-It Study is the largest and most diverse randomized controlled trial to date aiming to identify and problem solve work-related barriers, promote advocacy, and foster work disability knowledge among people with chronic disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite advances in medical management of arthritis and other rheumatological and musculoskeletal conditions, many people still have concerns about their ability to remain employed and are seeking strategies to help them sustain employment.

  16. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark.

  17. Kids and Adults Now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): Rationale, Design and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Østbye, Truls; Zucker, Nancy; Krause, Katrina M.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.; Evenson, Kelly; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Bastian, Lori A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; West, Deborah J; Brouwer, Rebecca JN

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority. Parents influence a child’s weight by modeling healthy behaviors, controlling food availability and activity opportunities, and appropriate feeding practices. Thus interventions should target education and behavioral change in the parent, and positive, mutually reinforcing behaviors within the family. Methods This paper presents the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of Kids and Adults Now! – Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO), a randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial targeting weight maintenance in children of healthy weight, and weight reduction in overweight children. 400 children aged 2–5 and their overweight or obese mothers in the Triangle and Triad regions of North Carolina are randomized equally to control or the KAN-DO intervention, consisting of mailed family kits encouraging healthy lifestyle change. Eight (monthly) kits are supported by motivational counseling calls and a single group session. Mothers are targeted during a hypothesized “teachable moment” for health behavior change (the birth of a new baby), and intervention content addresses: parenting skills (emotional regulation, authoritative parenting), healthy eating, and physical activity. Results The 400 mother-child dyads randomized to trial are 75% white and 22% black; 19% have a household income of $30,000 or below. At baseline, 15% of children are overweight (85th–95th percentile for body mass index) and 9% are obese (≥95th percentile). Conclusion This intervention addresses childhood obesity prevention by using a family-based, synergistic approach, targeting at-risk children and their mothers during key transitional periods, and enhancing maternal self-regulation and responsive parenting as a foundation for health behavior change. PMID:21300177

  18. Kids and adults now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ostbye, Truls; Zucker, Nancy L; Krause, Katrina M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Evenson, Kelly R; Peterson, Bercedis L; Bastian, Lori A; Swamy, Geeta K; West, Deborah G; Brouwer, Rebecca J N

    2011-05-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority. Parents influence a child's weight by modeling healthy behaviors, controlling food availability and activity opportunities, and appropriate feeding practices. Thus interventions should target education and behavioral change in the parent, and positive, mutually reinforcing behaviors within the family. This paper presents the design, rationale and baseline characteristics of Kids and Adults Now! - Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO), a randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial targeting weight maintenance in children of healthy weight, and weight reduction in overweight children. 400 children aged 2-5 and their overweight or obese mothers in the Triangle and Triad regions of North Carolina are randomized equally to control or the KAN-DO intervention, consisting of mailed family kits encouraging healthy lifestyle change. Eight (monthly) kits are supported by motivational counseling calls and a single group session. Mothers are targeted during a hypothesized "teachable moment" for health behavior change (the birth of a new baby), and intervention content addresses: parenting skills ((e.g., emotional regulation, authoritative parenting), healthy eating, and physical activity. The 400 mother-child dyads randomized to trial are 75% white and 22% black; 19% have a household income of $30,000 or below. At baseline, 15% of children are overweight (85th-95th percentile for body mass index) and 9% are obese (≥ 95th percentile). This intervention addresses childhood obesity prevention by using a family-based, synergistic approach, targeting at-risk children and their mothers during key transitional periods, and enhancing maternal self-regulation and responsive parenting as a foundation for health behavior change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  20. [Study of the relationship among work and demographic characteristics, sickness absence and occupational mobility].

    PubMed

    Filippi, M; Villosio, C; Mamo, C; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    The problem of sick absences from work is correlated to a series of organizational, social and psychological factors which interact with risk factors typical of the work performed, and thus determine how frequently absences occur. The correlation between morbidity and work is of interest in itself for studying the processes of occupational mobility. To examine, using data from administrative sources, the association of sick absence with individual and workplace factors, as well as the relationship between illness and career mobility. Employee sick absence data registered at INPS (National Institute of Social Insurance) in the period 1992-95 were studied using a sample of 124,686 subjects. The probability of being absent from work due to illness did not appear to be affected by sex or age. The sectors more at risk for sick absences were the service sector, business and commerce. Inequalities were noted in illness rates to the disadvantage of those who had received redundancy payments in the previous years. New hirings and upward mobility were associated with a lower occurrence of illness. A higher probability of illness was observed in those who had lost their jobs and in those who had changed from full-time to part-time work. It is likely that formal regulations and practices in use within INPS vary according to the different economic activities. Therefore this source allows investigation of illness only in activities with homogeneous regulatory aspects. The results confirm a link between unstable work situations and illness and between illness and career advancement.

  1. AMISH EYE STUDY: Baseline Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Characteristics of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nittala, Muneeswar G; Song, Yeunjoo E; Sardell, Rebecca; Adams, Larry D; Pan, Samuel; Velaga, Swetha B; Horst, Violet; Dana, Debra; Caywood, Laura; Laux, Renee; Fuzzell, Denise; Fuzzell, Sarada; Scott, William K; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Igo, Robert P; Haines, Jonathan; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Sadda, SriniVas R; Stambolian, Dwight

    2018-05-09

    To describe spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) findings in an Amish cohort to assess SD-OCT markers for early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The authors performed a family-based prospective cohort study of 1,146 elderly Amish subjects (age range 50-99 years) (2,292 eyes) who had a family history of at least 1 individual with AMD. All subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, SD-OCT using both Cirrus and Spectralis (20 × 20° scan area) instruments, fundus autofluorescence, infrared imaging, and color fundus photography. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics were analyzed in subjects with AMD (with and without subretinal drusenoid deposits [SDDs]) and normal healthy cohorts. Participants' mean age was 65.2 years (SD ± 11). Color fundus photographic findings in 596 (53%) subjects (1,009 eyes) were consistent with AMD; the remaining 478 (43%) subjects showed no signs of AMD. The choroid was significantly thinner on OCT (242 ± 76 µm, P < 0.001) in those with AMD compared with those without (263 ± 63 µm). Subretinal drusenoid deposits were found in 143 eyes (7%); 11 of the 143 eyes (8%) had no other manifestations of AMD. Drusen volume (P < 0.001) and area of geographic atrophy (P < 0.001) were significantly greater, and choroid was significantly (P < 0.001) thinner in subjects with SDDs versus those without SDDs. The authors describe spectral domain optical coherence tomography characteristics in an elderly Amish population with and without AMD, including the frequency of SDD. Although relatively uncommon in this population, the authors confirmed that SDDs can be found in the absence of other features of AMD and that eyes with SDDs have thinner choroids.

  2. Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sarah; Erar, Bahar; Niaura, Raymond S.; Graham, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential for sampling bias in Internet smoking cessation studies is widely recognized. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of sample representativeness in the context of an Internet smoking cessation treatment trial. Purpose To examine the generalizability of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet smoking cessation intervention using weighted data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods A total of 5,290 new users on a smoking cessation website enrolled in the trial between March 2012–January 2015. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline characteristics of screened and enrolled participants and multivariate analysis examined predictors of enrollment. Generalizability analyses compared demographic and smoking characteristics of trial participants to current smokers in the 2012–2014 waves of NHIS (n=19,043), and to an NHIS subgroup based on Internet use and cessation behavior (n=3,664). Effect sizes were obtained to evaluate the magnitude of differences across variables. Results Predictors of study enrollment were age, gender, race, education, and motivation to quit. Compared to NHIS smokers, trial participants were more likely to be female, college educated, daily smokers, and to have made a quit attempt in the past year (all effect sizes 0.25–0.60). In comparisons with the NHIS subgroup, differences in gender and education were attenuated while differences in daily smoking and smoking rate were amplified. Conclusions Few differences emerged between Internet trial participants and nationally representative samples of smokers, and all were in expected directions. This study highlights the importance of assessing generalizability in a focused and specific manner. PMID:27283295

  3. Ideal cardiovascular health score at the ELSA-Brasil baseline and its association with sociodemographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Machado, Lucas B M; Silva, Bianca L S; Garcia, Ana P; Oliveira, Renata A M; Barreto, Sandhi M; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2018-03-01

    The American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) define criteria for seven metrics, four classified as lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, smoking and body-mass index) and four classified as health factors (smoking, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol). We aimed to analyze ICH scores at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment and the associations with sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race, educational level, and family income). We analyzed 13,356 ELSA-Brasil participants without cardiovascular disease using quasi-Poisson regression models to study the association between the ICH score and sociodemographic characteristics. Mean ICH scores were 2.5±1.3. Only 1047 (7.8%) participants had 5 or more ICH metrics. In adjusted models, age 65-74years was associated with lower ICH scores (-35.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -37.6% to -33.1%) compared to age 35-44years. Women had higher ICH scores compared to men (+13.8%; 95%CI: +11.8% to +15.7%), mainly due to differences in the health factor ICH metrics. Participants of Black race had lower ICH scores compared to those of White race (-9.4%; 95%CI: -11.8% to -7.0%). Individuals with less than high school education had lower ICH scores than college-educated individuals (-17.2%; 95%CI: -20.0% to -14.2%). Low (<1245 USD) family income was also associated with lower ICH scores compared to those with high (≥3320 USD) family income (-4.4%, 95%CI: -7.2% to -1.6%). We found a low proportion of individuals with 5 or more ICH metrics. Age, sex, race, educational level and income were associated with ICH scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sarah; Erar, Bahar; Niaura, Raymond S; Graham, Amanda L

    2016-10-01

    The potential for sampling bias in Internet smoking cessation studies is widely recognized. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of sample representativeness in the context of an Internet smoking cessation treatment trial. The purpose of the present study is to examine the generalizability of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of an Internet smoking cessation intervention using weighted data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). A total of 5290 new users on a smoking cessation website enrolled in the trial between March 2012 and January 2015. Descriptive statistics summarized baseline characteristics of screened and enrolled participants, and multivariate analysis examined predictors of enrollment. Generalizability analyses compared demographic and smoking characteristics of trial participants to current smokers in the 2012-2014 waves of NHIS (n = 19,043) and to an NHIS subgroup based on Internet use and cessation behavior (n = 3664). Effect sizes were obtained to evaluate the magnitude of differences across variables. Predictors of study enrollment were age, gender, race, education, and motivation to quit. Compared to NHIS smokers, trial participants were more likely to be female, college educated, and daily smokers and to have made a quit attempt in the past year (all effect sizes 0.25-0.60). In comparisons with the NHIS subgroup, differences in gender and education were attenuated, while differences in daily smoking and smoking rate were amplified. Few differences emerged between Internet trial participants and nationally representative samples of smokers, and all were in expected directions. This study highlights the importance of assessing generalizability in a focused and specific manner. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: #NCT01544153.

  5. Hearing aid effectiveness after aural rehabilitation - individual versus group (HEARING) trial: RCT design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hearing impairment is the most common body system disability in veterans. In 2008, nearly 520,000 veterans had a disability for hearing loss through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Changes in eligibility for hearing aid services, along with the aging population, contributed to a greater than 300% increase in the number of hearing aids dispensed from 1996 to 2006. In 2006, the VA committed to having no wait times for patient visits while providing quality clinically-appropriate care. One approach to achieving this goal is the use of group visits as an alternative to individual visits. We sought to determine: 1) if group hearing aid fitting and follow-up visits were at least as effective as individual visits, and 2) whether group visits lead to cost savings through the six month period after the hearing aid fitting. We describe the rationale, design, and characteristics of the baseline cohort of the first randomized clinical trial to study the impact of group versus individual hearing aid fitting and follow-up visits. Methods Participants were recruited from the VA Puget Sound Health Care System Audiology Clinic. Eligible patients had no previous hearing aid use and monaural or binaural air-conduction hearing aids were ordered at the evaluation visit. Participants were randomized to receive the hearing aid fitting and the hearing aid follow-up in an individual or group visit. The primary outcomes were hearing-related function, measured with the first module of the Effectiveness of Aural Rehabilitation (Inner EAR), and hearing aid adherence. We tracked the total cost of planned and unplanned audiology visits over the 6-month interval after the hearing aid fitting. Discussion A cohort of 659 participants was randomized to receive group or individual hearing aid fitting and follow-up visits. Baseline demographic and self-reported health status and hearing-related measures were evenly distributed across the treatment arms. Outcomes after the 6-month

  6. Baseline Psychosocial Characteristics Predict Frequency of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    McGill, Dayna E; Volkening, Lisa K; Butler, Deborah A; Harrington, Kara R; Katz, Michelle L; Laffel, Lori M

    2018-05-04

    Consistent use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been associated with improved glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are many barriers to device uptake and continued use. There is a need to understand patient-specific characteristics when considering CGM. We evaluated patterns of CGM use and associations between baseline psychosocial measures and frequency of CGM use over 1 year. Youth with T1D (n = 120), ages 8-18 years, completed questionnaires at CGM initiation and after 6 and 12 months assessing depressive symptoms, diabetes burden, and diabetes-specific and generic quality of life (QOL). Youth (51% male and 95% white) had mean age 12.7 ± 2.7 years, diabetes duration 6.1 ± 3.6 years, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) 8.0 ± 0.8%. Over 1 year, 35% of youth used CGM 6 to 7 days per week, 45% used CGM 3-5 days per week, and 20% used CGM only 0-2 days per week. Youth who used CGM 3-7 days per week over 12 months had lower HbA 1c at months 9 and 12 than youth who used CGM 0-2 days per week (9 months: 7.9 ± 0.9% vs. 8.5 ± 1.1%, P = 0.006 and 12 months: 8.0 ± 0.9% vs. 8.5 ± 1.1%, P = 0.02). Those using CGM 0-2 days per week had greater endorsement of depressive symptoms and diabetes burden and reported lower QOL at baseline compared with those using CGM 3-7 days per week. CGM use for 3 or more days per week over 12 months had a protective effect on HbA 1c . Providers should consider addressing psychosocial parameters when initiating CGM to maximize uptake and promote continued use in youth with T1D.

  7. A pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial of transitional care for a socioeconomically diverse population: Design, rationale and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Christine; Teter, Caroline; Finch, Emily A; Hurt, Courtney; Keeter, Mary Kate; Liss, David T; Rogers, Angela; Sheth, Avani; Ackermann, Ronald

    2018-02-01

    Transitional care programs have been widely used to reduce readmissions and improve the quality and safety of the handoff process between hospital and outpatient providers. Very little is known about effective transitional care interventions among patients who are uninsured or with Medicaid. This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial of transitional care. Northwestern Medical Group- Transitional Care (NMG-TC) care model was developed to address the needs of patients with multiple medical problems that required lifestyle changes and were amenable to office-based management. We present the design, evaluation methods and baseline characteristics of NMG-TC trial patients. Baseline demographic characteristics indicate that our patient population is predominantly male, Medicaid insured and non-white. This study will evaluate two methods for implementing an effective transitional care model in a medically complex and socioeconomically diverse population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study.

    PubMed

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Yancey, Antronette K

    2012-08-01

    Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA). SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation) over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers' PA levels.

  9. Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most preschool centers provide two 30-min sessions of gross-motor/outdoor playtime per preschool day. Within this time frame, children accumulate most of their activity within the first 10 min. This paper describes the design and baseline participant characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study. The STEP study is a cluster randomized controlled study designed to examine the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on during-school physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Methods/Design Ten preschool centers serving low-income families were randomized into SBS-PA versus unstructured PA (UPA). SBS-PA schools were asked to implement age-appropriate 10 min structured PA routines within the classroom setting, twice daily, followed by 20 min of usual unstructured playtime. UPA intervention consisted of 30 min of supervised unstructured free playtime twice daily. Interventions were implemented during the morning and afternoon designated gross-motor playtime for 30 min/session, five days/week for six months. Outcome measures were between group difference in during-preschool PA (accelerometers and direct observation) over six-months. Ten preschool centers, representing 34 classrooms and 315 children, enrolled in the study. The average age and BMI percentile for the participants was 4.1 ± 0.8 years and 69th percentile, respectively. Participants spent 74% and 6% of their preschool day engaged in sedentary and MVPA, respectively. Discussion Results from the STEP intervention could provide evidence that a PA policy that exposes preschoolers to shorter bouts of structured PA throughout the preschool day could potentially increase preschoolers’ PA levels. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01588392 PMID:22853642

  10. Baseline characteristics and outcome in Romanian patients with Gaucher disease type 1.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu-Sido, Paula; Drugan, Cristina; Alkhzouz, Camelia; Zimmermann, Anca; Coldea, Cristina; Denes, Carmen; Grigorescu, Mircea Dan; Cret, Victoria; Bucerzan, Simona

    2010-04-01

    To present clinical and genetic characteristics of all Romanian patients with Gaucher disease type 1, in whom specific diagnosis has been confirmed by enzymatic and molecular methods and to analyze their outcome with and without enzymatic replacement therapy (ERT). There are fifty patients (F/M - 1.63/1) with Gaucher disease type 1. Clinical status, haemoglobin, thrombocytes, hepatic/splenic volume, bone mineral density and severity score were assessed at baseline and every six months thereafter. Thirty-nine patients (78%) received imiglucerase (44.4+/-13.6 U/kg/2 weeks) for 3.1+/-1.4 years. Based on general prevalence data, our group represents 22.7% of the expected total number of patients with Gaucher disease type 1 in Romania. Mean age was 15.5 years at clinical onset and 28.9 years at confirmation of diagnosis. The genotype N370S/L444P was frequent in our group (35.9% of alleles). Anaemia, thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly and bone disease were present at 38%, 70%, 100% and 84%, respectively. Mean values for haemoglobin, thrombocytes, hepatic volume and chitotriosidase normalized after 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3 years of ERT, respectively. Splenomegaly regressed from 14.4 x N (normal) to 3.06 x N over four years of treatment. Bone disease was ameliorated under ERT, yet bone mineral density worsened in patients treated with 30 U/kg/2 weeks. The genotype N370S/L444P is frequent in our patients, in line with the severe phenotypes. ERT improved haematological parameters and visceromegaly, without a clear benefit for bone mineral density. To attain therapeutic goals, an early treatment start with optimal dosage is mandatory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of baseline characteristics on response to proton pump inhibitors in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lau, James; Lind, Tore; Persson, Tore; Eklund, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The rate of rebleeding from peptic ulcers could differ between Asian and Western populations. This study aimed to determine whether the observed twofold difference in rebleeding rates in two similarly designed clinical trials (one in Hong Kong [n = 240], the other in a predominantly Western population [n = 764, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00251979]) can be explained by differences in baseline patient characteristics. Two-factor and multifactor analyses (adjusted by demographics, established risk factors for peptic ulcer and peptic ulcer bleeding, and disease severity variables) were performed using pooled data from the two studies. Cox regression analysis was used to predict the rebleeding risk at 3 days. In the two-factor analysis (placebo vs esomeprazole/omeprazole and Western study vs Hong Kong study), data trended towards a reduced risk of rebleeding in the Western study (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-1.07, P = 0.094). The risk of rebleeding was similar in both studies after adjusted for multiple factors (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.60-1.99, P = 0.767). The strongest predictor of rebleeding (apart from study drug) was a classification of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade IV (HR 4.15, 95% CI 1.49-11.56, P = 0.006). When such patients were excluded, the difference in rebleeding rates between the studies reduced. The difference in rebleeding rates between the two studies is explained by the factors in our analysis, most importantly a classification of ASA grade IV, suggesting that other differences, including ethnicity, did not influence the rebleeding rate. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

    PubMed Central

    Pitsavos, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2003-01-01

    Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000), from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p < 0.05), 37% of men and 25% of women were defined as hypertensives (p < 0.05), 46% of men and 40% of women had total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dl (p < 0.05) and 8% of men and 6% of women had history of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, 20% of men and 15% of women were obese (p < 0.05), while men were more physically active as compared to women (42% vs. 39%, p < 0.05). 19% of men and 38% of women had mild to severe depressive symptoms (p < 0.01). Finally, 72 men (5%) and 45 (3%) women reported history of coronary heart disease at entry evaluation. Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events. PMID:14567760

  13. Financial incentives for diabetes prevention in a Medicaid population: Study design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jay; Taylor, Gretchen; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Vine, Sara; Anderson, Julie; Garrett, Joyce E; Gilmer, Todd; Vue-Her, Houa; Schiff, Jeff; Rinn, Sarah; Engel, Katelyn; Michael, Amy; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2017-02-01

    Medicaid beneficiaries at high risk for diabetes can benefit from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention. The We Can Prevent Diabetes (WCPD) trial examined whether financial incentives are more effective than no financial incentives in sustaining participation in the DPP and increasing weight loss. Here we describe the study design and baseline characteristics. The WCPD was a 3-arm group-randomized controlled trial. Medicaid beneficiaries were aged 18 to 74years, had prediabetes or gestational diabetes, and were overweight or obese. Subjects enrolled from 13 primary care clinics into groups of 8 to 15 participants. Participants received the 12-month DPP delivered by the YMCA or trained clinic staff, free of costs. Participants from groups randomized into the intervention conditions were eligible to receive incentives up to $520 by attending sessions and meeting weight loss goals. The WCPD enrolled 1154 participants into 98 groups. Among the 847 attending at least one DPP session, 71.2% were women; the mean age was 48.3years; 79.3% were obese; and 87.6% entered the study with an elevated HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose. Participants' primary languages were Somali (21.0%), Hmong (3.1%), Spanish (2.2%), or English (72.4%). The WCPD trial demonstrated that a collaborative approach with primary care clinics and the YMCA can efficiently identify, enroll, and deliver the 12-month DPP to Medicaid beneficiaries. If the WCPD incentive arms increase attendance and weight loss, the use of financial incentives may be an avenue for engaging low-income, high-risk patients in lifestyle change. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflatable penile prosthesis implant length with baseline characteristic correlations: preliminary analysis of the PROPPER study

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Gerard; Karpman, Edward; Brant, William; Jones, LeRoy; Khera, Mohit; Kohler, Tobias; Christine, Brian; Rhee, Eugene; Kansas, Bryan; Bella, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Background “Prospective Registry of Outcomes with Penile Prosthesis for Erectile Restoration” (PROPPER) is a large, multi-institutional, prospective clinical study to collect, analyze, and report real-world outcomes for men implanted with penile prosthetic devices. We prospectively correlated co-morbid conditions and demographic data with implanted penile prosthesis size to enable clinicians to better predict implanted penis size following penile implantation. We present many new data points for the first time in the literature and postulate that radical prostatectomy (RP) is negatively correlated with penile corporal length. Methods Patient demographics, medical history, baseline characteristics and surgical details were compiled prospectively. Pearson correlation coefficient was generated for the correlation between demographic, etiology of ED, duration of ED, co-morbid conditions, pre-operative penile length (flaccid and stretched) and length of implanted penile prosthesis. Multivariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implanted prosthesis length. Results From June 2011 to June 2017, 1,135 men underwent primary implantation of penile prosthesis at a total of 11 study sites. Malleable (Spectra), 2-piece Ambicor, and 3-piece AMS 700 CX/LGX were included in the analysis. The most common patient comorbidities were CV disease (26.1%), DM (11.1%), and PD (12.4%). Primary etiology of ED: RP (27.4%), DM (20.3%), CVD (18.0%), PD (10.3%), and Priapism (1.4%), others (22.6%). Mean duration of ED is 6.2¡À4.1 years. Implant length was weakly negatively correlated with White/Caucasian (r=−0.18; P<0.01), history of RP (r=−0.13; P<0.01), PD as comorbidity (r=−0.16; P<0.01), venous leak (r=−0.08; P<0.01), and presence of stress incontinence (r=−0.13; P<0.01). Analyses showed weak positive correlations with Black/AA (r=0.32; P<0.01), CV disease as primary ED etiology (r=0.08; P<0.01) and pre-operative stretched penile length (r=0.18; P<0.01). There

  15. The baseline characteristics of parents and African American girls in an online obesity prevention program: A feasibility study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships and associations between child and parent baseline characteristics with child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in an online obesity prevention program for 8-10 year old African American girls. Girls and a parent (n=342 child-parent pairs...

  16. Do various baseline characteristics of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Arnold Y L; Parent, Eric C; Funabashi, Martha; Stanton, Tasha R; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2013-12-01

    Although individual reports suggest that baseline morphometry or activity of transversus abdominis or lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP), a related systematic review is unavailable. Therefore, this review summarized evidence regarding the predictive value of these muscular characteristics. Candidate publications were identified from 6 electronic medical databases. After review, 5 cohort studies were included. Although this review intended to encompass studies using different muscle assessment methods, all included studies coincidentally used ultrasound imaging. No research investigated the relation between static morphometry and clinical outcomes. Evidence synthesis showed limited evidence supporting poor baseline transversus abdominis contraction thickness ratio as a treatment effect modifier favoring motor control exercise. Limited evidence supported that high baseline transversus abdominis lateral slide was associated with higher pain intensity after various exercise interventions at 1-year follow-up. However, there was limited evidence for the absence of relation between the contraction thickness ratio of transversus abdominis or anticipatory onset of lateral abdominal muscles at baseline and the short- or long-term LBP intensity after exercise interventions. There was conflicting evidence for a relation between baseline percent thickness change of lumbar multifidus during contraction and the clinical outcomes of patients after various conservative treatments. Given study heterogeneity, the small number of included studies and the inability of conventional greyscale B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure muscle activity, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Further large-scale prospective studies that use appropriate technology (ie, electromyography to assess muscle activity) should be conducted to investigate the predictive value of morphometry or activity of these muscles with respect to LBP-related outcomes measures

  17. The counseling African Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Senaida; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Diaz-Gloster, Marleny; Kalida, Chamanara; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2011-09-01

    Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP) control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH) Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC) in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs). Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications), psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy), and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet) characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. The sample was primarily female (71.6%), middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years), high school educated (62.4%), low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income), and received Medicaid (35.9%) or Medicare (12.6%). Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). One-quarter (25.6%) of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7%) reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7%) reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes mellitus was common (35.8%), and moderate

  18. An Analysis of Student Characteristics and Behaviour in Relation to Absence from Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawon, Krystyna; Pembroke, Michael; Wille, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Concern has been expressed in the literature that student absenteeism from lectures is undesirable as it may have adverse consequences for academic performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether there are identifiable groups of low-attendance students who display characteristic behaviours that are more typical than any other group.…

  19. Baseline demographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of rural, Southern women in early pregnacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beginning life in a healthy uterine environment is essential for future well-being, particularly as it relates to chronic disease risk. Baseline (early pregnancy) demographic, anthropometric (height and weight), psychosocial (depression and perceived stress), and behavioral (diet and exercise) char...

  20. BeLieving in Native Girls: Characteristics from a Baseline Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Deborah; Langhorne, Aleisha

    2012-01-01

    BeLieving In Native Girls (BLING) is a juvenile delinquency and HIV intervention at a residential boarding school for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescent girls ages 12-20 years. In 2010, 115 participants completed baseline surveys to identify risk and protective factors. Initial findings are discussed regarding a variety of topics, including…

  1. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as ''gold standard'' for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range ofmore » operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of -23% to -27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB -2% to -6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB -0.6% to -0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%-0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers' (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers' (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy.« less

  2. The Relationships among Individual Characteristics, High School Characteristics, and College Enrollment: Using Enrollment Propensity as a Baseline for Evaluating Strategic Enrollment Management Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.; Robbins, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among student and high school characteristics and the decision to enroll in either a two- or four-year college or university. The purpose of the research was to assess the feasibility of using enrollment propensity (i.e., the likelihood of enrolling in college) as a baseline to evaluate the…

  3. Design, baseline characteristics, and early findings of the MPS VI (mucopolysaccharidosis VI) Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP).

    PubMed

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Lampe, Christina; Martins, Ana Maria; Pastores, Gregory M; Steiner, Robert D; Leão Teles, Elisa; Valayannopoulos, Vassili

    2013-03-01

    To outline the design, baseline data, and 5-year follow-up data of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI enrolled in the Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP), a voluntary, multinational, observational program. The MPS VI CSP was opened in 2005 to collect, for at least 15 years, observational data from standard clinical and laboratory assessments of patients with MPS VI. Baseline and follow-up data are documented by participating physicians in electronic case report forms. Between September 2005 and March 2010 the CSP enrolled 132 patients, including 123 who received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase. Median age at enrolment was 13 years (range 1-59). Mean baseline data showed impaired growth, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced endurance and pulmonary function. The most common findings were heart valve disease (90%), reduced visual acuity (79%), impaired hearing (59%), and hepatosplenomegaly (54%). Follow-up data up to 5 years in patients with pre- and post-ERT measurements showed a decrease in urinary glycosaminoglycans and increases in height and weight in patients <16 years and suggested reductions in liver and spleen size and improvements in endurance and pulmonary function after ERT was started. Vision, hearing, and cardiac function were unchanged. Safety data were in line with previous reports. The CSP represents the largest cross-sectional study of MPS VI to date. This first report provides information on the design and implementation of the program and population statistics for several clinical variables in patients with MPS VI. Data collected over 5 years suggest that ERT provides clinical benefit and is well-tolerated with no new safety concerns.

  4. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    PubMed

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L; Hancock, M J

    2017-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Data were systematically collected as part of routine care in a secondary care spine clinic. At initial presentation patients answered a self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. A total of 14,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain, more leg pain and more depression); however, the differences were small. The change in pain and disability over 12 months did not differ between age groups. This study found small baseline differences in older people with chronic LBP compared to middle aged and younger adults. There were no associations between age groups and the clinical course. Small baseline differences exist in older people with chronic low back pain compared to middle aged and younger adults referred to secondary care for chronic low back pain. Older adults present with slightly less intense low back pain but slightly more intense leg pain. Changes in pain intensity and disability over a 12 month period were similar across all age groups. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  5. A Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER): Screening Experience and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Ian; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Murphy, Michael B; Shepherd, James; Cobbe, Stuart M; Bollen, Edward LEM; Buckley, Brendan M; Jukema, J Wouter; Hyland, Michael; Gaw, Allan; Lagaay, A Margot; Perry, Ivan J; Macfarlane, Peter; Norrie, John; Meinders, A Edo; Sweeney, Brian J; Packard, Chris J; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Twomey, Cillian; Stott, David J

    2002-01-01

    Background PROSPER was designed to investigate the benefits of treatment with pravastatin in elderly patients for whom a typical doctor might consider the prescription of statin therapy to be a realistic option. Methods The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that treatment with pravastatin (40 mg/day) will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke in elderly men and women with pre-existing vascular disease or with significant risk of developing this condition. Results In Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands, 23,770 individuals were screened, and 5,804 subjects (2,804 men and 3,000 women), aged 70 to 82 years (average 75 years) and with baseline cholesterol 4.0–9.0 mmol/l, were randomised. Randomised subjects had similar distributions with respect to age, blood pressure, and body mass index when compared to the entire group of screenees, but had a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of vascular disease. The average total cholesterol level at baseline was 5.4 mmol/l (men) and 6.0 mmol/l (women). Conclusions Compared with previous prevention trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the PROSPER cohort is significantly older and for the first time includes a majority of women. The study, having achieved its initial goal of recruiting more than 5,500 elderly high-risk men and women, aims to complete all final subject follow-up visits in the first half of 2002 with the main results being available in the fourth quarter of 2002. PMID:12097148

  6. Characteristics of elderly fall patients with baseline mental status: high-risk features for intracranial injury.

    PubMed

    Hamden, Khalief; Agresti, Darin; Jeanmonod, Rebecca; Woods, Dexter; Reiter, Mark; Jeanmonod, Donald

    2014-08-01

    Falls are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly. We describe the low-acuity elderly fall population and study which historical and clinical features predict traumatic intracranial injuries (ICIs). This is a prospective observational study of patients at least 65 years old presenting with fall to a tertiary care facility. Patients were eligible if they were at baseline mental status and were not triaged to the trauma bay. At presentation, a data form was completed by treating physicians regarding mechanism and position of fall, history of head strike, headache, loss of consciousness (LOC), and signs of head trauma. Radiographic imaging was obtained at the discretion of treating physicians. Medical records were subsequently reviewed to determine imaging results. All patients were called in follow-up at 30 days to determine outcome in those not imaged. The study was institutional review board approved. A total of 799 patients were enrolled; 79.5% of patients underwent imaging. Twenty-seven had ICIs (3.4%). Fourteen had subdural hematoma, 7 had subarachnoid hemorrhage, 3 had cerebral contusion, and 3 had a combination of injuries. Logistic regression demonstrated 2 study variables that were associated with ICIs: LOC (odds ratio, 2.8; confidence interval, 1.2-6.3) and signs of head trauma (odds ratio, 13.2; confidence interval, 2.7-64.1). History of head strike, mechanism and position, headache, and anticoagulant and antiplatelet use were not associated with ICIs. Elderly fall patients who are at their baseline mental status have a low incidence of ICIs. The best predictors of ICIs are physical findings of trauma to the head and history of LOC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF).

    PubMed

    McMurray, John J V; Anand, Inder S; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A; Solomon, Scott D; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in other recent clinical trials in heart failure. Compared with other recent trials, RED-HF enrolled more elderly [mean age 70 (SD 11.4) years], female (41%), and black (9%) patients. RED-HF patients more often had diabetes (46%) and renal impairment (72% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients in RED-HF had heart failure of longer duration [5.3 (5.4) years], worse NYHA class (35% II, 63% III, and 2% IV), and more signs of congestion. Mean EF was 30% (6.8%). RED-HF patients were well treated at randomization, and pharmacological therapy at baseline was broadly similar to that of other recent trials, taking account of study-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) haemoglobin at baseline was 112 (106-117) g/L. The anaemic patients enrolled in RED-HF were older, moderately to markedly symptomatic, and had extensive co-morbidity.

  8. Baseline characteristics predict risk of progression and response to combined medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Kozminski, Michael A; Wei, John T; Nelson, Jason; Kent, David M

    2015-02-01

    To better risk stratify patients, using baseline characteristics, to help optimise decision-making for men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through a secondary analysis of the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) trial. After review of the literature, we identified potential baseline risk factors for BPH progression. Using bivariate tests in a secondary analysis of MTOPS data, we determined which variables retained prognostic significance. We then used these factors in Cox proportional hazard modelling to: i) more comprehensively risk stratify the study population based on pre-treatment parameters and ii) to determine which risk strata stood to benefit most from medical intervention. In all, 3047 men were followed in MTOPS for a mean of 4.5 years. We found varying risks of progression across quartiles. Baseline BPH Impact Index score, post-void residual urine volume, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, age, American Urological Association Symptom Index score, and maximum urinary flow rate were found to significantly correlate with overall BPH progression in multivariable analysis. Using baseline factors permits estimation of individual patient risk for clinical progression and the benefits of medical therapy. A novel clinical decision tool based on these analyses will allow clinicians to weigh patient-specific benefits against possible risks of adverse effects for a given patient. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  9. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  10. CORONARY DIET INTERVENTION WITH OLIVE OIL AND CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION STUDY (THE CORDIOPREV STUDY): RATIONALE, METHODS, AND BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I.; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years, in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009–12) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high BMI (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity), with a median of LDL-cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having <100 mg/dL, and 20.3% patients < 70 mg/dL). 9.6% of the participants were active smokers, and 64.4% were former smokers. Metabolic Syndrome was present in 58% of this population. To sum up, we describe here the rationale, methods and baseline characteristics of the CORDIOPREV study, which will test for the first time the efficacy of a Mediterranean Diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  11. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h 2 , fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  12. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of turn signal use at intersections in baseline naturalistic driving.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John M; Bao, Shan; Goudy, Roy; Konet, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a driver's use of turn signals is sufficiently reliable to forecast a vehicle's future path around an intersection, when detailed information about the intersection is unavailable. Naturalistic observations of turn signal use among 108 drivers on surface streets were extracted from the baseline portion of a field operational test of a safety system. Left and right turns that resulted in heading changes of between 70 and 110° and turn radii between 18 and 90 m were selected from the dataset. The odds that a driver would signal a turn were modeled as a function of road type, turn direction, presence of a forward vehicle, whether the vehicle stopped before the turn, and driver age and gender. Overall, 25 percent of left turns and 29 percent of right turns were not signaled. Road type, turn direction, and presence of a forward vehicle were found to influence the odds that a turn is signaled, while gender and age of the driver did not. The results suggest that situational factors like road type and turn direction are more powerful predictors of whether a turn will be signaled than either age or gender. Signaling on major and minor surface roads was about 5 times more likely than on local roads and 1.5 times more likely when a forward vehicle was present, suggesting a possible effect of traffic volume. It was concluded that turn signal activation alone may be insufficiently reliable to forecast a driver's path. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Personalized Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM) Trial: Rationale, Methods and Baseline Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Boot, Walter R.; Charness, Neil; Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D.; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65 – 98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. PMID:25460342

  15. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) Study.

    PubMed

    McNeil, John J; Woods, Robyn L; Nelson, Mark R; Murray, Anne M; Reid, Christopher M; Kirpach, Brenda; Storey, Elsdon; Shah, Raj C; Wolfe, Rory S; Tonkin, Andrew M; Newman, Anne B; Williamson, Jeff D; Lockery, Jessica E; Margolis, Karen L; Ernst, Michael E; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Stocks, Nigel; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Trevaks, Ruth E; Orchard, Suzanne G; Beilin, Lawrence J; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Gibbs, Peter; Johnston, Colin I; Grimm, Richard H

    2017-10-12

    There are no primary prevention trials of aspirin with relevant geriatric outcomes in elderly people. ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) is a placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin that will determine whether 5 years of daily 100-mg enteric-coated aspirin extends disability-free and dementia-free life in a healthy elderly population and whether these benefits outweigh the risks. Set in primary care, this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial has a composite primary endpoint of death, incident dementia or persistent physical disability. Participants aged 70+ years (non-minorities) or 65+ years (U.S. minorities) were free of cardiovascular disease, dementia, or physical disability and without a contraindication to, or indication for, aspirin. Baseline data include physical and lifestyle, personal and family medical history, hemoglobin, fasting glucose, creatinine, lipid panel, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, cognition (3MS, HVLT-R, COWAT, SDMT), mood (CES-D-10), physical function (gait speed, grip strength), Katz activities of daily living and quality of life (SF-12). Recruitment ended in December 2014 with 16,703 Australian and 2,411 U.S. participants, a median age of 74 (range 65-98) years and 56% women. Approximately 55% of the U.S. cohort were from minority groups; 9% of the total cohort. Proportions with hypertension, overweight, and chronic kidney disease were similar to age-matched populations from both countries although lower percentages had diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoarthritis. Findings from ASPREE will be generalizable to a healthier older population in both countries and will assess whether the broad benefits of daily low-dose aspirin in prolonging independent life outweigh the risks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Randomized National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Denise R.; Adams, Amanda M.; Berg, Christine D.; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Clingan, Kathy L.; Gareen, Ilana F.; Marcus, Pamela M.; Pinsky, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a randomized study conducted at 33 US sites, is comparing lung cancer mortality among persons screened with reduced dose helical computerized tomography and among persons screened with chest radiograph. In this article, we present characteristics of the study population. Methods Eligible participants were aged 55–74 years and were current or former smokers with a cigarette smoking history of at least 30 pack-years. Randomization was stratified by site, sex, and age. To assess representativeness of the study population, demographic characteristics of individuals from the general population who met NLST age and smoking history inclusion criteria were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the US Census Bureau Current Population Surveys. Results The NLST enrolled 53 456 persons, with 26 733 randomly assigned to chest radiograph screening and 26 723 to computerized tomography screening. Characteristics of the participants were as follows: 31 533 (59%) were men, 39 234 (73%) were younger than 65 years, 25 779 (48%) were current smokers, and 16 839 (32%) had a college or higher degree. Median cigarette exposure was 48 pack-years. Among Tobacco Use Supplement respondents who met NLST age and smoking history criteria, 59% were men, 65% were younger than 65 years, and 57% were current smokers. Median cigarette exposure among this group was 47 pack-years, and 14% had a college degree or higher. Conclusion The NLST cohort has a distribution of sex and pack-year history that is similar to the component of the general US population that meets the major NLST eligibility criteria; however, NLST participants are younger, better educated, and less likely to be current smokers. PMID:21119104

  17. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of strategies delivering low vision rehabilitation: design and baseline characteristics of study participants.

    PubMed

    Christy, Beula; Keeffe, Jill E; Nirmalan, Praveen K; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2010-08-01

    To design a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to compare the effectiveness of four different strategies to deliver low vision rehabilitation services. The four arms of the RCT comprised-center based rehabilitation, home based rehabilitation, a mix of center based and home based rehabilitation, and center based rehabilitation with home based non interventional supplementary visits by rehabilitation workers. Outcomes were assessed 9 months after baseline and included measuring changes in adaptation to age-related vision loss, quality of life, impact of vision impairment and effectiveness of low vision rehabilitation training. The socio-demographic and vision characteristics of the sample in each of the 4 arms were compared to ensure that outcomes are not associated with differences between the groups. Four hundred and thirty six individuals were enrolled in the study; 393 individuals completed the study. One-fifth of participants were children aged 8 to 16 years. At baseline, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between individuals in the four arms of the trial. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics did not differ significantly, except for age, between the 393 individuals who completed the trial and the 43 individuals who dropped out of the study. Twenty six (60.46%) of the forty three drop outs were from the center based arm of the trial. Information from this trial has the potential to shape policy and practice pertaining to low vision rehabilitation services.

  18. The FAITH Trial: Baseline Characteristics of a Church-based Trial to Improve Blood Pressure Control in Blacks.

    PubMed

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Lancaster, Kristie; Midberry, Sara; Nulty, Matthew; Ige, Elizabeth; Palfrey, Amy; Kumar, Niketa; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-08-07

    To describe the baseline characteristics of participants in the Faith-based Approaches in the Treatment of Hypertension (FAITH) Trial. FAITH evaluates the effectiveness of a faith-based lifestyle intervention vs health education control on blood pressure (BP) reduction among hypertensive Black adults. Participants included 373 members of 32 Black churches in New York City. Baseline data collected included participant demographic characteristics, clinical measures (eg, blood pressure), behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity), and psychosocial factors (eg, self-efficacy, depressive symptoms). Participants had a mean age of 63.4 ± 11.9 years and 76% were female. About half completed at least some college (53%), 66% had an income ≥$20,000, and 42.2% were retired or on disability. Participants had a mean systolic and diastolic BP of 152.1 ± 16.8 mm Hg and 86.2 ± 12.2 mm Hg, respectively, and a mean BMI of 32 kg/m2. Hypertension (HTN) medications were taken by 95% of participants, but most (79.1%) reported non-adherence to their regimen. Participants reported consuming 3.4 ± 2.6 servings of fruits and vegetables and received 30.9% of their energy from fat. About one-third (35.9%) reported a low activity level. Participants in the FAITH trial exhibited several adverse clinical and behavioral characteristics at baseline. Future analyses will evaluate the effectiveness of the faith-based lifestyle intervention on changes in BP and lifestyle behaviors among hypertensive Black adults.

  19. Web Support for Weight-Loss Interventions: PREDIRCAM2 Clinical Trial Baseline Characteristics and Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Aragón, Valeria; Rodrigo-Cano, Susana; Lupianez-Barbero, Ascension; Martinez, María José; Martinez, Carmen; Tapia, José; Iniesta, José Manuel; Tenes, Susana; Urgell, Eulalia; Navarro, Gemma; Hernando, M Elena; Merino-Torres, Juan Francisco; de Leiva, Alberto; Gonzalez, Cintia

    2018-05-01

    An ongoing clinical trial is testing the efficacy of web telematic support in a structured program for obesity treatment and diabetes prevention. Participants were recruited from two tertiary-care hospitals and randomized to receive either a telematic intervention (TI) supported by PREDIRCAM2 web platform or a non-telematic intervention (NTI). All receive 1-year follow-up. Both interventions consist of tailored dietary and exercise prescriptions, based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern and general WHO exercise recommendations for adults. At 6 months, both groups have received 7 contacts, 3 exclusively telematic for the TI group. This is a preliminary result intention-to-treat analysis. One hundred eighty-three participants were recruited, with a mean body mass index of 34.75 ± 2.75 kg/m 2 . General dropout rate at 6 months was 26.8%. Weight changes were statistically significant at months 3 and 6 compared to baseline, -2.915 ± 0.24 kg, -3.29 ± 0.36 kg, respectively (P < 0.001), but not statistically significant between the 3- and 6-month time points -0.37 ± 0.21 kg (P = 0.24). Mean group differences showed that the TI group lost 1.61 ± 1.88 kg more than the NTI group (P = 0.39). Waist, waist/hip ratio, resting heart rate, blood pressure, HbA1c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also showed statistically significant changes at 6 months, with no significant differences between groups. Weight loss in the TI group shows similar results as the usual care NTI group for weight loss and control of obesity comorbidities. At completion of the clinical trial, these results will be reevaluated to assess the potential role of web support in weight-loss maintenance and its cost-effectiveness.

  20. Establishment and baseline characteristics of a nationwide Danish cohort of patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kulas Søborg, Marie-Louise; Leganger, Julie; Quitzau Mortensen, Laura; Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate national prevalence, general demographic characteristics and survival of Danish patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). A population-based cohort study was conducted using a database consisting of the entire Danish population alive at any given time between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, based upon longitudinal Danish national registers. All patients with EDS were identified, and the cohort was described by disease prevalence, basic demographic characteristics, mean age at death and mortality for the observational period of 13 years. The cohort held 1427 unique persons with EDS, giving a national prevalence of 0.02%. The EDS population had a mean ( s . d .) age of 34.9 (18.6) years and comprised 73.9% females and 26.1% males. Of the cohort, 95.9% originated from Denmark and 57% were unmarried. We found that 31.6% of the cohort received state-granted subsidies, of which 77% were in the form of early retirement pension. Regarding educational status, 28.1% of the EDS cohort had completed primary education (⩽10th grade) as their highest educational level, while 71.9% had completed a higher level. During the observation period, 42 patients died, with a mean ( s . d .) age at death of 53.6 (21.7) years. This study confirmed a small national prevalence of patients diagnosed with EDS and showed that the majority of patients diagnosed are female. The EDS cohort had a lower educational level, mean age and life expectancy compared with the background population and showed a predisposition for receiving state-granted subsidies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Lifestyle Improvement Through Food and Exercise (LIFE) Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Mack, Laurin J; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Liebman, Rebecca; Keim, Kathryn S; Glover, Crystal M; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2017-01-01

    African Americans experience poorer diabetes outcomes than non-Hispanic Whites. Few clinical trials of diabetes self-management interventions specifically target African Americans, perhaps due to well-documented barriers to recruitment in this population. This paper describes strategies used to successfully recruit 211 low-income African Americans from community clinics of a large, urban public hospital system to a randomized clinical trial of an 18-month diabetes self-management intervention. Diabetes-related physiological, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of the sample are reported. The sample was 77% female, mean age = 55, mean A1C = 8.5%, 39% low health literacy, 28.4% moderate/severe depression, and 48.3% low adherence. Participants ate a high-fat diet with low vegetable consumption. Relative to males, females had higher BMI, depression, and stress, and better glycemic control, less physical activity, and less alcohol consumption. Males consumed more daily calories, but females consumed a greater proportion of carbohydrates. Gender-specific diabetes self-management strategies may be warranted in this population.

  2. The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE): a randomized prospective population-based study. Design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel; Høiberg, Mikkel; Barkmann, Reinhard; Gram, Jeppe; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Bech, Mickael; Rasmussen, Ole; Glüer, Claus C; Brixen, Kim

    2015-02-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15% were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish National guidelines. The primary outcome is incident clinical fractures as evaluated through annual follow-up using the Danish National Patient Registry. The secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, participation rate, and patient preferences. 20,904 (60%) women participated and included in the baseline analyses (10,411 in screening and 10,949 in control group). The mean age was 71 years. As expected by randomization, the screening and control groups had similar baseline characteristics. Screening for osteoporosis is at present not evidence based according to the WHO screening criteria. The ROSE study is expected to provide knowledge of the effectiveness of a screening strategy that may be implemented in health care systems to prevent fractures.

  3. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  4. Open-label randomized trial of titrated disease management for patients with hypertension: Study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George L; Weinberger, Morris; Kirshner, Miriam A; Stechuchak, Karen M; Melnyk, Stephanie D; Bosworth, Hayden B; Coffman, Cynthia J; Neelon, Brian; Van Houtven, Courtney; Gentry, Pamela W; Morris, Isis J; Rose, Cynthia M; Taylor, Jennifer P; May, Carrie L; Han, Byungjoo; Wainwright, Christi; Alkon, Aviel; Powell, Lesa; Edelman, David

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, only half of patients with hypertension achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This paper describes the protocol and baseline subject characteristics of a 2-arm, 18-month randomized clinical trial of titrated disease management (TDM) for patients with pharmaceutically-treated hypertension for whom systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not controlled (≥140mmHg for non-diabetic or ≥130mmHg for diabetic patients). The trial is being conducted among patients of four clinic locations associated with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. An intervention arm has a TDM strategy in which patients' hypertension control at baseline, 6, and 12months determines the resource intensity of disease management. Intensity levels include: a low-intensity strategy utilizing a licensed practical nurse to provide bi-monthly, non-tailored behavioral support calls to patients whose SBP comes under control; medium-intensity strategy utilizing a registered nurse to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls plus home BP monitoring; and high-intensity strategy utilizing a pharmacist to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-directed medication management. Control arm patients receive the low-intensity strategy regardless of BP control. The primary outcome is SBP. There are 385 randomized (192 intervention; 193 control) veterans that are predominately older (mean age 63.5years) men (92.5%). 61.8% are African American, and the mean baseline SBP for all subjects is 143.6mmHg. This trial will determine if a disease management program that is titrated by matching the intensity of resources to patients' BP control leads to superior outcomes compared to a low-intensity management strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in a phase III randomized trial of celecoxib and selenium for colorectal adenoma prevention.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Patricia; Roe, Denise J; Fales, Liane; Buckmeier, Julie; Wang, Fang; Hamilton, Stanley R; Bhattacharyya, Achyut; Green, Sylvan; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Chow, H-H Sherry; Ahnen, Dennis J; Boland, C Richard; Heigh, Russell I; Fay, David E; Martinez, Maria Elena; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Ashbeck, Erin L; Alberts, David S; Lance, Peter

    2012-12-01

    COX inhibitors reduce colorectal adenoma recurrence by up to 45% and selenium supplementation may prevent colorectal cancer. Following colonoscopic adenoma resection, 1,600 men and women, ages 40 to 80 years, were randomized to celecoxib (400 mg daily), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and/or selenium (200 μg daily as selenized yeast), or double placebo. The trial was initiated in November 2001. The primary trial endpoint is adenoma recurrence in each intervention group compared with placebo, as determined by surveillance colonoscopy conducted three to five years after baseline. Randomization was stratified by use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) and clinic site. Following reports of cardiovascular toxicity associated with COX-2 inhibitors, the celecoxib arm was discontinued in December 2004 when 824 participants had been randomized. Accrual continued with randomization to selenium alone or placebo. Randomization of the originally planned cohort (n = 1,621) was completed in November 2008. A further 200 patients with one or more advanced adenomas (denoting increased risk for colorectal cancer) were accrued to enhance statistical power for determining intervention efficacy in this higher-risk subgroup. Accrual of the total cohort (n = 1,824) was completed in January 2011. Baseline cohort characteristics include: mean age 62.9 years; 65% male; body mass index (BMI) 29.1 ± 5.1; 47% taking low-dose aspirin while on trial; 20% with three or more adenomas; and 38% with advanced adenomas. Intervention effects on adenoma recurrence will be determined, and their modification by genetic background and baseline selenium level. The effect of selenium supplementation on risk for type II diabetes will also be reported. ©2012 AACR

  6. Open-Label Randomized Trial of Titrated Disease Management for Patients with Hypertension: Study Design and Baseline Sample Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, George L.; Weinberger, Morris; Kirshner, Miriam A.; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Melnyk, Stephanie D.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Neelon, Brian; Van Houtven, Courtney; Gentry, Pamela W.; Morris, Isis J.; Rose, Cynthia M.; Taylor, Jennifer P.; May, Carrie L.; Han, Byungjoo; Wainwright, Christi; Alkon, Aviel; Powell, Lesa; Edelman, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, only half of patients with hypertension achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This paper describes the protocol and baseline subject characteristics of a 2-arm, 18-month randomized clinical trial of titrated disease management (TDM) for patients with pharmaceutically-treated hypertension for whom systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not controlled (≥140mmHg for non-diabetic or ≥130mmHg for diabetic patients). The trial is being conducted among patients of four clinic locations associated with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. An intervention arm has a TDM strategy in which patients' hypertension control at baseline, 6, and 12 months determines the resource intensity of disease management. Intensity levels include: a low-intensity strategy utilizing a licensed practical nurse to provide bi-monthly, non-tailored behavioral support calls to patients whose SBP comes under control; medium-intensity strategy utilizing a registered nurse to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls plus home BP monitoring; and high-intensity strategy utilizing a pharmacist to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-directed medication management. Control arm patients receive the low-intensity strategy regardless of BP control. The primary outcome is SBP. There are 385 randomized (192 intervention; 193 control) veterans that are predominately older (mean age 63.5 years) men (92.5%). 61.8% are African American, and the mean baseline SBP for all subjects is 143.6mmHg. This trial will determine if a disease management program that is titrated by matching the intensity of resources to patients' BP control leads to superior outcomes compared to a low-intensity management strategy. PMID:27417982

  7. Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease: Methodology and Baseline Sample Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Young Min; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Choi, Murim; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Dong Woo; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Kim, Jee Wook; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2017-11-01

    The Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (KBASE) aimed to recruit 650 individuals, aged from 20 to 90 years, to search for new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate how multi-faceted lifetime experiences and bodily changes contribute to the brain changes or brain pathologies related to the AD process. All participants received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, multi-modal brain imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, [ 11 C]Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography (PET), and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, blood and genetic marker analyses at baseline, and a subset of participants underwent actigraph monitoring and completed a sleep diary. Participants are to be followed annually with clinical and neuropsychological assessments, and biannually with the full KBASE assessment, including neuroimaging and laboratory tests. As of March 2017, in total, 758 individuals had volunteered for this study. Among them, in total, 591 participants-291 cognitively normal (CN) old-aged individuals, 74 CN young- and middle-aged individuals, 139 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 87 individuals with AD dementia (ADD)-were enrolled at baseline, after excluding 162 individuals. A subset of participants (n=275) underwent actigraph monitoring. The KBASE cohort is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study that recruited participants with a wide age range and a wide distribution of cognitive status (CN, MCI, and ADD) and it has several strengths in its design and methodologies. Details of the recruitment, study methodology, and baseline sample characteristics are described in this paper.

  8. ADVANCE--Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: patient recruitment and characteristics of the study population at baseline.

    PubMed

    2005-07-01

    The primary aim of ADVANCE is to determine the effects on macrovascular and microvascular disease of blood pressure lowering (with an ACE inhibitor-diuretic combination), irrespective of initial blood pressure level; and of intensive glucose lowering, in high-risk individuals with Type 2 diabetes. The study is a 2 x 2 factorial randomized controlled trial. Following 6 weeks on active perindopril-indapamide combination, eligible participants were randomized to perindopril/indapamide (initially 2.0/0.625 mg daily, increasing to 4.0/1.25 mg daily after 3 months) or matching placebo; and to an intensive gliclazide MR-based glucose control regimen aiming for a haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value of 6.5% or lower, or local standard therapy. The study is being conducted in 215 centres in 20 countries within Australasia, Asia, Europe and North America. Recruitment commenced in June 2001 and was completed in March 2003, with the inclusion of 11,140 randomized participants. Fifty-seven per cent of participants are male and the mean age at baseline was 66 years. On average, the diagnosis of diabetes was made 8 years before study entry. At baseline 32 and 10% of patients had a history of macrovascular and microvascular disease, respectively. The mean blood pressure at baseline was 145/81 mmHg; the mean HbA1c concentration was 7.5%. While blood pressure and HbA1c values were broadly similar, certain characteristics of randomized participants varied between countries. With successful worldwide recruitment completed, ADVANCE should provide reliable and broadly generalizable results on the effects of routine blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control in high-risk individuals with Type 2 diabetes.

  9. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy A; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods utilize an extensive structured telephone interview ascertaining environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36-month period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Results showed that demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into three groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these three groups, the Columbia site had fewer 'definite ALS' diagnoses. This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and has been accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized.

  10. Interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention for weight management in a community population (HealthTrack study): Study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Lonergan, Maureen; Martin, Allison; Batterham, Marijka J; Neale, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    Integrating professional expertise in diet, exercise and behavioural support may provide more effective preventive health services but this needs testing. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. The HealthTrack study is a 12 month randomised controlled trial testing effects of a novel interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention versus usual care. The study recruited overweight and obese adults 25-54 years resident in the Illawarra. Primary outcomes were weight, and secondary outcomes were disease risk factors (lipids, glucose, blood pressure), and behaviour (diet, activity, and psychological factors). Protocols, recruitment and baseline characteristics are reported. Between May 2014 and April 2015, 377 participants were recruited and randomised. The median age (IQR) of the mostly female sample (74%) was 45 (37-51) years. The sample comprised obese (BMI 32 (29-35) kg/m(2)) well educated (79% post school qualifications) non-smokers (96%). A high proportion reported suffering from anxiety (26.8%) and depression (33.7%). Metabolic syndrome was identified in 34.9% of the sample. The HealthTrack study sample was recruited to test the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary approach to preventive healthcare in self-identified overweight adults in the Illawarra region. The profile of participants gives some indication of those likely to use services similar to the trial design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Vitamin D in Vulnerable Adults at the VA (the VIVA Study).

    PubMed

    Lagari, Violet S; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Levis, Silvina

    2014-09-01

    Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with age-related physical decline and an increased risk for falls. The objective of this study is to test whether supplementation with 4000IU of vitamin D(3) (vitD(3)) for 9 months will improve, or slow down the decline of the ability to perform physical tests which have been associated with the preservation of independence in sedentary older men. We describe the study design and the baseline characteristics of the 314 men screened in the VIVA-VA Study (Vitamin D In Vulnerable Adults in the VA), a 2-year, single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial that enrolled sedentary male veterans ages 65 to 95. The main inclusion criteria are 25-OH vitamin D (25-OHD) levels between 10 and 30 ng/ml, and a Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) score ≤ 9. The primary outcome of the study is the SPPB. Subjects were recruited from the Miami Veterans Medical Center clinics. The study recruited 314 male veterans of multiethnic backgrounds. The baseline characteristics observed from the 314 men screened in the VIVA-VA Study are consistent with what is expected in a cohort of elderly sedentary men: low physical performance scores, and low 25OHD levels despite living in South Florida. The results of this study that uses a high dose of vitamin D in a cohort of sedentary older men could provide an evidence-based indication for vitamin D supplementation to improve physical performance in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY cohort at baseline.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Kenneth C; Zeitler, Philip; Geffner, Mitchell; Guandalini, Cindy; Higgins, Janine; Hirst, Kathryn; Kaufman, Francine R; Linder, Barbara; Marcovina, Santica; McGuigan, Paul; Pyle, Laura; Tamborlane, William; Willi, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) cohort represents the largest and best-characterized national sample of American youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to describe the baseline characteristics of participants in the TODAY randomized clinical trial. Participants were recruited over 4 yr at 15 clinical centers in the United States (n = 704) and enrolled, randomized, treated, and followed up 2-6 yr. The study was conducted at pediatric diabetes care clinics and practices. Eligible participants were aged 10-17 yr inclusive, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 2 yr and had a body mass index at the 85th percentile or greater. After baseline data collection, participants were randomized to one of the following groups: 1) metformin alone, 2) metformin plus rosiglitazone, or 3) metformin plus a lifestyle program of weight management. Baseline data presented include demographics, clinical/medical history, biochemical measurements, and clinical and biochemical abnormalities. At baseline the cohort included the following: 64.9% were female; mean age was 14.0 yr; mean diabetes duration was 7.8 months; mean body mass index Z-score was 2.15; 89.4% had a family history of diabetes; 41.1% were Hispanic, 31.5% were non-Hispanic black; 38.8% were living with both biological parents; 41.5% had a household annual income of less than $25,000; 26.3% had a highest education level of parent/guardian less than a high school degree; 26.3% had a blood pressure at the 90th percentile or greater; 13.6% had a blood pressure at the 95th percentile or greater; 13.0% had microalbuminuria; 79.8% had a low high-density lipoprotein level; and 10.2% had high triglycerides. The TODAY cohort is predominantly from racial/ethnic minority groups, with low socioeconomic status and a family history of diabetes. Clinical and biochemical abnormalities and comorbidities are prevalent within 2 yr of diagnosis. These findings

  13. Baseline Patient Characteristics Predicting Outcome and Attrition in Cognitive Therapy for Social Phobia: Results from a Large Multicentre Trial.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Juergen; Wiltink, Joerg; Hiller, Wolfgang; Miller, Robert; Salzer, Simone; Sarnowsky, Stephan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Willutzki, Ulrike; Leibing, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of baseline patient characteristics as predictors of outcome (end-state functioning, response and remission) and attrition for cognitive therapy (CT) in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Beyond socio-demographic and clinical variables such as symptom severity and comorbidity status, previously neglected patient characteristics (e.g., personality, self-esteem, shame, interpersonal problems and attachment style) were analysed. Data came from the CT arm of a multicentre RCT with n = 244 patients having DSM-IV SAD. CT was conducted according to the manual by Clark and Wells. Severity of SAD was assessed at baseline and end of treatment with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Multiple linear regression analyses and logistic regression analyses were applied. Up to 37% of the post-treatment variance (LSAS) could be explained by all pre-treatment variables combined. Symptom severity (baseline LSAS) was consistently negatively associated with end-state functioning and remission, but not with response. Number of comorbid diagnoses was negatively associated with end-state functioning and response, but not with remission. Self-esteem was positively associated with higher end-state functioning and more shame with better response. Attrition could not be significantly predicted. The results indicate that the initial probability for treatment success mainly depends on severity of disorder and comorbid conditions while other psychological variables are of minor importance, at least on a nomothetic level. This stands in contrast with efforts to arrive at an empirical-based foundation for differential indication and argues to search for more potent moderators of therapeutic change rather on the process level. Personality, self-esteem, shame, attachment style and interpersonal problems do not or only marginally moderate the effects of interventions in CT of social phobia. Symptom severity and comorbid diagnoses might affect treatment outcome negatively

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management activation research trial (COPD-SMART): results of recruitment and baseline patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rennie; Coultas, David; Ashmore, Jamile; Peoples, Jennifer; Sloan, John; Jackson, Bradford E; Uhm, Minyong; Singh, Karan P; Blair, Steven N; Bae, Sejong

    2015-03-01

    To describe the recruitment methods, study participation rate, and baseline characteristics of a representative sample of outpatients with COPD eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation participating in a trial of a lifestyle behavioral intervention to increase physical activity. A patient registry was developed for recruitment using an administrative database from primary care and specialty clinics of an academic medical center in northeast Texas for a parallel group randomized trial. The registry was comprised of 5582 patients and over the course of the 30 month recruitment period 325 patients were enrolled for an overall study participation rate of 35.1%. After a 6-week COPD self-management education period provided to all enrolled patients, 305 patients were randomized into either usual care (UC; n=156) or the physical activity self-management intervention (PASM; n=149). There were no clinically significant differences in demographics, clinical characteristics, or health status indicators between the randomized groups. The results of this recruitment process demonstrate the successful use of a patient registry for enrolling a representative sample of outpatients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation with COPD from primary and specialty care. Moreover, this approach to patient recruitment provides a model for future studies utilizing administrative databases and electronic health records. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  16. Baseline characteristics of an incident haemodialysis population in Spain: results from ANSWER—a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Rafael; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; Lladós, Fina; Lozano, Javier; García, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Background. The ANSWER study aims to identify risk factors leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a Spanish incident haemodialysis population. This paper summarizes the baseline characteristics of this population. Methods. A prospective, observational, one-cohort study, including all consecutive incident haemodialysis patients from 147 Spanish nephrology services, was conducted. Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2004. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics were collected. Results. Baseline characteristics are described for 2341 incident haemodialysis patients [mean (SD) age 65.2 (14.5) years, 63% males]. The main cause of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy (26%). The majority of patients (57%) had a Karnofsky score of 80–100 and 27% were followed up by a nephrologist for ≤6 months. In total, 86% of the patients had hypertension, 43% had dyslipidaemia and 44% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Initial vascular access was obtained via a temporary catheter in 30% of patients, via a permanent catheter in 16% and via an arteriovenous fistula in 54%. Albumin levels were <3.5 g/dl in 43% of patients. Immediately prior to the onset of haemodialysis, the mean (SD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 7.6 (2.8) ml/min/1.73 m2, and only 6.7% of the patients were within the K/DOQI guidelines for all four bone mineral markers. In addition, a high proportion of patients had anaemia markers outside the EBPG guidelines (haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 59%, ferritin <100 or >500 ng/ml, 41% and saturated transferrin <20 or >40%, 50%) despite previous treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in 41% of cases. Conclusions. There is excessive use of temporary catheters and a high prevalence of uraemia-related cardiovascular risk factors among incident haemodialysis patients in Spain. The poor control of hypertension, anaemia, malnutrition and mineral metabolism and late referral to a nephrologist

  17. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Kathryn A; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B

    Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT) by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04). As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on treatment.

  18. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  19. The Laser in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension (LiGHT) trial. A multicentre randomised controlled trial: baseline patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Gazzard, Gus; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Jiang, Yuzhen; Nathwani, Neil; Hunter, Rachael; Ambler, Gareth; Bunce, Catey

    2018-05-01

    The laser in glaucoma and ocular hypertension (LiGHT) trial aims to establish whether initial treatment with selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is superior to initial treatment with topical medication for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). LiGHT is a prospective unmasked, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT). 718 previously untreated patients with POAG or OHT were recruited at 6 UK centres between 2012 and 2014. Patients were randomised to initial SLT followed by medical therapy or medical therapy without laser. Participants will be monitored for 3 years, according to routine clinical practice. The primary outcome is EQ-5D-5L. Secondary outcomes are treatment pathway cost and cost-effectiveness, Glaucoma Utility Index (GUI), Glaucoma Symptom Scale, Glaucoma Quality of Life (GQL), pathway effectiveness, visual function, safety and concordance. A total of 555 patients had POAG and 163 OHT; 518 patients had both eyes eligible. The mean age for patients with POAG was 64 years and for OHT 58 years. 70% of all participants were white. Median IOP for OHT eyes was 26 mm Hg and 23 mm Hg for POAG eyes. Median baseline visual field mean deviation was -0.81 dB for OHT eyes and -2.82 dB for POAG eyes. There was no difference between patients with POAG and patients with OHT on the EQ-5D-5DL; the difference between OHT and POAG on the GUI was -0.02 and 1.23 on the GQL. The LiGHT trial is the first RCT to compare the two treatment options in a real-world setting. The baseline characteristics of the LiGHT cohort compare well with other landmark glaucoma studies. ISRCTN32038223, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Baseline demographic characteristics of subjects enrolled in international quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) vaccine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, Jorma

    2008-06-01

    In Phase II/III trials, administration of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV6/11/16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and non-invasive cervical cancer in women aged 16-26 years who were naïve to these HPV types at enrollment. However, the makeup and extent of catch-up vaccination programs among young women is unclear, because a proportion of this population will likely already have been exposed to one or more vaccine-HPV-types. Herein we analyze baseline data from the quadrivalent HPV vaccine clinical trial program to investigate variables which may help shape catch-up vaccine implementation policies. Female adolescents and young adults aged 16-26 years were randomized into five clinical trials. Baseline data regarding demographics, sexual history, pregnancy history, and other characteristics were collected at enrollment. At the baseline gynecological examination during enrollment, specimens were obtained for Pap testing. Swabs of external genital, lateral vaginal, and cervical sites for HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing were taken, and serum samples were obtained for HPV serology testing. Regional analyses of data were conducted. Overall, 72% of subjects enrolled worldwide were naïve by both serology and PCR to all four vaccine HPV types. Few subjects were seropositive and/or PCR positive for more than two vaccine-related HPV types. Of all subjects with HSIL at enrollment, 78% were positive to at least one vaccine-related HPV type at enrollment. Regional differences in HPV and STD prevalence were evident. Study limitations included under-representation of women with >/=4 sexual partners and possible underestimation of prior HPV exposure. Our findings demonstrate that sexually active 16-26 year-old women with

  1. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  2. Baseline characteristics, analysis plan and report on feasibility for the Prevention Of Decline in Cognition After Stroke Trial (PODCAST).

    PubMed

    Scutt, Polly; Blackburn, Dan; Krishnan, Kailash; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Ford, Gary A; Mant, Jonathan; Passmore, Peter; Pocock, Stuart; Reckless, John; Sprigg, Nikola; Stewart, Rob; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bath, Philip M

    2015-11-07

    A common complication after stroke is development of cognitive impairment and dementia. However, effective strategies for reducing the risk of developing these problems remain undefined. Potential strategies include intensive lowering of blood pressure (BP) and/or lipids. This paper summarises the baseline characteristics, statistical analysis plan and feasibility of a randomised control trial of blood pressure and lipid lowering in patients post-stroke with the primary objective of reducing cognitive impairment and dementia. The Prevention Of Decline in Cognition After Stroke Trial (PODCAST) was a multi-centre prospective randomised open-label blinded-endpoint controlled partial-factorial internal pilot trial running in secondary and primary care. Participants without dementia were enrolled 3-7 months post ischaemic stroke or spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage, and randomised to intensive versus guideline BP lowering (target systolic BP <125 mmHg versus <140 mmHg); patients with ischaemic stroke were also randomised to intensive or guideline lipid lowering (target LDL cholesterol <1.4 mmol/L versus <3 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised; a key secondary outcome was to assess feasibility of performing a large trial of one or both interventions. Data are number (%) or mean (standard deviation). The trial was planned to last for 8 years with follow-up between 1 and 8 years. The plan for reporting the main results is included as Additional file 2. 83 patients (of a planned 600) were recruited from 19 UK sites between 7 October 2010 and 31 January 2014. Delays, due to difficulties in the provision of excess treatment costs and to complexity of follow-up, led to few centres taking part and a much lower recruitment rate than planned. Patient characteristics at baseline were: age 74 (SD 7) years, male 64 (77 %), index stroke ischaemic 77 (93 %), stroke onset to randomisation 4.5 [SD 1.3] months, Addenbrooke's Cognitive

  3. Scoliosis detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment in the absence of a screening program in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed. Objectives To describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. Methods Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. Results We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86%) girls and 108 (14%) boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19) years. Sixty percent had Risser sign ≥ 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38° (10°-95°). About 40% had a major curve >40°. Seventy-one percent were detected by patients, close relatives, and friends

  4. Meeting the WHO 90% target: antiretroviral treatment efficacy in Poland is associated with baseline clinical patient characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Parczewski, Milosz; Siwak, Ewa; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Cielniak, Iwona; Burkacka, Ewa; Pulik, Piotr; Witor, Adam; Muller, Karolina; Zasik, Ewelina; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Jankowska, Maria; Lemańska, Małgorzata; Olczak, Anita; Grąbczewska, Edyta; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Szetela, Bartosz; Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Skwara, Paweł; Witak-Jędra, Magdalena; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Wójcik-Cichy, Kamila; Kamerys, Juliusz; Janczarek, Małgorzata; Krankowska, Dagny; Mikuła, Tomasz; Kozieł, Katarzyna; Bielec, Dariusz; Stempkowska, Justyna; Kocbach, Aleksandra; Błudzin, Wiesława; Horban, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    :1.47 (95%CI:1.08–2.01), p = 0.016], baseline lymphocyte CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL [OR:1.72 (95%CI:1.04–2.78), p = 0.034] and negative HCV serology [OR:1.97 (95%CI:1.29–2.94), p = 0.002]. For viral load threshold <200 copies/mL higher likelihood of virologic success was only associated with baseline lymphocyte CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL [OR:2.08 (95%CI:1.01–4.35), p = 0.049] and negative HCV status [OR:2.84 (95%CI:1.52–5.26), p = 0.001]. Conclusions: Proportion of virologically suppressed patients is in line with WHO treatment target confirming successful application of antiretroviral treatment strategy in Poland. Virological suppression rates depend on baseline patient characteristics, which should guide individualized antiretroviral tre0atment decisions. PMID:28715160

  5. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  6. Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in China: Rationale for Developing a Patient Registry and Baseline Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wen-Yi; Xu, Bao-Yan; Zheng, Xin; Chen, Jinjun; Wang, Xian-Bo; Huang, Yan; Gao, Yan-Hang; Meng, Zhong-Ji; Qian, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Feng; Lu, Xiao-Bo; Shang, Jia; Li, Hai; Wang, Shao-Yang; Sun, Xin; Li, Hai

    2018-05-14

    Definitions and descriptions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) vary between Western and Eastern types, and alcoholism and hepatitis B virus(HBV) are the main etiologies, respectively. To determine whether there are unified diagnostic criteria and common treatment programs for different etiologies of ACLF, a multicenter prospective cohort with the same inclusion criteria and disease indicators as those used in the European CANONIC (Chronic liver failure-ACLF in Cirrhosis) study is urgently needed in Asia, where the prevalence of HBV is high. Fourteen nationwide liver centers from tertiary university hospitals in China were included, and 2,600 hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease (both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic) of various etiologies with acute decompensation or acute hepatic injury were continuously recruited from January 2015 to December 2016. Data were collected during hospitalization and continuous follow-ups were performed once a month until 36 months after hospital discharge. A multicenter prospective cohort of 2,600 patients was designed (NCT no. NCT02457637). Of these patients, 71.5% had HBV-related disease, 1,833 had cirrhotic disease, and 767 had non-cirrhotic disease. The numbers and proportions of enrolled patients from each participating center and the baseline characteristics of the patients with or without cirrhosis are presented.

  7. Design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study: a multicenter cluster-randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in employees with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven-Pasmooij, Tessa A; Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Robroek, Suzan J W; Helmhout, Pieter; Burdorf, Alex; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2015-07-28

    The prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles and preventable chronic diseases is high. They lead to disabilities and sickness absence, which might be reduced if health promotion measures were applied. Therefore, we developed the PerfectFit health promotion intervention with a "blended care"-approach, which consists of a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) including tailored and personalized advice, followed by motivational interviewing (MI). We hypothesize that adding MI to a web-based HRA leads to better health outcomes. The objective is to describe the design and baseline characteristics of the PerfectFit study, which is being conducted among employees with high cardiovascular risk in the military workforce, the police organization and an academic hospital. PerfectFit is a cluster randomized controlled trial, consisting of two arms. Based on cardiovascular risk profiling, done between 2012 and 2014, we included employees based on one or more risk factors and motivation to participate. One arm is the 'limited' health program (control) that consists of: (a) an HRA as a decision aid for lifestyle changes, including tailored and personalized advice, and pros and cons of the options, and (b) a newsletter every 3 months. The other arm is the 'extensive' program (intervention), which is additionally offered MI-sessions by trained occupational physicians, 4 face-to-face and 3 by telephone, and is offered more choices of health promotion activities in the HRA. During the follow-up period, participants choose the health promotion activities they personally prefer. After six and twelve months, outcomes will be assessed by online questionnaires. After twelve months the cardiovascular risk profiling will be repeated. The primary outcome is self-reported general health. Secondary outcomes are self-reported work ability, CVD-risk score, sickness absence, productivity loss at work, participation in health promotion activities, changes in lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption

  8. 21-cm Observations with the NASA ADAS 18-meter Antenna System: Baseline Astronomical Observations and Measurements of Performance Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2001-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made with the NASA Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS). The NASA ADAS antenna, located at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, is an 18-meter X-band antenna system that has been primarily used for satellite tracking and served as the telecommunication station for the NASA IUE satellite until ca. 1997. A joint NASA-Morehead State University (MSU)-Kentucky NSF EPSCoR venture has been initiated to upgrade and relocate the antenna system to MSU's Astrophysics Laboratory where it will provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate students as well as be engaged in satellite tracking missions. As part of the relocation efforts, many systems will be upgraded including replacement of a hydrostatic azimuth bearing with a high-precision electromechanical bearing, a new servo system, and Ku-capable reflector surface. It is widely believed that there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make utilizing three primary observing strategies: 1.) longitudinal studies of RF variations in cosmic phenomena, 2.) surveys of large areas of sky, and 3.) fast reactions to transient phenomena. MSU faculty and staff along with NASA engineers re-outfitted the ADAS system with RF systems and upgraded servo controllers during the spring and summer of 2001. Empirical measurements of primary system performance characteristics were made including G/T (at S- and L bands), noise figures, pointing and tracking accuracies, and drive speeds and accelerations. Baseline astronomical observations were made with the MSU L-band receiver using a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm) and observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz, tunable over the 6 MHz window) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. Baseline observations of radio sources herein reported include Cygnus A, 3C 157, 3C 48 and the Andromeda

  9. Study design and baseline characteristics of a combined educational and environmental intervention trial to lower sodium intake in Swiss employees.

    PubMed

    Beer-Borst, Sigrid; Luta, Xhyljeta; Hayoz, Stefanie; Sommerhalder, Kathrin; Krause, Corinna Gréa; Eisenblätter, Julia; Jent, Sandra; Siegenthaler, Stefan; Aubert, Rafael; Haldimann, Max; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2018-04-02

    Blood pressure is a primary cardiovascular disease risk factor. Population-wide governmental strategies aim to reduce lifestyle and dietary risk factors for hypertension, one of which is an unbalanced diet with high sodium and low potassium intakes. Nutrition interventions in the workplace are considered a promising approach in encouraging health-promoting behaviors. We developed and conducted the health promoting sodium reduction trial "Healthful & Tasty: Sure!" in worksites in the German-speaking part of Switzerland from May 2015 to Nov 2016, for which we present the study protocol and baseline characteristics. Healthful & Tasty, a cluster nonrandomized single-arm trial with calibration arm, aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined educational and environmental intervention in the workplace in reducing employees' average daily sodium/salt intake by 15%. To this end, health and food literacy of employees and guideline compliance among the catering facility team needed to be improved. The primary outcome measure was sodium/salt intake estimated from sodium excretion in a 24-h urine sample. Secondary outcome measures included changes in the overall qualitative diet composition, blood pressure, anthropometric indices, and health and food literacy. Of eight organizations with catering facilities, seven organizations took part in the nutrition education and catering salt reduction interventions, and one organization participated as a control. Overall, 145 consenting employees were included in the staggered, one-year four-phase trial, of which 132 participated in the intervention group. In addition to catering surveys and food sampling, the trial included five follow-up health assessments including questionnaires, blood pressure measurements, anthropometrics, and sodium, potassium, and iodine intake measurements obtained from 24-h and spot urine samples, and a food record checklist. Exploratory and hypothesis generating baseline statistical analysis included

  10. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS): 1. Study design and methods and baseline characteristics of study patients.

    PubMed

    Ederer, F; Gaasterland, D E; Sullivan, E K

    1994-08-01

    Medical therapy has been the standard initial treatment for open-angle glaucoma. When some visual field has been lost and maximum tolerated and effective medical therapy does not succeed in controlling the disease, the patient is considered to have advanced glaucoma, and the first of a potential sequence of surgical treatments is usually indicated. Little is known about the long-term course and prognosis of advanced glaucoma or about the long-term effectiveness of sequential surgical treatments in controlling the disease and preventing vision loss and blindness. The Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study was designed to study, in advanced glaucoma, the long-term clinical course and prognosis, and, in a randomized trial, the comparative outcomes of two sequences of surgical treatments. Toward these goals, 789 eyes in 591 patients were enrolled at 11 clinical centers between 1988 and 1992. Follow-up will continue until 1996. Eyes were randomly assigned to one of two sequences of surgical treatments. One sequence begins with argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT), is followed by trabeculectomy, an incisional surgical filtering procedure, should ALT fail to control the disease, and by a second trabeculectomy should the first trabeculectomy fail. The other sequence begins with trabeculectomy, is followed by ALT should the trabeculectomy fail, and by a second trabeculectomy should ALT fail. The main outcome of interest is visual function (visual field and visual acuity). Other important outcomes are intraocular pressure, complications of surgery, time to treatment failure, and extent of need for additional medical therapy. We present in this paper the rationale, objectives, design and methods of the study, and the baseline characteristics of study patients and eyes.

  11. A cluster randomized trial of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Zambia: study design, implementation, and baseline cohort characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Westfall, Andrew O; Luhanga, Dora K; Clark, Gina M; Goldman, Jason D; Mulenga, Priscilla L; Cantrell, Ronald A; Chi, Benjamin H; Zulu, Isaac; Saag, Michael S; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2010-03-12

    The benefit of routine HIV-1 viral load (VL) monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-constrained settings is uncertain because of the high costs associated with the test and the limited treatment options. We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the use of routine VL testing at ART-initiation and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, versus our local standard of care (which uses immunological and clinical criteria to diagnose treatment failure, with discretionary VL testing when the two do not agree). Dedicated study personnel were integrated into public-sector ART clinics. We collected participant information in a dedicated research database. Twelve ART clinics in Lusaka, Zambia constituted the units of randomization. Study clinics were stratified into pairs according to matching criteria (historical mortality rate, size, and duration of operation) to limit the effect of clustering, and independently randomized to the intervention and control arms. The study was powered to detect a 36% reduction in mortality at 18 months. From December 2006 to May 2008, we completed enrollment of 1973 participants. Measured baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the study arms. Enrollment was staggered by clinic pair and truncated at two matched sites. A large clinical trial of routing VL monitoring was successfully implemented in a dynamic and rapidly growing national ART program. Close collaboration with local health authorities and adequate reserve staff were critical to success. Randomized controlled trials such as this will likely prove valuable in determining long-term outcomes in resource-constrained settings. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00929604.

  12. Job characteristics, physical and psychological symptoms, and social support as antecedents of sickness absence among men and women in the private industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Ari; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija; Mutanen, Pertti; Vahtera, Jussi; Peiró, José M

    2003-09-01

    Most longitudinal studies on the relationship between psychosocial health resources and risks, and the employees' subsequent sickness absences have been conducted in the public sector. The purpose of this study was to find out psychosocial antecedents of sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector. The effects of job characteristics (job autonomy and job complexity), physical and psychological symptoms, and social support (from coworkers and supervisors) on sickness absenteeism were investigated. The number of long (4-21 days) and very long (>21 days) sickness absence episodes of 3895 persons (76% men and 24% women, mean age 44 years) was obtained from the health registers of a multinational forest industry corporation in 1995-1998. A questionnaire survey on the working conditions and health of the workers was carried out in 1996. The follow-up time of the sickness absences was 1-year 9-month. Job autonomy was found to be associated with long and very long episodes in men (rate ratio (RR) in the lowest autonomy group approximately 2 times higher than the highest autonomy group), and with very long episodes of absence in women (2-3 times higher RR between the low vs. the high category). Low job complexity predicted men's very long absences (RR 1.4). Long and very long episodes were associated with physical and psychological symptoms (RR 1.2-1.7) among men and women. Lack of coworkers' support increased the frequency of very long sickness absence among men (RR 1.4), and lack of supervisor's support among women (RR 1.6). Also, some interaction effects of social support variables were observed among both genders. We conclude that the studied psychosocial factors are associated with subsequent sickness absence, and that the associations are partly gender-specific. The results showing which variables are related to employees' sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector can be applied in human resource management and health service planning.

  13. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline characteristics from the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J; Go, Alan S; Lora, Claudia M; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John W; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C; Rosen, Leigh K; Tao, Kaixiang; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold I; Lash, James P

    2011-08-01

    Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were aged 21-74 years with CKD using age-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008, whereas CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at 7 clinical centers in 2003-2007. Race/ethnicity. Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, and CKD-associated complications. Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols. Of H-CRIC/CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1,650 were non-Hispanic black, and 1,638 were non-Hispanic white. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (P < 0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks (51%) and whites (40%; P < 0.01). Blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg was more common in Hispanics (62%) than blacks (57%) and whites (35%; P < 0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (P < 0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs among the high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg. Mean eGFR was lower in Hispanics (39.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) than in blacks (43.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and whites (46.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), whereas median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (protein excretion, 0.72 g/d) than in blacks (0.24 g/d) and whites (0.12 g/d; P < 0.01). Generalizability; observed associations limited

  14. Baseline characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction included in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) study.

    PubMed

    Donal, Erwan; Lund, Lars H; Oger, Emmanuel; Hage, Camilla; Persson, Hans; Reynaud, Amélie; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Bauer, Fabrice; Sportouch-Dukhan, Catherine; Drouet, Elodie; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Linde, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) is a prospective observational study to characterize heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to identify prognostic factors for long-term mortality and morbidity. To report characteristics and echocardiography at entry and after 4-8 weeks of follow-up. Patients were included following an acute heart failure presentation with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)>100 ng/L or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP)>300 ng/L and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)>45%. The mean ± SD age of 539 included patients was 77 ± 9 years and 56% were women. Patient history included hypertension (78%), atrial tachyarrhythmia (44%), prior heart failure (40%) and anemia (37%), but left bundle branch block was rare (3.8%). Median NT-proBNP was 2448 ng/L (n=438), and median BNP 429 ng/L (n=101). Overall, 101 patients did not return for the follow-up visit, including 13 patients who died (2.4%). Apart from older age (80 ± 9 vs. 76 ± 9 years; P=0.006), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients who did and did not return for follow-up. Mean LVEF was lower at entry than follow-up (56% vs. 62%; P<0.001). At follow-up, mean E/e' was 12.9 ± 6.1, left atrial volume index 49.4±17.8mL/m(2). Mean global left ventricular longitudinal strain was -14.6 ± 3.9%; LV mass index was 126.6 ± 36.2g/m(2). Patients in KaRen were old with slight female dominance and hypertension as the most prevalent etiological factor. LVEF was preserved, but with increased LV mass and depressed LV diastolic and longitudinal systolic functions. Few patients had signs of electrical dyssynchrony (ClinicalTrials.gov.- NCT00774709). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. CKD in Hispanics: Baseline Characteristics From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Go, Alan; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; Cohan, Janet; Kusek, John; Mercado, Alejandro; Ojo, Akinlolu; Ricardo, Ana C.; Rosen, Leigh; Tao, Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Feldman, Harold; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics. We compared baseline characteristics of Hispanic participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies with non-Hispanic CRIC participants. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis Setting and Participants Participants were aged 21–74 years with CKD using age-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at enrollment into the CRIC/H-CRIC Studies. H-CRIC included Hispanics recruited at the University of Illinois from 2005–2008 while CRIC included Hispanics and non-Hispanics recruited at seven clinical centers from 2003–2007. Factor Race/ethnicity Outcomes Blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, CKD-associated complications Measurements Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, blood pressure, and medications were assessed using standard techniques and protocols Results Among H-CRIC/ CRIC participants, 497 were Hispanic, 1650 non-Hispanic Black, and 1638 non-Hispanic White. Low income and educational attainment were nearly twice as prevalent in Hispanics compared with non-Hispanics (p<0.01). Hispanics had self-reported diabetes (67%) more frequently than non-Hispanic Blacks (51%) and Whites (40%) (p<0.01). Blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg was more common in Hispanics (62%) compared with Blacks (57%) and Whites (35%) (p<0.05), and abnormalities in hematologic, metabolic, and bone metabolism parameters were more prevalent in Hispanics (p<0.05), even after stratifying by entry eGFR. Hispanics had the lowest receipt of ACE inhibitor/ARB among high-risk subgroups, including participants with diabetes, proteinuria, and blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR (ml/min/m2) was lower in Hispanics (39.6) than in Blacks (43.7) and Whites (46.2), while median proteinuria was higher in Hispanics (0.72 g/d) than in Blacks (0.24 g/d) and Whites (0.12 g/d) (p<0.01). Limitations Generalizability; observed

  16. AGING AND ACTIVITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR ACTIVITY AND THE EFFECT OF TOLUENE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapidly aging population raises many uncertainties regarding the susceptibility of older adults to environmental pollutants. Research to reduce these uncertainties must consider age-related changes in baseline function and its variability. For example, activity levels are gen...

  17. Second thoughts on the final rule: An analysis of baseline participant characteristics reports on ClinicalTrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Amos; Anand, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    ClinicalTrials.gov is valuable for aggregate-level analysis of trials. The recently published final rule aims to improve reporting of trial results. We aimed to assess variability in ClinicalTirals.gov records reporting participants' baseline measures. The September 2015 edition of the database for Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT), was used in this study. To date, AACT contains 186,941 trials of which 16,660 trials reporting baseline (participant) measures were analyzed. We also analyzed a subset of 13,818 Highly Likely Applicable Clinical Trials (HLACT), for which reporting of results is likely mandatory and compared a random sample of 30 trial records to their journal articles. We report counts for each mandatory baseline measure and variability reporting in their formats. The AACT dataset contains 8,161 baseline measures with 1206 unique measurement units. However, of these 6,940 (85%) variables appear only once in the dataset. Age and Gender are reported using many different formats (178 and 49 respectively). "Age" as the variable name is reported in 60 different formats. HLACT subset reports measures using 3,931 variables. The most frequent Age format (i.e. mean (years) ± sd) is found in only 45% of trials. Overall only 4 baseline measures (Region of Enrollment, Age, Number of Participants, and Gender) are reported by > 10% of trials. Discrepancies are found in both the types and formats of ClinicalTrials.gov records and their corresponding journal articles. On average, journal articles include twice the number of baseline measures (13.6±7.1 (sd) vs. 6.6±7.6) when compared to the ClinicalTrials.gov records that report any results. We found marked variability in baseline measures reporting. This is not addressed by the final rule. To support secondary use of ClinicalTrials.gov, a uniform format for baseline measures reporting is warranted.

  18. Prevalence, characteristics, and acute care utilization of disabled older adults with an absence of help for activities of daily living: Findings from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Hsuan; Shyu, Yea-Ing Lotus; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Bai, Yuh-Bin; Stanaway, Fiona; Lin, Jen-Der; Li, Chia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and acute care utilization of community dwelling disabled older adults with an absence of help for activities of daily living (ADL). We analyzed cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of people aged 65 years and over (n=2904) participating in the 2009 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. Disability was defined as self-reporting a lot of difficulty or complete inability to carry out one or more ADL tasks. Participants with disability were asked whether they received help in the form of personal assistance or assistive devices to complete ADL tasks, with a yes response indicating the presence of help and a no response indicating the absence of help. Hospitalization and emergency department visits was assessed as a dichotomous variable (any or none), respectively. An absence of available help for ADL disability was reported in 16.6% of disabled older adults. Disabled older adults reporting an absence of help were more likely to be female. After adjustment for other factors, compared to older adults without disability, older adults with disability not receiving help for ADL tasks were highly related to hospitalization (OR=4.57; 95%CI=[1.51-13.82]) and emergency department visits (OR=3.52; 95%CI=[1.15-10.76]) during the past year, respectively. We found that there is high prevalence of absence of help to perform ADL tasks in older adults with disability, and that this absence of help for ADL disability is associated with a greater burden of acute care utilization than those without disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (P<0.001) and APRI (P<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to

  20. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of American Indian Tribal College Students Participating in a Tribal College Tobacco and Behavioral Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won S; Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M; Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2016-06-01

    American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains-44.0% and Midwest-28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of smoking and

  1. A demonstration area for type 2 diabetes prevention in Barranquilla and Juan Mina (Colombia): Baseline characteristics of the study participants.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Tania; Barengo, Noël C; Arrieta, Astrid; Ricaurte, Carlos; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a heavy public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is necessary to understand the effect of T2D in different settings and population groups. This report aimed to present baseline characteristics of study participants in the demonstration area for the "Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in Barranquilla and Juan Mina" (DEMOJUAN) project after randomization and to compare their fasting and 2-hour glucose levels according to lifestyle and T2D risk factor levels.The DEMOJUAN project is a randomized controlled field trial. Study participants were recruited from study sites using population-wide screening using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) questionnaire. All volunteers with FINDRISC of ≥13 points were invited to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Participant inclusion criteria for the upcoming field trial were either FINDRISC of ≥13 points and 2-hour post-challenge glucose level of 7.0 to 11.0 mmol/L or FINDRISC of ≥13 points and fasting plasma glucose level of 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L. Lifestyle habits and risk factors for T2D were assessed by trained interviewers using a validated questionnaire.Among the 14,193 participants who completed the FINDRISC questionnaire, 35% (n = 4915) had a FINDRISC score of ≥13 points and 47% (n = 2306) agreed to undergo the OGTT. Approximately, 33% (n = 772) of participants underwent the OGTT and met the entry criteria; these participants were randomized into 3 groups. There were no statistically significant differences found in anthropometric or lifestyle risk factors, distribution of the glucose metabolism categories, or other diabetes risk factors between the 3 groups (P > .05). Women with a past history of hyperglycaemia had significantly higher fasting glucose levels than those without previous hyperglycaemia (103 vs 99 mg/dL; P < .05).Lifestyle habits and risk factors were evenly distributed among the 3 study groups. No differences

  2. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of American Indian Tribal College Students Participating in a Tribal College Tobacco and Behavioral Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Niaman; Pacheco, Christina M.; Filippi, Melissa K.; Pacheco, Joseph; White Bull, Julia; Nance, Christi; Faseru, Babalola; Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: American Indians (AIs) have the highest cigarette smoking rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Although the overall smoking prevalence in the United States for nonminority populations has decreased over the past several decades, the same pattern is not observed among AIs. The purpose of this observational study was to collect cigarette smoking and related information from American Indian tribal college students to inform tailored interventions. Methods: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional survey of American Indian tribal college students, Tribal College Tobacco and Behavior Survey (TCTABS), with a focus on recruiting all incoming freshman at three participating tribal colleges in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions. A total of 1256 students participated in the baseline surveys between April 2011 and October 2014. Results: The overall smoking prevalence of this sample was 34.7%, with differences by region (Northern Plains—44.0% and Midwest—28%). The majority, 87.5% of current smokers reported smoking 10 or less cigarettes per day, 41% reported smoking menthol cigarettes, 52% smoked Marlboro brand, and the mean age of their first cigarette was 14 years. The majority, 62% had made at least one quit attempt in the past year. The overwhelming majority of respondents, regardless of their smoking status, thought that the current smoking prevalence on campus was greater than 41% and approximately one-third believed that it was as high as 61%. Conclusions: Very few studies of smoking have been conducted in this population and results from our study confirm the need for effective interventions. Implications: AIs have the highest cigarette smoking rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Furthermore, limited studies have examined the epidemiology of cigarette smoking among tribal college students. This study addresses health disparities related to smoking among college students by examining the demographic

  3. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D N; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. the present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (p<0.001) and APRI (p<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to initiate appropriate ART regimen.

  4. Health perceptions and clinical characteristics of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: baseline data from an international clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Zhao, N; Gathany, T; Kim, L-L; Cella, D; Revicki, D

    2009-05-01

    Baseline clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data from a phase 2, multi-site, international, randomized, controlled trial were analyzed to: (1) characterize the health status of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), (2) explore cross-sectional relationships between HRQoL and clinical measures, and (3) evaluate differences in HRQoL scores for subsequent validation as minimally important differences (MID). www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00207727. Baseline clinical and HRQoL data were selected and analyzed. HRQoL questionnaires included the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), a Patient Assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) Impact (PAMSI), and MS-specific symptom scales for Bladder and Bowel Control, Cognition, and Sexual Satisfaction. Standard summary statistics described the population while Pearson and Spearman correlations evaluated the baseline association between HRQoL and clinical measures. Cross-sectional estimates of MID in HRQoL scores were derived using several clinical anchors, the PAMSI, and two tests: Tukey multiple comparisons and adjacent mean difference. Patients (n = 249) had a mean age of 39.0 (Standard deviation, SD = 10.5), 70% were female, 63% resided in Europe, and 96% were Caucasian. Baseline median Expanded Disability Severity Scale (EDSS) was 2.5 (range = 0.0-6.5); median disease duration was 1.9 years (range = 0.1-33.6). The worst baseline mean (normalized) SF-36 scores were for General Health (39.9), Role Physical (40.4), Physical Functioning (41.0), and Vitality (42.7). The worst MS symptom mean scores were for Cognition (6.3) and FSS (4.4). Fatigue scores indicated substantial burden and were consistent with SF-36 Vitality results. Baseline HRQoL scores (SF-36, FSS, MS symptom scales) correlated most with EDSS, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), age and disease duration. Lesion count and pre-baseline relapse rate had no meaningful association with HRQoL or other clinical

  5. Perceived Family Functioning Predicts Baseline Psychosocial Characteristics in U.S. Participants of a Family Focused Grief Therapy Trial.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Tammy A; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Masterson, Melissa; McDonnell, Glynnis A; Hichenberg, Shira; Loeb, Rebecca; Kissane, David W

    2017-07-01

    Screening and baseline data on 170 American families (620 individuals), selected by screening from a palliative care population for inclusion in a randomized controlled trial of family-focused grief therapy, were examined to determine whether family dysfunction conferred higher levels of psychosocial morbidity. We hypothesized that greater family dysfunction would, indeed, be associated with poorer psychosocial outcomes among palliative care patients and their family members. Screened families were classified according to their functioning on the Family Relationships Index (FRI) and consented families completed baseline assessments. Mixed-effects modeling with post hoc tests compared individuals' baseline psychosocial outcomes (psychological distress, social functioning, and family functioning on a different measure) according to the classification of their family on the FRI. Covariates were included in all models as appropriate. For those who completed baseline measures, 191 (30.0%) individuals were in low-communicating families, 313 (50.5%) in uninvolved families, and 116 (18.7%) in conflictual families. Family class was significantly associated (at ps ≤ 0.05) with increased psychological distress (Beck Depression Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory) and poorer social adjustment (Social Adjustment Scale) for individual family members. The family assessment device supported the concurrent accuracy of the FRI. As predicted, significantly greater levels of individual psychosocial morbidity were present in American families whose functioning as a group was poorer. Support was generated for a clinical approach that screens families to identify those at high risk. Overall, these baseline data point to the importance of a family-centered model of care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Absence of tissue factor is characteristic of lymphoid malignancies of both T- and B-cell origin

    PubMed Central

    Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Braggio, Esteban; Lome-Maldonado, Carmen; Morales-Leyte, Ana Lilia; Fonseca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Thrombosis is a marker of poor prognosis in individuals with solid tumors. The expression of tissue factor (TF) on the cell surface membrane of malignant cells is a pivotal molecular link between activation of coagulation, angiogenesis, metastasis, aggressive tumor behavior and poor survival. Interestingly, thrombosis is associated with shortened survival in solid, but not in lymphoid neoplasias. Objectives We sought to study whether the lack of impact of thrombosis on survival in lymphoid neoplasias could be due to a lack of tumor-derived TF expression. Methods We analyzed TF gene (F3) expression in lymphoid (N=114), myeloid (N=49) and solid tumor (N=856) cell lines using the publicly available dataset from the Broad-Novartis Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (http://www.broadinstitute.org/ccle/home), and in 90 patient-derived lymphoma samples. TF protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results In sharp contrast to wide F3 expression in solid tumors (74.2%), F3 was absent in all low and high grade T- and B-cell lymphomas, and in most myeloid tumors, except for select acute myeloid leukemias with monocytic component. IHC confirmed the absence of TF protein in all indolent and high-grade B-cell (0/90) and T-cell (0/20) lymphomas, and acute leukemias (0/11). Conclusions We show that TF in lymphomas does not derive from the malignant cells, since these do not express either F3 or TF protein. Therefore, it is unlikely that thrombosis in patients with lymphoid neoplasms is secondary to tumor-derived tissue factor. PMID:24491425

  7. Tailored Case Management for Diabetes and Hypertension (TEACH-DM) in a community population: study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Matthew J; Bosworth, Hayden B; Coffman, Cynthia J; Lindquist, Jennifer H; Neary, Alice M; Harris, Amy C; Datta, Santanu K; Granger, Bradi B; Pereira, Katherine; Dolor, Rowena J; Edelman, David

    2013-09-01

    Despite recognition of the benefits associated with well-controlled diabetes and hypertension, control remains suboptimal. Effective interventions for these conditions have been studied within academic settings, but interventions targeting both conditions have rarely been tested in community settings. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a behavioral intervention among community patients with poorly-controlled diabetes and comorbid hypertension. Tailored Case Management for Diabetes and Hypertension (TEACH-DM) is a 24-month randomized, controlled trial evaluating a telephone-delivered behavioral intervention for diabetes and hypertension versus attention control. The study recruited from nine community practices. The nurse-administered intervention targets 3 areas: 1) cultivation of healthful behaviors for diabetes and hypertension control; 2) provision of fundamentals to support attainment of healthful behaviors; and 3) identification and correction of patient-specific barriers to adopting healthful behaviors. Hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure measured at 6, 12, and 24 months are co-primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include self-efficacy, self-reported medication adherence, exercise, and cost-effectiveness. Of 377 randomized patients, 193 were allocated to the intervention and 184 to attention control. The cohort is balanced in terms of gender, race, education level, and income. The cohort's mean baseline hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure are above goal, and mean baseline body mass index falls in the obese range. Baseline self-reported non-adherence is high for diabetes and hypertension medications. Trial results are pending. If effective, the TEACH-DM intervention's telephone-based delivery strategy and nurse administration make it well-suited for rapid implementation and broad dissemination in community settings. © 2013.

  8. Latanoprost and Dorzolamide for the Treatment of Pediatric Glaucoma: The Glaucoma Italian Pediatric Study (Gipsy), Design and Baseline Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Luciano; Biagioli, Elena; Galli, Francesca; Poli, Davide; Rulli, Eliana; Riva, Ivano; Hollander, Lital; Katsanos, Andreas; Longo, Antonio; Uva, Maurizio G; Torri, Valter; Weinreb, Robert N

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a treatment strategy with latanoprost and dorzolamide in primary pediatric glaucoma patients partially responsive to surgery. Single arm, prospective, interventional multicenter study. Primary pediatric glaucoma patients younger than 13 years after a single surgical procedure with IOP between 22 and 26 mmHg were considered eligible. At baseline, patients were allocated to latanoprost monotherapy once daily. Depending on intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction at first visit, the patients were allocated to one of three groups: continuation of latanoprost monotherapy, addition of dorzolamide twice daily, or switch to dorzolamide three times daily. The same approach for allocation in medication groups was used in all subsequent visits. Patients in the dorzolamide monotherapy group with IOP reduction <20% from baseline were considered non-responders and withdrawn. Study treatment and patient follow-up will continue for 3 years or until treatment failure. The primary endpoint is the percentage of responders. Secondary endpoints are time to treatment failure and frequency of adverse events. A total of 37 patients (69 eyes) were enrolled. The mean age was 4.0 ± 3.8 years, the female/male ratio was 1/1.7, and the majority of patients were Caucasian. Eighty percent of patients had bilateral glaucoma. Goniotomy was the most frequently performed surgery (38.6%), followed by trabeculotomy (22.8%), trabeculectomy (21.1%), and trabeculectomy plus trabeculotomy (17.5%). The baseline IOP was 23.6 ± 1.5 mmHg. The study population is representative of patients frequently encountered after the first surgery for primary pediatric glaucoma. The study will produce evidence on the medium-term efficacy of a defined pharmacological approach.

  9. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  11. The Natural History of the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Studies: Design and Baseline Characteristics: ProgStar Report No. 1.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Rupert W; Ho, Alex; Muñoz, Beatriz; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sahel, José-Alain; Sunness, Janet S; Birch, David G; Bernstein, Paul S; Michaelides, Michel; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zrenner, Eberhart; Sadda, SriniVas; Ervin, Ann-Margret; West, Sheila; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled into 2 natural history studies of Stargardt disease (STGD1). Multicenter retrospective and prospective cohort studies. Three hundred sixty-five unique patients aged 6 years and older at baseline harboring disease-causing variants in the ABCA4 gene and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled from 9 centers in the United States and Europe. In the retrospective study, patients contributed medical record data from at least 2 and up to 4 visits for at least 1 examination modality: fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and/or microperimetry (MP). The total observational period was at least 2 years and up to 5 years between single visits. Demographic and visual acuity (VA) data also were obtained. In the prospective study, eligible patients were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6-month follow-up visits planned for a 2-year period for serial Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected VA, SD OCT, FAF, and MP. Design and rationale of a multicenter study to determine the progression of STGD1 in 2 large retrospective and prospective international cohorts. Detailed baseline characteristics of both cohorts are presented, including demographics, and structural and functional retinal metrics. Into the retrospective study, 251 patients (458 eyes) were enrolled; mean follow-up ± standard deviation was 3.9±1.6 years. At baseline, 36% had no or mild VA loss, and 47% of the study eyes had areas of definitely decreased autofluorescence (DDAF) with an average lesion area of 2.5±2.9 mm(2) (range, 0.02-16.03 mm(2)). Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) were enrolled in the prospective study. At baseline, 20% had no or mild VA loss, and 64% had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 4.0±4.4 mm(2) (range, 0.03-24.24 mm(2)). The mean retinal sensitivity with MP was 10.8±5.0 dB. The ProgStar cohorts have

  12. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman

    2012-06-01

    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  13. Hip-Hop to Health Jr., an obesity prevention program for minority preschool children: baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Stolley, Melinda R; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Dyer, Alan; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Schiffer, Linda

    2003-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States is a significant public health problem. Many obesity-related risk factors are more prevalent in minority populations. Given the recalcitrant nature of weight loss interventions for adults, prevention of overweight and obesity has become a high priority. The present study reports baseline data from an obesity prevention intervention developed for minority preschool children. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is a 5-year randomized controlled intervention that targets 3- to 5-year-old minority children enrolled in 24 Head Start programs. Our primary aim is to test the effect of the intervention on change in body mass index. Data were collected on sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and cognitive variables for the children and parents at baseline. Participants included 416 black children, 337 black parents, 362 Latino children, and 309 Latino parents. Using body mass index for age and sex > or = the 95th percentile as the definition of overweight, 15% of the black children and 28% of the Latino children were overweight. More than 75% of the parents were either overweight or obese. The development of interventions to effectively prevent or control obesity early in life is crucial. These data highlight the escalating problem of weight control in minority populations.

  14. Genotype–phenotype characteristics and baseline natural history of heritable neuropathies caused by mutations in the MPZ gene

    PubMed Central

    Feely, Shawna; Scherer, Steven S.; Herrmann, David N.; Burns, Joshua; Muntoni, Francesco; Li, Jun; Siskind, Carly E.; Day, John W.; Laura, Matilde; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Ramchandren, Sindhu; Shy, Rosemary R.; Grider, Tiffany; Bacon, Chelsea; Finkel, Richard S.; Yum, Sabrina W.; Moroni, Isabella; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Reilly, Mary M.; Shy, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to characterize genotype–phenotype correlations and establish baseline clinical data for peripheral neuropathies caused by mutations in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene. MPZ mutations are the second leading cause of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1. Recent research makes clinical trials for patients with MPZ mutations a realistic possibility. However, the clinical severity varies with different mutations and natural history data on progression is sparse. We present cross-sectional data to begin to define the phenotypic spectrum and clinical baseline of patients with these mutations. A cohort of patients with MPZ gene mutations was identified in 13 centres of the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium - Rare Disease Clinical Research Consortium (INC-RDCRC) between 2009 and 2012 and at Wayne State University between 1996 and 2009. Patient phenotypes were quantified by the Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease neuropathy score version 1 or 2 and the Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease paediatric scale outcome instruments. Genetic testing was performed in all patients and/or in first- or second-degree relatives to document mutation in MPZ gene indicating diagnosis of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B. There were 103 patients from 71 families with 47 different MPZ mutations with a mean age of 40 years (range 3–84 years). Patients and mutations were separated into infantile, childhood and adult-onset groups. The infantile onset group had higher Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease neuropathy score version 1 or 2 and slower nerve conductions than the other groups, and severity increased with age. Twenty-three patients had no family history of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Sixty-one patients wore foot/ankle orthoses, 19 required walking assistance or support, and 10 required wheelchairs. There was hearing loss in 21 and scoliosis in 17. Forty-two patients did not begin walking until after 15 months of age. Half of the infantile onset patients then required

  15. Operating and environmental characteristics of Sigma Tau hydrogen masers used in the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, T. K.

    1989-01-01

    Presented here are the results obtained from performance evaluation of a pair of Sigma Tau Standards Corporation Model VLBA-112 active hydrogen maser frequency standards. These masers were manufactured for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for use on the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) project and were furnished to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the purpose of these tests. Tests on the two masers were performed in the JPL Frequency Standards Laboratory (FSL) and included the characterization of output frequency stability versus environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, magnetic field, and barometric pressure. The performance tests also included the determination of phase noise and Allan variance using both FSL and Sigma Tau masers as references. All tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, with only the desired environmental and operational parameters varied to determine sensitivity to external environment.

  16. Healthy Immigrant Families: Participatory Development and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Hanza, Marcelo M.K.; Meiers, Sonja J.; Patten, Christi A.; Clark, Matthew M.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Novotny, Paul J.; Njeru, Jane W.; Abbenyi, Adeline; Levine, James A.; Goodson, Miriam; Capetillo, Maria Graciela D. Porraz; Osman, Ahmed; Hared, Abdullah; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2015-01-01

    Background US immigrants often have escalating cardiovascular risk. Barriers to optimal physical activity and diet have a significant role in this risk accumulation. Methods We developed a physical activity and nutrition intervention with immigrant and refugee families through a community-based participatory research approach. Work groups of community members and health scientists developed an intervention manual with 12 content modules that were based on social-learning theory. Family health promoters from the participating communities (Hispanic, Somali, Sudanese) were trained to deliver the intervention through 12 home visits during the first 6 months and up to 12 phone calls during the second 6 months. The intervention was tested through a randomized community-based trial with a delayed-intervention control group, with measurements at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Primary measurements included accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and 24-hour dietary recall. Secondary measures included biometrics and theory-based instruments. Results One hundred fifty-one individuals (81 adolescents, 70 adults; 44 families) were randomized. At baseline, mean (SD) time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 64.7 (30.2) minutes/day for adolescents and 43.1 (35.4) minutes/day for adults. Moderate dietary quality was observed in both age groups. Biometric measures showed that 45.7% of adolescents and 80.0% of adults were overweight or obese. Moderate levels of self-efficacy and social support were reported for physical activity and nutrition. Discussion Processes and products from this program are relevant to other communities aiming to reduce cardiovascular risk and negative health behaviors among immigrants and refugees. Trial Registration This trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01952808). PMID:26655431

  17. Baseline and On-Treatment Characteristics of Serum Tumor Markers in Stage IV Oncogene-Addicted Adenocarcinoma of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Sinead A; Patil, Tejas; Gao, Dexiang; King, Gentry G; Thibault, Jessica R; Lu, Xian; Bunn, Paul A; Doebele, Robert C; Purcell, W Thomas; Barón, Anna E; Camidge, D Ross

    2018-01-01

    The role of serum tumor markers in the modern management of advanced NSCLC remains poorly described. A single-center retrospective analysis of available carcinoembryonic antigen, CA125, CA19.9, and CA27.29 levels at baseline and during treatment of stage IV lung adenocarcinoma by oncogenic driver was conducted. A total of 142 patients were analyzed (60 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene [ALK] rearrangement, 50 with EGFR mutation, four with ROS1 rearrangement, and 29 with KRAS mutation). Of these, 82% had at least one marker (95% if all four markers were measured), with CA27.29 being the most commonly increased and CA19.9 the rarest. Only CA27.29 differed significantly by oncogene (it was less common in KRAS) (p = 0.016). The median times to nadir during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in EGFR and ALK cases were 16.4 and 20 weeks, respectively. Of the 41 patients with EGFR mutation or ALK or ROS1 rearrangement, 24 (59%) demonstrated an initial increase within the first 4 weeks of TKI therapy, 58% of whom then had their levels fall below baseline. An increase in marker level of 10% or more from nadir occurred in 53% of systemic and 22% of central nervous system-only progression. Serum tumor markers are frequently increased in lung adenocarcinoma regardless of driver oncogene. Changes within the first 4 weeks of therapy may be misleading. Progression is associated with marker increases, especially in sites other than the central nervous system. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The baseline characteristics of parents and African American girls in an online obesity prevention program: A feasibility study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this paper was to identify the relationships and associations between child and parent characteristics with child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in an online obesity prevention program for 8-10 year old African American girls. Girls and a parent (n=342 child-parent pairs) in t...

  19. Stanford GEMS phase 2 obesity prevention trial for low-income African-American girls: design and sample baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Thomas N; Kraemer, Helena C; Matheson, Donna M; Obarzanek, Eva; Wilson, Darrell M; Haskell, William L; Pruitt, Leslie A; Thompson, Nikko S; Haydel, K Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Varady, Ann; McCarthy, Sally; Watanabe, Connie; Killen, Joel D

    2008-01-01

    African-American girls and women are at high risk of obesity and its associated morbidities. Few studies have tested obesity prevention strategies specifically designed for African-American girls. This report describes the design and baseline findings of the Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies) trial to test the effect of a two-year community- and family-based intervention to reduce weight gain in low-income, pre-adolescent African-American girls. Randomized controlled trial with measurements scheduled in girls' homes at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 month post-randomization. Low-income areas of Oakland, CA. Eight, nine and ten year old African-American girls and their parents/caregivers. Girls are randomized to a culturally-tailored after-school dance program and a home/family-based intervention to reduce screen media use versus an information-based community health education Active-Placebo Comparison intervention. Interventions last for 2 years for each participant. Change in body mass index over the two-year study. Recruitment and enrollment successfully produced a predominately low-socioeconomic status sample. Two-hundred sixty one (261) families were randomized. One girl per family is randomly chosen for the analysis sample. Randomization produced comparable experimental groups with only a few statistically significant differences. The sample had a mean body mass index (BMI) at the 74 th percentile on the 2000 CDC BMI reference, and one-third of the analysis sample had a BMI at the 95th percentile or above. Average fasting total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were above NCEP thresholds for borderline high classifications. Girls averaged low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, more than 3 h per day of screen media use, and diets high in energy from fat. The Stanford GEMS trial is testing the benefits of culturally-tailored after-school dance and screen-time reduction interventions for obesity prevention in low-income, pre

  20. Design and Baseline Characteristics from the KAN-QUIT Disease Management Intervention for Rural Smokers in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Cupertino, Ana-Paula; Mussulman, Laura M.; Nazir, Niaman; Greiner, K. Allen; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the design, implementation, baseline data, and feasibility of establishing a disease management program for smoking cessation in rural primary care. Method The study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating a disease management program for smoking cessation. The intervention combined pharmacotherapy, telephone counseling, and physician feedback, and repeated intervention over two years. The program began in 2004 and was implemented in 50 primary care clinics across the State of Kansas. Results Of eligible patients, 73% were interested in study participation. 750 enrolled participants were predominantly Caucasian, female, employed, and averaged 47.2 years of age (SD=13.1). In addition to smoking, 427 (57%) had at least one additional major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease or stroke). Participants smoked on average 23.7 (SD=10.4) cigarettes per day, were contemplating (61%) or preparing to quit (30%), were highly motivated and confident of their ability to quit smoking, and reported seeing their physicians multiple times in the past twelve months (Median=3.50; Mean=5.48; SD=6.58). Conclusion Initial findings demonstrate the willingness of patients to enroll in a two-year disease management program to address nicotine dependence, even among patients not ready to make a quit attempt. These findings support the feasibility of identifying and enrolling rural smokers within the primary care setting. PMID:18544464

  1. Cumulative psychological stress and cardiovascular disease risk in middle aged and older women: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Albert, Michelle A; Durazo, Eva M; Slopen, Natalie; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Buring, Julie E; Silva, Ted; Chasman, Daniel; Williams, David R

    2017-10-01

    Although a growing body of evidence indicates strong links between psychological stress (stress) and untoward cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, comprehensive examination of these effects remains lacking. The "Cumulative Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Middle Aged and Older Women" study is embedded within the landmark Women's Health Study (WHS) follow-up cohort and seeks to evaluate the individual and joint effects of stressors (cumulative stress) on incident CVD risk, including myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization and CVD death. GWAS data will be used for exploratory analyses to identify any genes associated with stress and CVD. This study prospectively follows 25,335 women (mean age 72.2 ± 6.04 years) without CVD who returned a short mailed stress questionnaire at baseline and 3 years of follow-up inquiring about their experiences with stress including perceived stress, work stress, work-family spillover, financial stress, traumatic and major life events, discrimination and neighborhood environment/stressors. Other domains ascertained were sleep, anger, cynical hostility, depression, anxiety, social support, intimate partner relations, and volunteer and social activities. Higher levels of cumulative stress were associated with younger age and black race/ethnicity, divorced or separated marital status, increased prevalence of obesity, smoking, diabetes, depression and anxiety (p<0.001 for each). Findings from this study will provide clinically important, new information about associations of cumulative stress, environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors with incident CVD risk in aging women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and baseline characteristics from the KAN-QUIT disease management intervention for rural smokers in primary care.

    PubMed

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Cupertino, Ana-Paula; Mussulman, Laura M; Nazir, Niaman; Greiner, K Allen; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2008-08-01

    To describe the design, implementation, baseline data, and feasibility of establishing a disease management program for smoking cessation in rural primary care. The study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating a disease management program for smoking cessation. The intervention combined pharmacotherapy, telephone counseling, and physician feedback, and repeated intervention over two years. The program began in 2004 and was implemented in 50 primary care clinics across the State of Kansas. Of eligible patients, 73% were interested in study participation. 750 enrolled participants were predominantly Caucasian, female, employed, and averaged 47.2 years of age (SD=13.1). In addition to smoking, 427 (57%) had at least one additional major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease or stroke). Participants smoked on average 23.7 (SD=10.4) cigarettes per day, were contemplating (61%) or preparing to quit (30%), were highly motivated and confident of their ability to quit smoking, and reported seeing their physicians multiple times in the past twelve months (Median=3.50; Mean=5.48; SD=6.58). Initial findings demonstrate the willingness of patients to enroll in a two-year disease management program to address nicotine dependence, even among patients not ready to make a quit attempt. These findings support the feasibility of identifying and enrolling rural smokers within the primary care setting.

  3. The effects of lesion baseline characteristics and different Sr:Ca ratios in plaque fluid-like solutions on caries lesion de- and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Frank

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of lesion baseline characteristics and different strontium (Sr) to calcium (Ca) ratios in plaque fluid-like solutions (PF) on lesion de- and remineralization. Caries lesions were formed in enamel using three protocols: methylcellulose acid gel (MeC) and partially saturated lactic acid solutions containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) or not (SOLN). Lesions were exposed to PF with four distinct Sr:Ca molar ratios (0:1/3:1:3), but otherwise identical composition and total Sr+Ca molarity, for seven days. Lesions were characterized using transverse microradiography (TMR) at baseline and post-treatment. At baseline, MeC and CMC had similar integrated mineral loss values, whereas SOLN lesions were more demineralized. All lesions showed significant differences in their mineral distributions, with CMC and SOLN having lower R values (integrated mineral loss to lesion depth ratio) than MeC. Post-PF exposure, no interaction was found between lesion type and Sr:Ca ratio. Within lesion type, MeC demineralized, whereas CMC and SOLN exhibited some remineralization, with the differences between MeC and the other lesion types being of statistical significance. Within Sr:Ca ratio, the 1:3 ratio exhibited some remineralization whereas other groups tended to demineralize. Only the difference between groups SrCa1/3 and SrCa0 was of statistical significance. In summary, both lesion baseline characteristics and Sr:Ca ratio were shown to effect lesion de- and remineralization. Under the conditions of the study, high-R lesions are more prone to demineralize under PF-like conditions than low-R lesions. In addition, partial Sr substitution for Ca in PF was shown to enhance lesion remineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Baseline characteristics and changes in treatment after a period of optimization of the patients included in the study EFICAR].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Torcal, Jesús; Echevarria, Pilar; Domingo, Mar; Arietaleanizbeascoa, María; Sanz-Guinea, Aitor; de la Torre, Maria M; Ramírez, Jose I; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-03-01

    To describe the baseline date and drugs therapy changes during treatment optimization in patients with heart failure with depressed systolic function included in the EFICAR study. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. Seven Health Centers. 150 patients (ICFSD) age 68±10 years, 77% male. Sociodemographic variables, comorbidities (Charlson index), functional capacity and quality of life. Drug therapy optimization was performed. The main etiology was ischemic heart disease (45%), with 89% in functional class II. The Charlson index was 2.03±1.05. The ejection fraction mean was 37%±8, 19% with ejection fraction <30%. With the stress test 6.3±1.6 mean was reached, with the 6 minutes test 446±78 meters and the chair test 13.7±4.4 seconds. The overall quality of life with ejection fraction was 22.8±18.7 and with the Short Form-36 Health Survey, physical health 43.3±8.4 and mental health 50.1±10.6. After optimizing the treatment, the percentage of patients on drugs therapy and the dose of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and beta-blockers were not changed. The majority of the subjects are in functional class II, with functional capacity and quality of life decreased and comorbidity index high. A protocolized drug therapy adjustment did not increase the dose or number of patients with effective drugs for heart failure with depressed systolic function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. AVJ-514 Trial - Baseline Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes Following MitraClip® Treatment in a Japanese Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kentaro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Amaki, Makoto; Mizuno, Shingo; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Jujo, Kentaro; Ootomo, Tatsushi; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Fukuda, Keiichi; Saito, Shigeru; Foster, Elyse; Qasim, Atif; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Yozu, Ryohei; Takayama, Morimasa

    2017-07-25

    The MitraClip ® system is a transcatheter-based therapeutic option for patients with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) who are at high risk for surgery. A prospective, multicenter, single-arm study was initiated to confirm the transferability of this system to Japan.Methods and Results:Patients with symptomatic chronic moderate-to-severe (3+) or severe (4+) functional or degenerative MR with a Society of Thoracic Surgery (STS) score ≥8%, or the presence of 1 predefined risk factor were enrolled. Patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) <30% were excluded. MR severity and LV function were assessed by an independent echocardiography core lab. Primary outcome included major adverse events (MAE) at 30 days and acute procedural success (APS). A total of 30 patients (age: 80±7 years; STS score: 10.3%±6.6%) were treated with the MitraClip ® . At baseline, all patients had MR 3+/4+ with 53%/47% patients with degenerative/functional etiology with mean LVEF of 50.2±12.8%, and 37% of patients were NYHA class III/IV. APS was achieved in 86.7% with no occurrence of MAE. At 30 days, 86.7% of patients had MR ≤2+ and 96.7% were NYHA class I/II. The MitraClip ® procedure resulted in clinically meaningful improvements in MR severity, function and quality of life measures, and low MAE rates. These early results suggest the transferability of this therapy to appropriately selected Japanese patients. (Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT02520310.).

  6. The Kidney Outcomes Prediction and Evaluation (KOPE) study: a prospective cohort investigation of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Study design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sevick, M A; Tell, G S; Shumaker, S A; Rocco, M V; Burkart, J M; Rushing, J T; Levine, D W; Chen, J; Bradham, D D; Pierce, J J; James, M K

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the Kidney Outcomes Prediction and Evaluation (KOPE) study, was to more fully characterize the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population with respect to social, psychological, and clinical characteristics, and to prospectively study the biomedical, social, and psychological factors that influence a range of ESRD outcomes in a large observational study of black and white patients on hemodialysis. This paper focuses on the KOPE study design as well as characteristics of patients at baseline. KOPE was a prospective cohort investigation of patients treated at four dialysis centers in Forsyth County, North Carolina. Participants were interviewed at the dialysis centers, semi-annually over a 3 1/2 year period. Prevalent cases who were being treated with hemodialysis at the initiation of the study were enrolled into KOPE. Incident cases were subsequently enrolled as they presented to the participating units for hemodialysis. A total of 304 prevalent and 162 incident cases were enrolled into the study. The baseline health and sociodemographic characteristics of KOPE participants reported in this paper were obtained from medical records and Southeast Kidney Council data. Laboratory values taken within a 30-day interval around the baseline interview are also reported. KOPE participants differ from national statistics on race, age, and gender. Differences between KOPE participants and patients living in the region, but who did not participate in the study, can be explained by our recruitment criteria. KOPE will enable the characterization of the ESRD population, identification of factors related to poor outcomes, and identification of opportunities for interventions to prevent death and morbidity.

  7. Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and other comorbidities in patients with psoriasis: baseline characteristics of patients in the AQUILES study.

    PubMed

    Vanaclocha, F; Crespo-Erchiga, V; Jiménez-Puya, R; Puig, L; Sánchez-Carazo, J L; Ferrán, M; Sancho, C; Juliá, B; Cea-Calvo, L; Marín-Jiménez, I; García-Vicuña, R

    2015-01-01

    Patients with psoriasis often have comorbidities, including other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs), and cardiovascular risk factors. In this article we describe the baseline prevalence of comorbidities-including other IMIDs-in a cohort of patients with psoriasis. AQUILES was a prospective observational multicenter study of 3 patient cohorts (patients with psoriasis, spondyloarthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease) undertaken to investigate the prevalence of comorbidities, including other IMIDs, in these settings. The psoriasis cohort comprised patients aged at least 18 years who were seen in hospital dermatology clinics. A predefined protocol was used to collect demographic and clinical data. The study enrolled 528 patients with psoriasis (60.2% men and 39.8% women). Mean age was 46.7 years; 89.8% of the participants had plaque psoriasis, and the median Psoriasis Area Severity Index score (PASI) was 3.2 (1.5-7.4). Comorbid IMIDs were present in 82 (15.5%) of the patients (CI 95%, 12.7%-18.9%). Spondyloarthritis was observed in 14% of patients (95% CI, 11.3%-17.2%), mostly in the form of psoriatic arthritis, for which the overall prevalence was 13.1% (95% CI, 10.5%-16.2%). Inflammatory bowel disease was present in 1.3% (95% CI, 0.6%-2.7%) and uveitis in .2% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.4%). Psoriatic arthritis was associated with male sex (odds ratio, 1.75 [.98-2.98]) and a disease duration of over 8 years (OR, 4.17 [1.84-9.44] vs a duration of < 4 years). In 73.1%, at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor was identified: smoking (40.5%), obesity (26.0%), dyslipidemia (24.8%), hypertension (24.3%), and diabetes mellitus (12.3%). In patients with psoriasis the prevalence of other IMIDs was 15.5%, a level slightly higher than that found in the general population. Nearly three-quarters of these patients had at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Study II: Baseline Characteristics and Effects of Obesity from a Multi-Center Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Legro, Richard S.; Brzyski, Robert G.; Diamond, Michael P.; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D.; Alvero, Ruben; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M.; Huang, Hao; Yan, Qingshang; Haisenleder, Daniel J.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Bates, G. Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Richard; Baker, Valerie; Trussell, J.C.; Krawetz, Stephen A.; Snyder, Peter; Ohl, Dana; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize baseline characteristics from a large multi-center infertility clinical trial. Design Cross-sectional baseline data from a double-blind randomized trial of 2 treatment regimens (letrozole vs. clomiphene). Setting Academic Health Centers throughout the U.S. Interventions None Main Outcome Measure(s) Historical, biometric, biochemical and questionnaire parameters. Participants 750 women with PCOS and their male partners took part in the study. Results Females averaged ~30 years old and were obese (BMI 35) with ~20% from a racial/ethnic minority. Most (87%) were hirsute and nulligravid (63%). . Most of the females had an elevated antral follicle count and enlarged ovarian volume on ultrasound. Women had elevated mean circulating androgens, LH:FSH ratio (~2), and AMH levels (8.0 ng/mL). Additionally, women had evidence for metabolic dysfunction with elevated mean fasting insulin and dyslipidemia. Increasing obesity was associated with decreased LH:FSH levels, AMH levels and antral follicle counts but increasing cardiovascular risk factors, including prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Males were obese (BMI 30) and had normal mean semen parameters. Conclusions The treatment groups were well-matched at baseline. Obesity exacerbates select female reproductive and most metabolic parameters. We have also established a database and sample repository that will eventually be accessible to investigators. PMID:24156957

  9. [Essential thrombocythemia: baseline characteristics and risk factors for survival and thrombosis in a series of 214 patients].

    PubMed

    Angona, Anna; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Garcia-Pallarols, Francesc; Longarón, Raquel; Ancochea, Àgueda; Besses, Carles

    2015-03-15

    Two prognostic models to predict overall survival and thrombosis-free survival have been proposed: International Prognostic Score for Essential Thrombocythemia (IPSET) and IPSET-Thrombosis, respectively, based on age, leukocytes count, history of previous thrombosis, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and the JAK2 mutational status. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical and biological characteristics at diagnosis and during evolution in essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients as well as the factors associated with survival and thrombosis and the usefulness of these new prognostic models. We have evaluated the clinical data and the mutation status of JAK2, MPL and calreticulin of 214 ET patients diagnosed in a single center between 1985 and 2012, classified according to classical risk stratification, IPSET and IPSET-Thrombosis. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, overall survival was not associated with any variable by multivariate analysis. Thrombotic history and leukocytes>10×10(9)/l were associated with thrombosis-free survival (TFS). In our series, IPSET prognostic systems of survival and thrombosis did not provide more clinically relevant information regarding the classic risk of thrombosis stratification. Thrombotic history and leukocytosis>10×10(9)/l were significantly associated with lower TFS, while the prognostic IPSET-Thrombosis system did not provide more information than classical thrombotic risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Baseline Characteristics of Dependent Youth Who Have Been Commercially Sexually Exploited: Findings From a Specialized Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Landers, Monica; McGrath, Kimberly; Johnson, Melissa H; Armstrong, Mary I; Dollard, Norin

    2017-01-01

    Commercial sexual exploitation of children has emerged as a critical issue within child welfare, but little is currently known about this population or effective treatment approaches to address their unique needs. Children in foster care and runaways are reported to be vulnerable to exploitation because they frequently have unmet needs for family relationships, and they have had inadequate supervision and histories of trauma of which traffickers take advantage. The current article presents data on the demographic characteristics, trauma history, mental and behavioral health needs, physical health needs, and strengths collected on a sample of 87 commercially sexually exploited youth. These youth were served in a specialized treatment program in Miami-Dade County, Florida, for exploited youth involved with the child welfare system. Findings revealed that the youth in this study have high rates of previous sexual abuse (86% of the youth) and other traumatic experiences prior to their exploitation. Youth also exhibited considerable mental and behavioral health needs. Given that few programs emphasize the unique needs of children who have been sexually exploited, recommendations are offered for providing a continuum of specialized housing and treatment services to meet the needs of sexually exploited youth, based on the authors' experiences working with this population.

  11. Design and baseline characteristics of the 10 Small Steps Study: a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote healthy behaviour using a lifestyle score and personalised feedback.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Sanjoti; Vandelanotte, Corneel; King, David; Boyle, Frances M

    2012-03-12

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death globally and are associated with a limited set of common, modifiable health behaviours: tobacco use, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diet. General practice offers an ideal avenue for addressing such health behaviours on a population-wide basis. This paper describes the protocol of a multiple health behaviour change intervention designed for implementation in general practice and summarises the baseline characteristics of its participants. The 10 Small Steps (10SS) study, a randomised controlled trial, involved 4,678 adult general practice patients in Queensland, Australia. Self-reported data were collected to establish the proportion of participants meeting recommended guidelines for ten health behaviours: physical activity, body mass index, alcohol, smoking and six dietary behaviours. Participants were randomised to four groups: contact at baseline only ('single intervention' and corresponding control group) and contact at baseline and 3 months ('dual intervention' and corresponding control group). At each contact the participants received a computer-tailored feedback and one page information sheet according to their allocation to intervention or control groups. Change in the intervention group compared to the control group was assessed at 3 and12 months after baseline data collection.Responses were summed to calculate an individual lifestyle score (the Prudence Score), which ranged from 0 to 10. The baseline response was 56.5% (4678 of 8343 invited participants) and the study sample was primarily female (68.7%) with an average age of 47 years. The mean Prudence Score was 5.8 (95%CI 5.75-5.85). Baseline data from the 10SS study show that nearly all participants engage in some health behaviours but relatively few adhere simultaneously to a core set of dietary and lifestyle behaviours associated with risk of NCDs. Ample scope exists to improve health behaviour to reduce NCDs

  12. GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.

  13. The Lifestyle Intervention for the Treatment of Diabetes study (LIFT Diabetes): Design and baseline characteristics for a randomized translational trial to improve control of cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Katula, Jeffrey A; Kirk, Julienne K; Pedley, Carolyn F; Savoca, Margaret R; Effoe, Valery S; Bell, Ronny A; Bertoni, Alain G

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase in minority and underserved patients, who are also more likely to have poorer control of diabetes and related risk factors for complications. Although the Look AHEAD trial has demonstrated improved risk factor control among overweight or obese diabetes patients who received an intensive lifestyle intervention, translating such findings into accessible programs is a major public health challenge. The purpose of this paper is to report the design and baseline characteristics of the Lifestyle Interventions for the Treatment of Diabetes study (LIFT Diabetes). The overall goal is to test the impact of a community-based lifestyle weight loss (LWL) intervention adapted from Look AHEAD on cardiovascular disease risk at 12-months and 24-months among minority and lower income diabetes patients. Secondary outcomes include body weight, physical activity, medication use, cost, resource utilization, and safety. The primary hypothesis being tested is that the LWL will result in 10% relative reduction in CVD risk compared to the DSM. We have randomized 260 overweight or obese adults with diabetes one of two 12-month interventions: a LWL condition delivered by community health workers or a diabetes self-management (DSM) education condition. The baseline demographic characteristics indicate that our sample is predominantly female, obese, low income, and ethnic minority. Translating evidence-based, lifestyle strategies, and targeting minority and underserved patients, will yield, if successful, a model for addressing the burden of diabetes and may favorably impact health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The CombiRx trial of combined therapy with interferon and glatiramer cetate in relapsing remitting MS: Design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, JW; Scott, TF; Lynch, SG; Cofield, SS; Nelson, F; Conwit, R; Gustafson, T; Cutter, GR; Wolinsky, JS; Lublin, FD

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon-β1a (IFNB) and glatiramer acetate (GA) are distinct therapies which are both partially effective for relapsing MS. It is not known if combining the two treatments would be more effective. Objective To review the rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the CombiRx study of combined treatment with IFNB and GA. Methods The key inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of relapsing MS, at least 2 episodes of MS activity in the previous 3 years, expanded disability status scale of 0 to 5.5, and no prior treatment with either IFNB or GA. Subjects were randomized to IFNB+GA, IFNB monotherapy, or GA monotherapy in a 2:1:1 ratio. Results From 2005 to 2009, we enrolled 1008 subjects. The participants were 72.4% female and 87.6% Caucasian with a mean age of 37.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 2 years at entry into the study, and the mean EDSS was 2.1. On the baseline MRI, the mean total lesion load was 12.2 ml, and 40% of the participants had enhancing lesions. Conclusion We have recruited a population of patients with clinical and MRI characteristics typical for early MS. The study results will aid in deciding on the optimum early treatment. This trial should serve as a model for future studies of combination therapy. PMID:22754793

  15. The Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations (Q-MEGA). Study design, baseline characteristics, and repeatability of phenotype and sun exposure measures

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Kvaskoff, Marina; Siskind, Victor; Shekar, Sri; Aitken, Joanne F.; Green, Adele C.; Duffy, David L.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Whiteman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a major health issue in Queensland, Australia which has the world’s highest incidence. Recent molecular and epidemiologic studies suggest that CMM arises through multiple etiological pathways involving gene-environment interactions. Understanding the potential mechanisms leading to CMM requires larger studies than those previously conducted. This article describes the design and baseline characteristics of Q-MEGA, the Queensland study of Melanoma: Environmental and Genetic Associations, which followed-up four population-based samples of CMM patients in Queensland, including children, adolescents, men aged over 50, and a large sample of adult cases and their families, including twins. Q-MEGA aims to investigate the roles of genetic and environmental factors, and their interaction, in the etiology of melanoma. 3,471 participants took part in the follow-up study and were administered a computer-assisted telephone interview in 2002–2005. Updated data on environmental and phenotypic risk factors, and 2,777 blood samples were collected from interviewed participants as well as a subset of relatives. This study provides a large and well-described population-based sample of CMM cases with follow-up data. Characteristics of the cases and repeatability of sun exposure and phenotype measures between the baseline and the follow-up surveys, from six to 17 years later, are also described. PMID:18361720

  16. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  17. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Baseline County-Level Migration Characteristics and Trends 1995-2000 and 2001-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards. In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report uses historical, estimated, and projected population data from several Federal and State data sources to estimate baseline characteristics and trends of the region's population migration (that is, changes in a person's place of residence over time). The analysis characterizes migration by various demographic, economic, family, and household variables for the period 1995-2000. It also uses existing estimates (beginning in 2001) of the three components of population change - births, deaths, and migration - to extrapolate near-term projections of county-level migration trends through 2010. The 2010 date was chosen to provide baseline projections corresponding to a two-year recovery period following the November 2008 date that was selected for the occurrence of the ShakeOut Scenario earthquake. The baseline characteristics and projections shall assist with evaluating the effects of inflow and outflow migration trends for alternative futures in which the simulated M7.8 earthquake either does or does not occur and the impact of the event on housing and jobs, as well as community composition and regional economy changes based on dispersion of intellectual, physical, economic, and cultural capital.

  18. Realizing effectiveness across continents with hydroxyurea: Enrollment and baseline characteristics of the multicenter REACH study in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    McGann, Patrick T; Williams, Thomas N; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Tomlinson, George A; Lane, Adam; Luís Reis da Fonseca, José; Kitenge, Robert; Mochamah, George; Wabwire, Ham; Stuber, Susan; Howard, Thad A; McElhinney, Kathryn; Aygun, Banu; Latham, Teresa; Santos, Brígida; Tshilolo, Léon; Ware, Russell E

    2018-08-01

    Despite its well-described safety and efficacy in the treatment of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in high-income settings, hydroxyurea remains largely unavailable in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 75% of annual SCA births occur and many comorbidities exist. Realizing Effectiveness Across Continents with Hydroxyurea (REACH, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01966731) is a prospective, Phase I/II open-label trial of hydroxyurea designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and benefits of hydroxyurea treatment for children with SCA in four sub-Saharan African countries. Following comprehensive training of local research teams, REACH was approved by local Ethics Committees and achieved full enrollment ahead of projections with 635 participants enrolled over a 30-month period, despite half of families living >12 km from their clinical site. At enrollment, study participants (age 5.4 ± 2.4 years) had substantial morbidity, including a history of vaso-occlusive pain (98%), transfusion (68%), malaria (85%), and stroke (6%). Significant differences in laboratory characteristics were noted across sites, with lower hemoglobin concentrations (P < .01) in Angola (7.2 ± 1.0 g/dL) and the DRC (7.0 ± 0.9 g/dL) compared to Kenya (7.4 ± 1.1 g/dL) and Uganda (7.5 ± 1.1 g/dL). Analysis of known genetic modifiers of SCA demonstrated a high frequency of α-thalassemia (58.4% with at least a single α-globin gene deletion) and G6PD deficiency (19.7% of males and 2.4% of females) across sites. The CAR β-globin haplotype was present in 99% of participants. The full enrollment to REACH confirms the feasibility of conducting high-quality SCA research in Africa; this study will provide vital information to guide safe and effective dosing of hydroxyurea for children with SCA living in Africa. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. PENNSYLVANIA BASELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Its purpose is to provide baseline information on Pennsylvania, one of the six states included partly or to...

  20. An initial loading-dose vitamin D versus placebo after hip fracture surgery: baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial (REVITAHIP).

    PubMed

    Mak, Jenson C D; Klein, Linda A; Finnegan, Terry; Mason, Rebecca S; Cameron, Ian D

    2014-09-09

    Hypovitaminosis D is particularly common among older people with a proximal femoral (hip) fracture. There are currently no agreed strategies for vitamin D replenishment after hip fracture surgery. The REVITAHIP Study is a multisite, double-blinded randomized-controlled trial investigating the effects of an oral vitamin D loading dose on gait velocity after hip fracture surgery. We describe the baseline characteristics of participants, aiming to document hypovitaminosis D and its associations after hip fracture. Participants, over 65, recruited within 7 days following hip fracture surgery from 3 Australia hospitals, were randomly allocated to receive a loading dose of vitamin D3 (250,000IU) or placebo, followed by oral maintenance vitamin D3/calcium (800 IU/500 mg) and the usual hip fracture rehabilitation pathway. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including surgical procedure, pre-fracture functional status, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) for pain, grip strength and gait velocity. The associations of baseline 25-OHD levels with demographic and clinical data were assessed using Pearson's correlation, ANOVA and regression analyses. Two-hundred-and-eighteen people with hip fracture participated in the study. Mean age was 83.9+/-7.2 years, 77% were women and 82% lived in private homes. Fifty-six percent had a subcapital fracture. Mean comorbidity count was 3.13+/-2.0. Mean MMSE was 26.1+/-3.9. Forty-seven percent of participants had hypovitaminosis D (<50 nmol/L). Multivariate regression models demonstrated higher baseline vitamin D levels were significantly associated with higher premorbid Barthel index scores, lower post-operative VRS pain levels and use of vitamin D. This study cohort shared similar demographic characteristics and comorbidities with other cohorts of people with hip fracture, with the probable exception of less cognitive impairment. Hypovitaminosis D was not as

  1. Baseline Characteristics of the Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Subcohort of the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Koh, Junga; Park, Sue K; Oh, Kook Hwan; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Kim, Yaeni; Ahn, Curie; Oh, Yun Kyu

    2018-05-24

    The aim of this study was to describe the baseline characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in a cohort of Korean patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). From April 2011 to February 2016, patients with CKD stage 1 to 5 (pre-dialysis) were enrolled as an ADPKD subcohort of the KoreaN Cohort Study for Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. Baseline characteristics, the correlation of kidney and liver volume and kidney function, and the factors associated with kidney function were analyzed. A total of 364 ADPKD patients with a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 68.1 ± 33.3 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (50.5% male with a mean age of 47.0 ± 10.6 years) were enrolled from nine hospitals in Korea. Initially, 55.8% of the patients were asymptomatic, and pain was the most common symptom (12.9%); 87.6% and 77.5% of the patients had hypertension and hepatic cysts, respectively. The height-adjusted total kidney volumes (htTKV) were higher in male patients than in female patients. In contrast, the height-adjusted total liver volumes were higher in female patients than in male patients. The decrease rate of eGFR depending on Log(htTKV) was larger in the group aged between 41 and 50 than the other age groups. Older age, a higher 24-hour urine protein excretion, larger htTKV, and hyperuricemia were independently associated with lower eGFR, whereas using febuxostat was independently associated with higher eGFR. This subcohort will provide clinical characteristics and outcomes of Korean ADPKD patients and can compare with those of other previous cohorts. We have identified factors associated with advanced-stage CKD in Korean patients with ADPKD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christopher D; Bratton, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2-4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2-4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2-4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP

  3. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Bratton, Daniel J.; Craig, Sonya E.; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. Methods The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2–4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. Results One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2–4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2–4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. Conclusions In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months

  4. Does the disparity in baseline characteristics of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement with 23 mm vs. 26 mm valves impact clinical outcome?

    PubMed

    Escárcega, Ricardo O; Magalhaes, Marco A; Baker, Nevin C; Lipinski, Michael J; Minha, Sa'ar; Torguson, Rebecca; Chen, Fang; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify if baseline characteristic differences in patients who receive a 23 mm vs. 26 mm valve impact clinical outcomes. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is currently an approved therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are considered inoperable or are at high risk. We retrospectively examined baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving a 23 mm (n = 132) vs. 26 mm valve (n = 81) via the transfemoral approach. Gender (P < 0.01), previous coronary artery bypass surgery (P < 0.01), history of atrial fibrillation (P = 0.04), and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score (P < 0.01) were significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in the rates of minor/major vascular complications (2.2 vs. 3.7%, P = 0.68 and 13.0 vs. 12.3%, P = 0.89, respectively). Bleeding complications were also comparable (major bleed 2.3 vs. 1%, P >0.99, minor bleed 19.0 vs. 22.0%, P = 0.67 and life threatening bleed 7.0 vs. 5.0%, P = 0.77). In-hospital death (6.0 vs. 5.0%, P >0.99), 30-day all-cause death (7.6 vs. 6.2%, P = 0.69), and all-cause death at 1 year (17.4 vs. 25.9%, P = 0.13) were also similar between groups. Gender, valve size, previous coronary bypass surgery and atrial fibrillation were not independently associated with mortality; however, on multivariate analysis STS score was (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.19; P = 0.01). Patients undergoing TAVR with 23 and 26 mm valves have similar clinical outcomes despite significant differences in baseline characteristics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. EMPOWER: a randomized trial using community health workers to deliver a lifestyle intervention program in African American women with Type 2 diabetes: design, rationale, and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Doyle M; Lutes, Lesley D; Littlewood, Kerry; Dinatale, Emily; Hambidge, Bertha; Schulman, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    African American (AA) women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the rural south experience less weight loss and poorer glycemic control in traditional diabetes management programs compared to Caucasians. This paper describes the design, rationale, and baseline characteristics from an innovative community health worker (CHW) delivered intervention program in this population. This prospective trial randomized rural AA women with uncontrolled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 7.0) to receive a behaviorally-centered, culturally-tailored lifestyle intervention during 16 contacts from a trained AA CHW or 16 approved diabetes educational mailings. Changes from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), weight, body mass index (BMI), self-reported dietary and physical activity patterns, and psychosocial measures including diabetes distress, empowerment, depression, self-care, medication adherence, and life satisfaction will be assessed at 6- and 12-months. Two hundred AA women (mean age = 53.09 ± 10.89 years) with T2DM from impoverished rural communities were enrolled. Baseline data demonstrated profoundly uncontrolled diabetes of long term duration (mean HbA1c = 9.11 ± 1.82; mean BMI = 37.68 ± 8.20; mean BP = 134.51 ± 20.39/84.19 ± 11.68; 10.5 ± 0.7 years). Self-care behavior assessment revealed poor dietary and medication adherence and sedentary lifestyle. Most psychosocial measures ranged within normal limits. The present sample of AA women from impoverished rural communities exhibited significantly uncontrolled T2DM of long duration with associated obesity and poor lifestyle behaviors. An innovative CHW led lifestyle intervention may lead to more effective strategies for T2DM management in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous Risk Factor Control Using Telehealth to slOw Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease (STOP-DKD) study: Protocol and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diamantidis, Clarissa J; Bosworth, Hayden B; Oakes, Megan M; Davenport, Clemontina A; Pendergast, Jane F; Patel, Sejal; Moaddeb, Jivan; Barnhart, Huiman X; Merrill, Peter D; Baloch, Khaula; Crowley, Matthew J; Patel, Uptal D

    2018-06-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the United States. Multiple risk factors contribute to DKD development, yet few interventions target more than a single DKD risk factor at a time. This manuscript describes the study protocol, recruitment, and baseline participant characteristics for the Simultaneous Risk Factor Control Using Telehealth to slOw Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease (STOP-DKD) study. The STOP-DKD study is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial behavioral and medication management intervention to mitigate kidney function decline at 3 years compared to usual care. The intervention consists of up to 36 monthly educational modules delivered via telephone by a study pharmacist, home blood pressure monitoring, and medication management recommendations delivered electronically to primary care physicians. Patients seen at seven primary care clinics in North Carolina, with diabetes and [1] uncontrolled hypertension and [2] evidence of kidney dysfunction (albuminuria or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) were eligible to participate. Study recruitment completed in December 2014. Of the 281 participants randomized, mean age at baseline was 61.9; 52% were male, 56% were Black, and most were high school graduates (89%). Baseline co-morbidity was high- mean blood pressure was 134/76 mmHg, mean body mass index was 35.7 kg/m 2 , mean eGFR was 80.7 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8.0%. Experiences of recruiting and implementing a comprehensive DKD program to individuals at high risk seen in the primary care setting are provided. NCT01829256. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Baseline Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Self-Reported Diet and Physical Activity Shifts among Recent Immigrants Participating in the Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention: “Live Well”

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Alison; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M.; Metayer, Nesly; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Chui, Kenneth; Pirie, Alex; Luongo, Christina Kamis; Economos, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this paper is to describe the baseline characteristics of Live Well (intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mother-child dyads from Brazil, Haiti, and Latin America) participants, and to explore self-reported changes in diet and physical activity post-immigration. Methods Baseline data from 383 mothers were used for this study. Dyads attended a measurement day, where they completed self-administered surveys collecting information about socio-demographics, diet, physical activity, other psychosocial variables, and height and weight. Results Haitian mothers’ socio-demographic profile differed significantly from that of Brazilians’ and Latinas’: They have been in the US for a shorter period of time, have higher rates of unemployment, are less likely to be married, more likely to have ≥3 children, more likely to be obese, and have immigrated for family or other reasons. In multivariate models, self-reported changes in diet and physical activity since migrating to the US were significantly associated with BMI with non-linear relationships identified. Discussion Future research is needed to understand how shifts in diet and physical activity change in the process of acculturating to the US and explore adoption of both healthy and unhealthy dietary changes. PMID:23334749

  8. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial †

    PubMed Central

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons. PMID:25211775

  9. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cardiac contractility modulation in patients with systolic heart failure: rationale, design, and baseline patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Burkhoff, Daniel; Nademanee, Koonlawee; Carson, Peter; Bourge, Robert; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Parides, Michael; Kadish, Alan

    2008-10-01

    Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) signals are nonexcitatory electrical signals delivered during the cardiac absolute refractory period that enhance the strength of cardiac muscular contraction. Prior research in experimental and human heart failure has shown that CCM signals normalize phosphorylation of key proteins and expression of genes coding for proteins involved in regulation of calcium cycling and contraction. The results of prior clinical studies of CCM have supported its safety and efficacy. A large-scale clinical study, the FIX-HF-5 study, is currently underway to test the safety and efficacy of this treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of the system used to deliver CCM signals, the implant procedure, and the details and rationale of the FIX-HF-5 study design. Baseline characteristics for patients randomized in this trial are also presented.

  10. Prevalence of diabetes complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with baseline characteristics in the multinational A1chieve study.

    PubMed

    Litwak, Leon; Goh, Su-Yen; Hussein, Zanariah; Malek, Rachid; Prusty, Vinay; Khamseh, Mohammad E

    2013-10-24

    Current International Diabetes Federation guidelines recommend a target HbA1c <7.0%, but many people with diabetes worldwide find this difficult to achieve, increasing their risk of developing complications. This publication examines the prevalence of diabetes complications and its association with baseline characteristics in people with type 2 diabetes who participated in the A1chieve study. A1chieve was a 24-week, multinational, open-label, observational study of 66,726 people with type 2 diabetes who had begun using biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin aspart, or insulin detemir in routine clinical care. Participants were enrolled from 28 countries across four continents (Asia, Africa, Europe and South America). Baseline measurements of disease characteristics included: glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting (FPG) and post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (H- or LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and body mass index (BMI). Data on complications and use of vascular disease preventative drugs were collected. Complication rates were high (27.2% had macrovascular complications and 53.5% had microvascular complications), particularly in Russia, and use of vascular disease preventative drugs was lower than expected. Age, BMI, diabetes duration, LDL-C, and SBP were positively associated, and HDL-C negatively associated, with macro- and microvascular complications (all p < 0.05). HbA1c and FPG were negatively associated with macrovascular complications (both p < 0.05), which may be linked to the cross-sectional study design. These results suggest a worldwide failure to achieve glycaemic targets. Better diabetes management with earlier initiation and optimisation of insulin regimens (e.g., with insulin analogues in the A1chieve population) may reduce the prevalence of vascular complications, improve the lives of people with diabetes and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

  11. The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Patel, Falguni; Kirzner, Rachel; Newton-Famous, Nijah; Owens, Constance; Welles, Seth L; Chilton, Mariana

    2016-07-16

    Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full) and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %), never married (83.5 %), unemployed (94.2 %), and without a bank account (66.0 %). Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure), and depression (57.3 %). Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48.5 % of the fathers of the youngest child spent

  12. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Fresh Start Randomized Controlled Trial: Baseline Participant Characteristics and Reliability of Measures.

    PubMed

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Monica, Dorothy; Gray, Heewon Lee; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2016-12-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Fresh Start (WFS) is a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (F/V) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in WIC. To describe the baseline characteristics (demographics and F/V intake [including F/V juice]) of WFS participants, compare the characteristics with those of WIC participants in New Jersey and nationwide, and examine the baseline reliability of study measures. Cross-sectional. Seven hundred forty-four women served by a New Jersey-based WIC agency located in a densely populated, urban area. Demographic characteristics; newly developed measures of farmers' market-related knowledge, attitudes, and skills; and validated measures of F/V intake. Descriptive statistics to characterize the sample. One-sample t and one-sample sign tests to compare the characteristics with reference values. For dietary behaviors, comparisons were with state and national estimates of the frequency and quantity of F/V intake. Participants had a mean age of 28.9±6.8 years and were predominantly Hispanic (59%), US-born (60%), never married (41%), unemployed (62%), receiving assistance other than WIC (70%), and food insecure (55%). Half reported a high school education or less. Higher proportions of WFS participants than WIC participants nationwide were represented among demographic groups at increased risk of inadequate F/V intake. WFS participants consumed more fruit (2.7 cups/day) but less vegetables (1.4 cups/day) than did women nationwide (1.1 and 1.4 cups/day, respectively; P<0.01). Although participants consumed recommended amounts of fruit, their vegetable intake was below recommended levels. All but two of the measures developed for the study had reliability coefficients at or above 0.60. Intervention is warranted to improve participants' vegetable intake. Registered dietitian nutritionists should be aware of F/V intake

  13. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  14. Multidomain lifestyle intervention benefits a large elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia regardless of baseline characteristics: The FINGER trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Anna; Ngandu, Tiia; Rusanen, Minna; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Havulinna, Satu; Hänninen, Tuomo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Lindström, Jaana; Paajanen, Teemu; Peltonen, Markku; Soininen, Hilkka; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2018-03-01

    The 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) multidomain lifestyle intervention trial (NCT01041989) demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition. We investigated whether sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, baseline cognition, or cardiovascular factors influenced intervention effects on cognition. The FINGER recruited 1260 people from the general Finnish population (60-77 years, at risk for dementia). Participants were randomized 1:1 to multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognition, and vascular risk management) and regular health advice. Primary outcome was change in cognition (Neuropsychological Test Battery z-score). Prespecified analyses to investigate whether participants' characteristics modified response to intervention were carried out using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses. Sociodemographics (sex, age, and education), socioeconomic status (income), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), cardiovascular factors (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and overall cardiovascular risk), and cardiovascular comorbidity did not modify response to intervention (P-values for interaction > .05). The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants' characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SKIN WRINKLES AND RIGIDITY IN EARLY POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN VARY BY RACE/ETHNICITY: BASELINE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN ANCILLARY STUDY OF THE KEEPS TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Design Baseline assessment of participants prior to randomization to study drug. Setting Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Patients Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Interventions Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Outcome Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and BMI. Results In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races (p=0.0003), where Black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In White women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity(p<0.001). Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however only in the White subgroup (p<0.01). In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling (p<0.05). Conclusions Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. PMID:20971461

  16. Skin wrinkles and rigidity in early postmenopausal women vary by race/ethnicity: baseline characteristics of the skin ancillary study of the KEEPS trial.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin; Pal, Lubna; Altun, Tugba; Madankumar, Rajeevi; Freeman, Ruth; Amin, Hussein; Harman, Mitch; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    To characterize skin wrinkles and rigidity in recently menopausal women. Baseline assessment of participants before randomization to study drug. Multicenter trial, university medical centers. Recently menopausal participants enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Skin wrinkles were assessed at 11 locations on the face and neck using the Lemperle wrinkle scale. Skin rigidity was assessed at the forehead and cheek using a durometer. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were compared among race/ethnic groups. Skin wrinkles and rigidity were correlated with age, time since menopause, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In early menopausal women, wrinkles, but not skin rigidity, vary significantly among races, where black women have the lowest wrinkle scores. In white women, chronological age was significantly correlated with worsening skin wrinkles, but not with rigidity. Skin rigidity correlated with increasing length of time since menopause, however, only in the white subgroup. In the combined study group, increasing weight was associated with less skin wrinkling. Skin characteristics of recently menopausal women are not well studied. Ethnic differences in skin characteristics are widely accepted, but poorly described. In recently menopausal women not using hormone therapy (HT), significant racial differences in skin wrinkling and rigidity exist. Continued study of the KEEPS population will provide evidence of the effects of HT on the skin aging process in early menopausal women. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS):Predictive invariance of Demographic Characteristics on Attitudes towards Alcohol across Hispanic National Groups#

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Britain A.; Caetano, Raul; Bernstein, Ira H.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the demographic predictors of items assessing attitudes towards drinking across Hispanic national groups. Data were from the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS), which used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals randomly selected from the household population in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Predictive invariance of demographic predictors of alcohol attitudes over four Hispanic national groups (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, and South/Central Americans) was examined using multiple-group seemingly unrelated probit regression. The analyses examined whether the influence of various demographic predictors varied across the Hispanic national groups in their regression coefficients, item intercepts, and error correlations. The hypothesis of predictive invariance was supported. Hispanic groups did not differ in how demographic predictors related to individual attitudinal items (regression slopes were invariant). In addition, the groups did not differ in attitudinal endorsement rates once demographic covariates were taken into account (item intercepts were invariant). Although Hispanic groups have different attitudes about alcohol, the influence of multiple demographic characteristics on alcohol attitudes operates similarly across Hispanic groups. Future models of drinking behavior in adult Hispanics need not posit moderating effects of group on the relation between these background characteristics and attitudes. PMID:25379120

  18. Testing the comparative effects of physical activity advice by humans vs. computers in underserved populations: The COMPASS trial design, methods, and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Campero, Ines; Sheats, Jylana L; Castro Sweet, Cynthia M; Garcia, Dulce; Chazaro, Aldo; Blanco, German; Hauser, Michelle; Fierros, Fernando; Ahn, David K; Diaz, Jose; Done, Monica; Fernandez, Juan; Bickmore, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    While physical inactivity is a key risk factor for a range of chronic diseases and conditions associated with aging, a significant proportion of midlife and older adults remain insufficiently active. This is particularly true for ethnic minority populations such as Latino adults for whom few culturally adapted programs have been developed and tested. The major objective of this 12-month cluster-randomized controlled trial is to test the comparative effectiveness of two linguistically and culturally adapted, community-based physical activity interventions with the potential for broad reach and translation. Ten local community centers serving a sizable number of Latino residents were randomized to receive one of two physical activity interventions. The Virtual Advisor program employs a computer-based embodied conversational agent named "Carmen" to deliver interactive, individually tailored physical activity advice and support. A similar intervention program is delivered by trained Peer Advisors. The target population consists of generally healthy, insufficiently active Latino adults ages 50years and older living within proximity to a designated community center. The major outcomes are changes in walking and other forms of physical activity measured via self-report and accelerometry. Secondary outcomes include physical function and well-being variables. In addition to these outcome analyses, comparative cost analysis of the two programs, potential mediators of intervention success, and baseline moderators of intervention effects will be explored to better determine which subgroups do best with which type of intervention. Here we present the study design and methods, including recruitment strategies and yield as well as study baseline characteristics. clinicaltrial.gov Identifier=NCT02111213. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pro-HEART - a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a high protein diet targeting obese individuals with heart failure: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Motie, Marjan; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Horwich, Tamara; Hamilton, Michele; Lombardo, Dawn; Cooper, Dan M; Galassetti, Pietro R; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2013-11-01

    There is ample research to support the potential benefits of a high protein diet on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese, diabetic subjects. However, nutritional management of overweight/obese individuals with heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS) is poorly understood and few clinical guidelines related to nutritional approaches exist for this subgroup. This article describes the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of study participants enrolled in Pro-HEART, a randomized clinical trial to determine the short term and long term effects of a high protein diet (30% protein [~110 g/day], 40% carbohydrates [150 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) versus a standard protein diet (15% protein [~55 g/day], 55% carbohydrates [~200 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) on body weight and adiposity, cardiac structure and function, functional status, lipid profile, glycemic control, and quality of life. Between August, 2009 and May, 2013, 61 individuals agreed to participate in the study; 52 (85%) - mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years; 15.4% Blacks; 57.7% Whites; 19.2% Hispanics; 7.7% Asians; 73.1% male; weight 112.0 ± 22.6 kg - were randomized to a 3-month intensive weight management program of either a high protein or standard protein diet; data were collected at baseline, 3 months, and 15 months. This study has the potential to reveal significant details about the role of macronutrients in weight management of overweight/obese individuals with HF and DM or MS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Baseline characteristics and treatment of patients in Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF)

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Aim To describe the baseline characteristics and treatment of the patients randomized in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of ARNi with ACEi to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, testing the hypothesis that the strategy of simultaneously blocking the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and augmenting natriuretic peptides with LCZ696 200 mg b.i.d. is superior to enalapril 10 mg b.i.d. in reducing mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Key demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in the treatment arm of the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD-T) and more contemporary drug and device trials in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Results The mean age of the 8442 patients in PARADIGM-HF is 64 (SD 11) years and 78% are male, which is similar to SOLVD-T and more recent trials. Despite extensive background therapy with beta-blockers (93% patients) and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (60%), patients in PARADIGM-HF have persisting symptoms and signs, reduced health related quality of life, a low LVEF (mean 29 ± SD 6%) and elevated N-terminal-proB type-natriuretic peptide levels (median 1608 inter-quartile range 886–3221 pg/mL). Conclusion PARADIGM-HF will determine whether LCZ696 is more beneficial than enalapril when added to other disease-modifying therapies and if further augmentation of endogenous natriuretic peptides will reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. PMID:24828035

  1. Baseline characteristics of patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease enrolled in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial was undertaken to determine whether early revascularization intervention is superior to deferred intervention in the presence of aggressive medical therapy and whether antidiabetes regimens targeting insulin sensitivity are more or less effective than regimens targeting insulin provision in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The BARI 2D trial is a National Institutes of Health-sponsored randomized clinical trial with a 2 x 2 factorial design. Between 2001 and 2005, 49 clinical sites in North America, South America, and Europe randomized 2,368 patients. At baseline, the trial collected data on clinical history, symptoms, and medications along with centralized evaluations of angiograms, electrocardiograms, and blood and urine specimens. Most of the BARI 2D patients were referred from the cardiac catheterization laboratory (54%) or cardiology clinic (27%). Of the randomized participants, 30% were women, 34% were minorities, 61% had angina, and 67% had multiregion CAD. Moreover, 29% had been treated with insulin, 58% had hemoglobin A(1c) >7.0%, 41% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >or=100 mg/dL, 52% had blood pressure >130/80 mm Hg, and 56% had body mass index >or=30 kg/m(2). Baseline characteristics in BARI 2D are well balanced between the randomized treatment groups, and the clinical profile of the study cohort is representative of the target population. As a result, the BARI 2D clinical trial is in an excellent position to evaluate alternative treatment approaches for diabetes and CAD.

  2. The design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a nationwide cohort registry in China: blood pressure and clinical outcome in TIA or ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Liu, Yi; Tao, Yongli; Xie, Xuewei; Gu, Hongqiu; Pan, Yuesong; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Yongjun; Yan, Aoshuang; Wang, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between poststroke blood pressure (BP) and clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke (IS) is still controversial. However, there is no large BP database for IS or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in China. This study aims to describe the rationale, study design, and baseline characteristics of a nationwide BP database in IS or TIA patients in China. The BOSS (blood pressure and clinical outcome in TIA or ischemic stroke) study was a hospital-based, prospective cohort study aiming to assess BP parameters and clinical outcome in IS/TIA patients. BP parameters were based on office BP, ambulatory BP, and home BP. Clinical outcomes included stroke recurrence, combined vascular events, and disability. Electronic case-report forms were used to record baseline and follow-up data. The patients were followed up for clinical outcomes at 3 months through face-to-face interview and at 12 months by telephone. Between October 2012 and February 2014, the BOSS registry recruited 2,608 patients from 61 hospitals, with a mean age of 62.5 years, 32.4% of whom were female, 88.9% with an entry diagnosis of IS, and 86% diagnosed with hypertension. The rates of patients lost-to-follow-up were 3.1% at 3 months and 5.1% at 1 year; 93% of patients completed ambulatory BP monitoring during hospitalization and 94.7% finished a 3-month BP diary. The BOSS registry will provide important evidence about BP management in the acute phase and secondary prevention for IS/TIA patients.

  3. Kin KeeperSM: Design and Baseline Characteristics of a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial Promoting Cancer Screening in Black, Latina, and Arab Women

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Roman, LeeAnne; Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Penner, Louis; Hammad, Adnan; Gardiner, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Although breast and cervical cancer deaths have declined due to early screening, detection, and more effective treatment, racial and ethnic disparities persist. This paper describes the study design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of the Kin KeeperSM Cancer Prevention Intervention, a family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied in a community-based setting to promote health literacy and screening adherence to address cancer disparities Methods Female public health community health workers (CHWs) were trained to administer the intervention. They recruited female clients from their public health program caseload and asked each to assemble two to four adult female family members for the breast and cervical cancer home-based education sessions the CHWs would deliver in English, Spanish or Arabic. We randomized the clients into the kin keeper group (treatment) or the participant client group (control) Results Complete data were obtained on 514 Black, Latina, and Arab women. Close to half were unemployed and had yearly family income below $20,000. Thirty-four percent had no medical insurance, and 21% had diabetes. Almost 40% had no mammography in the last year. Treatment and control groups were similar on most sociodemographics but showed differences in breast and cervical screening history. Conclusions This innovative study demonstrates the implementation of an RCT using community-based participatory research, while delivering cancer prevention education across woman’s life span with women not connected to the health care system. PMID:23274402

  4. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres: design, methods and baseline sample characteristics of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers; Bohman, Benjamin; Westin, Maria; Magnusson, Margaretha; Larsson, Christel; Sundblom, Elinor; Willmer, Mikaela; Blennow, Margareta; Heitmann, Berit L; Forsberg, Lars; Wallin, Sanna; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-04-09

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children's body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children's and mothers' eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children's and mothers' physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers' body mass index and waist circumference. The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control group, before they reached 10 months of age). The

  5. Dynamics of absence seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeba, Farah; Sanz-Leon, Paula; Robinson, Peter

    A neural field model of the corticothalamic system is used to investigate the dynamics of absence seizures in the presence of temporally varying connection strength between the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Variation of connection strength from cortex to thalamus drives the system into seizure once a threshold is passed and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation occurs. The dynamics and spectral characteristics of the resulting seizures are explored as functions of maximum connection strength, time above threshold, and ramp rate. The results enable spectral and temporal characteristics of seizures to be related to underlying physiological variations via nonlinear dynamics and neural field theory. Notably, this analysis adds to neural field modeling of a wide variety of brain activity phenomena and measurements in recent years. Australian Research Council Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.

  6. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgeries reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery: Baseline characteristics, surgical procedure, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Mats; Dickman, Mor; Henry, Ype; Manning, Sonia; Rosen, Paul; Tassignon, Marie-José; Young, David; Stenevi, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    To describe a large cohort of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgeries in terms of baseline characteristics and the related outcomes. Eighteen cataract surgery clinics in 9 European countries and Australia. Prospective multicenter case series. Data on consecutive eyes having femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery in the participating clinics were entered in the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery (EUREQUO). A trained registry manager in each clinic was responsible for valid reporting to the EUREQUO. Demographics, preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), risk factors, type of surgery, type of intraocular lens, visual outcomes, refractive outcomes, and complications were reported. Complete data were available for 3379 cases. The mean age was 64.4 years ± 10.9 (SD) and 57.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 56.1-59.5) of the patients were women. A surgical complication was reported in 2.9% of all cases (95% CI, 2.4-3.5). The mean postoperative CDVA was 0.04 ± 0.15. logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution. A biometry prediction error (spherical equivalent) was within ±0.5 diopter in 71.8% (95% CI, 70.3-73.3) of all surgeries. Postoperative complications were reported in 3.3% (95% CI, 2.7-4.0). Patients with good preoperative CDVA had the best visual and refractive outcomes; patients with poor preoperative visual acuity had poorer outcomes. The visual and refractive outcomes of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery were favorable compared with manual phacoemulsification. The outcomes were highly influenced by the preoperative visual acuity, but all preoperative CDVA groups had acceptable outcomes. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recruitment, screening, and baseline participant characteristics in the WALK 2.0 study: A randomized controlled trial using web 2.0 applications to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Van Itallie, Anetta K; Savage, Trevor N; Hooker, Cindy; Maeder, Anthony J; Mummery, W Kerry; Kolt, Gregory S

    2016-04-15

    To describe in detail the recruitment methods and enrollment rates, the screening methods, and the baseline characteristics of a sample of adults participating in the Walk 2.0 Study, an 18 month, 3-arm randomized controlled trial of a Web 2.0 based physical activity intervention. A two-fold recruitment plan was developed and implemented, including a direct mail-out to an extract from the Australian Electoral Commission electoral roll, and other supplementary methods including email and telephone. Physical activity screening involved two steps: a validated single-item self-report instrument and the follow-up Active Australia Questionnaire. Readiness for physical activity participation was also based on a two-step process of administering the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire and, where needed, further clearance from a medical practitioner. Across all recruitment methods, a total of 1244 participants expressed interest in participating, of which 656 were deemed eligible. Of these, 504 were later enrolled in the Walk 2.0 trial (77% enrollment rate) and randomized to the Walk 1.0 group (n = 165), the Walk 2.0 group (n = 168), or the Logbook group (n = 171). Mean age of the total sample was 50.8 years, with 65.2% female and 79.1% born in Australia. The results of this recruitment process demonstrate the successful use of multiple strategies to obtain a diverse sample of adults eligible to take part in a web-based physical activity promotion intervention. The use of dual screening processes ensured safe participation in the intervention. This approach to recruitment and physical activity screening can be used as a model for further trials in this area.

  8. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. Methods/Design The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Discussion Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks. PMID:24475944

  9. The EuroPrevall birth cohort study on food allergy: baseline characteristics of 12,000 newborns and their families from nine European countries.

    PubMed

    McBride, D; Keil, T; Grabenhenrich, L; Dubakiene, R; Drasutiene, G; Fiocchi, A; Dahdah, L; Sprikkelman, A B; Schoemaker, A A; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K; Kowalski, M L; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Clausen, M; Papadopoulos, N G; Mitsias, D; Rosenfeld, L; Reche, M; Pascual, C; Reich, A; Hourihane, J; Wahn, U; Mills, E N C; Mackie, A; Beyer, K

    2012-05-01

    It is unclear why some children develop food allergy. The EuroPrevall birth cohort was established to examine regional differences in the prevalence and risk factors of food allergy in European children using gold-standard diagnostic criteria. The aim of this report was to describe pre-, post-natal and environmental characteristics among the participating countries. In nine countries across four major European climatic regions, mothers and their newborns were enrolled from October 2005 through February 2010. Using standardized questionnaires, we assessed allergic diseases and self-reported food hypersensitivity of parents and siblings, nutrition during pregnancy, nutritional supplements, medications, mode of delivery, socio-demographic data and home environmental exposures. A total of 12,049 babies and their families were recruited. Self-reported adverse reactions to food ever were considerably more common in mothers from Germany (30%), Iceland, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands (all 20-22%) compared with those from Italy (11%), Lithuania, Greece, Poland, and Spain (all 5-8%). Prevalence estimates of parental asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema were highest in north-west (Iceland, UK), followed by west (Germany, the Netherlands), south (Greece, Italy, Spain) and lowest in central and east Europe (Poland, Lithuania). Over 17% of Spanish and Greek children were exposed to tobacco smoke in utero compared with only 8-11% in other countries. Caesarean section rate was highest in Greece (44%) and lowest in Spain (<3%). We found country-specific differences in antibiotic use, pet ownership, type of flooring and baby's mattress. In the EuroPrevall birth cohort study, the largest study using gold-standard diagnostic criteria for food allergy in children worldwide, we found considerable country-specific baseline differences regarding a wide range of factors that are hypothesized to play a role in the development of food allergy including allergic family history

  10. The Nightingale study: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study on shift work and breast cancer risk among nurses.

    PubMed

    Pijpe, Anouk; Slottje, Pauline; van Pelt, Cres; Stehmann, Floor; Kromhout, Hans; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Rookus, Matti A

    2014-01-29

    Evidence for the carcinogenicity of shift work in humans is limited because of significant heterogeneity of the results, thus more in-depth research in needed. The Nightingale Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study on occupational exposures and risks of chronic diseases among female nurses and focuses on the potential association between shift work and risk of breast cancer. The study design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the cohort are described. The source population for the cohort comprised 18 to 65 year old women who were registered as having completed training to be a nurse in the nationwide register for healthcare professionals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire including full job history, a detailed section on all domains of shift work (shift system, cumulative exposure, and shift intensity) and potential confounding factors, and an informed consent form for linkage with national (disease) registries. Women were also asked to donate toenail clippings as a source of DNA for genetic analyses. Between October 6, 2011 and February 1, 2012, 31% of the 192,931 women who were invited to participate completed the questionnaire, yielding a sample size of 59,947 cohort members. The mean age of the participants was 46.9 year (standard deviation 11.0 years). Toenail clippings were provided by 23,439 participants (39%). Results from the Nightingale Study will contribute to the scientific evidence of potential shift work-related health risks among nurses and will help develop preventive measures and policy aimed at reducing these risks.

  11. The United Kingdom Diabetic Retinopathy Electronic Medical Record Users Group, Report 1: baseline characteristics and visual acuity outcomes in eyes treated with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema.

    PubMed

    Egan, Catherine; Zhu, Haogang; Lee, Aaron; Sim, Dawn; Mitry, Danny; Bailey, Clare; Johnston, Robert; Chakravarthy, Usha; Denniston, Alastair; Tufail, Adnan; Khan, Rehna; Mahmood, Sajjad; Menon, Geeta; Akerele, Toks; Downey, Louise; McKibbin, Martin; Varma, Atul; Lobo, Aires; Wilkinson, Elizabeth; Fitt, Alan; Brand, Christopher; Tsaloumas, Marie; Mandal, Kaveri; Kumar, Vineeth; Natha, Salim; Crabb, David

    2017-01-01

    To describe baseline characteristics and visual outcome for eyes treated with ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) from a multicentre database. Structured clinical data were anonymised and extracted from an electronic medical record from 19 participating UK centres: age at first injection, ETDRS visual acuity (VA), number of injections, ETDRS diabetic retinopathy (DR) and maculopathy grade at baseline and visits. The main outcomes were change in mean VA from baseline, number of injections and clinic visits and characteristics affecting VA change and DR grade. Data from 12 989 clinic visits was collated from baseline and follow-up for 3103 eyes. Mean age at first treatment was 66 years. Mean VA (letters) for eyes followed at least 2 years was 51.1 (SD=19.3) at baseline, 54.2 (SD: 18.6) and 52.5 (SD: 19.4) at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Mean visual gain was five letters. The proportion of eyes with VA of 72 letters or better was 25% (baseline) and 33% (1 year) for treatment naïve eyes. Eyes followed for at least 6 months received a mean of 3.3 injections over a mean of 6.9 outpatient visits in 1 year. In a large cohort of eyes with DMO treated with ranibizumab injections in the UK, 33% of patients achieved better than or equal to 6/12 in the treated eye at 12 months compared with 25% at baseline. The mean visual gain was five letters. Eyes with excellent VA at baseline maintain good vision at 18 months. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Estimation of the optimum dose of vitamin D for disease prevention in older people: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the BEST-D trial.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Robert; Newman, Connie; Tomson, Joseph; Hin, Harold; Kurien, Rijo; Cox, Jolyon; Lay, Michael; Sayer, Jenny; Hill, Michael; Emberson, Jonathan; Armitage, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Previous large trials of vitamin D for prevention of fractures and other disease outcomes have reported conflicting results, possibly because the doses tested were insufficient to maintain optimum blood levels of vitamin D (25[OH]D) predicted by the observational studies. This report describes the design and baseline characteristics of the BEST-D (Biochemical Efficacy and Safety Trial of vitamin D) trial which aims to establish the best dose of vitamin D to assess in a future large outcome trial. The BEST-D trial will compare the biochemical and other effects of daily dietary supplementation with 100 μg or 50 μg vitamin D3 or placebo, when administered for 12 months, in 305 ambulant community-dwelling older people living in Oxfordshire, England. The primary analyses will compare 12-month mean plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D as well as the proportion of participants with a 12-month concentration >90 nmol/L between participants allocated 100 μg and participants allocated 50 μg daily. Secondary analyses will compare the two active doses (both separately and when combined) with placebo. Additional end-points include biochemical assessments of safety, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, falls, fractures, heel and wrist bone density, grip strength and physical performance and echocardiographic assessments of cardiac function in a random sample of participants. About one-third of eligible participants agreed to participate in the trial. The mean age was 72 (SD 6) years with equal numbers of men and women. About one third reported a prior history of fracture or hypertension, one-fifth reported a prior cardiovascular event, and one tenth reported diabetes or a fall in the previous 6 months. The results of this trial will help determine the optimum dose of vitamin D to test in a larger trial investigating whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk of fractures, cardiovascular disease or cancer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  13. Baseline characteristics of study sites and women enrolled in a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial: PMTCT uptake and retention (pure) Malawi.

    PubMed

    van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Rosenberg, Nora E; Trapence, Clement; Kayoyo, Virginia; Kasende, Florence; Kaunda, Blessings; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Eliya, Michael; Cataldo, Fabian; Gugsa, Salem; Phiri, Sam

    2017-07-11

    Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+" which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of WHO clinical stage or CD4 cell count. The PMTCT Uptake and REtention (PURE) study aimed at evaluating the effect of peer-support on care-seeking and retention in care. PURE Malawi was a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial that compared facility-based and community-based models of peer support to standard of care under Option B+ strategy. Each arm was expected to enroll a minimum of 360 women with a total minimum sample size of 1080 participants. 21 sites (clusters) were selected for inclusion in the study. This paper describes the site selection, recruitment, enrollment process and baseline characteristics of study sites and women enrolled in the trial. Study implementation was managed by 3 partner organizations; each responsible for 7 study sites. The trial was conducted in the South East, South West, and Central West zones of Malawi, the zones where the implementing partners operate. Study sites included 2 district hospitals, 2 mission hospitals, 2 rural hospitals, 13 health centers and 1 private clinic. Enrollment occurred from November 2013 to November 2014, over a median period of 31 weeks (range 17-51) by site. A total of 1269 HIV-infected pregnant (1094) and breastfeeding (175) women, who were eligible to initiate ART under Option B+, were enrolled. Each site reached or surpassed the minimum sample size. Comparing the number of women enrolled versus antenatal cohort reports, sites recruited a median of 90% (IQR 75-100) of eligible reported women. In the majority of sites the ratio of pregnant and lactating women enrolled in the study was similar to the ratio of reported pregnant and lactating women starting ART in the same sites. The median age of all women was 27 (IQR 22-31) years. All women have ≥20 months of possible follow-up time; 96%

  14. Baseline characteristics of the omega-3 fatty acids (Fish oils) and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) study.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Pascoe, Elaine M; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hawley, Carmel M; Paul-Brent, Peta-Anne; Badve, Sunil V; Cass, Alan; Johnson, David W; Kerr, Peter G; Mori, Trevor A; Scaria, Anish; Hooi, Seong L; Ong, Meng L; Irish, Ashley B

    2016-03-01

    The Fish oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED) trial investigated whether 3 months of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, either alone or in combination with aspirin, will effectively reduce primary access failure of de novo arteriovenous fistulae. This report presents the baseline characteristics of all study participants, examines whether study protocol amendments successfully increased recruitment of a broader and more representative haemodialysis cohort, including patients already receiving aspirin, and contrasts Malaysian participants with those from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom (UK). This international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients older than 19 years with stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease currently receiving, or planned within 12 months to receive haemodialysis. Participants (n = 568) were overweight (28.6 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) ), relatively young (54.8 ± 14.3 years), and predominantly male (63%) with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (46%) but low rate of ischaemic heart disease (8%). Sixty one percent were planned for lower arm arteriovenous fistula creation. Malaysian participants (n = 156) were younger (51.8 ± 13.6 years vs 57.1 ± 14.2 years, P < 0.001) with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (65% vs 43%, P < 0.001), but less ischaemic heart disease (5% vs 14%, P < 0.01) compared with the combined Australian, New Zealand and UK cohort (n = 228). Protocol modifications allowing for inclusion of patients receiving aspirin increased the prevalence of co-morbidities compared with the original cohort. The FAVOURED study participants, while mostly similar to patients in contemporary national registry reports and comparable recent clinical trials, were on average younger and had less ischaemic heart disease. These differences were reduced as a consequence of including patients already receiving aspirin. © 2015 Asian

  15. Clinical outcomes after combined therapy with dutasteride plus tamsulosin or either monotherapy in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by baseline characteristics: 4-year results from the randomized, double-blind Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) trial.

    PubMed

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Barkin, Jack; Siami, Paul; Tubaro, Andrea; Wilson, Timothy H; Morrill, Betsy B; Gagnier, R Paul

    2011-03-01

    • To investigate the influence of baseline variables on the 4-year incidence of acute urinary retention (AUR), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related surgery and overall clinical progression in men treated with tamsulosin, dutasteride, or a combination of both. • The 4-year Combination of Avodart® and Tamsulosin (CombAT) study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study of clinical outcomes in men aged ≥ 50 years with symptomatic (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]≥ 12) BPH, with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≥ 1.5 ng/mL and ≤ 10 ng/mL, and a prostate volume (PV) of ≥ 30 mL. • Eligible patients received tamsulosin 0.4 mg, dutasteride 0.5 mg, or a combination of both. • The primary endpoint was time to first AUR or BPH-related surgery. Secondary endpoints included clinical progression of BPH and symptoms. Posthoc analyses of the influence of baseline variables (including age, IPSS health-related quality of life [HRQL], PV, PSA, IPSS, peak urinary flow rate [Q(max) ] and body-mass index [BMI]) on the incidence of AUR or BPH-related surgery, clinical progression of BPH, and symptoms were performed. • There were 4844 men in the intent-to-treat population. Overall baseline characteristics were similar across all patient groups. • Regardless of baseline subgroup, the incidence of AUR or BPH-related surgery was higher in men treated with tamsulosin than in those treated with dutasteride or combined therapy. • Combined therapy was statistically better than tamsulosin in reducing the risk of AUR or BPH-related surgery in subgroups of baseline PV > 42.0 mL, in all subgroups of baseline PSA level, and all other baseline subgroups (P ≤ 0.001). • Across treatment groups, the incidence of clinical progression was highest in men with a baseline IPSS of < 20 or IPSS HRQL score of < 4. The incidence of clinical progression was also higher in men receiving tamsulosin than dutasteride or combined therapy in

  16. Up-to-date and projected estimates of survival for people with cystic fibrosis using baseline characteristics: A longitudinal study using UK patient registry data.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Ruth H; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Taylor-Robinson, David; Bilton, Diana

    2018-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited disease in Caucasians, affecting around 10,000 individuals in the UK today. Prognosis has improved considerably over recent decades with ongoing improvements in treatment and care. Providing up-to-date survival predictions is important for patients, clinicians and health services planning. Flexible parametric survival modelling of UK CF Registry data from 2011 to 2015, capturing 602 deaths in 10,428 individuals. Survival curves were estimated from birth; conditional on reaching older ages; and projected under different assumptions concerning future mortality trends, using baseline characteristics of sex, CFTR genotype (zero, one, two copies of F508del) and age at diagnosis. Male sex was associated with better survival, as was older age at diagnosis, but only in F508del non-homozygotes. Survival did not differ by genotype among individuals diagnosed at birth. Median survival ages at birth in F508del homozygotes were 46years (males) and 41years (females), and similar in non-homozygotes diagnosed at birth. F508del heterozygotes diagnosed aged 5 had median survival ages of 57 (males) and 51 (females). Conditional on survival to 30, median survival age rises to 52 (males) and 49 (females) in homozygotes. Mortality rates decreased annually by 2% during 2006-2015. Future improvements at this rate suggest median survival ages for F508del homozygous babies of 65 (males) and 56 (females). Over half of babies born today, and of individuals aged 30 and above today, can expect to survive into at least their fifth decade. Evidence before this study We searched PubMed with terms "(cystic fibrosis survival) and (projection OR model OR registry OR United Kingdom OR UK)" to identify relevant studies on survival estimates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We also considered the most recent annual report from the UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2016), a review by Buzzetti and colleagues (2009), the chapter

  17. Effect of salmon type and presence/absence of bone on color, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptability of pureed and chunked infant food products.

    PubMed

    DeSantos, F A; Ramamoorthi, L; Bechtel, P; Smiley, S; Brewer, M S

    2010-08-01

    Salmon-based infant food (puree) and toddler food (puree plus chunks) were manufactured from pink salmon, with and without bone, and from Sockeye salmon, with and without bone, to contain 45% salmon, 55% water, and 5% starch. Products were retort processed at 118 to 121 degrees C for 55 min in a steam-jacketed still retort. A trained descriptive panel (n = 7) evaluated infant and toddler foods separately. Instrumental color, pH, and water activity were also determined. Infant and toddler foods were also evaluated by a consumer panel (n = 104) of parents for product acceptability. During the manufacturing process (cooking, homogenization, retort processing), salmon infant food from pink salmon lost much of its characteristic pink color while that from sockeye salmon retained a greater amount. Bitterness was more evident in samples with bones. In the toddler food formulation containing chunks, the odor and flavor characteristics were influenced primarily by the type of salmon. The presence of bone affected visual pink color and lightness, and salmon odor only. Consumers scored products made with sockeye salmon as more acceptable despite the fact that they had more off-flavor than products from pink salmon. The appearance and thickness of the pureed infant food was more acceptable than the toddler food with chunks despite the chunky toddler product having more acceptable salmon flavor. This indicates that the color and appearance of the prototypes were the main drivers for liking. Of the total number of parents surveyed, 73% would feed this salmon product to their children.

  18. Patient baseline characteristics in an open-label multinational study of betahistine in recurrent peripheral vestibular vertigo: the OSVaLD study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garrigues, H; Kuessner, D; Benecke, H

    2007-11-01

    OSVaLD (Observational Study in patients suffering from recurrent peripheral vestibular Vertigo to Assess the effect of betahistine 48 mg/day on quality of Life and Dizziness symptoms) is a 3-month, open-label, multi-national post-marketing surveillance study of betahistine 48 mg/day in the management of patients with vertigo of less than 5 years in duration. The aim of the study is to examine the burden of disease associated with vertigo, as determined by scores on the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Changes in DHI, SF-36 and HADS scores between baseline and 3 months are used to assess the therapeutic effects of betahistine. Participants (n = 2037) have been recruited from 13 countries in four continents (North and South America, Asia and Europe), representing a wide range of cultural and linguistic traditions. Approximately two-thirds of the patients are women. Sixty per cent of patients have diagnoses of peripheral vestibular vertigo of unknown pathology or benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; 13% have a diagnosis of Ménière's disease. All three of the instruments used characterize this as a population with extensive vertigo-attributable morbidity at baseline. The mean DHI score of the population is 63.7 +/- 15.7 (DHI scale: 0 = no handicap; 100 = major self-perceived handicap), SF-36 scores in all domains are below the population average for the USA and the HADS indicated that > 50% of patients exhibit symptoms of anxiety or depression or both, including 9% who have severe manifestations of either or both conditions. This report describes the design and implementation of OSVaLD and presents baseline demographic and clinical features of the patients. Full results of the study, anticipated in 2007, will provide more details about the manifestations of vertigo in routine practice and the response to betahistine.

  19. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  20. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Community of Voices choir study to promote the health and well-being of diverse older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Gregorich, Steven E; Acree, Michael; Nápoles, Anna M; Flatt, Jason D; Pounds, Dana; Pabst, Alexandria; Stewart, Anita L

    2017-12-01

    To describe the recruitment and baseline results of the Community of Voices study that aims to examine the effect of a community choir intervention on the health and well-being of older adults from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Using community-based participatory research methods, we recruited adults age 60 and over from 12 Administration on Aging-supported senior centers in San Francisco into a 2-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial of the community choir intervention. Multiple outreach methods were used. We tracked outreach, screening, and recruitment metrics and collected demographics and baseline outcomes via community-based, interviewer-administered surveys and performance measures of cognition, physical function, and psychosocial variables. The study contacted 819 individuals, screened 636, and enrolled 390 diverse older adults over a 42-month, phased recruitment period. The mean age was 71.2 (SD = 7.3), and the majority were women. Two-thirds of the sample are non-white, and 20% of participants reported having financial hardship. Outreach and recruitment methods used in the Community of Voices trial facilitated enrollment of a large proportion of minority and lower-SES older adults in the final sample. Similar recruitment approaches could serve as a model for recruiting diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic older adults into research.

  1. Long-term multiple risk factor interventions in Japanese elderly diabetic patients: the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial--study design, baseline characteristics and effects of intervention.

    PubMed

    Araki, Atsushi; Iimuro, Satoshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Iijima, Katsuya; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo; Yokono, Koichi; Sone, Hirohito; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Ako, Junya; Kozaki, Koichi; Miura, Hisayuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kikkawa, Ryuichi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Nakano, Tadasumi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hideki

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate long-term, multiple risk factor intervention on physical, psychological and mental prognosis, and development of complications and cardiovascular disease in elderly type 2 diabetes patients. Our randomized, controlled, multicenter, prospective intervention trial included 1173 elderly type 2 diabetes patients who were enrolled from 39 Japanese institutions and randomized to an intensive or conservative treatment group. Glycemic control, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, diabetic complications and atherosclerotic disease were measured annually. Instrumental activity of daily living, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and diabetes burden were assessed at baseline and 3 years. There was no significant difference in clinical or cognitive parameters at baseline between the two groups. The prevalence of low activities of daily living, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment was 13%, 28% and 4%, respectively, and was similar in the two groups. A small, but significant difference in HbA1c between the two groups was observed at 1 year after the start of intervention (7.9% vs 8.1%, P < 0.05), although this significant difference was not observed after the second year. With the exception of coronary revascularization, there was no significant difference in fatal or non-fatal events between the two groups. Composite events were also similar in the two groups. This study showed no significant differences in fatal or non-fatal events between intensive and conventional treatment. The present study might clarify whether treatment of risk factors influences function and quality of life in elderly diabetic patients. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. The BEAUTIFUL study: randomized trial of ivabradine in patients with stable coronary artery disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction - baseline characteristics of the study population.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, R; Ford, I; Fox, K; Steg, P G; Tendera, M

    2008-01-01

    Ivabradine is a selective heart rate-lowering agent that acts by inhibiting the pacemaker current If in sinoatrial node cells. Patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction are at high risk of death and cardiac events, and the BEAUTIFUL study was designed to evaluate the effects of ivabradine on outcome in such patients receiving optimal medical therapy. This report describes the study population at baseline. BEAUTIFUL is an international, multicentre, randomized, double-blind trial to compare ivabradine with placebo in reducing mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%). A total of 10,917 patients were randomized. At baseline, their mean age was 65 years, 83% were male, 98% Caucasian, 88% had previous myocardial infarction, 37% had diabetes, and 40% had metabolic syndrome. Mean ejection fraction was 32% and resting heart rate was 71.6 bpm. Concomitant medications included beta-blockers (87%), renin-angiotensin system agents (89%), antithrombotic agents (94%), and lipid-lowering agents (76%). Main results from BEAUTIFUL are expected in 2008, and should show whether ivabradine, on top of optimal medical treatment, reduces mortality and cardiovascular events in this population of high-risk patients. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial treating early childhood obesity: the Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) trial.

    PubMed

    Hare, Marion E; Coday, Mace; Williams, Natalie A; Richey, Phyllis A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Bush, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    There are few effective obesity interventions directed towards younger children, particularly young minority children. This paper describes the design, intervention, recruitment methods, and baseline data of the ongoing Positive Lifestyles for Active Youngsters (Team PLAY) study. This randomized controlled trial is designed to test the efficacy of a 6-month, moderately intense, primary care feasible, family-based behavioral intervention, targeting both young children and their parent, in promoting healthy weight change. Participants are 270 overweight and obese children (ages 4 to 7 years) and their parents, who were recruited from a primarily African American urban population. Parents and children were instructed in proven cognitive behavioral techniques (e.g. goal setting, self-talk, stimulus control and reinforcement) designed to encourage healthier food choices (more whole grains, fruits and vegetables, and less concentrated fats and sugar), reduce portion sizes, decrease sweetened beverages and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement. The main outcome of this study is change in BMI at two year post enrollment. Recruitment using reactive methods (mailings, TV ads, pamphlets) was found to be more successful than using only a proactive approach (referral through physicians). At baseline, most children were very obese with an average BMI z-score of 2.6. Reported intake of fruits and vegetables and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity engagement did not meet national recommendations. If efficacious, Team PLAY would offer a model for obesity treatment directed at families with young children that could be tested and translated to both community and primary care settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of PREVENT-DM: A community-based comparative effectiveness trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among Latinas with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A; Scanlan, Adam; Maia, Catarina M; Davey, Adam; Whitaker, Robert C; Foster, Gary D; Ackermann, Ronald T; O'Brien, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥ 20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2), and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin. The primary outcome of the trial is the 12-month difference in weight between groups. Secondary outcomes include the following cardiometabolic markers: BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. PREVENT-DM participants are socioeconomically disadvantaged Latinas with a mean annual household income of $15,527 ± 9922 and educational attainment of 9.7 ± 3.6 years. Eighty-six percent of participants are foreign born, 20% have a prior history of gestational diabetes, and 71% have a first-degree relative with diagnosed diabetes. At baseline, PREVENT-DM participants had a mean age of 45.1 ± 12.5 years, weight of 178.8 ± 39.3 lbs, BMI of 33.3 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c of 5.9 ± 0.2%, and waist circumference of 97.4 ± 11.1cm. Mean baseline levels of other cardiometabolic markers were normal. The PREVENT-DM study successfully recruited and randomized an understudied population of Latinas with prediabetes. This trial will be the first U.S. study to test the comparative effectiveness of metformin and lifestyle intervention versus standard care among prediabetic adults in a "real-world" setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment on the Prevention of Progression by Rosiglitazone on Atherosclerosis in diabetes patients with Cardiovascular History (APPROACH): study design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Robert E; Cannon, Christopher P; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Nesto, Richard W; Serruys, Patrick W; Van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Kolatkar, Nikheel S; Kravitz, Barbara G; Zalewski, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors that may favorably impact the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. APPROACH is a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone with the insulin secretagogue glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention are randomized to receive rosiglitazone or glipizide for 18 months using a titration algorithm designed to provide comparable glycemic control between treatment groups. The primary end point is change in percent atheroma volume from baseline to study completion in a nonintervened coronary artery, as measured by intravascular ultrasound. Cardiovascular events are adjudicated by an end point committee. A total of 672 patients were randomized. The mean age was 61 years, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) 7.2%, body mass index 29.5 kg/m(2), and median duration of diabetes 4.8 years. At baseline, approximately half of the participants were receiving oral antidiabetic monotherapy (53.9%) with 27.5% receiving dual combination therapy and 17.9% treated with diet and exercise alone. Approximately two thirds of the participants (68%) had dyslipidemia, 79.9% hypertension, and 24% prior myocardial infarction. APPROACH has fully enrolled a high-risk patient population and will compare the glucose-independent effects of rosiglitazone and glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as well as provide additional data on the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

  6. Photoaging smartphone app promoting poster campaign to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the Smokerface Randomized Trial: design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Brinker, Titus J; Holzapfel, Julia; Baudson, Tanja G; Sies, Katharina; Jakob, Lena; Baumert, Hannah Maria; Heckl, Marlene; Cirac, Ana; Suhre, Janina L; Mathes, Verena; Fries, Fabian N; Spielmann, Hannah; Rigotti, Nancy; Seeger, Werner; Herth, Felix; Groneberg, David A; Raupach, Tobias; Gall, Henning; Bauer, Claudia; Marek, Pat; Batra, Anil; Harrison, Chase H; Taha, Lava; Owczarek, Andreas; Hofmann, Felix J; Thomas, Roger; Mons, Ute; Kreuter, Michael

    2016-11-07

    Smoking is the largest cause of preventable death globally. Most smokers smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence. We took advantage of the widespread availability of mobile phones and adolescents' interest in appearance to develop a free photoaging app which is promoted via a poster campaign in secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate its effectiveness regarding smoking prevalence and students' attitudes towards smoking. A randomised controlled trial is conducted with 9851 students of both genders with an average age of 12 years in grades 6 and 7 of 126 secondary schools in Germany. At present, cigarette smoking prevalence in our sample is 4.7%, with 4.6% of the students currently using e-cigarettes (1.6% use both). The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 months postintervention via a questionnaire plus a random cotinine saliva sample at 24 months postintervention. The study groups consist of randomised schools receiving the Smokerface poster campaign and control schools with comparable baseline data (no intervention). The primary end point is the difference of change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 24 months follow-up. Longitudinal changes in smoking-related attitudes, the number of new smokers and quitters and the change in the number of never-smokers will be compared between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Gießen and the ministries of cultural affairs, both in Germany. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on our websites and throughout the multinational Education Against Tobacco network. NCT02544360, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Photoaging smartphone app promoting poster campaign to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the Smokerface Randomized Trial: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Holzapfel, Julia; Baudson, Tanja G; Sies, Katharina; Jakob, Lena; Baumert, Hannah Maria; Heckl, Marlene; Cirac, Ana; Suhre, Janina L; Mathes, Verena; Spielmann, Hannah; Rigotti, Nancy; Herth, Felix; Groneberg, David A; Raupach, Tobias; Gall, Henning; Bauer, Claudia; Marek, Pat; Batra, Anil; Harrison, Chase H; Taha, Lava; Owczarek, Andreas; Hofmann, Felix J; Thomas, Roger; Mons, Ute; Kreuter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is the largest cause of preventable death globally. Most smokers smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence. We took advantage of the widespread availability of mobile phones and adolescents’ interest in appearance to develop a free photoaging app which is promoted via a poster campaign in secondary schools. This study aims to evaluate its effectiveness regarding smoking prevalence and students’ attitudes towards smoking. Methods and analysis A randomised controlled trial is conducted with 9851 students of both genders with an average age of 12 years in grades 6 and 7 of 126 secondary schools in Germany. At present, cigarette smoking prevalence in our sample is 4.7%, with 4.6% of the students currently using e-cigarettes (1.6% use both). The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 months postintervention via a questionnaire plus a random cotinine saliva sample at 24 months postintervention. The study groups consist of randomised schools receiving the Smokerface poster campaign and control schools with comparable baseline data (no intervention). The primary end point is the difference of change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 24 months follow-up. Longitudinal changes in smoking-related attitudes, the number of new smokers and quitters and the change in the number of never-smokers will be compared between the two groups as secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Gießen and the ministries of cultural affairs, both in Germany. Results will be disseminated at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on our websites and throughout the multinational Education Against Tobacco network. Trial registration number NCT02544360, Pre-results. PMID:27821601

  8. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a community-based comparative effectiveness trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in economically disadvantaged adults: the RAPID Study.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Ronald T; Finch, Emily A; Schmidt, Karen K; Hoen, Helena M; Hays, Laura M; Marrero, David G; Saha, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Reaching Out and Preventing Increases in Diabetes (RAPID) is a community-based randomized trial evaluating the comparative costs and effectiveness of a group-based adaption of the DPP lifestyle intervention developed and implemented in partnership with the YMCA. RAPID enrolled adult primary care patients, with BMI 24 kg/m(2) or higher and abnormal glucose metabolism (HbA1c 5.7-6.9% or fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dL). 509 participants were enrolled and randomized to one of two groups: standard clinical advice plus free-of-charge access to a group-based adaption of the DPP offered by the Y, versus standard clinical advice alone. Key outcomes for future analysis will include differences in body weight and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 24-month intervention period. At baseline, RAPID participants had a mean (SD) age of 51 ± 12.1 years, weight of 225.1 ± 56.2 lbs, and BMI of 36.9 ± 8.6 kg/m(2). 70.7% were women, 57.2% were African American, 35.4% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.2% were Hispanic. Mean HbA1c was 6.05 ± 0.34%. Additionally, 55.4% of participants had a baseline systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mmHg, 33.1% had a total blood cholesterol exceeding 200mg/dL, and 74% reported a household income of <$25,000. The RAPID Study successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, body weight, and race who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. © 2013.

  9. Coping and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Blonk, Roland W. B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive–passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; our hypothesis is that such strategies are positively related to a low frequency of sickness absence and with short lengths (total number of days absent) and durations (mean duration per spell). Methods Using a prospective design, employees’ (N = 3,628) responses on a self-report coping inventory are used to predict future registered sickness absence (i.e. frequency, length, duration, and median time before the onset of a new sick leave period). Results and conclusions In accordance with our hypothesis, and after adjustment for potential confounders, employees with an active problem-solving coping strategy are less likely to drop out because of sickness absence in terms of frequency, length (longer than 14 days), and duration (more than 7 days) of sickness absence. This positive effect is observed in the case of seeking social support only for the duration of sickness absence and in the case of palliative reaction only for the length and frequency of absence. In contrast, an avoidant coping style, representing a reactive–passive strategy, increases the likelihood of frequent absences significantly, as well as the length and duration of sickness absence. Expression of emotions, representing another reactive–passive strategy, has no effect on future sickness absenteeism. The median time before the onset of a new episode of absenteeism is significantly extended for active problem-solving and reduced for avoidance and for a palliative response. The results of the present study support the notion that problem-solving coping and reactive–passive strategies are inextricably connected to frequency, duration, length and onset of sickness absence. Especially, active

  10. Coping and sickness absence.

    PubMed

    van Rhenen, Willem; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; van Dijk, Frank J H; Blonk, Roland W B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; our hypothesis is that such strategies are positively related to a low frequency of sickness absence and with short lengths (total number of days absent) and durations (mean duration per spell). Using a prospective design, employees' (N = 3,628) responses on a self-report coping inventory are used to predict future registered sickness absence (i.e. frequency, length, duration, and median time before the onset of a new sick leave period). In accordance with our hypothesis, and after adjustment for potential confounders, employees with an active problem-solving coping strategy are less likely to drop out because of sickness absence in terms of frequency, length (longer than 14 days), and duration (more than 7 days) of sickness absence. This positive effect is observed in the case of seeking social support only for the duration of sickness absence and in the case of palliative reaction only for the length and frequency of absence. In contrast, an avoidant coping style, representing a reactive-passive strategy, increases the likelihood of frequent absences significantly, as well as the length and duration of sickness absence. Expression of emotions, representing another reactive-passive strategy, has no effect on future sickness absenteeism. The median time before the onset of a new episode of absenteeism is significantly extended for active problem-solving and reduced for avoidance and for a palliative response. The results of the present study support the notion that problem-solving coping and reactive-passive strategies are inextricably connected to frequency, duration, length and onset of sickness absence. Especially, active problem-solving decreases the chance of future sickness

  11. Levetiracetam in Absence Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verrotti, Alberto; Cerminara, Caterina; Domizio, Sergio; Mohn, Angelika; Franzoni, Emilio; Coppola, Giangennaro; Zamponi, Nelia; Parisi, Pasquale; Iannetti, Paola; Curatolo, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of levetiracetam therapy in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Twenty-one participants (11 male, 10 female) with typical absence seizures were enrolled in this prospective study from seven centres in Italy. The mean age and age range at time of enrolment into…

  12. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences.

    PubMed Central

    Manonmani, V; Wallace, S J

    1994-01-01

    The cases are described of eight children, five of them girls, who had epilepsy with myoclonic absences. The mean age of onset was 4.9 years. Brief episodes of loss of awareness with bilateral clonic jerking of the upper limbs were associated with rhythmic 3 cycles/second spike-wave discharges on electroencephalogram. Generalised tonic-clonic or astatic seizures, or both, also occurred in seven patients. All now have learning difficulties, and seven have behavioural problems. Conventional treatment for absences was effective in only two children. Of six patients treated with lamotrigine, five have improved substantially, but only one is in sustained complete remission. One recently diagnosed patient continues to have frequent myoclonic absences. As the response to treatment and long term outcome are much poorer, it is important to differentiate myoclonic absences from typical childhood absence epilepsy. PMID:8185360

  13. Congenital absence of dermatoglyphs.

    PubMed

    Límová, M; Blacker, K L; LeBoit, P E

    1993-08-01

    Congenital absence or unusual patterns of human dermatoglyphs (fingerprints) occur in several syndromes that are rare and poorly understood. The abnormalities of dermatoglyphs fall into four categories: complete absence, ridge hypoplasia, ridge dissociation, and ridges-off-the-end. Complete congenital absence of ridges is an exceedingly rare syndrome that consists of neonatal blisters and milia, adult traumatic blistering and fissuring, absence of sweating, contracture of digits, and absence of dermatoglyphs on the hands and feet. The syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and only two kindreds have been described in the literature. We describe a newly identified patient and kindred with findings similar to the previously reported cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this syndrome.

  14. Characteristics and provision of care of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome: descriptive findings from the DACAPO cohort baseline and comparison with international findings

    PubMed Central

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Brandl, Magdalena; Blecha, Sebastian; Quintel, Michael; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Kluge, Stefan; Meybohm, Patrick; Rolfes, Caroline; Ellger, Björn; Bach, Friedhelm; Welte, Tobias; Muders, Thomas; Thomann-Hackner, Kathrin; Bein, Thomas; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the characteristics and real world life circumstances of ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) patient populations. This knowledge is essential for transferring evidence-based therapy into routine healthcare. The aim of this study was to report socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in an unselected population of ARDS patients and to compare these results to findings from other large ARDS cohorts. Methods A German based cross-sectional observational study was carried out. A total of 700 ARDS patients were recruited in 59 study sites between September 2014 and January 2016. Socio-demographic, disease and care related variables were recorded. Additionally, characteristics of other large ARDS cohorts identified by a systematic literature search were extracted into evidence tables. Results Median age of ARDS patients was 58 years, 69% were male. Sixty percent had no employment, predominantly due to retirement. Seventy-one percent lived with a partner. The main cause of ARDS was a pulmonary ‘direct’ origin (79%). The distribution of severity was as follows: mild (14%), moderate (48%), severe (38%). Overall ICU mortality was calculated to be 34%. The observed prevalence of critical events (hypoxemia, hypoglycemia, re-intubation) was 47%. Supportive measures during ICU-treatment were applied to 60% of the patients. Other ARDS cohorts revealed a high heterogeneity in reported concomitant diseases, but sepsis and pneumonia were most frequently reported. Mean age ranged from 54 to 71 years and most patients were male. Other socio-demographic factors have been almost neglected. Conclusions The proportion of patients suffering of mild ARDS was lower compared to the only study identified, which also applied the Berlin definition. The frequency of critical events during ICU treatment was high and the implementation of evidence-based therapy (prone positioning, neuro-muscular blockers) was limited. More evidence on socio

  15. The MATCH cohort study in the Netherlands: rationale, objectives, methods and baseline characteristics of patients with (long-term) common mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Koekkoek, Bauke; Manders, Willeke; Tendolkar, Indira; Hutschemaekers, Giel; Tiemens, Bea

    2017-03-01

    Research in the last decades shows that common mental disorders may be long-term and severely disabling, resulting in severe mental illness (SMI). The percentage of Dutch SMI-patients with common mental disorders receiving mental health services is estimated at 65-70%. However, it is unclear which patients in fact become SMI-patients. We need to know more about the possible course of common mental disorders, understand the origins of chronicity in more detail, and have more insight in related care processes and care use of patients with common mental disorders. The MATCH cohort study is a four-year multicentre naturalistic cohort study, with yearly assessments in primary, secondary, and tertiary services in three large Dutch mental health services. Socio-demographics, mental disorders, course and severity of psychopathology, physiological health indicators, neurocognitive functioning, past and present life events, health care use and contact with mental health services, social functioning and quality of life, and recovery and well-being are assessed. Baseline findings of 283 participating individuals and their key clinicians are described. The sample appears to appropriately represent the distribution of individuals across diagnostic categories in services, and level of care (outpatient, day treatment, inpatient) in the Netherlands and other developed nations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Study design, intervention, and baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial involving a faith-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention (Walk by Faith) to reduce weight and cancer risk among overweight and obese Appalachian adults☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Baltic, Ryan D.; Weier, Rory C.; Katz, Mira L.; Kennedy, Stephenie K.; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Reese, David; Roberto, Karen A.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Young, Gregory S.; Dignan, Mark B.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents may contribute to increased cancer rates in this region. This manuscript describes the design, components, and participant baseline characteristics of a faith-based study to decrease overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents. Methods A group randomized study design was used to assign 13 churches to an intervention to reduce overweight and obesity (Walk by Faith) and 15 churches to a cancer screening intervention (Ribbons of Faith). Church members with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 were recruited from these churches in Appalachian counties in five states to participate in the study. A standard protocol was used to measure participant characteristics at baseline. The same protocol will be followed to obtain measurements after completion of the active intervention phase (12 months) and the sustainability phase (24 months). Primary outcome is change in BMI from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as intervention sustainability. Results Church members (n = 664) from 28 churches enrolled in the study. At baseline 64.3% of the participants were obese (BMI ≥30), less than half (41.6%) reported regular exercise, and 85.5% reported consuming less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Conclusions Church members recruited to participate in a faith-based study across the Appalachian region reported high rates of unhealthy behaviors. We have demonstrated the feasibility of developing and recruiting participants to a faith-based intervention aimed at improving diet and increasing exercise among underserved populations. PMID:26115879

  17. Study design, intervention, and baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial involving a faith-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention (Walk by Faith) to reduce weight and cancer risk among overweight and obese Appalachian adults.

    PubMed

    Baltic, Ryan D; Weier, Rory C; Katz, Mira L; Kennedy, Stephenie K; Lengerich, Eugene J; Lesko, Samuel M; Reese, David; Roberto, Karen A; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Young, Gregory S; Dignan, Mark B; Paskett, Electra D

    2015-09-01

    Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents may contribute to increased cancer rates in this region. This manuscript describes the design, components, and participant baseline characteristics of a faith-based study to decrease overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents. A group randomized study design was used to assign 13 churches to an intervention to reduce overweight and obesity (Walk by Faith) and 15 churches to a cancer screening intervention (Ribbons of Faith). Church members with a body mass index (BMI) ?25 were recruited from these churches in Appalachian counties in five states to participate in the study. A standard protocol was used to measure participant characteristics at baseline. The same protocol will be followed to obtain measurements after completion of the active intervention phase (12months) and the sustainability phase (24months). Primary outcome is change in BMI from baseline to 12months. Secondary outcomes include changes in blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as intervention sustainability. Church members (n=664) from 28 churches enrolled in the study. At baseline 64.3% of the participants were obese (BMI?30), less than half (41.6%) reported regular exercise, and 85.5% reported consuming less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Church members recruited to participate in a faith-based study across the Appalachian region reported high rates of unhealthy behaviors. We have demonstrated the feasibility of developing and recruiting participants to a faith-based intervention aimed at improving diet and increasing exercise among underserved populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Enhancing Physical Activity and Reducing Obesity through Smartcare and Financial Incentives (EPAROSFI): A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Yun, Jae Moon; Kwon, Hyuk Tae; Lee, Hyejin; Min, Hyeyeon; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Chung, Won Joo; Park, Jin Ho; Cho, BeLong

    2016-03-01

    An activity tracker combined with a smartphone application (smartcare) may help people track and receive feedback on their own activities. However, activity trackers themselves generally fail to drive long-term sustained engagement for a majority of users. One potential strategy for increasing the effectiveness of smartcare is through the use of incentives. The purpose of this pilot randomized trial is to test the feasibility of our intervention and to assess the extent to which smartcare with or without financial incentives can increase physical activity levels and reduce weight over a 12-week period. This study employs a three-arm, open-label randomized controlled trial design: control (standard basic education), smartcare, and smartcare plus financial incentives. Male university students with body mass index ≥ 27 are enrolled. Our primary and secondary endpoints are the amount of weight loss and the level of physical activity respectively. The weight loss goal is 3% of baseline at week 4, 5% at week 8, and 7% at week 12. The daily physical activity goal was individualized according to the participants' weight. Process incentives are accumulated when participants met daily physical activity goals, and outcome incentives are provided when they met weight reduction goals. Given the global increase in physical inactivity and obesity, there is a growing need for effective, scalable, and affordable health promotion strategies. Our proof-of-concept study will provide the evidence for the combination of rising health promotion technology of activity trackers and smartphone applications with the modern concept of behavioral economics using financial incentives. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Epidemiology of Scabies and Impetigo in Relation to Demographic and Residential Characteristics: Baseline Findings from the Skin Health Intervention Fiji Trial.

    PubMed

    Romani, Lucia; Whitfeld, Margot J; Koroivueta, Josefa; Kama, Mike; Wand, Handan; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Tuicakau, Meciusela; Koroi, Aminiasi; Ritova, Raijieli; Andrews, Ross; Kaldor, John M; Steer, Andrew C

    2017-09-01

    Scabies and associated impetigo are under-recognized causes of morbidity in many developing countries. To strengthen the evidence base for scabies control we undertook a trial of mass treatment for scabies. We report on the occurrence and predictors of scabies and impetigo in participants at baseline. Participants were recruited in six island communities and were examined for the presence of scabies and impetigo. In addition to descriptive analyses, logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between demographic variables and outcome of interest. The study enrolled 2051 participants. Scabies prevalence was 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.3-38.5), highest in children 5-9 years (55.7%). Impetigo prevalence was 23.4% (95% CI 21.5-25.2) highest in children aged 10-14 (39.0%). People with scabies were 2.8× more likely to have impetigo. The population attributable risk of scabies as a cause of impetigo was 36.3% and 71.0% in children aged less than five years. Households with four or more people sharing the same room were more likely to have scabies and impetigo (odds ratios [OR] 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2 and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.2 respectively) compared to households with rooms occupied by a single individual. This study confirms the high burden of scabies and impetigo in Fiji and the association between these two conditions, particularly in young children. Overcrowding, young age, and clinical distribution of lesion are important risk factors for scabies and impetigo. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the decline of endemic scabies would translate into a definite reduction of the burden of associated complications.

  20. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics in Evaluation of LIXisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome, a long-term cardiovascular end point trial of lixisenatide versus placebo.

    PubMed

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Aguilar, David; Riddle, Matthew C; Claggett, Brian; Diaz, Rafael; Dickstein, Kenneth; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Johnston, Peter; Køber, Lars V; Lawson, Francesca; Lewis, Eldrin F; Maggioni, Aldo P; McMurray, John J V; Ping, Lin; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Solomon, Scott D; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Wu, Yujun; Pfeffer, Marc A

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Furthermore, patients with T2DM and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have a particularly high risk of CV events. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, lixisenatide, improves glycemia, but its effects on CV events have not been thoroughly evaluated. ELIXA (www.clinicaltrials.gov no. NCT01147250) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study of lixisenatide in patients with T2DM and a recent ACS event. The primary aim is to evaluate the effects of lixisenatide on CV morbidity and mortality in a population at high CV risk. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of time to CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Data are systematically collected for safety outcomes, including hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, and malignancy. Enrollment began in July 2010 and ended in August 2013; 6,068 patients from 49 countries were randomized. Of these, 69% are men and 75% are white; at baseline, the mean ± SD age was 60.3 ± 9.7 years, body mass index was 30.2 ± 5.7 kg/m(2), and duration of T2DM was 9.3 ± 8.2 years. The qualifying ACS was a myocardial infarction in 83% and unstable angina in 17%. The study will continue until the positive adjudication of the protocol-specified number of primary CV events. ELIXA will be the first trial to report the safety and efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist in people with T2DM and high CV event risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Baseline Equivalence. WWC Standards Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) uses the term "baseline equivalence" when determining if the intervention group (those that received the intervention of interest) and the comparison group (those that did not receive the intervention) had characteristics that were similar enough ("equivalent") at the start of the study (at…

  2. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the DANish randomized, controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy of Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with non-ischemic Systolic Heart failure on mortality (DANISH).

    PubMed

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Pehrson, Steen; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Haarbo, Jens; Videbæk, Lars; Korup, Eva; Jensen, Gunnar; Hildebrandt, Per; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Bruun, Niels Eske; Eiskjær, Hans; Brandes, Axel; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hastrup-Svendsen, Jesper; Høfsten, Dan Eik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars

    2016-09-01

    The effect of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (HF) caused by coronary artery disease is well documented. However, the effect of primary prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic HF not due to coronary artery disease is much weaker. In addition, HF management has improved, since the landmark ICD trials and a large proportion of patients now receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) where the effect of ICD treatment is unknown. In the DANISH study, 1,116 patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease have been randomized to receive an ICD or not, in addition to contemporary standard therapy. The primary outcome of the trial is time to all-cause death. Follow-up will continue until June 2016 with a median follow-up period of 5 years. Baseline characteristics show that enrolled patients are treated according to current guidelines. At baseline, 97% of patients received an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, 92% received a β-blocker, 58% a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, and 58% were scheduled to receive CRT. Median age was 63 years (range, 21-84 years) at baseline, and 28% were women. DANISH will provide pertinent information about the effect on all-cause mortality of a primary prophylactic ICD in patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease on contemporary standard therapy including CRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  4. Baseline Characteristics and Gender Differences in Prepubertal Children Treated with Growth Hormone in Europe, USA, and Japan: 25 Years' KIGS® Experience (1987-2012) and Review.

    PubMed

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Camacho-Hübner, Cecilia; Dunger, David B; Geffner, Mitchell E

    2017-01-01

    Information about disease-specific and gender-associated differences over longer time of short children treated with recombinant human growth hormone is missing. We analyzed data at growth hormone (GH) start in prepubertal children diagnosed with idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD), congenital GHD, acquired GHD, idiopathic short stature (ISS), and born small for gestational age (SGA) enrolled (1987-2012) in the Pfizer International Growth Study (KIGS®) from Europe, USA, and Japan. The demographic characteristics of patients in the three regions were similar. There was a diagnosis-specific pattern for age and height, and a universal pattern showing that girls were younger and smaller at GH start. There was a predominance of males with IGHD (n = 25,703; 70.1%), congenital GHD (n = 2,860; 63.9%), acquired GHD (n = 3,280; 63.9%), ISS (n = 4,327; 71.4%), and SGA (n = 5,848; 58.0%). Male prevalence in the USA population was more pronounced in IGHD, ISS, and SGA, but less so in congenital and acquired GHD. In IGHD (Europe and Japan) and ISS (Europe), there was a trend toward decreasing male prevalence. The male prevalence in prepubertal children treated with GH varies according to geographical region and is not explained by the underlying diagnoses. A global appreciation of gender biases is required for the proper care of short girls. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The expanded Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events: baseline characteristics, management practices, and hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Shaun G; Huang, Wei; Yan, Andrew T; Budaj, Andrzej; Kennelly, Brian M; Gore, Joel M; Fox, Keith A A; Goldberg, Robert J; Anderson, Frederick A

    2009-08-01

    The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE)-a prospective, multinational study of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)-was designed to improve the quality of care for patients with an ACS. Expanded GRACE aims to test the feasibility of a simplified data collection tool and provision of quarterly feedback to index individual hospital management practices to an international reference cohort. We describe the objectives; study design; study and data management; and the characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of patients > or =18 years old enrolled with a presumptive diagnosis of ACS. From 2001 to 2007, 31,982 patients were enrolled at 184 hospitals in 25 countries; 30% were diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 31% with non-ST-segment myocardial infarction, 26% with unstable angina, and 12% with another cardiac/noncardiac final diagnosis. The median age was 65 (interquartile range 55-75) years; 24% were >75 years old, and 33% were women. In general, increases were observed over time across the spectrum of ACS (1) in the use in the first 24 hours and at discharge of aspirin, clopidogrel, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/receptor blockers; (2) in the use at discharge of statins; (3) in the early use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and low-molecular-weight heparin; and (4) in the use of cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention. An increase in the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a similar decrease in the use of fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were also seen. Over the course of 7 years, general increases in the use of evidence-based therapies for ACS patients were observed in the expanded GRACE.

  6. Effects of Charitable Versus Monetary Incentives on the Acceptance of and Adherence to a Pedometer-Based Health Intervention: Study Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kehr, Flavius; Wahle, Fabian; Elser, Niklas; Fleisch, Elgar

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has so far benefited from the use of pedometers in physical activity interventions. However, when public health institutions (eg, insurance companies) implement pedometer-based interventions in practice, people may refrain from participating due to privacy concerns. This might greatly limit the applicability of such interventions. Financial incentives have been successfully used to influence both health behavior and privacy concerns, and may thus have a beneficial effect on the acceptance of pedometer-based interventions. Objective This paper presents the design and baseline characteristics of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that seeks to examine the effect of financial incentives on the acceptance of and adherence to a pedometer-based physical activity intervention offered by a health insurance company. Methods More than 18,000 customers of a large Swiss health insurance company were allocated to a financial incentive, a charitable incentive, or a control group and invited to participate in a health prevention program. Participants used a pedometer to track their daily physical activity over the course of 6 months. A Web-based questionnaire was administered at the beginning and at the end of the intervention and additional data was provided by the insurance company. The primary outcome of the study will be the participation rate, secondary outcomes will be adherence to the prevention program, physical activity, and health status of the participants among others. Results Baseline characteristics indicate that residence of participants, baseline physical activity, and subjective health should be used as covariates in the statistical analysis of the secondary outcomes of the study. Conclusions This is the first study in western cultures testing the effectiveness of financial incentives with regard to a pedometer-based health intervention offered by a large health insurer to their customers. Given that the incentives prove to be effective

  7. Workplace bullying and sickness absence in hospital staff.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J

    2000-10-01

    In the past, evidence on the negative consequences of workplace bullying has been limited to cross sectional studies of self reported bullying. In this study, these consequences were examined prospectively by focusing on sickness absence in hospital staff. The Poisson regression analyses of medically certified spells (>/=4 days) and self certified spells (1-3 days) of sickness absence, relating to bullying and other predictors of health, were based on a cohort of 674 male and 4981 female hospital employees aged 19-63 years. Data on sickness absence were gathered from employers' registers. Bullying and other predictors of health were measured by a questionnaire survey. 302 (5%) of the employees reported being victims of bullying. They did not differ from the other employees in terms of sex, age, occupation, type of job contract, hours of work, income, smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity. Victims of bullying had higher body mass and prevalence of chronic disease, and their rates of medically and self certified spells of sickness absence were 1.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3 to 1.7) and 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) times higher than those of the rest of the staff. The rate ratios remained significant after adjustment for demographic data, occupational background, behaviour involving risks to health, baseline health status, and sickness absence. Workplace bullying is associated with an increase in the sickness absenteeism of the hospital staff. Targets of bullying seem not to belong to any distinct group with certain demographic characteristics or occupational background.

  8. Father Absence in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    This document reports a study investigating the effects of father absence on measures of cognitive, social, and motivational development in infancy. The sample included 54 black infants, 27 of whom were classified "father-absent." This classification was based on two indices, (1) a dichotomy of father-absent or father-present based on…

  9. Childhood Risk of Parental Absence in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although parents might not live with their children for a variety of reasons, existing accounts of parental absence often examine one cause in isolation. Using detailed longitudinal demographic surveillance data from Rufiji, Tanzania, this article examines parental absence due to death, migration, child relocation, union dissolution, and union formation from 2001–2011. Employing survival analysis, the article quantifies children’s risk of absence by cause and investigates sociodemographic variation in this risk. Of children born into two-parent households, 25 % experience maternal absence by age 10, and 40 % experience paternal absence by the same age. Roughly one-quarter of children are born into single-mother families with an absent father at birth, and nearly 70 % of these children experience maternal absence as well by age 10. Despite the emphasis on orphanhood in the research and policy communities, parental death is the least common cause of absence. Furthermore, although demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are strong predictors of absence, variation in these relationships across causes underscores the distinctiveness and similarity of different reasons for absence. PMID:26220661

  10. The durations of past sickness absences predict future absence episodes.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Mikko; He, Liang; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether preceding absence episodes increase the risk of future sickness absence, we examined recurrence of short (1 to 3 days), intermediate (4 to 14 days), and long (>2 weeks) sickness-absence episodes. Data from 6934 municipal employees of the City of Helsinki were analyzed using proportional hazards models. Preceding sickness absence increased the risk of new sickness-absence episodes. The association was stronger for longer sickness absence spells and for men. Shorter absence spells also predicted longer absence spells. Working conditions and health behaviors did not modify the associations. The risk of recurrent sickness absences is higher for longer sickness-absence spells, which are often recurrent in nature. In addition, short absence spells predict future longer spells, suggesting that short absences are not trivial for health.

  11. Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) study: Methodology and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an occupation-based diabetes management intervention for young adults.

    PubMed

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carandang, Kristine; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Sequeira, Paola A; Wood, Jamie R; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Whittemore, Robin; Peters, Anne L

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the study protocol used to evaluate the Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) intervention and reports on baseline characteristics of recruited participants. REAL Diabetes is an activity-based intervention designed to address the needs of young adults diagnosed with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) from low socioeconomic status or racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. The REAL intervention incorporates tailored delivery of seven content modules addressing various dimensions of health and well-being as they relate to diabetes, delivered by a licensed occupational therapist. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, participants are assigned to the REAL Diabetes intervention or an attention control condition. The study's primary recruitment strategies included in-person recruitment at diabetes clinics, mass mailings to clinic patients, and social media advertising. Data collection includes baseline and 6-month assessments of primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, and hypothesized mediators of intervention effects, as well as ongoing process evaluation assessment to ensure study protocol adherence and intervention fidelity. At baseline, participants (n=81) were 51% female, 78% Latino, and on average 22.6years old with an average HbA1c of 10.8%. A majority of participants (61.7%) demonstrated clinically significant diabetes distress and 27.2% reported symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder. Compared to participants with T1D, participants with T2D had lower diabetes-related self-efficacy and problem-solving skills. Compared to participants recruited at clinics, participants recruited through other strategies had greater diabetes knowledge but weaker medication adherence. Participants in the REAL study demonstrate clinically significant medical and psychosocial needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness, safety and costs of thromboembolic prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: phase I ESC-FA protocol study and baseline characteristics of a cohort from a primary care electronic database

    PubMed Central

    Vedia Urgell, Cristina; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Morros, Rosa; Capellà, Dolors; Castells, Xavier; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Troncoso Mariño, Amelia; Diògene, Eduard; Elorza, Josep Mª; Casajuana, Marc; Bolíbar, Bonaventura; Violan, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia. Its management aims to reduce symptoms and to prevent complications through rate and rhythm control, management of concomitant cardiac diseases and prevention of related complications, mainly stroke. The main objective of Effectiveness, Safety and Costs in Atrial Fibrillation (ESC-FA) study is to analyse the drugs used for the management of the disease in real-use conditions, particularly the antithrombotic agents for stroke prevention. The aim of this work is to present the study protocol of phase I of the ESC-FA study and the baseline characteristics of newly diagnosed patients with atrial fibrillation in Catalonia, Spain. Participants The data source is System for the Improvement of Research in Primary Care (SIDIAP) database. The population included are all patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation diagnosis registered in the electronic health records during 2007–2012. Findings to date A total of 22 585 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were included in the baseline description. Their mean age was 72.8 years and 51.6% were men. The most commonly prescribed antithrombotics were vitamin K antagonists (40.1% of patients) and platelet aggregation inhibitors (32.9%); 25.3% had not been prescribed antithrombotic treatment. Age, gender, comorbidities and co-medication at baseline were similar to those reported for previous studies. Future plans The next phase in the ESC-FA study will involve assessing the effectiveness and safety of antithrombotic treatments, analysing stroke events and bleeding episodes’ rates in our patients (rest of phase I), describing the current management of the disease and its costs in our setting, and assessing how the introduction of new oral anticoagulants changes the stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. PMID:26823179

  13. Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) Study: Methodology and Baseline Characteristics of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating an Occupation-Based Diabetes Management Intervention for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Carandang, Kristine; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Sequeira, Paola A.; Wood, Jamie R.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Whittemore, Robin; Peters, Anne L.

    2017-01-01

    Overview This paper describes the study protocol used to evaluate the Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) intervention and reports on baseline characteristics of recruited participants. REAL Diabetes is an activity-based intervention designed to address the needs of young adults diagnosed with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) from low socioeconomic status or racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. The REAL intervention incorporates tailored delivery of seven content modules addressing various dimensions of health and well-being as they relate to diabetes, delivered by a licensed occupational therapist. Methods In this pilot randomized controlled trial, participants are assigned to the REAL Diabetes intervention or an attention control condition. The study’s primary recruitment strategies included in-person recruitment at diabetes clinics, mass mailings to clinic patients, and social media advertising. Data collection includes baseline and 6-month assessments of primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, and hypothesized mediators of intervention effects, as well as ongoing process evaluation assessment to ensure study protocol adherence and intervention fidelity. Results At baseline, participants (n=81) were 51% female, 78% Latino, and on average 22.6 years old with an average HbA1c of 10.8%. A majority of participants (61.7%) demonstrate clinically significant diabetes distress and 27.2% report symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder. Compared to participants with T1D, participants with T2D had lower diabetes-related self-efficacy and problem-solving skills. Compared to participants recruited at clinics, participants recruited through other strategies had greater diabetes knowledge but weaker medication adherence. Discussion Participants in the REAL study demonstrate clinically significant medical and psychosocial needs. PMID:28064028

  14. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  15. Baseline characteristics in the Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Chertow, Glenn M; Akizawa, Tadao; Audhya, Paul; Bakris, George L; Goldsberry, Angie; Krauth, Melissa; Linde, Peter; McMurray, John J; Meyer, Colin J; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Christ-Schmidt, Heidi; Toto, Robert D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Wanner, Christoph; Wittes, Janet; Wrolstad, Danielle; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most important contributing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, augments estimated glomerular filtration. The Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial was designed to establish whether bardoxolone methyl slows or prevents progression to ESRD. Herein, we describe baseline characteristics of the BEACON population. BEACON is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in 2185 patients with T2DM and chronic kidney disease stage 4 (eGFR between 15 and 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) designed to test the hypothesis that bardoxolone methyl added to guideline-recommended treatment including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system slows or prevents progression to ESRD or cardiovascular death compared with placebo. Baseline characteristics (mean or percentage) of the population include age 68.5 years, female 43%, Caucasian 78%, eGFR 22.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure 140/70 mmHg. The median urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was 320 mg/g and the frequency of micro- and macroalbuminuria was 30 and 51%, respectively. Anemia, abnormalities in markers of bone metabolism and elevations in cardiovascular biomarkers were frequently observed. A history of cardiovascular disease was present in 56%, neuropathy in 47% and retinopathy in 41% of patients. The BEACON trial enrolled a population heretofore unstudied in an international randomized controlled trial. Enrolled patients suffered with numerous co-morbid conditions and exhibited multiple laboratory abnormalities, highlighting the critical need for new therapies to optimize management of these conditions.

  16. Evidence of Absence software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  17. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    PubMed

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-07-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Changes in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. A total of 1438 patients were identified by a medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID): Design, methods and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of community health worker assisted diabetes self-management support

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Karin; Drain, Nathan; Robinson, June; Kapp, Janet; Hebert, Paul; Taylor, Leslie; Silverman, Julie; Kiefer, Meghan; Lessler, Dan; Krieger, James

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives Community health workers (CHWs) may be an important mechanism to provide diabetes self-management to disadvantaged populations. We describe the design and baseline results of a trial evaluating a home-based CHW intervention. Methods & Research Design Peer Support for Achieving Independence in Diabetes (Peer-AID) is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating a home-based CHW-delivered diabetes self-management intervention versus usual care. The study recruited participants from 3 health systems. Change in A1c measured at 12 months is the primary outcome. Change in blood pressure, lipids, health care utilization, health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and diabetes self-management behaviors at 12 months are secondary outcomes. Results A total of 1,438 patients were identified by medical record review as potentially eligible, 445 patients were screened by telephone for eligibility and 287 were randomized. Groups were comparable at baseline on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. All participants were low-income and were from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. The mean A1c was 8.9%, mean BMI was above the obese range, and non-adherence to diabetes medications was high. The cohort had high rates of co-morbid disease and low self-reported health status. Although one-third reported no health insurance, the mean number of visits to a physician in the past year was 5.7. Trial results are pending. Conclusions Peer-AID recruited and enrolled a diverse group of low income participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and delivered a home-based diabetes self-management program. If effective, replication of the Peer-AID intervention in community based settings could contribute to improved control of diabetes in vulnerable populations. PMID:24956324

  20. STAR 3 randomized controlled trial to compare sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy with multiple daily injections in the treatment of type 1 diabetes: research design, methods, and baseline characteristics of enrolled subjects.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephen N; Horton, Edward S; Battelino, Tadej; Rubin, Richard R; Schulman, Kevin A; Tamborlane, William V

    2010-04-01

    Sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAPT) integrates real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and offers an alternative to multiple daily injections (MDI). Previous studies provide evidence that SAPT may improve clinical outcomes among people with type 1 diabetes. Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1c Reduction (STAR) 3 is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of SAPT to that of MDI in subjects with type 1 diabetes. Subjects were randomized to either continue with MDI or transition to SAPT for 1 year. Subjects in the MDI cohort were allowed to transition to SAPT for 6 months after completion of the study. SAPT subjects who completed the study were also allowed to continue for 6 months. The primary end point was the difference between treatment groups in change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) percentage from baseline to 1 year of treatment. Secondary end points included percentage of subjects with HbA1c < or =7% and without severe hypoglycemia, as well as area under the curve of time spent in normal glycemic ranges. Tertiary end points include percentage of subjects with HbA1c < or =7%, key safety end points, user satisfaction, and responses on standardized assessments. A total of 495 subjects were enrolled, and the baseline characteristics similar between the SAPT and MDI groups. Study completion is anticipated in June 2010. Results of this randomized controlled trial should help establish whether an integrated RT-CGM and CSII system benefits patients with type 1 diabetes more than MDI.

  1. Kericho CLinic-based ART Diagnostic Evaluation (CLADE): design, accrual, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial conducted in predominately rural, district-level, HIV clinics of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sawe, Fredrick K; Obiero, Eunice; Yegon, Peter; Langat, Rither C; Aoko, Appolonia; Tarus, Jemutai; Kiptoo, Ignatius; Langat, Raphael K; Maswai, Jonah; Bii, Margaret; Khamadi, Samoel; Shikuku, Kibet P; Close, Nicole; Sinei, Samuel; Shaffer, Douglas N

    2015-01-01

    Prospective clinical trial data regarding routine HIV-1 viral load (VL) monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in non-research clinics of Sub-Saharan Africa are needed for policy makers. CLinic-based ART Diagnostic Evaluation (CLADE) is a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) evaluating feasibility, superiority, and cost-effectiveness of routine VL vs. standard of care (clinical and immunological) monitoring in adults initiating dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)+non-NRTI ART. Participants were randomized (1:1) at 7 predominately rural, non-research, district-level clinics of western Kenya. Descriptive statistics present accrual patterns and baseline cohort characteristics. Over 15 months, 820 adults enrolled at 7 sites with 86-152 enrolled per site. Monthly site enrollment ranged from 2-92 participants. Full (100%) informed consent compliance was independently documented. Half (49.9%) had HIV diagnosed through voluntary counseling and testing. Study arms were similar: mostly females (57.6%) aged 37.6 (SD = 9.0) years with low CD4 (166 [SD = 106]) cells/m3). Notable proportions had WHO Stage III or IV disease (28.7%), BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (23.1%), and a history of tuberculosis (5.6%) or were receiving tuberculosis treatment (8.2%) at ART initiation. In the routine VL arm, 407/409 (99.5%) received baseline VL (234,577 SD = 151,055 copies/ml). All participants received lamivudine; 49.8% started zidovudine followed by 38.4% stavudine and 11.8% tenofovir; and, 64.4% received nevirapine as nNRTI (35.6% efavirenz). A RCT can be enrolled successfully in rural, non-research, resource limited, district-level clinics in western Kenya. Many adults presenting for ART have advanced HIV/AIDS, emphasizing the importance of universal HIV testing and linkage-to-care campaigns. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791556.

  2. Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: an individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-01-01

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith "flashbacks". Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development.

  3. Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ian A.; Mackay, Clare E.; Holmes, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Most people will experience or witness a traumatic event. A common occurrence after trauma is the experience of involuntary emotional memories of the traumatic event, herewith “flashbacks”. Some individuals, however, report no flashbacks. Prospective work investigating psychological factors associated with an absence of flashbacks is lacking. We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis on 16 experiments (n = 458) using the trauma film paradigm to investigate the association of emotional response to traumatic film footage and commonly collected baseline characteristics (trait anxiety, current depression, trauma history) with an absence of analogue flashbacks. An absence of analogue flashbacks was associated with low emotional response to the traumatic film footage and, to a lesser extent, low trait anxiety and low current depression levels. Trauma history and recognition memory for the film were not significantly associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks. Understanding why some individuals report an absence of flashbacks may aid preventative treatments against flashback development. PMID:24920083

  4. PresenceAbsence: An R package for presence absence analysis

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen Moisen

    2008-01-01

    The PresenceAbsence package for R provides a set of functions useful when evaluating the results of presence-absence analysis, for example, models of species distribution or the analysis of diagnostic tests. The package provides a toolkit for selecting the optimal threshold for translating a probability surface into presence-absence maps specifically tailored to their...

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting or pessary treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POPPS): design and participant baseline characteristics of two parallel pragmatic randomized controlled trials in primary care.

    PubMed

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schram, Aaltje J; Messelink, Embert J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H

    2014-02-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and pessaries are commonly used in the conservative treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Because there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal choice between these two interventions, we designed the "Pelvic Organ prolapse in primary care: effects of Pelvic floor muscle training and Pessary treatment Study" (POPPS). POPPS consists of two parallel open label randomized controlled trials performed in primary care, in women aged ≥55 years, recruited through a postal questionnaire. In POPPS trial 1, women with mild POP receive either PFMT or watchful waiting. In POPPS trial 2, women with advanced POP receive either PFMT or pessary treatment. Patient recruitment started in 2009 and was finished in December 2012. Primary outcome of both POPPS trials is improvement in POP-related symptoms. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, sexual function, POP-Q stage, pelvic floor muscle function, post-void residual volume, patients' perception of improvement, and costs. All outcomes are measured 3, 12, and 24 months after the start of treatment. Cost-effectiveness will be calculated based on societal costs, using the PFDI-20 and the EQ-5D as outcomes. In this paper the POPPS design, the encountered challenges and our solutions, and participant baseline characteristics are presented. For both trials the target numbers of patients in each treatment group are achieved, giving this study sufficient power to lead to promising results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

  7. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  8. WEST VIRGINIA BASELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. Its purpose is to provide baseline information on West Virginia, one of six states included partly or total...

  9. The return of dissociation as absence within absence.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2014-12-01

    My aim is to translate Ferenczi's central concepts of the intrapsychic impact and imprint of early developmental trauma into both revived and contemporary conceptualizations. The concept of dissociation was renounced by Freud, yet it is returning as a cornerstone of recent trauma theories. Ferenczi used the concept of "repression," but used it in the sense of an intrapsychic imprint of early external trauma that fragments consciousness, that is, as dissociation. Furthermore, early trauma is double: an absence of protection that threatens existence of the self, combined with an absence of attachment and of recognition of this threat and terror; thus it is an absence-within-absence. This contemporary conceptualization entails a widening of the intrapsychic realm to include an intersubjective one, and regards dissociation as a unique and complex intrapsychic absence, which is a negative of the external absence-within-absence in the early environment.

  10. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies. PMID:23996012

  11. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  12. Impacts on work absence and performance: what really matters?

    PubMed

    Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Buck, Rhiannon; Varnava, Alice; Phillips, Ceri; Main, Chris J

    2009-12-01

    A number of factors influence an individual's decision to take sickness absence or to remain at work while ill. The relationship between health, work characteristics, individual perceptions of work and sickness absence and performance is complex and further clarification of the interactions between these factors is necessary. To assess the relative impact of health, work characteristics and perceptions of work on absence and performance. Cross-sectional survey of two public sector organizations (n = 505). Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression to assess the individual and combined influence of each class of independent variables on the following: days sickness absence, spells of sickness absence, VAS performance and presenteeism. Characteristics of work were weakly associated with days absence and performance. Perceptions of work were more strongly associated with performance than absence. Measures of mental health, rather than physical health, had the greatest influence on ability to work. Poor health had a greater impact on work performance than work absence. When considered together, health variables accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in both absence and performance when compared with characteristics of work and work perceptions. Using absence as a marker of health-associated compromise at work may lead to an underestimation of the impact of health on work. This study demonstrates the need to manage the impact of health problems on the workforce not only from a bio-medical perspective but also in terms of the psychological pressures and the social context in which employees work.

  13. The PICASSO Cohort: baseline characteristics of a cohort of men who have sex with men and male-to-female transgender women at high risk for syphilis infection in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Noah; Park, Hayoung; Konda, Kelika A; Joseph Davey, Dvora L; Bristow, Claire C; Brown, Brandon; Leon, Segundo R; Vargas, Silver K; Calvo, Gino M; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-04-11

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (transwomen) are disproportionately at risk of syphilis infection in Peru. From 2013 to 2014, MSM and transwomen seeking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or treatment were recruited into a 2-year observational cohort study to determine predictors of recently acquired syphilis infection (defined as a rapid plasma reagin [RPR] titer ≥1:16 and a reactive treponemal antibody test) in Lima, Peru. At baseline, interviewers collected sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical characteristics from participants. All cohort participants were tested for syphilis, HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection. Using cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariate models were used to determine factors associated with recently acquired syphilis infection and calculate adjusted prevalence ratios. We recruited 401 participants, 312 MSM and 89 transwomen, with median ages of 29.0 and 32.5 years old (interquartile ranges: 23.3, 37.4 and 27.2, 39.5, respectively). The prevalence of recently acquired syphilis infection at baseline was 16.8% for MSM and 6.7% for transwomen. Among MSM and transwomen, 30.1 and 33.7% were infected with HIV, 18.6 and 24.7% were infected with CT, and 14.2 and 19.1% were infected with NG, respectively. Co-infection rates among MSM with recently acquired syphilis infection included: 44.2% with HIV, 40.4% with CT (32.7% with anal CT and 7.7% with pharyngeal CT), and 19.2% with NG (11.5% with anal NG and 7.7% with pharyngeal NG). Co-infection rates among transwomen with recently acquired syphilis infection included: 66.7% with HIV, 0% with CT, and 16.7% with anal NG. In multivariate analysis among the entire cohort, recently acquired syphilis infection was independently associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99), receptive role

  14. Dutch outcome in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (DO-IT): registry design and baseline characteristics of a prospective observational cohort study to predict appropriate indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    van Barreveld, M; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Hulleman, M; Boersma, L V A; Delnoy, P P H M; Meine, M; Tuinenburg, A E; Theuns, D A M J; van der Voort, P H; Kimman, G P; Buskens, E; Tijssen, J P G; Bruinsma, N; Verstraelen, T E; Zwinderman, A H; van Dessel, P H F M; Wilde, A A M

    2017-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are widely used for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. At present, both clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of ICD therapy in primary prevention patients are topics of discussion, as only a minority of these patients will eventually receive appropriate ICD therapy. The DO-IT Registry is a nationwide prospective cohort with a target enrolment of 1,500 primary prevention ICD patients with reduced left ventricular function in a setting of structural heart disease. The primary outcome measures are death and appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Secondary outcome measures are inappropriate ICD therapy, death of any cause, hospitalisation for ICD related complications and for cardiovascular reasons. As of December 2016, data on demographic, clinical, and ICD characteristics of 1,468 patients have been collected. Follow-up will continue up to 24 months after inclusion of the last patient. During follow-up, clinical and ICD data are collected based on the normal follow-up of these patients, assuming ICD interrogations take place every six months and clinical follow-up is once a year. At baseline, the mean age was 66 (standard deviation [SD] 10) years and 27% were women. The DO-IT Registry represents a real-world nationwide cohort of patients receiving ICDs for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death with reduced left ventricular function in a setting of structural heart disease. The registry investigates the efficacy of the current practice and aims to develop prediction rules to identify subgroups who will not (sufficiently) benefit from ICD implantation and to provide results regarding costs and budget impact of targeted supply of primary preventions ICDs.

  15. Design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the Kids’ Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents (Kids’ HELP) trial: A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of parent mentors in insuring uninsured minority children✰

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Glenn; Walker, Candy; Lin, Hua; Lee, Michael; Fierro, Marco; Henry, Monica; Massey, Kenneth; Portillo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives Six million US children have no health insurance, and substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist. The design, methods, and baseline characteristics are described for Kids’ Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents (Kids’ HELP), the first randomized, clinical trial of the effectiveness of Parent Mentors (PMs) in insuring uninsured minority children. Methods & research design Latino and African-American children eligible for but not enrolled in Medicaid/CHIP were randomized to PMs, or a control group receiving traditional Medicaid/CHIP outreach. PMs are experienced parents with ≥ 1 Medicaid/CHIP-covered children. PMs received two days of training, and provide intervention families with information on Medicaid/CHIP eligibility, assistance with application submission, and help maintaining coverage. Primary outcomes include obtaining health insurance, time interval to obtain coverage, and parental satisfaction. A blinded assessor contacts subjects monthly for one year to monitor outcomes. Results Of 49,361 candidates screened, 329 fulfilled eligibility criteria and were randomized. The mean age is seven years for children and 32 years for caregivers; 2/3 are Latino, 1/3 are African-American, and the mean annual family income is $21,857. Half of caregivers were unaware that their uninsured child is Medicaid/CHIP eligible, and 95% of uninsured children had prior insurance. Fifteen PMs completed two-day training sessions. All PMs are female and minority, 60% are unemployed, and the mean annual family income is $20,913. Post-PM-training, overall knowledge/skills test scores significantly increased, and 100% reported being very satisfied/satisfied with the training. Conclusions Kids’ HELP successfully reached target populations, met participant enrollment goals, and recruited and trained PMs. PMID:25476583

  16. Design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the Kids' Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents (Kids' HELP) trial: a randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of parent mentors in insuring uninsured minority children.

    PubMed

    Flores, Glenn; Walker, Candy; Lin, Hua; Lee, Michael; Fierro, Marco; Henry, Monica; Massey, Kenneth; Portillo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Six million US children have no health insurance, and substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist. The design, methods, and baseline characteristics are described for Kids' Health Insurance by Educating Lots of Parents (Kids' HELP), the first randomized, clinical trial of the effectiveness of Parent Mentors (PMs) in insuring uninsured minority children. Latino and African-American children eligible for but not enrolled in Medicaid/CHIP were randomized to PMs, or a control group receiving traditional Medicaid/CHIP outreach. PMs are experienced parents with ≥1 Medicaid/CHIP-covered children. PMs received two days of training, and provide intervention families with information on Medicaid/CHIP eligibility, assistance with application submission, and help maintaining coverage. Primary outcomes include obtaining health insurance, time interval to obtain coverage, and parental satisfaction. A blinded assessor contacts subjects monthly for one year to monitor outcomes. Of 49,361 candidates screened, 329 fulfilled eligibility criteria and were randomized. The mean age is seven years for children and 32 years for caregivers; 2/3 are Latino, 1/3 are African-American, and the mean annual family income is $21,857. Half of caregivers were unaware that their uninsured child is Medicaid/CHIP eligible, and 95% of uninsured children had prior insurance. Fifteen PMs completed two-day training sessions. All PMs are female and minority, 60% are unemployed, and the mean annual family income is $20,913. Post-PM-training, overall knowledge/skills test scores significantly increased, and 100% reported being very satisfied/satisfied with the training. Kids' HELP successfully reached target populations, met participant enrollment goals, and recruited and trained PMs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying: a mediation analysis using structural equation modeling.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Heidi; Braeckman, Lutgart; De Clercq, Bart; Casini, Annalisa; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kittel, France; Clays, Els

    2016-08-22

    In this longitudinal study the complex interplay between both job strain and bullying in relation to sickness absence was investigated. Following the "work environment hypothesis", which establishes several work characteristics as antecedents of bullying, we assumed that job strain, conceptualized by the Job-Demand-Control model, has an indirect relation with long-term sickness absence through bullying. The sample consisted of 2983 Belgian workers, aged 30 to 55 years, who participated in the Belstress III study. They completed a survey, including the Job Content Questionnaire and a bullying inventory, at baseline. Their sickness absence figures were registered during 1 year follow-up. Long-term sickness absence was defined as at least 15 consecutive days. A mediation analysis, using structural equation modeling, was performed to examine the indirect association of job strain through bullying with long-term sickness absence. The full structural model was adjusted for several possible confounders: age, gender, occupational group, educational level, company, smoking habits, alcohol use, body mass index, self-rated health, baseline long-term sickness absence and neuroticism. The results support the hypothesis: a significant indirect association of job strain with long-term sickness absence through bullying was observed, suggesting that bullying is an intermediate variable between job strain and long-term sickness absence. No evidence for the reversed pathway of an indirect association of bullying through job strain was found. Bullying was observed as a mediating variable in the relation between job strain and sickness absence. The results suggest that exposure to job strain may create circumstances in which a worker risks to become a target of bullying. Our findings are generally in line with the work environment hypothesis, which emphasizes the importance of organizational work factors in the origin of bullying. This study highlights that remodeling jobs to reduce

  18. Sleep problems and sickness absence among middle-aged employees.

    PubMed

    Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea; Kronholm, Erkki; Vahtera, Jussi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether sleep problems predict subsequent sickness absence among middle-aged public sector employees. The data included 5391 female and 1454 male employees of the City of Helsinki from questionnaire surveys at baseline in 2000-2002. These data were prospectively linked to the employer's sickness absence register data, with a mean follow-up time of 4.1 years. Using Poisson regression analysis, we examined associations between sleep problems (none, rare, occasional, and frequent), as indicated by the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire, and self-certified short (1-3 days) and medically confirmed intermediate (4-14 days) and long (≥15 days) sickness absence spells. Sociodemographic factors, working conditions, work-family interface, health behaviors, and health status were obtained from the baseline surveys. At baseline, 21% of women and 17% of men reported frequent sleep problems. Frequent sleep problems were associated with subsequent sickness absence spells irrespective of length of absence among both women and men after adjusting for age. After full adjustment for all covariates, the associations attenuated but remained for self-certified sickness absence [risk ratio (RR) for women 1.40, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-1.56 and RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.24-2.03 for men], and medically confirmed intermediate (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17-1.52 and RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.77, for women and men, respectively) and long (RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.29-1.94 and RR 1.44, 95% CI 0.93-2.21, for women and men, respectively) sickness absence spells. Occasional sleep problems were also associated with sickness absence, but the associations were somewhat weaker. In occupational healthcare, sleep problems should be addressed to prevent their occurrence and subsequent ill-health and sickness absence.

  19. Locomotor dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular disease, quality of life, and medical costs: design of the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS) and baseline characteristics of the study population.

    PubMed

    Otani, Koji; Takegami, Misa; Fukumori, Norio; Sekiguchi, Miho; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Shin; Ono, Rei; Otoshi, Kenichi; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2012-05-01

    There is little evidence regarding long-term outcomes of locomotor dysfunction such as cardiovascular events, quality of life, and death. We are conducting a prospective cohort study to evaluate risk of cardiovascular disease, quality of life, medical costs, and mortality attributable to locomotor dysfunction. The present study determined baseline characteristics of participants in the Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcome in Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS). Cohort participants were recruited from residents between 40 and 80 years old who received regular health check-ups conducted by local government each year between 2008 and 2010 in Minami-Aizu Town and Tadami Town in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Musculoskeletal examination included assessment of physical examination of the cervical and lumbar spine, and upper and lower extremities and of physical function, such as grasping power, one-leg standing time, and time for the 3-m timed up-and-go test. Cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure and biological parameters, were measured at annual health check-ups. We also conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey. LOHAS participants comprised 1,289 men (mean age 65.7 years) and 1,954 women (mean age 66.2 years) at the first year. The proportion of obese individuals (body mass index 25.0 kg/m(2)) was 31.9% in men and 34.3% in women, and 41.0% of participants reported being followed up for hypertension, 7.0% for diabetes, and 43.6% for hypercholesterolemia. Prevalence of lumbar spinal stenosis was 10.7% in men and 12.9% in women, while prevalence of low back pain was 15.8% in men and 17.6% in women. The LOHAS is a novel population-based prospective cohort study that will provide an opportunity to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease, quality of life, medical costs, and mortality attributable to locomotor dysfunction, and to provide the epidemiological information required to develop policies for detection of locomotor dysfunction.

  20. Inequalities in socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Aitken, Zoe; Emerson, Eric; Sahabandu, Sash; Milner, Allison; Bentley, Rebecca; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pirkis, Jane; Studdert, David

    2016-10-31

    Internationally, men with disabilities have higher rates of social and economic disadvantage and poorer health and wellbeing than men without disabilities. No single study has provided comprehensive, population-level information about the magnitude of such differences among adult men using a well-validated instrument to measure disability. We analysed baseline data from Ten to Men - an Australian longitudinal study of male health. Ten to Men used a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design to recruit a national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 from 15,988 males. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old participants with data available on age and disability (n = 13,569). We compared the demographic, socio-economic characteristics and health and wellbeing of men with and without disabilities using chi squared tests for proportions and t tests for continuous variables. Linear regression adjusted for age was used to assess the association between disability status and health and wellbeing, which were measured using the SF-12 mental and physical health component scores and the Personal Wellbeing Index. Men with disabilities were older and more likely to be born in Australia, speak English at home, be Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and were less likely to be married or de facto, or to live in urban areas. They were less likely to have completed secondary school, be employed and live in affordable housing, and were more likely to live on low incomes, in more socio-economically disadvantaged areas, and in rental accommodation and to experience shortages of money. Among employed men, those with disabilities were less likely to be in high skilled jobs, worked less hours on average, and were more likely to report that they would prefer to work more. Men with disabilities had lower levels of social support and community participation and poorer mental and

  1. Single-site Baseline and Short-term Outcomes of Clinical Characteristics and Life Quality Evaluation of Chinese Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration Patients in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Li; Liu, Wen-Jia; Liu, Hai-Yun; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss among the older population. In China, treatment of age-related ocular diseases is becoming a priority in eye care services. This study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and quality of life of Chinese patients with wet AMD and current treatment types, to evaluate short-term gains in different treatments, and to investigate associations between visual function and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). Methods: A prospective, observational, noninterventional study was conducted. Basic data were collected from patients with clinical diagnoses of wet AMD before clinical assessments at baseline. VRQoL was measured with the Chinese version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). Correlations of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and between-group differences were analyzed. Results: A total of 80 wet AMD patients were enrolled, with the mean age of 68.40 years. About one-quarter of wet AMD patients received intravitreal (IVT) ranibizumab treatment, and 67% of them were treated on a pro re nata basis. The visual acuity of patients treated with IVT ranibizumab at month 3 after treatment was significantly increased, whereas patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine achieved no significant improvement. Cronbach's α for the NEI VFQ-25 subscales ranged from 0.697 to 0.843. Eight subscale and overall composite scores were moderately correlated with the BCVA of the better-seeing eye. Significant differences in the overall NEI VFQ-25 scores and other subscales were observed between patients with BCVA in the better-seeing eye of less than 50 letters and the others. Conclusions: Patients treated with IVT ranibizumab experienced better vision improvement at short-term follow-up. The Chinese version of the NEI VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the VRQoL of Chinese wet AMD

  2. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley J; Hand, M. M; Eberle, Annika

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV,more » residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.« less

  3. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Seneczko, Marianne; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2013-01-01

    We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship), relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance), or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries). Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms) than individual attributes.

  4. The Relationship Between Father-Absence and Encopresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaengold, Marilyn

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on encopresis shows strong emphasis on father-absence as a dominant factor. Other characteristics of patients and their families are listed, and theoretical considerations discussed. (MS)

  5. A baseline lunar mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    A models lunar mining method is proposed that illustrates the problems to be expected in lunar mining and how they might be solved. While the method is quite feasible, it is, more importantly, a useful baseline system against which to test other, possible better, methods. Our study group proposed the slusher to stimulate discussion of how a lunar mining operation might be successfully accomplished. Critics of the slusher system were invited to propose better methods. The group noted that while nonterrestrial mining has been a vital part of past space manufacturing proposals, no one has proposed a lunar mining system in any real detail. The group considered it essential that the design of actual, workable, and specific lunar mining methods begin immediately. Based on an earlier proposal, the method is a three-drum slusher, also known as a cable-operated drag scraper. Its terrestrial application is quite limited, as it is relatively inefficient and inflexible. The method usually finds use in underwater mining from the shore and in moving small amounts of ore underground. When lunar mining scales up, the lunarized slusher will be replaced by more efficient, high-volume methods. Other aspects of lunar mining are discussed.

  6. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  7. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors.

    PubMed

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires, information was collected on health behaviors, work-related characteristics, and work engagement at baseline, and self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence at 6-month follow-up. Associations between baseline and follow-up variables were studied using multivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses and changes in R2 were calculated. Low work engagement was related with low work ability (odds ratio: 3.68; 95% confidence interval: 2.15 to 6.30) and long-term sickness absence (odds ratio: 1.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 3.27). Work engagement increased the explained variance in work ability and sickness absence with 4.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Work engagement contributes to work ability beyond known health behaviors and work-related characteristics.

  8. Mum's absence(s): conceptual insights into absence as loss during a loved one's delirium.

    PubMed

    Day, Jenny; Higgins, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    To examine qualitative research findings about family experiences of absence or loss during older person delirium, and provide a critical discussion of the similarities and differences in these experiences with conceptual understandings of absence and loss. Families who care for older people with chronic illnesses experience many losses. However, the nondeath loss experiences of family during an older loved one's delirium, an acute condition accompanied by marked changes in demeanour, have received little consideration. Discursive position paper. The findings from two qualitative research studies about family experiences during an older loved one's delirium are discussed in relation to the concepts of absence and nondeath loss. The uncharacteristic behaviours and cognitive changes that accompany delirium may estrange family who, despite the older person's corporeal presence, sense the profound absence or loss of their loved one. Although the notion of absence, a nondeath loss, is similar to the experiences of family of people with chronic conditions, there are differences that distinguish these encounters. The similarities and differences between absence during delirium and the concepts of psychological absence, nonfinite loss and psychosocial death are discussed. Psychosocial death, reversibility/irreversibility and partial marked change, are suggested as conceptual descriptions for the absence families experience during an older loved one's delirium. The sense of absence or loss that family may experience during their older loved one's delirium needs to be recognised, understood and addressed by healthcare staff. Understanding or appreciating conceptualisations of absence, as a nondeath loss, may enhance understandings of family member needs during delirium and enable better support strategies. Conceptualisations of absence enhance understandings of family distress and needs during their older loved one's delirium. The potential for family members to experience

  9. Baseline automotive gas turbine engine development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Tests results on a baseline engine are presented to document the automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art at the start of the program. The performance characteristics of the engine and of a vehicle powered by this engine are defined. Component improvement concepts in the baseline engine were evaluated on engine dynamometer tests in the complete vehicle on a chassis dynamometer and on road tests. The concepts included advanced combustors, ceramic regenerators, an integrated control system, low cost turbine material, a continuously variable transmission, power-turbine-driven accessories, power augmentation, and linerless insulation in the engine housing.

  10. The impact of physical activity on sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Lahti, J; Laaksonen, M; Lahelma, E; Rahkonen, O

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the volume and intensity of physical activity are associated with subsequent sickness absence spells of different lengths, and how much of these associations can be explained by socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI) and physical health functioning. Baseline data were collected by questionnaire surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of Helsinki City (n=6465, 79% women). Sickness absence data were derived from the employer's registers (mean follow-up time 3.9 years). Associations of physical activity with shorter (< or =14 days) and longer (>14 days) sickness absence spells were examined, using Poisson's regression analysis. The volume of physical activity was weakly and somewhat inconsistently associated with sickness absence. However, men and women who were vigorously active systematically had reduced risk of sickness absence, whereas the same volume of moderately intensive physical activity did not reduce the risk of sickness absence. Adjusting for BMI and in particular physical health functioning attenuated these associations, after which the associations lost statistical significance. The results suggest that vigorous physical activity is associated with sickness absence and may contribute to better work ability.

  11. Taking Healthy Steps: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a randomized trial of a pedometer-based internet-mediated walking program in veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and a sedentary lifestyle is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, frequent hospitalizations, and poor health-related quality of life. Internet-mediated physical activity interventions may increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in persons with COPD. Methods/Design This manuscript describes the design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial that tests the effectiveness of Taking Healthy Steps, an Internet-mediated walking program for Veterans with COPD. Taking Healthy Steps includes an uploading pedometer, a website, and an online community. Eligible and consented patients wear a pedometer to obtain one week of baseline data and then are randomized on a 2:1 ratio to Taking Healthy Steps or to a wait list control. The intervention arm receives iterative step-count feedback; individualized step-count goals, motivational and informational messages, and access to an online community. Wait list controls are notified that they are enrolled, but that their intervention will start in one year; however, they keep the pedometer and have access to a static webpage. Discussion Participants include 239 Veterans (mean age 66.7 years, 93.7% male) with 155 randomized to Taking Healthy Steps and 84 to the wait list control arm; rural-living (45.2%); ever-smokers (93.3%); and current smokers (25.1%). Baseline mean St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire Total Score was 46.0; 30.5% reported severe dyspnea; and the average number of comorbid conditions was 4.9. Mean baseline daily step counts was 3497 (+/- 2220). Veterans with COPD can be recruited to participate in an online walking program. We successfully recruited a cohort of older Veterans with a significant level of disability including Veterans who live in rural areas using a remote national recruitment strategy. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01102777

  12. Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Lifestyle Intervention and/or Pioglitazone in Reversion to Normal Glucose Tolerance in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yingying; Paul, Sanjoy K.; Zhou, Xianghai; Chang, Cuiqing; Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Jinkui

    2017-01-01

    Background. Patients with prediabetes are at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). No study has explored whether intervention could revert prediabetes to normal glycemic status as the primary outcome. Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program (BPRP) would evaluate whether intensive lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia and improve the risk factors of CVD as well. Methods. BPRP is a randomized, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial design study. Participants diagnosed as prediabetes were randomized into four groups (conventional/intensive lifestyle intervention and 30 mg pioglitazone/placebo) with a three-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was conversion into normal glucose tolerance. The trial would recruit 2000 participants (500 in each arm). Results. Between March 2007 and March 2011, 1945 participants were randomized. At baseline, the individuals were 53 ± 10 years old, with median BMI 26.0 (23.9, 28.2) kg/m2 and HbA1c 5.8 (5.6, 6.1)%. 85% of the participants had IGT and 15% had IFG. Parameters relevant to glucose, lipids, blood pressure, lifestyle, and other metabolic markers were similar between conventional and intensive lifestyle intervention group at baseline. Conclusion. BPRP was the first study to determine if lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia in Chinese population. Major baseline parameters were balanced between two lifestyle intervention groups. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-PRC-06000005. PMID:28168204

  13. Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Lifestyle Intervention and/or Pioglitazone in Reversion to Normal Glucose Tolerance in Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingying; Paul, Sanjoy K; Zhou, Xianghai; Chang, Cuiqing; Chen, Wei; Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Jinkui; Ji, Linong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Background . Patients with prediabetes are at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). No study has explored whether intervention could revert prediabetes to normal glycemic status as the primary outcome. Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program (BPRP) would evaluate whether intensive lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia and improve the risk factors of CVD as well. Methods . BPRP is a randomized, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial design study. Participants diagnosed as prediabetes were randomized into four groups (conventional/intensive lifestyle intervention and 30 mg pioglitazone/placebo) with a three-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was conversion into normal glucose tolerance. The trial would recruit 2000 participants (500 in each arm). Results . Between March 2007 and March 2011, 1945 participants were randomized. At baseline, the individuals were 53 ± 10 years old, with median BMI 26.0 (23.9, 28.2) kg/m 2 and HbA1c 5.8 (5.6, 6.1)%. 85% of the participants had IGT and 15% had IFG. Parameters relevant to glucose, lipids, blood pressure, lifestyle, and other metabolic markers were similar between conventional and intensive lifestyle intervention group at baseline. Conclusion . BPRP was the first study to determine if lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia in Chinese population. Major baseline parameters were balanced between two lifestyle intervention groups. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-PRC-06000005.

  14. Absence Seizure (Petit Mal Seizure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people have many episodes daily, which interfere with school or daily activities. A child may have absence seizures for some time before an adult notices the seizures, because they're so brief. A decline in a child's learning ability may be the first sign of this ...

  15. Atmospheric refraction effects on baseline error in satellite laser ranging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Im, K. E.; Gardner, C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Because of the mathematical complexities involved in exact analyses of baseline errors, it is not easy to isolate atmospheric refraction effects; however, by making certain simplifying assumptions about the ranging system geometry, relatively simple expressions can be derived which relate the baseline errors directly to the refraction errors. The results indicate that even in the absence of other errors, the baseline error for intercontinental baselines can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the refraction error.

  16. Baseline characteristics and interim (3-month) efficacy and safety data from STELLA-LONG TERM, a long-term post-marketing surveillance study of ipragliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Hiroshi; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Nakamura, Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in real-world clinical practice in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted interim analyses at 3 months of a 3-year prospective study of patients who were first prescribed ipragliflozin between 17 July 2014 and 16 October 2015, and whose data were locked by 16 January 2016. Changes in glycemic control, blood pressure, and laboratory variables from baseline, and incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Of 11,412 patients initially registered, efficacy and safety data were available for 3481 (30.5%) and 4360 (38.2%) patients, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose decreased by 0.67% and 28.8 mg/dL, respectively, at 3 months/last assessment (both P < .001) from baseline (8.00% and 166.4 mg/dL, respectively). Blood pressure and lipid levels also improved significantly. There were 258 ADRs in 194 patients. The ADRs included 'renal and urinary disorders' (system organ class) in 110 patients (2.5%). These 3-month interim results indicate that ipragliflozin improved glycemic control, lipids, and blood pressure with low rates of ADRs in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes in real-world clinical practice. The results were consistent with those of placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02479399.

  17. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise; Nohr, Ellen A; Jensen, Chris; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete

    2016-04-16

    To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time-to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93)). Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08)). In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees.

  18. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of flow during fall 2011, the reach at Black Cypress was reduced to four isolated pools, and the reach at Little Cypress was reduced to three isolated pools. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and specific conductance data were collected from the pools because it was hypothesized that these conditions would be the most limiting with respect to aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 0.58 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 4.79 mg/L at Black Cypress and from 0.24 mg/L to 5.33 mg/L at Little Cypress; both sites exhibited a stratified pattern in dissolved oxygen concentrations along transect lines, but the pattern was less pronounced at Black Cypress.

  19. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Acetylcystein for Contrast-Induced nephropaThy (ACT) Trial: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aceltylcysteine has been evaluated in several small trials as a means of reducing the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), however systematic reviews of these studies do not provide conclusive answers. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed to provide a reliable answer as to whether acetylcysteine is effective in decreasing the risk of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing angiographic procedures. Methods ACT is a RCT of acetylcysteine versus placebo in 2,300 patients at-risk for CIN undergoing an intravascular angiographic procedure. The randomization list will be concealed. Participants, health care staff, investigators and outcome assessors will be blinded to whether patients receive acetylcysteine or placebo. All analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. The study drugs (acetylcysteine 1200 mg or placebo) will be administered orally twice daily for two doses before and two doses after the procedure. The primary outcome is the occurrence of CIN, defined as a 25% elevation of serum creatinine above baseline between 48 and 96 hours after angiography. Discussion The first patient entered the trial on September, 2008. Up to April 7, 2009, 810 patients had been included in 35 centers. The mean age was 69 (Standard deviation: 10), 18% had a baseline serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, 57% were diabetics and 13% had a history of heart failure. The ongoing ACT Trial is the largest multicentre RCT that will determine whether acetylcysteine is effective in decreasing the risk of CIN in patients at risk undergoing angiography. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00736866 PMID:19497091

  1. Sickness absence among Finnish special and general education teachers.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, J; Kivimäki, M; Pentti, J; Suominen, S; Vahtera, J; Virtanen, M

    2011-10-01

    Although teaching is considered a high-stress profession, research on stress-related outcomes among teachers, such as absence from work due to illness (i.e. sickness absence), remains scarce. It is possible that teachers are not a homogeneous group but include subgroups with particularly high risk of sickness absence, such as special education teachers. To examine differences in sickness absence rates between special and general education teachers in a large cohort of 2291 Finnish lower secondary school teachers. Register data on teachers' job titles, sociodemographic characteristics and sickness absence were obtained from 10 municipal employers' registers. Indices of sickness absence included rates of short-term (1-3 days) and long-term (>3 days) absence spells during 2003-05. With multi-level models adjusted for individual- and school-level covariates, we found that although the absolute level of sickness absence was higher among women than among men, male special education teachers were at a 1.36-fold (95% CI: 1.15-1.61) increased risk of short-term and a 1.33-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.76) increased risk of long-term sickness absence compared with male teachers in general education. Among women, there were no differences in sickness absence between special and general education teachers. Compared to male teachers in general education, male teachers in special education appear to have an excess risk of absence from work due to illness. Future studies should examine the causes for this excess risk and determine the need for preventive interventions.

  2. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; Robroek, Suzan J W; Niessen, Maurice A J; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The work ability index (WAI) is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce. To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups. At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49) was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0absence were estimated by multinomial regression analyses. Discriminative ability of the WAI was assessed by the Area Under the Curve (AUC) and Ordinal c-index (ORC). Test characteristics were determined for dichotomised outcomes. Additional analyses were performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups. A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33). The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68). Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77) or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69). At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27) the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups. The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  3. Project FIT: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Eisenmann, Joey C; Alaimo, Katherine; Pfeiffer, Karin; Paek, Hye-Jin; Carlson, Joseph J; Hayes, Heather; Thompson, Tracy; Kelleher, Deanne; Oh, Hyun J; Orth, Julie; Randall, Sue; Mayfield, Kellie; Holmes, Denise

    2011-07-29

    This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046.

  4. Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-12

    PHOTO DATE: 5-12-11 LOCATION: Building 261 - Room 138 SUBJECT: Expedition 29 Preflight Training with Dan Burbank during Treadmill Kinematics Baseline Data Collection. WORK ORDER: 2011-1214 PHOTOGRAPHER: Lauren Harnett

  5. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  6. Rationale and baseline characteristics of PREVENT: a second-generation intervention trial in subjects at-risk (prodromal) of developing first-episode psychosis evaluating cognitive behavior therapy, aripiprazole, and placebo for the prevention of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Hendrik; Stützer, Hartmut; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; de Millas, Walter; Janssen, Birgit; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Michel, Tanja Maria; Schneider, Frank; Lambert, Martin; Naber, Dieter; Brüne, Martin; Krüger-Özgürdal, Seza; Wobrock, Thomas; Riedel, Michael; Klosterkötter, Joachim

    2011-09-01

    Antipsychotics, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and omega-3-fatty acids have been found superior to control conditions as regards prevention of psychosis in people at-risk of first-episode psychosis. However, no large-scale trial evaluating the differential efficacy of CBT and antipsychotics has been performed yet. In PREVENT, we evaluate CBT, aripiprazole, and clinical management (CM) as well as placebo and CM for the prevention of psychosis in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with regard to the antipsychotic intervention and a randomized controlled trial with regard to the CBT intervention with blinded ratings. The hypotheses are first that CBT and aripiprazole and CM are superior to placebo and CM and second that CBT is not inferior to aripiprazole and CM combined. The primary outcome is transition to psychosis. By November 2010, 156 patients were recruited into the trial. The subjects were substantially functionally compromised (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale mean score 52.5) and 78.3% presented with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition axis I comorbid diagnosis. Prior to randomization, 51.5% of the participants preferred to be randomized into the CBT arm, whereas only 12.9% preferred pharmacological treatment. First, assessments of audiotaped treatment sessions confirmed the application of CBT-specific skills in the CBT condition and the absence of those in CM. The overall quality rating of the CBT techniques applied in the CBT condition was good. When the final results of the trial are available, PREVENT will substantially expand the current limited evidence base for best clinical practice in people at-risk (prodromal) of first-episode psychosis.

  7. Project FIT: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046 PMID:21801411

  8. Paricalcitol versus cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving haemodialysis: study design and baseline characteristics of the IMPACT SHPT study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kevin J.; Cozzolino, Mario; Goldsmith, David; Sharma, Amit; Khan, Samina; Dumas, Emily; Amdahl, Michael; Marx, Steven; Audhya, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Paricalcitol and cinacalcet are common therapies for patients on haemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We conducted a multi-centre study in 12 countries to compare the safety and efficacy of paricalcitol and cinacalcet for the treatment of SHPT. Methods. Patients aged ≥18 years with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease receiving maintenance haemodialysis and with intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) 300–800 pg/mL, calcium 8.4–10.0 mg/dL (2.09–2.49 mmol/L) and phosphorus ≤6.5 mg/dL (2.09 mmol/L) were randomized within two strata defined by the mode of paricalcitol administration to treatment with paricalcitol- (intra-venous, US and Russian sites, IV stratum; oral, non-US and non-Russian sites, oral stratum) or cinacalcet-centred therapy. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients in each treatment group who achieve a mean iPTH value of 150–300 pg/mL during Weeks 21–28 of treatment. Assuming efficacy response rates of 36 and 66% for cinacalcet and paricalcitol, respectively, and a 20% discontinuation rate, 124 subjects in each stratum were estimated to provide 81% power to detect a 30% absolute difference in the primary endpoint. Results. Of 746 patients screened, 272 (mean age, 63 years; mean iPTH, 509 pg/mL) were randomized. Mean duration of haemodialysis at baseline was 3.7 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (90.4%), Type 2 diabetes (40.4%), congestive heart failure (17.3%), coronary artery disease (34.6%) and gastrointestinal disorders (75%). Conclusions. The study participants are representative of a multinational cohort of patients on haemodialysis with elevated iPTH. The study results will provide valuable information on the best available treatment of SHPT in patients on haemodialysis. PMID:21931122

  9. Comparison of Baseline Characteristics between Community-based and Hospital-based Suicidal Ideators and Its Implications for Tailoring Strategies for Suicide Prevention: Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to identify distinguishing factors between populations with suicidal ideation recruited from hospitals and communities to make an efficient allocation of limited anti-suicidal resources according to group differences. We analyzed the baseline data from 120 individuals in a community-based cohort (CC) and 137 individuals in a hospital-based cohort (HC) with suicidal ideation obtained from the Korean Cohort for the Model Predicting a Suicide and Suicide-related Behavior (K-COMPASS) study. First, their sociodemographic factors, histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses, and suicidal behaviors were compared. Second, diagnosis by the Korean version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, scores of psychometric scales were used to assess differences in clinical severity between the groups. The results revealed that the HC had more severe clinical features: more psychiatric diagnosis including current and recurrent major depressive episodes (odds ratio [OR], 4.054; P < 0.001 and OR, 11.432; P < 0.001, respectively), current suicide risk (OR, 4.817; P < 0.001), past manic episodes (OR, 9.500; P < 0.001), past hypomanic episodes (OR, 4.108; P = 0.008), current alcohol abuse (OR, 3.566; P = 0.020), and current mood disorder with psychotic features (OR, 20.342; P < 0.001) besides significantly higher scores in depression, anxiety, alcohol problems, impulsivity, and stress. By comparison, old age, single households, and low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with the CC. These findings indicate the necessity of more clinically oriented support for hospital visitors and more socioeconomic aid for community-dwellers with suicidality. PMID:28776350

  10. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  11. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A multi-center, randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial of estrogens to prevent Alzheimer’s disease and loss of memory in women: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Mary; Jacobs, Diane; Andrews, Howard; Bell, Karen; Graff-Radford, Neill; Lucas, John; Rabins, Peter; Bolla, Karen; Tsai, Wei-Yan; Cross, Peter; Andrews, Karen; Costa, Rosann; Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Background Observational studies and small clinical trials suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) decreases risk of cognitive loss and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in postmenopausal women and may have value in primary prevention. Purpose A clinical trial was designed to determine if HRT delays AD or memory loss. This report describes the rationale and original design of the trial and details extensive modifications that were required to respond to unanticipated findings that emerged from other studies during the course of the trial. Methods The trial was designed as a multi-center, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial for women 65 years of age or older with a family history of dementia. Recruitment from local sites was supplemented by centralized efforts to use names of Medicare beneficiaries. Inclusion criteria included good general health and intact memory functioning. Participants were randomized to HRT or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. Assignment was stratified by hysterectomy status and site. The primary outcomes were incident AD and memory decline on neuropsychological testing. Results Enrollment began in March 1998. In response to the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) May 2002 report of increased incidence of heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, and breast cancer among women randomized to HRT, participants were re-consented with a revised consent form. Procedural modifications, including discontinuation of study medication and a modification of the planned primary outcome based on a final enrollment below the target enrollment (N = 477), were enacted in response to the subsequent WHI Memory Study report of increased risk of dementia and poorer cognitive function with HRT. The mean length of treatment exposure prior to discontinuation was 2.14 years. Participants’ mean age at baseline was 72.8; mean education was 14.2 years. Minority participation was 19% and 34% had a hysterectomy. The study continues to follow these participants for a total

  13. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01]--study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics.

    PubMed

    Persell, Stephen D; Friedberg, Mark W; Meeker, Daniella; Linder, Jeffrey A; Fox, Craig R; Goldstein, Noah J; Shah, Parth D; Knight, Tara K; Doctor, Jason N

    2013-06-27

    the provider periodically by email. We enrolled 269 clinicians (practicing attending physicians or advanced practice nurses) in 49 participating clinic sites and collected baseline data. The primary outcome is the antibiotic prescribing rate for office visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate ARI diagnoses. Secondary outcomes will examine antibiotic prescribing more broadly. The 18-month intervention period will be followed by a one year follow-up period to measure persistence of effects after interventions cease. The ongoing BEARI Trial will evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral economic strategies in reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01454947.

  14. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -performing peers is reported back to the provider periodically by email. We enrolled 269 clinicians (practicing attending physicians or advanced practice nurses) in 49 participating clinic sites and collected baseline data. The primary outcome is the antibiotic prescribing rate for office visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate ARI diagnoses. Secondary outcomes will examine antibiotic prescribing more broadly. The 18-month intervention period will be followed by a one year follow-up period to measure persistence of effects after interventions cease. Discussion The ongoing BEARI Trial will evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral economic strategies in reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01454947 PMID:23806017

  15. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  16. Dizziness causes absence from work.

    PubMed

    van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; van Leeuwen, R B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess absenteeism from work due to dizziness in patients referred to a tertiary centre. Consecutive patients with a paid employment completed the WHO Health and work Performance Questionnaire, including items on work absence in the past 7 days and 4 weeks, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Of the 400 patients [55% females, mean age 46.3 years (SD 10.8), range 18-68 years], 46 (12%) indicated they were completely disabled to work due to dizziness, while 202 (51%) patients indicated they had worked less than expected due to dizziness. Patients with more disease-related disabilities had more absenteeism from work. Half of the patients who are referred to a tertiary centre for dizziness report work absenteeism due to their complaints, and 12% is completely disabled to work.

  17. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  18. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  19. A 19-SNP coronary heart disease gene score profile in subjects with type 2 diabetes: the coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes (CoRDia study) study baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Katherine E; Ward, Claire E; Bappa, Dauda A S; McGale, Nadine; Davies, Anna K; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Li, KaWah; Howard, Philip; Vance, Dwaine R; Crockard, Martin A; Lamont, John V; Newman, Stanton; Humphries, Steve E

    2016-10-03

    The coronary risk in diabetes (CoRDia) trial (n = 211) compares the effectiveness of usual diabetes care with a self-management intervention (SMI), with and without personalised risk information (including genetics), on clinical and behavioural outcomes. Here we present an assessment of randomisation, the cardiac risk genotyping assay, and the genetic characteristics of the recruits. Ten-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was calculated using the UKPDS score. Genetic CHD risk was determined by genotyping 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Randox's Cardiac Risk Prediction Array and calculating a gene score (GS). Accuracy of the array was assessed by genotyping a subset of pre-genotyped samples (n = 185). Overall, 10-year CHD risk ranged from 2-72 % but did not differ between the randomisation groups (p = 0.13). The array results were 99.8 % concordant with the pre-determined genotypes. The GS did not differ between the Caucasian participants in the CoRDia SMI plus risk group (n = 66) (p = 0.80) and a sample of UK healthy men (n = 1360). The GS was also associated with LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05) and family history (p = 0.03) in a sample of UK healthy men (n = 1360). CHD risk is high in this group of T2D subjects. The risk array is an accurate genotyping assay, and is suitable for estimating an individual's genetic CHD risk. Trial registration This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; registration identifier NCT01891786.

  20. Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    The primary purpose of this Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document (OEBGD) is to provide criteria and management practices to be used by ...establishes standards for environmental compliance at Department of Defense controlled or operated installations in countries for which no FGS have been established.

  1. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  2. Baseline Report on HB2320

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…

  3. Baseline Characteristics Predicting Very Good Outcome of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Young Patients With High Cytogenetic Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - A Retrospective Analysis From the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Michel; Ziagkos, Dimitris; de Wreede, Liesbeth; van Biezen, Anja; Dreger, Peter; Gramatzki, Martin; Stelljes, Matthias; Andersen, Niels Smedegaard; Schaap, Nicolaas; Vitek, Antonin; Beelen, Dietrich; Lindström, Vesa; Finke, Jürgen; Passweg, Jacob; Eder, Matthias; Machaczka, Maciej; Delgado, Julio; Krüger, William; Raida, Luděk; Socié, Gerard; Jindra, Pavel; Afanasyev, Boris; Wagner, Eva; Chalandon, Yves; Henseler, Anja; Schoenland, Stefan; Kröger, Nicolaus; Schetelig, Johannes

    2017-10-01

    Patients with genetically high-risk relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia have shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) with kinase- and BCL2-inhibitors (KI, BCL2i). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) may result in sustained PFS, especially in younger patients because of its age-dependent non-relapse mortality (NRM) risk, but outcome data are lacking for this population. Risk factors for 2-year NRM and 8-year PFS were identified in patients < 50 years in an updated European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry cohort (n = 197; median follow-up, 90.4 months) by Cox regression modeling, and predicted probabilities of NRM and PFS of 2 reference patients with favorable or unfavorable characteristics were plotted. Predictors for poor 8-year PFS were no remission at the time of alloHCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.5) and partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2). The latter variable also predicted a higher risk of 2-year NRM (HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.4-11.6) compared with HLA-matched sibling donors. Predicted 2-year NRM and 8-year PFS of a high cytogenetic risk (del(17p) and/or del(11q)) patient in remission with a matched related donor were 12% (95% CI, 3%-22%) and 54% (95% CI, 38%-69%), and for an unresponsive patient with a female partially HLA-matched unrelated donor 37% (95% CI, 12%-62%) and 38% (95% CI, 13%-63%). Low predicted NRM and high 8-year PFS in favorable transplant high cytogenetic risk patients compares favorably with outcomes with KI or BCL2i. Taking into account the amount of uncertainty for predicting survival after alloHCT and after sequential administration of KI and BCL2i, alloHCT remains a valid option for younger patients with high cytogenetic risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a well-HLA-matched donor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  5. Association Between Cortisol to DHEA-s Ratio and Sickness Absence in Japanese Male Workers.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and sickness absence over 2 years in Japanese male workers. A baseline survey including questions about health behavior, along with blood sampling for cortisol and DHEA-s, was conducted in 2009. In total, 429 men (mean ± SD age, 52.9 ± 8.6 years) from whom blood samples were collected at baseline were followed until December 31, 2011. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sickness absence were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders. Among 35 workers who took sickness absences, 31 had physical illness. A high cortisol to DHEA-s ratio increased the risk of sickness absence (crude HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.12-6.41; adjusted HR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.35-8.20). The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio was linearly associated with an increased risk of sickness absence (p for trend < .050). Single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels were not associated with sickness absences. This trend did not change when limited to absences resulting from physical illness. Hormonal conditions related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and adrenal function should be considered when predicting sickness absence. The cortisol to DHEA-s ratio may be more informative than single effects of cortisol and DHEA-s levels.

  6. Baseline characteristics of different strata of astronaut corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, Peggy B.; Pepper, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) is an epidemiological study designed to study the effects of the occupational exposures incurred by astronauts in health outcomes and changes in physiological variables. Between 1959 and 1991, 195 individuals were selected for the program. The medical standards for selection have remained essentially unchanged since the Mercury Program, but the range and stringency of these criteria have been modified. Demographic and physiological variables identified during the selection year are examined for various strata of the Astronaut Corps. Specifically, age, sex, race, education, usual occupation, military affiliation, medical history, family medical history, visual and hearing measurements, physical exam variables, and specific laboratory values are investigated. Differences are examined in astronauts for the following criteria: (1) were selected prior to 1970 (n = 73) versus those selected after 1970 (n = 122); (2) have flown multiple missions versus those who have flown less than two missions; (3) have walked in space versus all others; (4) have more than 500 hours of mission time versus all others; and (5) have gone to the Moon versus all others. Length of time served in the Astronaut Corps is examined for each of these strata.

  7. Baseline Characteristics of the Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wook-Jin; Park, Yong Bum; Jeon, Chan Hong; Jung, Jo Won; Ko, Kwang-Phil; Choi, Sung Jae; Seo, Hye Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Jung, Hae Ok

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding of the pathobiology and targeted treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), epidemiologic data from large populations have been limited to western countries. The aim of the Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) was to examine the epidemiology and prognosis of Korean patients with PAH. KORPAH was designed as a nationwide, multicenter, prospective data collection using an internet webserver from September 2008 to December 2011. A total of 625 patients were enrolled. The patients' mean age was 47.6 ± 15.7 yr, and 503 (80.5%) were women. The diagnostic methods included right heart catheterization (n = 249, 39.8%) and Doppler echocardiography (n = 376, 60.2%). The etiologies, in order of frequency, were connective tissue disease (CTD), congenital heart disease, and idiopathic PAH (IPAH) (49.8%, 25.4%, and 23.2%, respectively). Patients with WHO functional class III or IV at diagnosis were 43.4%. In total, 380 (60.8%) patients received a single PAH-specific treatment at the time of enrollment, but only 72 (18.9%) patients received combination therapy. Incident cases during the registry represented 297 patients; therefore, the incidence rate of PAH was 1.9 patients/yr/million people. The 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-yr estimated survival rates were 90.8%, 87.8%, and 84.4%, respectively. Although Korean PAH patients exhibited similar age, gender, and survival rate compared with western registries, they showed relatively more CTD-PAH in the etiology and also systemic lupus erythematosus among CTD-PAH. The data suggest that earlier diagnosis and more specialized therapies should be needed to improve the survival of PAH patients.

  8. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Mooers, Cavin; Bazemore, Gina

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  9. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; ...

    2016-10-19

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We will proceed from the rst evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research

  10. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  11. Geotaxis baseline data for Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, E. M.; Bhargava, R.; Grossfield, J.

    1987-01-01

    Geotaxis profiles for 20 Drosophila species and semispecies at different ages have been examined using a calibrated, adjustable slant board device. Measurements were taken at 5 deg intervals ranging from 0 deg to 85 deg. Clear strain and species differences are observed, with some groups tending to move upward (- geotaxis) with increasing angles, while others move downward (+ geotaxis). Geotactic responses change with age in some, but not all experimental groups. Sample geotaxis profiles are presented and their application to ecological and aging studies are discussed. Data provide a baseline for future evaluations of the biological effects of microgravity.

  12. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Terrell, Stefanie M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts.

  13. When Absence of Evidence Is Evidence of Absence: Rational Inferences from Absent Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Anne S.; Horng, Andy; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Chater, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Identifying patterns in the world requires noticing not only unusual occurrences, but also unusual absences. We examined how people learn from absences, manipulating the extent to which an absence is expected. People can make two types of inferences from the absence of an event: either the event is possible but has not yet occurred, or the event…

  14. Emotional dissonance and sickness absence: a prospective study of employees working with clients.

    PubMed

    Indregard, Anne-Marthe Rustad; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland

    2017-01-01

    (1) Determine the relationship between emotional dissonance and medically certified sickness absence among employees working with clients and (2) compare the impact of emotional dissonance on medically certified sickness absence with the impact of other psychological and social work factors. A sample of 7758 employees was recruited from 96 Norwegian organizations in the period 2004 to 2014, all working with clients. The study design was prospective with emotional dissonance measured at baseline and then linked to official registry data of medically certified sickness absence for the year following the survey assessment. Quantitative demands, decision demands, role clarity, role conflict, control over work intensity, and decision control were included as additional work exposures. The impact of the study variables on the presence and duration of medically certified sickness absence was investigated with a negative binomial hurdle model. In the fully adjusted model, emotional dissonance and role conflict significantly predicted the presence of medically certified sickness absence. Control over work intensity and decision control were negatively related to presence of sickness absence. Only role conflict was a risk factor for the duration of sickness absence when all factors were analysed simultaneously. Emotional dissonance is a risk factor for the presence of medically certified sickness absence in client-driven work environments. Theoretical models of sickness absence, as well as interventions aiming to prevent sickness absence in such environments, should be aware of the effect emotional dissonance may have on employees.

  15. Baseline experiments in teleoperator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III; Mixon, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Studies have been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to establish baseline human teleoperator interface data and to assess the influence of some of the interface parameters on human performance in teleoperation. As baseline data, the results will be used to assess future interface improvements resulting from this research in basic teleoperator human factors. In addition, the data have been used to validate LaRC's basic teleoperator hardware setup and to compare initial teleoperator study results. Four subjects controlled a modified industrial manipulator to perform a simple task involving both high and low precision. Two different schemes for controlling the manipulator were studied along with both direct and indirect viewing of the task. Performance of the task was measured as the length of time required to complete the task along with the number of errors made in the process. Analyses of variance were computed to determine the significance of the influences of each of the independent variables. Comparisons were also made between the LaRC data and data taken earlier by Grumman Aerospace Corp. at their facilities.

  16. Agricultural Baseline (BL0) scenario

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000181319328); Hellwinckel, Chad M [University of Tennessee] (ORCID:0000000173085058); Eaton, Laurence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000312709626); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000228159350); Brandt, Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000214707379); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] (ORCID:0000000281537154)

    2016-07-13

    Scientific reason for data generation: to serve as the reference case for the BT16 volume 1 agricultural scenarios. The agricultural baseline runs from 2015 through 2040; a starting year of 2014 is used. Date the data set was last modified: 02/12/2016 How each parameter was produced (methods), format, and relationship to other data in the data set: simulation was developed without offering a farmgate price to energy crops or residues (i.e., building on both the USDA 2015 baseline and the agricultural census data (USDA NASS 2014). Data generated are .txt output files by year, simulation identifier, county code (1-3109). Instruments used: POLYSYS (version POLYS2015_V10_alt_JAN22B) supplied by the University of Tennessee APAC The quality assurance and quality control that have been applied: • Check for negative planted area, harvested area, production, yield and cost values. • Check if harvested area exceeds planted area for annuals. • Check FIPS codes.

  17. Sickness absence trends after loss control management

    SciTech Connect

    Tabaluyan, T.; Kuswadji, S.

    1996-12-31

    To assess the influence of loss control management programs applied in an oil and gas company to sickness absence trends. After the implementation of loss control management programs in 1990, sickness absence records in 1991, 1992 and 1993 were studied. International Safety Rating System (ISRS) management elements were audited each year. Absence parameter used were sickness frequency, mean sickness days examined by employee group age, length of service, work schedule and work location. Although frequency of sickness absences remain unchanged, there was a marked decrease of mean days per absence for certain worker groups. The effects were true among agemore » group 40-49 years, service group 15-19 years, service group 20-24 years and office workers. Shorter sickness absences among certain group of employees was noted following implementation of loss control management programs.« less

  18. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  19. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  1. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n = 801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10–2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. PMID:26740344

  2. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  4. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current andmore » past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.« less

  5. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  6. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    PubMed

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  7. Extracting Baseline Electricity Usage Using Gradient Tree Boosting

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehoon; Lee, Dongeun; Choi, Jaesik

    To understand how specific interventions affect a process observed over time, we need to control for the other factors that influence outcomes. Such a model that captures all factors other than the one of interest is generally known as a baseline. In our study of how different pricing schemes affect residential electricity consumption, the baseline would need to capture the impact of outdoor temperature along with many other factors. In this work, we examine a number of different data mining techniques and demonstrate Gradient Tree Boosting (GTB) to be an effective method to build the baseline. We train GTB onmore » data prior to the introduction of new pricing schemes, and apply the known temperature following the introduction of new pricing schemes to predict electricity usage with the expected temperature correction. Our experiments and analyses show that the baseline models generated by GTB capture the core characteristics over the two years with the new pricing schemes. In contrast to the majority of regression based techniques which fail to capture the lag between the peak of daily temperature and the peak of electricity usage, the GTB generated baselines are able to correctly capture the delay between the temperature peak and the electricity peak. Furthermore, subtracting this temperature-adjusted baseline from the observed electricity usage, we find that the resulting values are more amenable to interpretation, which demonstrates that the temperature-adjusted baseline is indeed effective.« less

  8. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  9. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compensated absences. 32.24 Section 32.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.24 Compensated absences. (a) Companies...

  10. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compensated absences. 32.24 Section 32.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.24 Compensated absences. (a) Companies...

  11. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,…

  12. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compensated absences. 32.24 Section 32.24 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.24 Compensated absences. (a) Companies...

  13. Diagnosing lynch syndrome in absence of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Knezetic, Joseph; Lanspa, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    There are many ways in which a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can be made, most prominent of which is family history, presence of cancer, high microsatellite instability, immunohistochemistry, and a mismatch repair germline mutation. There are at least four molecular pathways for colorectal cancer carcinogenesis: 1) adenoma-carcinoma sequence; 2) hereditary microsatellite instability; 3) serrated pathway; 4) epidermal growth factor receptor. The answer to diagnosing Lynch syndrome in the absence of colorectal cancer may be partially based upon the phenotypic characteristics of the colonic polyps should they be identified at colonoscopy, specifically their phenotypic characteristics of location, size, histology, number, and age of polyp onset.

  14. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial—the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)—to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] +docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1 g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review. PMID:26784651

  15. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    PubMed

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values usingmore » best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.« less

  17. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  18. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  19. When Absence of Evidence Is Evidence of Absence: Rational Inferences From Absent Data.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Anne S; Horng, Andy; Griffiths, Thomas L; Chater, Nick

    2017-05-01

    Identifying patterns in the world requires noticing not only unusual occurrences, but also unusual absences. We examined how people learn from absences, manipulating the extent to which an absence is expected. People can make two types of inferences from the absence of an event: either the event is possible but has not yet occurred, or the event never occurs. A rational analysis using Bayesian inference predicts that inferences from absent data should depend on how much the absence is expected to occur, with less probable absences being more salient. We tested this prediction in two experiments in which we elicited people's judgments about patterns in the data as a function of absence salience. We found that people were able to decide that absences either were mere coincidences or were indicative of a significant pattern in the data in a manner that was consistent with predictions of a simple Bayesian model. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. 75 FR 66748 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...- 000] Notice of Baseline Filings October 22, 2010. ONEOK Gas Transportation, L.L.C Docket No. PR11-68... above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

  1. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  2. Air traffic control system baseline methodology guide.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-06-01

    The Air Traffic Control System Baseline Methodology Guide serves as a reference in the design and conduct of baseline studies. : Engineering research psychologists are the intended audience for the Methodology Guide, which focuses primarily on techni...

  3. Statistical baseline assessment in cardiotocography.

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Angela; Braccili, Eleonora; Marchegiani, Enrico; Rosati, Riccardo; Sbrollini, Agnese; Burattini, Luca; Morettini, Micaela; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most common non-invasive diagnostic technique to evaluate fetal well-being. It consists in the recording of fetal heart rate (FHR; bpm) and maternal uterine contractions. Among the main parameters characterizing FHR, baseline (BL) is fundamental to determine fetal hypoxia and distress. In computerized applications, BL is typically computed as mean FHR±ΔFHR, with ΔFHR=8 bpm or ΔFHR=10 bpm, both values being experimentally fixed. In this context, the present work aims: to propose a statistical procedure for ΔFHR assessment; to quantitatively determine ΔFHR value by applying such procedure to clinical data; and to compare the statistically-determined ΔFHR value against the experimentally-determined ΔFHR values. To these aims, the 552 recordings of the "CTU-UHB intrapartum CTG database" from Physionet were submitted to an automatic procedure, which consisted in a FHR preprocessing phase and a statistical BL assessment. During preprocessing, FHR time series were divided into 20-min sliding windows, in which missing data were removed by linear interpolation. Only windows with a correction rate lower than 10% were further processed for BL assessment, according to which ΔFHR was computed as FHR standard deviation. Total number of accepted windows was 1192 (38.5%) over 383 recordings (69.4%) with at least an accepted window. Statistically-determined ΔFHR value was 9.7 bpm. Such value was statistically different from 8 bpm (P<;10 -19 ) but not from 10 bpm (P=0.16). Thus, ΔFHR=10 bpm is preferable over 8 bpm because both experimentally and statistically validated.

  4. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    SciTech Connect

    McMechan, K.J.; Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonalmore » patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.« less

  5. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... your league prepare for concussions both pre- and post-season. What is baseline testing? Baseline testing is a pre-season exam conducted by a trained health care professional. Baseline tests are used to assess an athlete’s balance and ...

  6. Can baseline ultrasound results help to predict failure to achieve DAS28 remission after 1 year of tight control treatment in early RA patients?

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, D F; Jacobs, J W G; Swen, W A A; Hazes, J M W; de Jager, M H; Basoski, N M; Haagsma, C J; Luime, J J; Gerards, A H

    2018-01-30

    At present, there are no prognostic parameters unequivocally predicting treatment failure in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We investigated whether baseline ultrasonography (US) findings of joints, when added to baseline clinical, laboratory, and radiographical data, could improve prediction of failure to achieve Disease Activity Score assessing 28 joints (DAS28) remission (<2.6) at 1 year in newly diagnosed RA patients. A multicentre cohort of newly diagnosed RA patients was followed prospectively for 1 year. US of the hands, wrists, and feet was performed at baseline. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographical parameters were recorded. Primary analysis was the prediction by logistic regression of the absence of DAS28 remission 12 months after diagnosis and start of therapy. Of 194 patients included, 174 were used for the analysis, with complete data available for 159. In a multivariate model with baseline DAS28 (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.2), the presence of rheumatoid factor (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.1), and type of monitoring strategy (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05-0.85), the addition of baseline US results for joints (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89-1.04) did not significantly improve the prediction of failure to achieve DAS28 remission (likelihood ratio test, 1.04; p = 0.31). In an early RA population, adding baseline ultrasonography of the hands, wrists, and feet to commonly available baseline characteristics did not improve prediction of failure to achieve DAS28 remission at 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01752309 . Registered on 19 December 2012.

  7. Father Absence Effects on Military Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    or two well known self esteem and psychological adjustment measures such as the Tennessee Self -Concpt Scale and the Pier’s Harris Children’s Self ...Importance of Coping Mechanisms ----------------------- 93 2. The Attitude of the Parents Regarding thie Worst Period of Absence...93 3. The Attitude of the Parents Towards the Effects of Father Absence on Young Children---------------------- 94 4. Factors Affecting the

  8. Reliability: A Comparison of Absence Measures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    28 8. Sick Leave Frequency Index ... . .. . . . . . . . 29 J.v -. ~~~~i j.- .i...- - AFIT/GSM/LSB/85S-19 Abstract Absenteeism is an important and...RELIABILITY: A COMPARISON OF ABSENCE MEASURES I. Literature Review Introduction Absenteeism may be defined as undesired work absence. This withdrawal...behavior is an important organizational problem because of probable reduced labor productivity and increased training costs. * Absenteeism is almost

  9. Shuttle mission simulator baseline definition report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.; Small, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline definition of the space shuttle mission simulator is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) physical arrangement of the complete simulator system in the appropriate facility, with a definition of the required facility modifications, (2) functional descriptions of all hardware units, including the operational features, data demands, and facility interfaces, (3) hardware features necessary to integrate the items into a baseline simulator system to include the rationale for selecting the chosen implementation, and (4) operating, maintenance, and configuration updating characteristics of the simulator hardware.

  10. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  11. LCOE Baseline for OE Buoy

    DOE Data Explorer

    Previsic, Mirko; Karthikeyan, Anantha; Lewis, Tony; McCarthy, John

    2017-07-26

    Capex numbers are in $/kW, Opex numbers in $/kW-yr. Cost Estimates provided herein are based on concept design and basic engineering data and have high levels of uncertainties embedded. This reference economic scenario was done for a very large device version of the OE Buoy technology, which is not presently on Ocean Energy's technology development pathway but will be considered in future business plan development. The DOE reference site condition is considered a low power-density site, compared with many of the planned initial deployment locations for the OE Buoy. Many of the sites considered for the initial commercial deployment of the OE buoy feature much higher wave power densities and shorter period waves. Both of these characteristics will improve the OE buoy's commercial viability.

  12. The role of niacin in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and optimally treated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: baseline characteristics of study participants. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: impact on Global Health outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial.

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    The study aims to report the baseline characteristics of the fully randomized AIM-HIGH study population. Residual risk persists despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease, many of whom have atherogenic dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, and small dense LDL particles). All study participants had established CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Participants received simvastatin (or simvastatin plus ezetimibe) at a dose sufficient to maintain LDL-C at 40 - 80 mg/dL (1.03-2.07 mmol/L) and were randomized to receive extended-release niacin or matching placebo. The primary end point is time to the first occurrence of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization with average follow-up of 4.1 years. Between 2006 and 2010, 8,162 individuals signed consent to be screened, 4,275 began study drug run-in, and 3,414 were randomized to treatment. Mean age at entry was 64 ± 9 years, 85% were men, and 92% were white. As expected, risk factors were prevalent with 34% having diabetes; 71%, hypertension; and 81%, metabolic syndrome. Most participants had coronary artery disease (92%), whereas 11% had peripheral arterial disease; and 12%, cerebrovascular disease. Previous coronary revascularization occurred in 82%, and 54% reported a prior myocardial infarction. Among participants on a statin at entry (94%), mean baseline LDL-C was 71 mg/dL (1.84 mmol/L); mean HDL-C, 34.9 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L); and median triglycerides, 161 mg/dL (1.82 mmol/L). AIM-HIGH enrolled a high-risk group of patients with established atherosclerotic CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia. This study should determine whether there is incremental clinical benefit of niacin in reducing cardiovascular events in patients who

  13. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a...

  14. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How are the baseline toxics value and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Baseline Determination § 80.915 How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined? (a...

  15. Aging and the Baseline Code: An Alternative to the "Normless Elderly."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Deborah I.; Poster, Constance H.

    1985-01-01

    A projective test administered to 120 older persons revealed a "baseline normative code" to which respondents held themselves and their contemporaries. Findings suggest that, in the absence of age-specific norms, the elderly do not become "normless" but develop their own normative prescriptions to fit their past socialization and present…

  16. The Causal Effects of Father Absence

    PubMed Central

    McLanahan, Sara; Tach, Laura; Schneider, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural experiments, and propensity score matching models. Our assessment is that studies using more rigorous designs continue to find negative effects of father absence on offspring well-being, although the magnitude of these effects is smaller than what is found using traditional cross-sectional designs. The evidence is strongest and most consistent for outcomes such as high school graduation, children’s social-emotional adjustment, and adult mental health. PMID:24489431

  17. Design of experiment for earth rotation and baseline parameter determination from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermanis, A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of recovering earth rotation and network geometry (baseline) parameters are emphasized. The numerical simulated experiments performed are set up in an environment where station coordinates vary with respect to inertial space according to a simulated earth rotation model similar to the actual but unknown rotation of the earth. The basic technique of VLBI and its mathematical model are presented. The parametrization of earth rotation chosen is described and the resulting model is linearized. A simple analysis of the geometry of the observations leads to some useful hints on achieving maximum sensitivity of the observations with respect to the parameters considered. The basic philosophy for the simulation of data and their analysis through standard least squares adjustment techniques is presented. A number of characteristic network designs based on present and candidate station locations are chosen. The results of the simulations for each design are presented together with a summary of the conclusions.

  18. Job insecurity and sickness absence: correlations between attrition and absence in 36 occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Blekesaune, Morten

    2012-11-01

    To investigate how job insecurity, as indicated by attrition rates out of employment, affects sickness absence among remaining workers. A longitudinal analysis investigated how the percentage of workers absent due to sickness was affected by attrition out of employment in Norwegian Labour Force Surveys from 1997 to 2005, between 31 quarterly observations at the level of 36 occupational groups. Rising attrition is associated with more sickness absence. Previous research has argued that job insecurity can lead to more absence because of a stressor effect as well as to less absence because of a disciplinary effect. This research indicates that the stressor effect is stronger than the disciplinary effect.

  19. Low back pain and widespread pain predict sickness absence among industrial workers

    PubMed Central

    Morken, Tone; Riise, Trond; Moen, Bente; Hauge, Signe HV; Holien, Solrun; Langedrag, Anne; Pedersen, Svein; Saue, Inger Lise L; Seljebø, Guri M; Thoppil, Varughese

    2003-01-01

    Background The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the aluminium industry is high, and there is a considerable work-related fraction. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from MSD in this industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. The aim of this study was to analyse the relative impact of body parts, psychosocial and individual factors as predictors for short- and long-term sickness absence from MSD among industrial workers. Methods A follow-up study was conducted among all the workers at eight aluminium plants in Norway. A questionnaire was completed by 5654 workers at baseline in 1998. A total of 3320 of these participated in the follow-up study in 2000. Cox regression analysis was applied to investigate the relative impact of MSD in various parts of the body and of psychosocial and individual factors reported in 1998 on short-term and long-term sickness absence from MSD reported in 2000. Results MSD accounted for 45% of all working days lost the year prior to follow-up in 2000. Blue-collar workers had significantly higher risk than white-collar workers for both short- and long-term sickness absence from MSD (long-term sickness absence: RR = 3.04, 95% CI 2.08–4.45). Widespread and low back pain in 1998 significantly predicted both short- and long-term sickness absence in 2000. In addition, shoulder pain predicted long-term sickness absence. Low social support predicted short-term sickness absence (RR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.11–1.49). Conclusions Reducing sickness absence from MSD among industrial workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for low back pain and widespread pain. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing short-term sickness absence from MSD. PMID:12956891

  20. Effect of working conditions on non-work-related sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Sampere, M; Gimeno, D; Serra, C; Plana, M; Martínez, J M; Delclos, G L; Benavides, F G

    2012-01-01

    There is limited evidence of the role of working conditions as prognostic factors for non-work-related sickness absence (i.e. absence due to injuries or diseases of non-occupational origin). To analyse the association between working conditions and time to return to work (RTW) in workers with long-term (>15 days) non-work-related sickness absence. We followed up a total of 655 workers, who completed a baseline questionnaire including physical and psychosocial work factors, until their non-work-related long-term sickness absence ended. Time to RTW was determined based on the health insurance company register. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to evaluate the associations between working conditions and time to RTW. A self-perceived high level of physical activity at work and work with back twisted or bent were related to longer duration of sickness absence. We did not find any strong evidence of associations between psychosocial work factors and time to RTW, although higher job insecurity and low reward showed marginal statistical significance. Hazardous physical working conditions are associated with longer duration of non-work-related sickness absence. Workplace ergonomic interventions could conceivably shorten the length of sickness absence that has not originated at work.

  1. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of 2 large, simple, randomized trials evaluating telmisartan, ramipril, and their combination in high-risk patients: the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) trials.

    PubMed

    Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim; Sleight, Peter; Anderson, Craig; Mookadam, Farouk; Ramos, Barbara; Hilbrich, Lutz; Pogue, Janice; Schumacher, Helmut

    2004-07-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, need for revascularization, nephropathy, and diabetes and its complications. Although angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been less extensively evaluated, theoretically they may have "protective" effects similar to those of ACE inhibitors, but with better tolerability. Currently, there is uncertainty about the role of ARBs when used alone or in combination with an ACE inhibitor in high-risk populations with controlled hypertension. Primary objectives of the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) are to determine if the combination of the ARB telmisartan and the ACE inhibitor ramipril is more effective than ramipril alone, and if telmisartan is at least as effective as ramipril. The Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) will determine if telmisartan is superior to placebo in patients who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors. The primary outcome for both trials is the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure. High-risk patients with coronary, peripheral, or cerebrovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage are being recruited and followed for 3.5 to 5.5 years in 2 parallel, randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Recruitment from 730 centers in 40 countries for ONTARGET (n = 25,620) was completed in July 2003. For TRANSCEND, 5776 patients (out of a projected total of 6000) have been recruited (by May 10, 2004). Baseline patient characteristics are comparable to the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, the basis of the design of the current study, confirming that patients are at high-risk.

  2. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    PubMed

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  3. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  4. The importance of archiving baseline wilderness data

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    2007-01-01

    Baseline wilderness data are of considerable importance for several reasons. One of the primary values of wilderness is as a reference that contrasts with those lands where humans dominate the landscape. Leopold (1941) called wilderness "a base-datum of normality, a picture of how healthy land maintains itself." To realize this value, baseline data on...

  5. 75 FR 47291 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings July 29, 2010. ONEOK Gas Storage, L.L.C Docket No. PR10-67-000. Atmos Energy--Kentucky/Mid-States Division Docket No... applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for services...

  6. 75 FR 70732 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-71-000; Docket No. PR11-72-000; Docket No. PR11-73- 000] Notice of Baseline Filings November 10, 2010. Docket No. PR11-71-000..., 2010, the applicants listed above submitted their baseline filing of their Statement of Operating...

  7. 76 FR 5797 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-114-001; Docket No. PR10-129-001; Docket No. PR10-131- 001; Docket No. PR10-68-002 Not Consolidated] Notice of Baseline... applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  8. 75 FR 74706 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings November 24, 2010. Centana Intrastate Pipeline, LLC. Docket No. PR10-84-001. Centana Intrastate Pipeline, LLC... applicants listed above submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  9. 75 FR 49918 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings August 6... submitted their baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section... an original and 14 copies of the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  10. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child...

  12. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  13. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  14. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  15. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  16. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be pursuing...

  17. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (<10%) than published estimates from surveys along small transects (<0.02 ha), which is not consistent with inverted biomass pyramids (predator biomass greater than prey biomass) reported by other researchers for pristine reefs. We examined the relation between the density of reef sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks

  18. Baseline Architecture of ITER Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallander, A.; Di Maio, F.; Journeaux, J.-Y.; Klotz, W.-D.; Makijarvi, P.; Yonekawa, I.

    2011-08-01

    The control system of ITER consists of thousands of computers processing hundreds of thousands of signals. The control system, being the primary tool for operating the machine, shall integrate, control and coordinate all these computers and signals and allow a limited number of staff to operate the machine from a central location with minimum human intervention. The primary functions of the ITER control system are plant control, supervision and coordination, both during experimental pulses and 24/7 continuous operation. The former can be split in three phases; preparation of the experiment by defining all parameters; executing the experiment including distributed feed-back control and finally collecting, archiving, analyzing and presenting all data produced by the experiment. We define the control system as a set of hardware and software components with well defined characteristics. The architecture addresses the organization of these components and their relationship to each other. We distinguish between physical and functional architecture, where the former defines the physical connections and the latter the data flow between components. In this paper, we identify the ITER control system based on the plant breakdown structure. Then, the control system is partitioned into a workable set of bounded subsystems. This partition considers at the same time the completeness and the integration of the subsystems. The components making up subsystems are identified and defined, a naming convention is introduced and the physical networks defined. Special attention is given to timing and real-time communication for distributed control. Finally we discuss baseline technologies for implementing the proposed architecture based on analysis, market surveys, prototyping and benchmarking carried out during the last year.

  19. Methods of automated absence seizure detection, interference by stimulation, and possibilities for prediction in genetic absence models.

    PubMed

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Lüttjohann, Annika; Makarov, Vladimir V; Maksimenko, Vladimir A; Koronovskii, Alexei A; Hramov, Alexander E

    2016-02-15

    Genetic rat models for childhood absence epilepsy have become instrumental in developing theories on the origin of absence epilepsy, the evaluation of new and experimental treatments, as well as in developing new methods for automatic seizure detection, prediction, and/or interference of seizures. Various methods for automated off and on-line analyses of ECoG in rodent models are reviewed, as well as data on how to interfere with the spike-wave discharges by different types of invasive and non-invasive electrical, magnetic, and optical brain stimulation. Also a new method for seizure prediction is proposed. Many selective and specific methods for off- and on-line spike-wave discharge detection seem excellent, with possibilities to overcome the issue of individual differences. Moreover, electrical deep brain stimulation is rather effective in interrupting ongoing spike-wave discharges with low stimulation intensity. A network based method is proposed for absence seizures prediction with a high sensitivity but a low selectivity. Solutions that prevent false alarms, integrated in a closed loop brain stimulation system open the ways for experimental seizure control. The presence of preictal cursor activity detected with state of the art time frequency and network analyses shows that spike-wave discharges are not caused by sudden and abrupt transitions but that there are detectable dynamic events. Their changes in time-space-frequency characteristics might yield new options for seizure prediction and seizure control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental Treatment Options in Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Luijtelaar, Gilles van; Zobeiri, Mehrnoush; Lüttjohann, Annika; Depaulis, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The benign character of absence epilepsy compared to other genetic generalized epilepsy syndromes has often hampered the search for new treatment options. Absence epilepsy is most often treated with ethosuximide or valproic acid. However, both drugs are not always well tolerated or fail, and seizure freedom for a larger proportion of patients remains to be achieved. The availability of genuine animal models of epilepsy does allow to search for new treatment options not only for absence epilepsy per se but also for other genetic - previously called idiopathic - forms of epilepsy. The recent discovery of a highly excitable cortical zone in these models is considered as a new therapeutic target area. Here, we provide an overview regarding the search for new therapeutical options as has been investigated in the genetic rodent models (mainly WAG/Rij and GAERS) including drugs and whether antiepileptogenesis can be achieved, various types of electrical and optogenetical invasive stimulations, different types of noninvasive stimulation and finally whether absence seizures can be predicted and prevented. Many factors determine either the cortical and or thalamic excitability or the interaction between cortex and thalamus and offer new possibilities for new anti-absence drugs, among others metabotropic glutamatergic positive and negative allosteric modulators. The inhibition of epileptogenesis by various drugs with its widespread consequences seems feasible, although its mechanisms remain obscure and seems different from the antiabsence action. Surgical intervention on the cortical zone initiating seizures, either with radiosurgery using synchrotron- generated microbeams, or ablation techniques might reduce spike-and-wave discharges in the rodent models. High frequency electrical subcortical or cortical stimulation might be a good way to abort ongoing spikeand- wave discharges. In addition, possibilities for prevention with real-time EEG analyses in combination with

  1. Congenital Complete Absence of Pericardium Masquerading as Pulmonary Embolism

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Saad; Mahmood, Sultan; Madeira, Samuel; Tarasov, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare cardiac condition, which can be either isolated or associated with other cardiac and extracardiac anomalies. There are six different types, depending on the severity of the involvement. Most of the patients with this defect are asymptomatic, especially the ones with complete absence of the pericardium. However, some patients are symptomatic, reporting symptoms that include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, and syncope. Diagnosis is established by the characteristic features on chest X-ray, echocardiogram, chest computed tomography (CT), and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imging (MRI). We present here a case of a 23 year-old-male, who presented to our hospital with complaints of pleuritic chest pain and exertional dyspnea, of a two-week duration. He was physically active and his past history was otherwise insignificant. His chest CT with contrast was interpreted as showing evidence of multiple emboli, predominantly in the left lung, and he was started on a heparin and warfarin therapy. A repeat chest CT with contrast three weeks later showed no significant change from the previous CT scan. Both scans showed that the heart was abnormally rotated to the left side of the chest. An echocardiogram raised the suspicion of congenital absence of the pericardium, with a posteriorly displaced heart. In retrospect, motion artifact on the left lung, attributed to cardiac pulsations and the lack of pericardium, resulted in a CT chest appearance, mimicking findings of pulmonary embolism. The misdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism was attributed to the artifact caused by excessive cardiac motion artifact on the chest CT scan. In non-gated CT angiograms, excessive motion causes an artifact that blurs the pulmonary vessels, reminiscent of a ′seagull′ or a ′boomerang′. Physicians need to be aware of this phenomenon, as well as the characteristic radiological features of this congenital anomaly, to enable them to make a correct

  2. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the CArdiovascular safety and Renal Microvascular outcomE study with LINAgliptin (CARMELINA®): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardio-renal risk.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Julio; Perkovic, Vlado; Alexander, John H; Cooper, Mark E; Marx, Nikolaus; Pencina, Michael J; Toto, Robert D; Wanner, Christoph; Zinman, Bernard; Baanstra, David; Pfarr, Egon; Mattheus, Michaela; Broedl, Uli C; Woerle, Hans-Juergen; George, Jyothis T; von Eynatten, Maximilian; McGuire, Darren K

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have underrepresented patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to uncertainty regarding their kidney efficacy and safety. The CARMELINA ® trial aims to evaluate the effects of linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on both CV and kidney outcomes in a study population enriched for cardio-renal risk. CARMELINA ® is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 27 countries in T2D patients at high risk of CV and/or kidney events. Participants with evidence of CKD with or without CV disease and HbA1c 6.5-10.0% (48-86 mmol/mol) were randomized 1:1 to receive linagliptin once daily or matching placebo, added to standard of care adjusted according to local guidelines. The primary outcome is time to first occurrence of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. The key secondary outcome is a composite of time to first sustained occurrence of end-stage kidney disease, ≥ 40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, or renal death. CV and kidney events are prospectively adjudicated by independent, blinded clinical event committees. CARMELINA ® was designed to continue until at least 611 participants had confirmed primary outcome events. Assuming a hazard ratio of 1.0, this provides 90% power to demonstrate non-inferiority of linagliptin versus placebo within the pre-specified non-inferiority margin of 1.3 at a one-sided α-level of 2.5%. If non-inferiority of linagliptin for the primary outcome is demonstrated, then its superiority for both the primary outcome and the key secondary outcome will be investigated with a sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Between July 2013 and August 2016, 6980 patients were randomized and took ≥ 1 dose of study drug (40.6, 33.1, 16.9, and 9.4% from Europe, South America, North America, and Asia, respectively). At baseline, mean ± SD age was 65.8 ± 9.1 years, HbA1c

  3. The effect of mental ill health on absence from work in different occupational classifications: analysis of routine data in the British Household Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Will; Sutton, Matt; Macdonald, Sara; Maxwell, Margaret; Smith, Michael; Wilson, Philip; Morrison, Jill

    2012-12-01

    To investigate relationship of mental ill health to absence from work in different occupational classifications. Examined sickness absence, mental health (GHQ-12), physical health, job characteristics, and personal characteristics in 18 waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Overall sickness absence rate was 1.68%. Increased absence was associated with age greater than 45 years, female gender, lower occupational classification, and public-sector employers. Decreased absence was associated with part-time working. Scoring 4 or more on the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12 caseness) was strongly associated with sickness absence. Public-sector employers had highest rates of sickness absence. GHQ-12 caseness had largest impact on absence in the public and nonprofit sectors, whereas physical health problems impacted more in the private sector. GHQ-12 caseness is strongly associated with increased absence in all classifications of occupations. Differences between sectors require further investigation.

  4. The Presence of Consciousness in Absence Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or ‘levels’) of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity of consciousness. PMID:21447898

  5. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-08-13

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager.

  6. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  7. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  8. [Sickness absence certification from the medical perspective].

    PubMed

    Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Mar-Obeso, Alvaro Julián; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Méndez-Bueno, Francisco Javier; Aguilar-Sánchez, Leticia; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Sickness absence certification is a medical task with important clinical, social, occupational and ethical implications, in addition to economic consequences for the worker, the employers and social security institutions. In 2007, IMSS affiliated workers received certifications for 65,384,690 days of absence, with cash benefits for 8.1 billion pesos. The duration of return to work depends on the efficiency of health care team as well as factors associated to the worker and the occupational environment. The correct management of sickness absence certification requires adequate disease diagnosis, regulatory knowledge and adequate communication with the patient. The purpose of control and auditing is to make sure that the certification is adequate in the indication and the optimal length, in order to warrant a responsible and sustainable management of this resource of social protection. If expenditure reduction is not possible, the objective is to avoid inefficient or irrational management. Treating physicians, with proper information, can contribute to optimize the provision of this benefit to those who need it.

  9. 40 CFR 74.20 - Data for baseline and alternative baseline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data for baseline and alternative... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.20 Data for baseline and alternative baseline. (a) Acceptable data. (1) The designated representative of a combustion...

  10. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  11. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Gavin; Smith, Aaron; Warner, Ethan

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. Themore » wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.« less

  12. Display system replacement baseline research report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    This report provides baseline measurements on the Display System Replacement (DSR). These measurements followed six constructs: : safety, capacity, performance, workload, usability, and simulation fidelity. To collect these measurements, human factor...

  13. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed.

    PubMed

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence.

  14. PICK1 uncoupling from mGluR7a causes absence-like seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bertaso, Federica; Zhang, Chuansheng; Scheschonka, Astrid; de Bock, Frédéric; Fontanaud, Pierre; Marin, Philippe; Huganir, Richard L; Betz, Heinrich; Bockaert, Joël; Fagni, Laurent; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille

    2009-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes a recurrent loss of consciousness and generalized spike-and-wave discharges on an electroencephalogram (EEG). The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and associated scaffolding proteins in absence epilepsy has been unclear to date. We investigated a possible role for these proteins in absence epilepsy, focusing on the mGluR7a receptor and its PDZ-interacting protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1), in rats and mice. Injection of a cell-permeant dominant-negative peptide or targeted mutation of the mGluR7a C terminus, both of which disrupt the interaction between the receptor and PDZ proteins, caused behavioral symptoms and EEG discharges that are characteristic of absence epilepsy. Inactivation of the Pick1 gene also facilitated pharmacological induction of the absence epilepsy phenotype. The cortex and thalamus, which are known to participate in absence epilepsy, were involved, but the hippocampus was not. Our results indicate that disruption of the mGluR7a-PICK1 complex is sufficient to induce absence epilepsy—like seizures in rats and mice, thus providing, to the best of our knowledge, the first animal model of metabotropic glutamate receptor—PDZ protein interaction in absence epilepsy. PMID:18641645

  15. The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands. A prospective study of psychiatric sickness absence in the French GAZEL study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Berkman, Lisa F; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel

    2007-07-01

    Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men. We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of the French GAZEL cohort study (8,869 men, 2,671 women) over a period of 9 years (1995-2003). Work stress and family demands were measured by questionnaire. Medically certified psychiatric sickness absence data were obtained directly from the employer. Rate ratios (RRs) of sickness absence were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, marital status, social support, stressful life events, alcohol consumption, body mass and depressive symptoms at baseline. Participants simultaneously exposed to high levels of work and family demands (> or =2 work stress factors and > or =4 dependents) had significantly higher rates of sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders than participants with lower levels of demands (compared to participants exposed to 0-1 work stress factors and with 1-3 dependents, age-adjusted rate ratios were 2.37 (95% CI 1.02-5.52) in men and 6.36 (95% CI 3.38-11.94) in women. After adjusting for baseline socio-demographic, behavioral and health characteristics, these RRs were respectively reduced to 1.82 (95% CI 0.86-3.87) in men, 5.04 (95% CI 2.84-8.90) in women. The effect of multiple work and family demands was strongest for sickness absence due to depression: age-adjusted RRs among participants with the highest level of work and family demands were 4.70 (1.96-11.24) in men, 8.57 (4.26-17.22) in women; fully adjusted RRs: 3.55 (95% CI 1.62-7.77) in men, 6.58 (95%CI 3.46-12.50) in women. Men and women simultaneously exposed to high levels of work stress and family demands are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems

  16. The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands : A prospective study of psychiatric sickness absence in the French GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Maria; Berkman, Lisa; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men. Methods We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of the French GAZEL cohort study (8869 men, 2671 women) over a period of 9 years (1995–2003). Work stress and family demands were measured by questionnaire. Medically-certified psychiatric sickness absence data were obtained directly from the employer. Rate ratios (RRs) of sickness absence were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, marital status, social support, stressful life events, alcohol consumption, body mass and depressive symptoms at baseline. Results Participants simultaneously exposed to high levels of work and family demands (>=2 work stress factors and >=4 dependents) had significantly higher rates of sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders than participants with lower levels of demands (compared to participants exposed to 0–1 work stress factors and with 1–3 dependents, age-adjusted rate ratios were 2.37 (95% CI 1.02–5.52) in men and 6.36 (95% CI 3.38–11.94) in women. After adjusting for baseline socio-demographic, behavioral and health characteristics, these RRs were respectively reduced to 1.82 (95% CI 0.86–3.87) in men, 5.04 (95% CI 2.84–8.90) in women. The effect of multiple work and family demands was strongest for sickness absence due to depression : age-adjusted RRs among participants with the highest level of work and family demands were 4.70 (1.96–11.24) in men, 8.57 (4.26–17.22) in women; fully-adjusted RRs: 3.55 (95% CI 1.62–7.77) in men, 6.58 (95% CI 3.46–12.50) in women. Conclusions Men and women simultaneously exposed to high levels of work stress and family demands

  17. Burnout as a predictor of self-reported sickness absence among human service workers: prospective findings from three year follow up of the PUMA study.

    PubMed

    Borritz, M; Rugulies, R; Christensen, K B; Villadsen, E; Kristensen, T S

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether burnout predicts sickness absence days and sickness absence spells in human service workers. A total of 824 participants from an ongoing prospective study in different human service sector organisations were eligible for the three year follow up analysis. Burnout was measured with the work related burnout scale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Sickness absence was measured with self-reported number of days and spells during the last 12 months before the baseline and the follow up survey. A Poisson regression model with a scale parameter was used to account for over dispersion. A linear regression model was used for analysing changes in burnout and absence between baseline and follow up. Burnout was prospectively associated with both sickness absence days and sickness absence spells per year. Differences in sickness absence days varied from a mean of 5.4 days per year in the lowest quartile of the work related burnout scale to a mean of 13.6 in the highest quartile. An increase of one standard deviation on the work related burnout scale predicted an increase of 21% in sickness absence days per year (rate ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.32) after adjusting for gender, age, organisation, socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, family status, having children under 7 years of age, and prevalence of diseases. Regarding sickness absence spells, an increase of one standard deviation on the work related burnout scale predicted an increase of 9% per year (rate ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17). Changes in burnout level from baseline to follow up were positively associated with changes in sickness absence days (estimate 1.94 days/year, SE 0.63) and sickness absence spell (estimate 0.34 spells/year, SE 0.08). The findings indicate that burnout predicts sickness absence. Reducing burnout is likely to reduce sickness absence.

  18. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  19. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  20. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  1. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave...

  2. Return to Work among Employees with Long-Term Sickness Absence in Eldercare: A Prospective Analysis of Register-Based Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Thomas; Friis Andersen, Malenea; Bang Christensen, Karl; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states predict return to work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence among eldercare staff. We followed 9947 employees in a national register on payment of sickness-absence compensation for 1 year and found that 598 employees had absence periods of 8…

  3. A long baseline global stereo matching based upon short baseline estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Li, Zigang; Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Zixin; Ma, Yueyang; Fang, Meiqi

    2018-05-01

    In global stereo vision, balancing the matching efficiency and computing accuracy seems to be impossible because they contradict each other. In the case of a long baseline, this contradiction becomes more prominent. In order to solve this difficult problem, this paper proposes a novel idea to improve both the efficiency and accuracy in global stereo matching for a long baseline. In this way, the reference images located between the long baseline image pairs are firstly chosen to form the new image pairs with short baselines. The relationship between the disparities of pixels in the image pairs with different baselines is revealed by considering the quantized error so that the disparity search range under the long baseline can be reduced by guidance of the short baseline to gain matching efficiency. Then, the novel idea is integrated into the graph cuts (GCs) to form a multi-step GC algorithm based on the short baseline estimation, by which the disparity map under the long baseline can be calculated iteratively on the basis of the previous matching. Furthermore, the image information from the pixels that are non-occluded under the short baseline but are occluded for the long baseline can be employed to improve the matching accuracy. Although the time complexity of the proposed method depends on the locations of the chosen reference images, it is usually much lower for a long baseline stereo matching than when using the traditional GC algorithm. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is examined by experiments based on benchmark datasets. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the traditional GC method in terms of efficiency and accuracy, and thus it is suitable for long baseline stereo matching.

  4. Baseline estimation from simultaneous satellite laser tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dedes, George C.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous Range Differences (SRDs) to Lageos are obtained by dividing the observing stations into pairs with quasi-simultaneous observations. For each of those pairs the station with the least number of observations is identified, and at its observing epochs interpolated ranges for the alternate station are generated. The SRD observables are obtained by subtracting the actually observed laser range of the station having the least number of observations from the interpolated ranges of the alternate station. On the basis of these observables semidynamic single baseline solutions were performed. The aim of these solutions is to further develop and implement the SRD method in the real data environment, to assess its accuracy, its advantages and disadvantages as related to the range dynamic mode methods, when the baselines are the only parameters of interest. Baselines, using simultaneous laser range observations to Lageos, were also estimated through the purely geometric method. These baselines formed the standards the standards of comparison in the accuracy assessment of the SRD method when compared to that of the range dynamic mode methods. On the basis of this comparison it was concluded that for baselines of regional extent the SRD method is very effective, efficient, and at least as accurate as the range dynamic mode methods, and that on the basis of a simple orbital modeling and a limited orbit adjustment. The SRD method is insensitive to the inconsistencies affecting the terrestrial reference frame and simultaneous adjustment of the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) is not necessary.

  5. Predicting future learning from baseline network architecture.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Marcelo G; Wymbs, Nicholas F; Bock, Andrew S; Aguirre, Geoffrey K; Grafton, Scott T; Bassett, Danielle S

    2018-05-15

    Human behavior and cognition result from a complex pattern of interactions between brain regions. The flexible reconfiguration of these patterns enables behavioral adaptation, such as the acquisition of a new motor skill. Yet, the degree to which these reconfigurations depend on the brain's baseline sensorimotor integration is far from understood. Here, we asked whether spontaneous fluctuations in sensorimotor networks at baseline were predictive of individual differences in future learning. We analyzed functional MRI data from 19 participants prior to six weeks of training on a new motor skill. We found that visual-motor connectivity was inversely related to learning rate: sensorimotor autonomy at baseline corresponded to faster learning in the future. Using three additional scans, we found that visual-motor connectivity at baseline is a relatively stable individual trait. These results suggest that individual differences in motor skill learning can be predicted from sensorimotor autonomy at baseline prior to task execution. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Work outcomes of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this systematic literature review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the return-to-work outcomes of sickness absences related to mental disorders that increase costs borne by employers. We address two questions: (1) Based on the existing literature, from the employer's perspective, what are the relevant economic return-to-work outcomes for sickness absences related to mental disorders? and (2) From the employer's economic perspective, are there gaps in knowledge about the relevant return-to-work outcomes for sickness absences related to mental disorders? Setting The included studies used administrative data from either an employer, insurer or occupational healthcare provider. Participants Studies included working adults between 18 and 65 years old who had a sickness absence related to a mental disorder. Primary and secondary outcome measures The studies considered two general return-to-work outcome categories: (1) outcomes focusing on return-to-work and (2) outcomes focusing on sickness absence recurrence. Results A total of 3820 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies were identified whose quality ranged from good to excellent. Half of the identified studies came from one country. The studies considered two characteristics of sickness absence: (1) whether and how long it took for a worker to return-to-work and (2) sickness absence recurrence. None of the studies examined return-to-work outcomes related to work reintegration. Conclusions The existing literature suggests that along with the incidence of sickness absence related to mental disorders, the length of sickness absence episodes and sickness absence recurrence (ie, number and time between) should be areas of concern. However, there also seems to be gaps in the literature regarding the work reintegration process and its associated costs. PMID:25023133

  7. Analysis of surface EMG baseline for detection of hidden muscle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Objective. This study explored the feasibility of detecting hidden muscle activity in surface electromyogram (EMG) baseline. Approach. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis and multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis were used. Both analyses were applied to computer simulations of surface EMG baseline with the presence (representing activity data) or absence (representing reference data) of hidden muscle activity, as well as surface electrode array EMG baseline recordings of healthy control and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subjects. Main results. Although the simulated reference data and the activity data yielded no distinguishable difference in the time domain, they demonstrated a significant difference in the frequency and signal complexity domains with the PSD and MSE analyses. For a comparison using pooled data, such a difference was also observed when the PSD and MSE analyses were applied to surface electrode array EMG baseline recordings of healthy control and ALS subjects, which demonstrated no distinguishable difference in the time domain. Compared with the PSD analysis, the MSE analysis appeared to be more sensitive for detecting the difference in surface EMG baselines between the two groups. Significance. The findings implied the presence of a hidden muscle activity in surface EMG baseline recordings from the ALS subjects. To promote the presented analysis as a useful diagnostic or investigatory tool, future studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological nature or origins of the hidden muscle activity, as well as the baseline difference at the individual subject level.

  8. Analysis of Surface EMG Baseline for Detection of Hidden Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored the feasibility of detecting hidden muscle activity in surface electromyogram (EMG) baseline. Approach Power spectral density (PSD) analysis and multi-scale entropy (MSE) analysis were used respectively. Both analyses were applied to computer simulations of surface EMG baseline with presence (representing activity data) or absence (representing reference data) of hidden muscle activity, as well as surface electrode array EMG baseline recordings of healthy control and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) subjects. Main results Although the simulated reference data and the activity data yielded no distinguishable difference in the time domain, they demonstrated a significant difference in the frequency and signal complexity domains with the PSD and MSE analyses. For a comparison using pooled data, such a difference was also observed when the PSD and MSE analyses were applied to surface electrode array EMG baseline recordings of healthy control and ALS subjects, which demonstrated no distinguishable difference in the time domain. Compared with the PSD analysis, the MSE analysis appeared to be more sensitive for detecting the difference in surface EMG baselines between the two groups. Significance The findings implied presence of hidden muscle activity in surface EMG baseline recordings from the ALS subjects. To promote the presented analysis as a useful diagnostic or investigatory tool, future studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological nature or origins of the hidden muscle activity, as well as the baseline difference at the individual subject level. PMID:24445526

  9. Psychological distress screener for risk of future mental sickness absence in non-sicklisted employees.

    PubMed

    van Hoffen, Marieke F A; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W; de Bruin, Johan; Joling, Catelijne I; Roelen, Corné A M

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a three-item screener, derived from the 16-item distress scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Checklist (4DSQ), was used to measure psychological distress in sicklisted employees. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of the 16-item distress scale and three-item distress screener to identify non-sicklisted employees at risk of sickness absence (SA) due to mental disorders. Prospective cohort study including 4877 employees working in distribution and transport. The 4DSQ distress scale was distributed at baseline in November 2010. SA diagnosed within the International Classification of Diseases -10 chapter F was defined as mental SA and retrieved from an occupational health register during 2-year follow-up. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to discriminate between workers with ('cases') and without ('non-cases') mental SA during follow-up. A total of 2782 employees (57%) were included in complete cases analysis; 73 employees had mental SA during 2-year follow-up. Discrimination between cases and non-cases was similar for the 16-item distress scale (AUC = 0.721; 95% CI, 0.622-0.823) and the three-item screener (AUC = 0.715; 95% CI, 0.615-0.815). Healthcare providers could use the three-item distress screener to identify non-sicklisted employees at risk of future mental SA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Short and Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autiero, Dario

    2005-04-01

    These two lectures discuss the past and current neutrino oscillation experiments performed with man-made neutrino sources, like accelerators and nuclear reactors. The search for neutrino oscillations is a remarkable effort, which has been performed over three decades. It is therefore interesting to discuss the short and long baseline neutrino experiments in their historical context and to see how this line of research evolved up to the present generation of experiments, looking at what was learnt from past experiments and how this experience is used in the current ones. The first lecture focuses on the past generation of short baseline experiments (NOMAD and CHORUS) performed at CERN and ends with LSND and MINIBOONE. The second lecture discusses how after the CHOOZ and the atmospheric neutrino results the line of the long baseline experiments developed and presents in details the K2K and MINOS experiments and the CNGS program.

  11. Earth Orientation Effects on Mobile VLBI Baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    Improvements in data quality for the mobile VLBI systems have placed higher accuracy requirements on Earth orientation calibrations. Errors in these calibrations may give rise to systematic effects in the nonlength components of the baselines. Various sources of Earth orientation data were investigated for calibration of Mobile VLBI baselines. Significant differences in quality between the several available sources of UT1-UTC were found. It was shown that the JPL Kalman filtered space technology data were at least as good as any other and adequate to the needs of current Mobile VLBI systems and observing plans. For polar motion, the values from all service suffice. The effect of Earth orientation errors on the accuracy of differenced baselines was also investigated. It is shown that the effect is negligible for the current mobile systems and observing plan.

  12. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr.more » These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.« less

  13. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  14. Explaining the absence of surgical procedure regulation.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Jonathan J

    Each year in the United States, surgeons perform approximately 64 million surgical procedures, ranging from tooth extraction to open heart surgery. Yet, notwithstanding the frequency of surgical procedures and their often critical importance to patient health, no state or federal agency either approves the use of new surgical procedures or directly regulates existing procedures. The absence of surgical procedure regulation differs from the regulation of new pharmaceutical products, which can be introduced into interstate commerce only after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reviewed "adequate and well-controlled [clinical] investigations" and concluded the data from those studies sufficiently establish the drug's safety and efficacy. Surgical procedures, by contrast, are more often conveyed from professor to student, the result being that surgical approaches may vary considerably from one geographic region to another. Whether different techniques produce different outcomes is not always clear, in part because the absence of regulation means that evidence often has not been systematically generated or may be in a form not suitable for comparison. Commentators have noted the differing treatment that persists between surgery and pharmaceuticals and have offered a number of justifications. For example, they have suggested that the surgical profession should self-regulate, that excessive regulation could deter surgeries of unproven benefit even when the surgery may be in the best interest of the patient, and that surgical trials could disrupt the doctor-patient relationship, such as by emphasizing uncertainty in a context where patient trust is important. In the context of innovative (as opposed to established) surgical procedures, controlled trials might be disfavored due to concern that desperate patients might unwisely submit themselves to risky experimental treatments undertaken by overzealous researchers. When commentators advocate for increased surgical

  15. Long-term sickness absence during pregnancy and the gender balance of workplaces.

    PubMed

    Melsom, Anne M

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses how the gender composition of workplaces affects pregnant women's sickness absence. It also assesses whether an observed association may be explaine by differential selection to female- or male-dominated workplaces. The analyses are based on Norwegian registry data from 2003-2011. Using Poisson regressions with detailed control for occupational categories, I examine whether the number of absence days are associated with the proportion of females at the workplace. I address possible selection effects by Poisson regressions with fixed individual effects using only within-individual variation on women with two or more pregnancies during the time window. The analyses indicate a positive and significant relationship between the female proportion in workplaces and sickness absence rates during pregnancy. Analyses limited to within-individual variation also show positive and significant effects of similar strength, indicating that the observed relationship is not due to differential selection of absence-prone pregnant workers to female-dominated workplaces. The proportion of female individuals at workplaces is positively associated with sickness absence rates during pregnancy this association is not likely explained by occupational nor individual characteristics the results are consistent with absence culture theory and more lenient norms concerning sickness absence during pregnancy at female-dominated workplaces. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Congenital absence of pulmonary valve leaflets.

    PubMed Central

    Buendia, A; Attie, F; Ovseyevitz, J; Zghaib, A; Zamora, C; Zavaleta, D; Vargas-Barron, J; Richheimer, R

    1983-01-01

    Congenital absence of pulmonary valve leaflets is an uncommon condition usually associated with ventricular septal defect and an obstructive pulmonary valve ring. Twenty-one patients with these malformations are described. Twenty had an associated ventricular septal defect with ventriculoarterial concordance, and one also had transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and obstructive pulmonary valve ring. The clinical features, cardiac catheterisation findings, and angiocardiographic results are presented. Twelve patients underwent cardiac surgery. Three patients died, one in the early, and the other two in the late postoperative period. The results, according to the surgical technique employed and postoperative cardiac catheterisation findings, showed that patients in whom the bioprostheses were implanted in the pulmonary position had a better late follow-up. Images PMID:6860509

  17. Sickness absence and disability pension following breast cancer - A population-based matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lundh, Marie Høyer; Lampic, Claudia; Nordin, Karin; Ahlgren, Johan; Bergkvist, Leif; Lambe, Mats; Berglund, Anders; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-12-01

    To compare sickness absence and disability pension in a population-based cohort of women with breast cancer (n = 463) from 1 year pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis with a matched control group (n = 2310), and to investigate predictors of sickness absence during the 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis. Following breast cancer, the proportion of disease-free women with sickness absence decreased post-diagnosis (1st-3rd year; 78%-31%-19%), but did not reach the pre-diagnostic level (14%; P < 0.05). Post-diagnosis, patients were more likely than controls to be sickness absent (1st-3rd year; P < 0.001). No between-group differences were observed for disability pension post-diagnosis (P > 0.05). Among patients, chemotherapy, baseline fatigue and pre-diagnosis sick days predicted sickness absence during the 2nd, 3rd, and 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis, respectively (P < 0.05). Breast cancer is associated with increased sickness absence 3 years post-diagnosis. In a clinical setting, prevention and treatment of side effects are important in reducing long-term consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  19. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  20. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a used engine to be the emission-data engine for the engine family for testing. Using good engineering judgment, select the engine configuration expected to represent the most common configuration in... adjust it differently, consistent with good engineering judgment. (d) Test the baseline engine four times...

  1. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a used engine to be the emission-data engine for the engine family for testing. Using good engineering judgment, select the engine configuration expected to represent the most common configuration in... adjust it differently, consistent with good engineering judgment. (d) Test the baseline engine four times...

  2. Baseline and Multimodal UAV GCS Interface Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    complete a computerized version of the NASA - TLX assessment of perceived mental workload. 2.3 Results The baseline condition ran smoothly and with...System MALE Medium-altitude, Long-endurance NASA - TLX NASA Task Load Index SA Situation Awareness TDT Tucker Davis Technologies UAV Uninhabited Aerial

  3. THE LONDON LOW EMISSION ZONE BASELINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators hope that the LEZ baseline study will present a creative effort to lay the groundwork for studying spatial and temporal changes in air pollutant concentrations and health outcomes in advance of a major regulatory intervention. It is hope that the study wil...

  4. 75 FR 65010 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-1-000; Docket No. PR11-2-000; Docket No. PR11-3-000] Notice of Baseline Filings October 14, 2010. Cranberry Pipeline Docket No. PR11-1-000 Corporation. New Mexico Gas Company, Inc.. Docket No. PR11-2-000 Peoples Natural Gas...

  5. On Internal Validity in Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research designs for evaluating intervention effects on individual cases. The designs are widely applied in certain fields, including special education, school psychology, clinical psychology, social work, and applied behavior analysis. The multiple baseline design (MBD) is the most frequently used single-case…

  6. Passive range estimation using dual baseline triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, Ronald J.; Cooper, Alfred W.; Pelegris, G.

    1996-03-01

    Modern combat systems based on active radar sensing suffer disadvantages against low-flying targets in cluttered backgrounds. Use of passive infrared sensors with these systems, either in cooperation or as an alternative, shows potential for improving target detection and declaration range for targets crossing the horizon. Realization of this potential requires fusion of target position data from dissimilar sensors, or passive sensor measurement of target range. The availability of passive sensors that can supply both range and bearing data on such targets would significantly extend the robustness of an integrated ship self-defense system. This paper considers a new method of range determination with passive sensors based on the principle of triangulation, extending the principle to two orthogonal baselines. The performance of single or double baseline triangulation depends on sensor bearing precision and direction to target. An expression for maximum triangulation range at a required accuracy is derived as a function of polar angle relative to the center of the dual-baseline system. Limitations in the dual- baseline model due to the geometrically assessed horizon are also considered.

  7. 75 FR 57268 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-103-000; Docket No. PR10-104-000; Docket No. PR10-105- 000 (Not Consolidated)] Notice of Baseline Filings September 13, 2010. Duke Energy Ohio, Inc Docket No. PR10-103-000. Duke Energy Kentucky, Inc Docket No. PR10-104-000...

  8. 76 FR 8725 - Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Baseline Filings Enstor Grama Ridge Storage and Docket No. PR10-97-002. Transportation, L.L.C.. EasTrans, LLC Docket No. PR10-30-001. DCP Guadalupe Pipeline, LLC...... Docket No. PR10-31-002. DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC......... Docket No...

  9. Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.; Shields, V. E.; Rippey, J. O.; Roberts, H. L.; Wadle, R. C.; Wallin, S. P.; Gill, W. L.; White, E. H.; Monzingo, R.

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix.

  10. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  11. The Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline: A synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Eighth Biennial Emergy Conference (January, 2014), the need for revisiting the procedures and assumptions used to compute the Geobiosphere Emergy Baseline (GEB) emerged as a necessity to strengthen the method of Emergy Accounting and remove sources of ambiguity and ...

  12. Joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence: the Helsinki Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence of various lengths while considering several covariates. Baseline surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, (N = 6535) were prospectively linked with employer's personnel register data comprising short self-certified (1-3 days), medically-certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence spells. Average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sociodemographics, working conditions, health behaviours and health were self-reported in the surveys. Poisson regression analysis was used. Insomnia symptoms were associated with sickness absence at all levels of sleep duration. Adjusting for gender and age, U-shaped associations regarding sleep hours were found. Thus, those reporting short or long sleep and reporting insomnia symptoms had a higher risk for medically-certified intermediate and long sickness absence as compared to those reporting 7 hours of sleep without insomnia symptoms. Also, those reporting 6, 7, and 8 hours of sleep had a higher risk for such sickness absence, if they reported insomnia. Weak associations were also found for self-certified sickness absence, and for those reporting short and long sleep without insomnia. Adjustments attenuated the associations, but they mainly remained. These results suggest primacy of the effects of insomnia symptoms over sleep duration on sickness absence. Although insomnia dominated the joint association, U-shaped associations suggest that both sleep duration and insomnia symptoms need to be considered to promote work ability.

  13. Beyond the Excused/Unexcused Absence Binary: Classifying Absenteeism through a Voluntary/Involuntary Absence Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birioukov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Student absenteeism in secondary schools has received international academic attention for quite some time. Absenteeism has been linked to diminished academic outcomes and is one of the leading causes of high school dropout. Although absenteeism is a serious concern for educational scholars, the definitions of absences and their subtypes are…

  14. Impact of Father Absence: III. Problems of Family Reintegrating Following Prolonged Father Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Stewart L.; and others

    A three-phase, longitudinal study at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., of family problems with prolonged father absence indicates that there is (1) continuing family growth beyond the situational crisis, (2) active re-examination of roles and values, and (3) heightened awareness of family strength and resourcefulness during the…

  15. [Occupational stress and the risk of sickness absence in customer service workers].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Sobala, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to indicate psychosocial stressors at work that significantly affect sickness absence a workers. Study subjects included a group of 233 randomly selected women employed as post-office clerks. Sickness absence data covered the period of 2004-2006. The psychosocial factors were assessed by means of the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire. The hazard ratio (HR) of sickness absence was analysed using the Cox regression model, separately for short- (1-9 days) medium- (10-29 days) and long-term (30 days and above) sickness absence. The shortterm sickness absence risk was significantly related with the post-office size--in the offices employing 8-12 workers, the risk was by 50% lower compared to those employing a smaller number of workers (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27-0.90) and unpleasant working conditions (dirt), which contributed to the increased risk (HR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). In the case of a 10-29-day absence, the risk was slightly elevated by the demand of long-term vigilance, financial responsibility, and strictly determined breaks at work In the model of long-term sickness absence, a significantly higher risk was noted when the number of employees was 16-25 compared to a smaller number of employees (HR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.09-7.82), non-occupational, self-assessed workload was high (HR = 2.97; 95% CI: 1.34-6.62) or moderate (HR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.11-4.44) compared to self-assessed low workload, and the work space was limited (HR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.00-1.47). Our analysis showed a significant effect of stressogenic work conditions on the patterns of sickness absence. Our findings may help in developing programs intended to reduce sickness absence through limiting the prevalence of unfavourable conditions at workplaces.

  16. The regular general practitioner and sickness absence--a register-based study.

    PubMed

    Winde, Lee; Haukenes, Inger; Hetlevik, Øystein; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2013-01-08

    Undertaking research on the role of regular GPs with regard to rates of sickness absence is methodologically challenging, and existing results show a wide divergence. We investigated how long-term sickness absence is affected by the characteristics of doctors and their patient lists. The study encompassed all those vocationally active residents of Oslo and Bergen in 2005-2006 who had the same regular GP throughout 2006 (N = 298,039). Encrypted data on sickness absence for each individual in 2006, as well their age, gender and level of education were merged with data on the regular GPs (N = 568) and their patient lists, and subsequently analysed with the aid of logistic regression. The outcome variable was at least one period of sickness absence which had been paid for by the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NLWA). The explanatory variables included the age, gender, list length and list status (open/closed) of the regular GPs, as well as variables that characterised the composition of the patient lists. The analyses were stratified by gender and controlled for individual age and education. The age, gender and list length of the regular GPs were not associated with sickness absence paid for by the NLWA. The odds ratio for sickness absence > 16 days was reduced for both women and men when the list contained many highly educated patients, a high proportion of elderly people and few disability pensioners. Men on lists with a high proportion of men and lists with a high proportion of vocationally active patients also had lower odds rates for sickness absence > 16 days. Among women, the rate of sickness absence was lower for those on open lists than for those on closed lists. In addition to well-known individual factors, the study shows that the likelihood of sickness absence is affected by the socio-demographic composition of the patient list to which one belongs.

  17. A novel type of very long baseline astronomical intensity interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borra, Ermanno F.

    2013-12-01

    This article presents a novel type of very long baseline astronomical interferometer that uses the fluctuations, as a function of time, of the intensity measured by a quadratic detector, which is a common type of astronomical detector. The theory on which the technique is based is validated by laboratory experiments. Its outstanding principal advantages comes from the fact that the angular structure of an astronomical object is simply determined from the visibility of the minima of the spectrum of the intensity fluctuations measured by the detector, as a function of the frequency of the fluctuations, while keeping the spacing between mirrors constant. This would allow a simple setup capable of high angular resolutions because it could use an extremely large baseline. Another major interest is that it allows for a more efficient use of telescope time because observations at a single baseline are sufficient, while amplitude and intensity interferometers need several observations at different baselines. The fact that one does not have to move the telescopes would also allow detecting faster time variations because having to move the telescopes sets a lower limit to the time variations that can be detected. The technique uses wave interaction effects and thus has some characteristics in common with intensity interferometry. A disadvantage of the technique, like in intensity interferometry, is that it needs strong sources if observing at high frequencies (e.g. the visible). This is a minor disadvantage in the radio region. At high frequencies, this disadvantage is mitigated by the fact that, like in intensity interferometry, the requirements of the optical quality of the mirrors used are far less severe than in amplitude interferometry so that poor quality large reflectors (e.g. Cherenkov telescopes) can be used in the optical region.

  18. Illness absence at an oil refinery and petrochemical plant.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S P; Gilstrap, E L; Colangelo, T A; Menard, A K; Ross, C E

    1997-05-01

    Results from a prospective illness-absence surveillance of refinery and petrochemical workers from 1986 through 1994 are presented. Illness absence data for this study were extracted from the morbidity section of the Shell Oil Company's Health Surveillance System, which includes records of all illness absences in excess of 5 days. The majority of employees (59%) had no illness absence during the 9-year period studied. The 13% of the population who had three or more absences accounted for 63% of the total illness absence episodes and 62% of the total work days lost. Frequency rate and duration of absence increased with increasing age. The increased illness absence was associated with the presence of known health risk factors, such as smoking, elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity. For example, obese women had a twofold increased illness absence rate compared with nonobese women and the rate for male smokers doubled that of nonsmoking men. These health risk factors are also more common among employees with three or more absences than those with fewer or no absences. The goal of this analysis is to quantify the impact of illness absence to develop disease prevention strategies to maximize good health in employees and to minimize both the frequency and duration of illness absence.

  19. The Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol from the Isoprene + OH Reaction in the Absence of NOx

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of isoprene (C5H8) with hydroxyl radicals has been studied in the absence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to determine physical and chemical characteristics of the secondary organic aerosol formed. Experiments were conducted using a smog ch...

  20. Rainy Days and Mondays: An Analysis of Factors Related to Absence from School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karweit, Nancy L.

    This paper presents an analysis of factors related to student absenteeism. Absenteeism, long utilized in industrial and business settings as an indicator of employee adjustment and satisfaction, is suggested as a similar indicator in studying the school as an organization. Characteristics of absence as a variable are explored. The influences of…

  1. The Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial: Design, Methods, and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective This report describes the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT), the first large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluating treatments for convergence insufficiency (CI) in children. We also report the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients. Methods We prospectively randomized children 9 to 17 years of age to one of four treatment groups: 1) home-based pencil push-ups, 2) home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy and pencil push-ups, 3) office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement, 4) office-based placebo therapy. Outcome data on the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) score (primary outcome), near point of convergence (NPC), and positive fusional vergence were collected after 12 weeks of active treatment and again at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Results The CITT enrolled 221 children with symptomatic CI with a mean age of 12.0 years (SD = +2.3). The clinical profile of the cohort at baseline was 9Δ exophoria at near (+/− 4.4) and 2Δ exophoria (+/−2.8) at distance, CISS score = 30 (+/−9.0), NPC = 14 cm (+/− 7.5), and near positive fusional vergence break = 13 Δ (+/− 4.6). There were no statistically significant nor clinically relevant differences between treatment groups with respect to baseline characteristics (p > 0.05). Conclusion Hallmark features of the study design include formal definitions of conditions and outcomes, standardized diagnostic and treatment protocols, a placebo treatment arm, masked outcome examinations, and the CISS score outcome measure. The baseline data reported herein define the clinical profile of those enrolled into the CITT. PMID:18300086

  2. The convergence insufficiency treatment trial: design, methods, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT), the first large-scale, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluating treatments for convergence insufficiency (CI) in children. We also report the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients. We prospectively randomized children 9 to 17 years of age to one of four treatment groups: 1) home-based pencil push-ups, 2) home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy and pencil push-ups, 3) office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement, 4) office-based placebo therapy. Outcome data on the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) score (primary outcome), near point of convergence (NPC), and positive fusional vergence were collected after 12 weeks of active treatment and again at 6 and 12 months posttreatment. The CITT enrolled 221 children with symptomatic CI with a mean age of 12.0 years (SD = +2.3). The clinical profile of the cohort at baseline was 9Delta exophoria at near (+/- 4.4) and 2Delta exophoria (+/-2.8) at distance, CISS score = 30 (+/-9.0), NPC = 14 cm (+/- 7.5), and near positive fusional vergence break = 13 Delta (+/- 4.6). There were no statistically significant nor clinically relevant differences between treatment groups with respect to baseline characteristics (p > 0.05). Hallmark features of the study design include formal definitions of conditions and outcomes, standardized diagnostic and treatment protocols, a placebo treatment arm, masked outcome examinations, and the CISS score outcome measure. The baseline data reported herein define the clinical profile of those enrolled into the CITT.

  3. Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy as a Result of Mild Hypercaloric Challenge in Absence of Signs of Diabetes: Modulation by Antidiabetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Al-Assi, Ola; Ghali, Rana; Mroueh, Ali; Kaplan, Abdullah; Mougharbil, Nahed

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an early cardiovascular complication of diabetes occurring before metabolic derangement is evident. The cause of CAN remains elusive and cannot be directly linked to hyperglycemia. Recent clinical data report cardioprotective effects of some antidiabetic drugs independent of their hypoglycemic action. Here, we used a rat model receiving limited daily increase in calories from fat (HC diet) to assess whether mild metabolic challenge led to CAN in absence of interfering effects of hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, or obesity. Rats receiving HC diet for 12 weeks showed reduction in baroreceptor sensitivity and heart rate variability despite lack of change in baseline hemodynamic and cardiovascular structural parameters. Impairment of cardiac autonomic control was accompanied with perivascular adipose inflammation observed as an increased inflammatory cytokine expression, together with increased cardiac oxidative stress, and signaling derangement characteristic of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Two-week treatment with metformin or pioglitazone rectified the autonomic derangement and corrected the molecular changes. Switching rats to normal chow but not to isocaloric amounts of HC for two weeks reversed CAN. As such, we conclude that adipose inflammation due to increased fat intake might underlie development of CAN and, hence, the beneficial effects of metformin and pioglitazone. PMID:29643979

  4. Amygdala volumes in childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Schreibman Cohen, Ayelet; Daley, Melita; Siddarth, Prabha; Levitt, Jennifer; Loesch, Ingrid K; Altshuler, Lori; Ly, Ronald; Shields, W Donald; Gurbani, Suresh; Caplan, Rochelle

    2009-11-01

    Abnormal amygdala volumes in pediatric mood-anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as high rates of these diagnoses in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), prompted this study of amygdala volume in CAE. Twenty-six children with CAE and 23 normal children, aged 6.6-15.8 years, underwent MRI at 1.5 T. The tissue imaged with MRI was segmented, and amygdala volumes were obtained by manual tracings. There were no significant amygdala volume differences between the CAE and normal groups. Within the CAE group, however, the children with ADHD had significantly smaller amygdala volumes than the subjects with CAE with no psychopathology and those with mood/anxiety diagnoses. There was also a significant relationship between higher seizure frequency and greater amygdala asymmetry in the epilepsy group. Given ongoing development of the amygdala during late childhood and adolescence, despite the lack of significant group differences in amygdala volumes, the association of amygdala volume abnormalities with ADHD and seizure frequency implies a possible impact of the disorder on amygdala development and CAE-associated comorbidities, such as ADHD.

  5. Absence of auditory 'global interference' in autism.

    PubMed

    Foxton, Jessica M; Stewart, Mary E; Barnard, Louise; Rodgers, Jacqui; Young, Allan H; O'Brien, Gregory; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2003-12-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the cognitive style of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One theory, that of weak central coherence, concerns an inability to combine stimulus details into a coherent whole. Here we test this theory in the case of sound patterns, using a new definition of the details (local structure) and the coherent whole (global structure). Thirteen individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome and 15 control participants were administered auditory tests, where they were required to match local pitch direction changes between two auditory sequences. When the other local features of the sequence pairs were altered (the actual pitches and relative time points of pitch direction change), the control participants obtained lower scores compared with when these details were left unchanged. This can be attributed to interference from the global structure, defined as the combination of the local auditory details. In contrast, the participants with ASD did not obtain lower scores in the presence of such mismatches. This was attributed to the absence of interference from an auditory coherent whole. The results are consistent with the presence of abnormal interactions between local and global auditory perception in ASD.

  6. Holographic space: presence and absence in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yin-Ren; Richardson, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In terms of contemporary art, time-based media generally refers to artworks that have duration as a dimension and unfold to the viewer over time, that could be a video, slide, film, computer-based technologies or audio. As part of this category, holography pushes this visual-oriented narrative a step further, which brings a real 3D image to invite and allow audiences revisiting the scene of the past, at the moment of recording in space and time. Audiences could also experience the kinetic holographic aesthetics through constantly moving the viewing point or illumination source, which creates dynamic visual effects. In other words, when the audience and hologram remain still, the holographic image can only be perceived statically. This unique form of expression is not created by virtual simulation; the principal of wavefront reconstruction process made holographic art exceptional from other time-based media. This project integrates 3D printing technology to explore the nature of material aesthetics, transiting between material world and holographic space. In addition, this series of creation also reveals the unique temporal quality of a hologram's presence and absence, an ambiguous relationship existing in this media.

  7. Predicting Baseline for Analysis of Electricity Pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.; Lee, D.; Choi, J.

    2016-05-03

    To understand the impact of new pricing structure on residential electricity demands, we need a baseline model that captures every factor other than the new price. The standard baseline is a randomized control group, however, a good control group is hard to design. This motivates us to devlop data-driven approaches. We explored many techniques and designed a strategy, named LTAP, that could predict the hourly usage years ahead. The key challenge in this process is that the daily cycle of electricity demand peaks a few hours after the temperature reaching its peak. Existing methods rely on the lagged variables ofmore » recent past usages to enforce this daily cycle. These methods have trouble making predictions years ahead. LTAP avoids this trouble by assuming the daily usage profile is determined by temperature and other factors. In a comparison against a well-designed control group, LTAP is found to produce accurate predictions.« less