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Sample records for absence occupational injuries

  1. [Occupational injuries and sickness absence: association with job demand, decision latitude, and life style in 2174 workers in the Veneto Region].

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, G; Mattioli, S; Baldasseroni, A; Bontadi, D; Capodicasa, E; Marzia, Vita; Mazzi, Maddalena; Patané, P; Torri, Paola; Marangi, G; Fadda, Emanuela; Priolo, G; Scoizzato, L; Maier, Elisabetta; Campo, G; Marchiori, L

    2008-01-01

    .6; 1.1-2.2). PAR was 26.1% for occupational factors (high JD and low DL), 7.6% for non-occupational factors (smoking), and 30.4% overall. While the risk of sick absence increased mainly with the reduction of DL, the risk of occupational accidents increased with increasing JD and, to a lesser extent, with decreasing DL. The current approach to accident prevention is based only on technical and administrative aspects, in spite of the fact that 80% of accidents are not attributable to malfunctioning of machinery. Injury prevention should address technical, personal and psychosocial risk factors together as a whole.

  2. Defining Occupational Illnesses and Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    This technical report will discuss the definitions of occupational illnesses and injuries as established by the Occupational Safety and Health...Administration (OSHA). A systematic method for classifying an occupational event as either an illness or an injury will be presented. The Air Force is...required to collect occupational injury and illness data, to analyze collected data, and to establish preventive programs based upon any identified unsafe

  3. Occupational injuries in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman Sayyar; Ghodsi, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    As the first step in evaluation of the magnitude of the occupational injuries (OIs) in our community, we focused on hospital records of more than 8400 hospitalized trauma patients in six large university hospitals during 13 months of data gathering process. Fourteen percent of 8426 trauma patients had OIs (1180 cases) and 95% of them were male. Adults 19-39 years comprised 63% of the patients. Eleven percent of the patients were 18 years old or younger. Construction workers (26%), simple workers (26%), and industrial workers (17%) comprised nearly 70% of the OIs. Falls (39%) and striking by blunt objects (29%) were the most common mechanisms of injury. More than 60% of the patients did not have any type of insurance. A younger patient has a higher the probability of being uninsured. Head (49%) wrist and hand (46%) and knee and leg (36%) injuries were the most common regions injured. Additional community-based studies are needed to determine the risk of OIs among different occupational categories, as well as to identify the most vulnerable groups.

  4. Occupational injury fatalities--1994.

    PubMed

    Toscano, G; Jack, T

    1996-01-01

    Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone.

  5. Occupational injury in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Dawn N; Higgins, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    In 2008,161 North Carolina workers died from work-related injuries, 3,324 were hospitalized, and 119,000 reported work-related injuries. Workers' compensation costs in the state exceeded $1.3 billion in 2007. Concerted efforts by the private and public sectors will be needed to reach goals to reduce the incidence of occupational injuries.

  6. Occupant-to-occupant contact injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2017-10-03

    This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk of occupant-to-occupant contact injury by crash type and occupant age. It focused on rear impacts because of a recent Senate inquiry. 1994-2013 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the effects of occupant-to-occupant contact on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] 3+) by crash type and age group. NASS-CDS in-depth cases were analyzed to identify crash circumstances for AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury in rear crashes. Serious injury (AIS 3+) due to occupant-to-occupant contact was uncommon. It represented only 0.84% of all AIS 3+ injury for all age groups. The overall risk of AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury was 0.042 ± 0.007%. The highest incidence was in side impacts (69.8%) followed by rollovers (22.9%). Occupant-to-occupant contact injury risk was lower in rear impacts than in other crash types, at 0.0078 ± 0.0054%. The highest risk of AIS 3+ injury with occupant-to-occupant was for the <9-year-old age group when compared to other age groups for all crash types. The risk was 0.051 ± 0.026%, representing 2.69% of all AIS 3+ injury in the <9-year-old age group. Only 4.2% of AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury occurred to children <9 years old in rear impacts. The corresponding injury risk was lowest in rear impacts, at 0.014 ± 0.014%%, when compared to other crash types. The analysis of in-depth NASS-CDS cases of occupant-to-occupant contact injury in children< 9 years old involved in rear impacts identified very severe collisions in older model vehicles with deformation of the occupant compartment and yielding front seats as main factors for the contact injury. Front seat occupants injuring rear-seated children was not identified in the in-depth NASS-CDS cases. AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury occurs primarily in side impacts and rollovers. Most contact injury is to adults (89.4% incidence). Occupant-to-occupant contact injury to

  7. Occupational injury patterns of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celik, Kaan; Yilmaz, Fevzi; Kavalci, Cemil; Ozlem, Miray; Demir, Ali; Durdu, Tamer; Sonmez, Bedriye Müge; Yilmaz, Muhittin Serkan; Karakilic, Muhammed Evvah; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Yel, Cihat

    2013-12-28

    Each year, a significant number of people die or become handicapped due to preventable occupational accidents or occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic features, mechanism, causes, injury area, and sectoral features of occupational accidents in patients presented to our department. The study was carried out retrospectively after local ethics committee approval. Age and sex of the patients, mechanism of injury, type and exact location of injuries were all evaluated. The groups were compared using Chi-Square test, Student's T test and Kruskall-Wallis test. p value <0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Totally 654 patients were included in the study. 93.4% of patients were male, and mean age was 32.96 ± 5.97 (18-73) years. Sectoral distribution of accidents was statistically significant and mostly occurred in industrial and construction workers (p < 0.05, respectively). There is a statistically significant relationship between educational level and sector of the worker (p < 0.05). While the most frequent cause of admission to emergency department was penetrating injuries (36.4%), the least was due to multiple traumas (0.5%). Distribution of occupational accidents according to injury type was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 9.79 ± 8.1. The mean cost of occupational injury was $1729.57 ± 8178.3. There was statistically significant difference between the sectors with respect to cost. Seventy-one patients (10.9%) recovered with permanent sequel and two (0.3%) died in hospital. Occupational accidents are most commonly seen in young males, especially in primary school graduated workers, and during daytime period.

  8. Recognizing occupational illnesses and injuries.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Oyebode A; Mobo, Ben Hur P; Cantley, Linda

    2010-07-15

    Given the burden of occupational illnesses and injuries in the United States, family physicians should understand the role workplace exposures may play in patients' chief concerns. Incorporating employment screening questions into patients' intake questionnaires is an efficient means of identifying potential occupational causes of symptoms. Recommended questions include what kind of job patients have; whether their symptoms are worse at work; whether they are or have been exposed to dust, fumes, chemicals, radiation, or loud noise; and whether they think their health problems may be related to their work. These questions are especially important when the diagnosis or etiology is in doubt. Depending on patients' responses to the screening questions, a more detailed occupational history may be appropriate. It can be useful to ask about routine tasks performed during a typical work shift, as well as anything out of the ordinary (e.g., a change in routine, an injury or accident). The occupational history should include information about alcohol and tobacco use, second or part-time jobs, military service, hobbies, and home environment. Patients with suspected occupational illnesses or injuries may benefit from referral to an occupational medicine specialist for a more detailed assessment and follow-up.

  9. Individual and occupational factors related to fatal occupational injuries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicent; Garcia, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    This study has been designed in order to identify factors increasing the risk of a fatal outcome when occupational accidents occur. The aim is to provide further evidence for the design and implementation of preventive measures in occupational settings. The Spanish Ministry of Labour registry of occupational injuries causing absence from work includes information on individual and occupational characteristics of injured workers and events. Registered fatal occupational injuries in 2001 (n=539) were compared to a sample of non-fatal injuries in the same year (n=3493). Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries, adjusted by individual and occupational factors significantly associated, were obtained through logistic regression models. Compared to non-fatal injuries, fatal occupational injuries were mostly produced by trapping or by natural causes, mostly related to elevation and transport devices and power generators, and injured parts of body more frequently affected were head, multiple parts or internal organs. Adjusted analyses showed increased risk of fatality after an occupational injury for males (adjusted odds ratio aOR=10.92; 95%CI 4.80-24.84) and temporary workers (aOR=5.18; 95%CI 2.63-10.18), and the risk increased with age and with advancing hour of the work shift (p for trends <0.01). Injuries taking place out of the usual occupational setting (aOR=2.85, 95%CI 2.27-3.59), or carrying out atypical tasks (aOR=2.08; 95%CI 1.27-3.39) showed increased risks of a fatal result too, as occupational accidents in agricultural or construction companies. These data can help to select and define priorities for programmes aimed to prevent fatal consequences of occupational injuries.

  10. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    PubMed

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  11. Injuries to Pregnant Occupants in Automotive Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

    1998-01-01

    Injuries unique to pregnant occupants involved in motor-vehicle crashes include placental abruption, uterine rupture or laceration, and direct fetal injury. The mechanisms and characteristics of these injuries are discussed using examples from a literature review and from recent investigations of crashes involving pregnant occupants. In addition, a review of the relationship between the pregnant driver and automotive restraints and the steering wheel illustrates how injury potential may differ from the non-pregnant occupant.

  12. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    PubMed

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  13. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. Procedure: In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. Results: The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Conclusion: Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence. PMID:26153180

  14. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, B A; Forsythe, M E; Stanish, W D

    2001-02-01

    To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.

  15. Chronic occupational repetitive strain injury.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. A.; Forsythe, M. E.; Stanish, W. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management. PMID:11228032

  16. Occupational eye injuries in Finland.

    PubMed

    Saari, K M; Parvi, V

    1984-01-01

    In Finland 11.9% of all industrial accidents in 1973 were eye injuries including superficial eye injuries (79.2%), ultraviolet burns of the cornea (3.9%), eye burns (3.6%), blunt ocular trauma (2,5%), wounds (2.4%), and post-traumatic infections (5.8%). Eye injuries constituted 34.3% of all industrial accidents which needed only ambulatory treatment and 17.5% of all industrial accidents causing an absence for 1-2 days. In 1981 2.1% of all compensated industrial accidents (incapacity for work 3 days or more) were eye injuries. Most compensated eye injuries occurred in manufacturing and in construction work (80.4%) and 8.5% occurred in agriculture. The annual incidence rates of compensated accidents to the eyes (accidents X 1 000/number of employees) were highest in several branches of metal industry (4.96-6.88), excavating and foundation work (6.88), and in logging (5.64). Compensated eye injuries were caused by machines (32.8%), hand tools (25.6%), other equipment and constructions (4.8%), work environment (23.6%), chemical substances (10.8%), and other accidents (2.3%).

  17. Occupational injuries and fatalities in copper mining in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Michelo, Prudence; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2009-05-01

    The metal mining industry employs approximately 15% of formally employed workers in Zambia, but there is little information about the magnitude of occupational injuries among the miners. To determine the frequency rates of occupational injuries and fatalities among copper miners in Zambia. A retrospective study of occupational injuries and fatalities at one of the largest copper mining companies in Zambia was undertaken for the period January 2005 to May 2007. Information on injuries and fatalities was obtained from the electronic accident survey database of the company. Analysis was restricted to fatalities and those injuries that had prompted medical attention and at least 1 day of absence from work. Annual injury and fatality frequency rates (injuries per 1000 employee years and fatalities per 100 000 employee years, respectively) were calculated. In the selected period, 165 injuries and 20 fatalities were recorded. The underground department had the highest frequency rates of fatalities (111/100 000 employee years) and injuries (5.5/1000 employee years). The most common cause of fatal injuries was fall of rock in the underground mines. The most frequent mechanism of injury was handling of tools and materials, and the most commonly injured body parts were the hands and fingers. The fatality rate is high compared to reported values from the metalliferous mining industry in developed countries, strongly suggesting that measures should be taken to reduce risks, particularly at underground sites.

  18. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: “Occupational injuries” and “workplace” between 1984 and 2014. Results: Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Conclusions: Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:27051619

  19. Occupational injury surveillance among electric utility employees.

    PubMed

    Kelsh, Michael A; Lu, Elizabeth T; Ramachandran, Karuna; Jesser, Christine; Fordyce, Tiffani; Yager, Janice W

    2004-09-01

    Currently, there are only limited injury surveillance data for the electric utility workforce. To address this gap, an Occupational Health Surveillance Database for electric power utilities was established for epidemiologic monitoring and intervention program evaluation. Injury rates varied across utility occupations, such as, managers, line workers, and meter readers, ranging from 0.18 to 9.63 per 100 employee-years based on more than 500,000 employee-years of observation. Compared with male workers, the risk of injury among female workers was lower overall, although their risk was higher in nonoffice occupations than their male counterparts. Across the period 2000 to 2002, three of four companies that experienced decreases in workforce size also experienced noticeable increases in injury rates. Our results suggest that benchmarking and prevention efforts should be directed at specific occupational groups and specific injury types.

  20. [Health and function after occupational injury].

    PubMed

    Holtedahl, Robin; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2010-08-12

    Available statistics provide relatively reliable information on the number of occupational injuries, their causes and mechanisms, but less is known about long-term health impact. A group of workers, who had been referred to a specialist for medico-legal assessment after seeking compensation because of occupational injury, were asked to complete a questionnaire approximately three years (median) after the injury. Perceived health and function was assessed through the Short Form Questionnaire (SF-36) and a 100 mm visual analogue scale for physical and psychological health. The injuries were scored according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Information on outcome of the insurance claims was obtained from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV). Of 314 distributed questionnaires, 191 (62 %) were returned. 83 % of the respondents had injuries with an AIS score < 2; mostly sprains, strains and contusions. Compared to Norwegian population norms, the claimants reported substantially reduced health and functioning; this was especially pronounced among those with soft-tissue injuries, age at injury < 45 years, and < 12 years of education. 33 % of the respondents worked full time, while 55 % were recipients of insurance benefits. 30 % had been granted workers' compensation by NAV. The reported health deterioration in this selected injury group seems to be at odds with a biologically based disease model. Medico-legal considerations should take into account that prognosis after occupational injury may be influenced by factors other than the actual injury.

  1. 6th National Occupational Injury Research Symposium: Advancing Occupational Injury Research Through Integration and Partnership.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Dawn N; Schuler, Christine R; Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont

    2017-02-01

    The National Occupational Injury Research Symposium (NOIRS) is the only regularly held forum exclusively dedicated to occupational injury research and prevention. The 2015 conference theme, advancing occupational injury research through integration and partnership, shaped the conference and is reflected in articles selected for this special issue. The 6th NOIRS, held May 19-21, 2015, brought together more than 250 researchers, occupational safety practitioners and students to share and discuss occupational injury research. Articles in this special issue highlight some of the research presented at the conference, reflect multiple scientific disciplines and approaches, cover a breadth of occupational injury causes and worker populations, and provide examples of research advanced by partnerships. The next NOIRS, tentatively scheduled for 2018, will build upon the theme of integration and partnership as well as feedback from conference attendees. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  3. Occupational injuries among pediatric orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Alsiddiky, Abdulmonem M.; Alatassi, Raheef; Altamimi, Saad M.; Alqarni, Mahdi M.; Alfayez, Saud M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed all pediatric orthopedic surgeons in Saudi Arabia using an anonymous electronic questionnaire composed of 23 items to identify the rate of occupational injuries and obtain other relevant information. Thirty-nine participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 83%). Participants who sustained occupational injuries throughout their careers represented 82.5%. The most injured areas were the hands, eyes, and back by 54.5%, 24.2%, and 15.2%, respectively. Approximately 11.1% were injured while operating on infected patients. Approximately 30.3% reported their injuries to their institution. We concluded that the rate of occupational injuries among pediatric orthopedic surgeons is very high and underreported. PMID:28640103

  4. Spatial Clustering of Occupational Injuries in Communities

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Lee; Chin, Brian; Madigan, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Using the social-ecological model, we hypothesized that the home residences of injured workers would be clustered predictably and geographically. Methods. We linked health care and publicly available datasets by home zip code for traumatically injured workers in Illinois from 2000 to 2009. We calculated numbers and rates of injuries, determined the spatial relationships, and developed 3 models. Results. Among the 23 200 occupational injuries, 80% of cases were located in 20% of zip codes and clustered in 10 locations. After component analysis, numbers and clusters of injuries correlated directly with immigrants; injury rates inversely correlated with urban poverty. Conclusions. Traumatic occupational injuries were clustered spatially by home location of the affected workers and in a predictable way. This put an inequitable burden on communities and provided evidence for the possible value of community-based interventions for prevention of occupational injuries. Work should be included in health disparities research. Stakeholders should determine whether and how to intervene at the community level to prevent occupational injuries. PMID:25905838

  5. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Stout, Nancy

    2010-12-01

    This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity) were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems.

  6. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity) were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems. PMID:22953170

  7. Occupational Eye Injuries Experienced by Migrant Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Verma, Amit; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers in North Carolina (n=300) reported eye injuries, circumstances of injuries, and outcomes during lifetime US agriculture work. Seventeen injuries were reported by 15 farmworkers; five resulted in lost work time. Most reported injuries were penetrating or open wounds, often caused by branches or other foreign objects. Injuries were seldom reported to employers; and treatment at clinics, when received, was often delayed. The incidence rate of lost work-time injuries of 23.8/10,000 worker years (95% confidence interval 7.5, 55.9), exceeds the 2009 national incidence rate (6.9/10,000). Migrant farmworkers constitute a vulnerable population; better occupational safety protections should be considered. PMID:22191504

  8. Occupational eye injuries experienced by migrant farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Schulz, Mark R; Talton, Jennifer W; Verma, Amit; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers in North Carolina (n = 300) reported eye injuries, circumstances of injuries, and outcomes during lifetime U.S. agriculture work. Seventeen injuries were reported by 15 farmworkers; five resulted in lost work time. Most reported injuries were penetrating or open wounds, often caused by branches or other foreign objects. Injuries were seldom reported to employers; and treatment at clinics, when received, was often delayed. The incidence rate of lost work-time injuries of 23.8/10,000 worker years (95% confidence interval 7.5, 55.9), exceeds the 2009 national incidence rate (6.9/10,000). Migrant farmworkers constitute a vulnerable population; better occupational safety protections should be considered.

  9. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey.

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, Kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50-59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46-1.60), 60-69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39-1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86-2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required.

  10. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945

  11. Industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Yorifuji, Takashi; Hengpraprom, Sarunya; Hiransuthikul, Narin; Doi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    In industrializing countries, occupational safety and health have been affected by globalization. However, a lack of reliable data prevents evaluation of this situation. Therefore, we examined industrial distributions and risks of severe occupational injuries among workers in Thailand, which is one of the few industrializing countries that compiles nationwide data. Data on workers who made claims for occupational injuries from 2007 to 2009 were extracted from the Workmen's Compensation Fund records in Thailand. Among 501,334 claimants, we evaluated the industrial distributions of severe occupational injuries (i.e., permanent disability and death). We then examined the associations between industry and those injuries, using proportionate ratios (PRs) between each industrial category and the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The number of workers in manufacturing making claims for severe occupational injuries was the largest among all industrial categories (319,114/501,334 injuries), although the total number of occupational injuries recently declined. Additionally, workers in manufacturing experienced severe occupational injuries more often compared with the overall distribution of occupational injuries. The PRs (95% confidence interval) for manufacturing were 1.17 (1.14-1.20) in men and 1.33 (1.27-1.38) in women. After adjusting for individual characteristics, the results did not substantially change. Manufacturing seems to have the largest burden of occupational injuries in industrializing countries like Thailand.

  12. Occupant injury protection in automobile collisions.

    PubMed

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    1999-12-01

    Modern technology has produced automotive vehicles that have become both a luxury and a necessity in modern civilization. They have become highly useful, even more varied in form and function, and capable of high speeds on crowded roadways. One unfortunate consequence is the high frequency of accidents and the greater severity of injuries when collisions do occur. In response, modern technology has produced a variety of safety and health features, devices and designs intended for better occupant protection on in high speed vehicles. Injury reduction has become a prime design objective, but there are residual risks, which, as technology evolves, require effective communication to those risk. There can be little risk avoidance behavior without awareness of the hazards and effective communication to the vehicle occupant, as to what could and should be done for self-protection. For example, one out of three drivers apparently fails to understand the function of head restraints, few understand the 'safe zone' posture required for air bags and many believe safety features should be adjusted only for comfort. Some of the current residual injury producing problems in occupant systems are specifically described here in order to illustrate what is needed in terms of both design remedies and health promotion activities.

  13. Occupational injuries among Boston bicycle messengers.

    PubMed

    Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Meeker, John D

    2002-12-01

    Urban bicycle couriers may have a high incidence of injuries. Most messengers work as contractors and hence their injuries are not well documented. To quantify injury rates and severity among urban bicycle couriers a convenience sample of 113 couriers in the city of Boston completed a two-page self-administered survey. Most working couriers have suffered at least one injury resulting either in days lost from work (70%) and in visits to a health-care professional or hospital (55%). The annual incidence rate for injuries resulting in days away from work was 47/100-bike couriers. Bone fractures accounted for the most days lost from work, followed by dislocations, sprains, and strains. Collisions and avoiding collisions with motor vehicles, including being "doored," and collisions with pedestrians accounted for the majority (66%) of events leading to injury. Twenty-four percent of messengers reported wearing a helmet on a regular basis, and 32% have health insurance. Urban bicycle messengers are a poorly documented, largely unstudied workforce who suffer a very high rate of occupational injury. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Work-related injuries in Canadian occupational therapy practice.

    PubMed

    Dyrkacz, Andrea P; Mak, Lonita Y M; Heck, Carol S

    2012-10-01

    No studies investigate work-related injuries experienced by Canadian occupational therapists. To identify the nature and prevalence of work-related injuries, impact of practice context, cultural and structural factors that influence response to these injuries, and strategies used to manage return-to-work after injury. Members of the Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists were sent an electronic survey in June 2009. Over half of the 600 respondents reported at least one injury episode. Patient-handling and equipment-related incidents accounted for the largest proportion of injuries. Almost one-third of respondents reported being threatened at work or experiencing workplace violence. Injured occupational therapists tended to minimize the extent and impact of their injuries by underreporting incidents and continuing to work after injury. These behaviours may contribute to a failure to recognize the reality of work-related injuries in occupational therapy practice and thereby limit the development of profession-specific, risk-minimization strategies.

  15. Occupational injury mortality in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, L; Olson, L; Crandall, C; Sklar, D; Zumwalt, R

    1995-10-01

    To examine specific risks for occupational injury deaths in New Mexico. Retrospective review of state medical investigator reports from 1980 through 1991 with regard to industry, agent of death, gender, ethnicity, location, and alcohol and other drug involvement. New Mexico residents who were fatally injured while on the job. We identified 613 deaths: 87.1% unintentional, 10.6% homicides, and 2.3% suicides. Industries with the most fatalities were construction (11.8%), oil/gas (10.6%), and farming (8.6%). The primary agents of death were motor vehicles (41.7%), firearms (10.1%), and falling objects (10.0%). Almost all (95.6%) of the decedents were male. However, females were overrepresented among homicide deaths (P < .0001). Most unintentional injuries occurred in rural areas (69.1%), whereas most homicides (73.4%) and suicides (71.4%) occurred in urban areas. Drug or alcohol use was evident in 19.4% of cases. New Mexico has a high rate of occupational injury death, which appears to be associated with rural location and use of motor vehicles and alcohol.

  16. Workplace Psychosocial Factors Associated with Work-Related Injury Absence: A Study from a Nationally Representative Sample of Korean Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Nakata, Akinori; Swanson, Naomi G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the association between psychosocial factors and injury absence in the workplace. Purpose This study aims to assess the association of comprehensive workplace psychosocial factors with work-related injury absence among Korean workers. Methods The data (n=7,856) were derived from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006 with a representative sample (n=10,043) of the Korean working population. The survey instrument contained questions about hours of work, physical risk factors, work organization, and the effect of work on health/injury. Work-related injury absence was indicated by a dichotomous variable with at least 1 day absence during the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratio and confidence interval (CI). Incremental adjustments for sociodemographic, health behavior, and occupational confounding variables were employed in the models. Results The overall 1-year prevalence of work-related injury absence in this study was 1.37 % (95 % CI, 1.11–1.63 %). Those who experienced violence at work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 7.05 (95 % CI, 2.69–18.5)), threat of violence at work (aOR, 4.25 (95 % CI, 1.32–13.64)), low job autonomy (aOR, 1.79 (95 % CI, 1.17–2.74)), and high job strain (aOR, 2.38 (95 % CI, 1.29–4.42) had an increased risk of injury absence, compared with their respective counterparts (p<0.05). Among all job types, skilled workers in Korea were at a near fourfold risk of work absence due to occupational injuries, compared with managers in low-risk jobs. Conclusion Workplace violence and increased job strain were two key workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence. PMID:23794229

  17. Epidemiology of occupational injuries by nationality in Qatar: Evidence for focused occupational safety programmes.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Peralta, Ruben; Allen, Katharine A; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-09-01

    Occupational injuries are the second leading cause of trauma admission in Qatar. Given the wide diversity of the country's migrant worker populations at risk, this study aimed to analyse and describe the epidemiology of these injuries based on the workers nationality residing in Qatar. A retrospective analysis of trauma registry data on occupational-related injuries was conducted. The analysis included all patients [aged ≥18 years] admitted to the Level I Hamad Trauma Center, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Out of 6555 trauma admissions, 2015 (30.7%) patients had occupational injury. The admitted Case Fatality Rate (CFR) was 4.3 per 100 occupational injury related trauma admissions. Overall non-fatal occupational injury rate was 37.34 per 100,000 workers, whereas fatal injury rate was 1.58 per 100,000 workers. Most of the workers experiencing occupational injuries were from Nepal (28%), India (20%) and Bangladesh (9%). Fatal occupational injuries were predominately among Indians (20%), Nepalese (19%), and Filipinos/Bangladeshis (both 8%). Filipinos had the highest admitted CFR at 8.2 deaths per 100 trauma admissions with the next highest being Indians and Indonesians (4.2 per 100 trauma admissions). During the study period, the incidence of severe occupational injuries decreased despite a simultaneous increase in the worker population within Qatar. Almost one in four occupational injuries was a major trauma (ISS≥16). Nepalese and Indian workers represented 29% and 18% of all major trauma cases. Non-fatal occupational injuries appear to follow a pattern distinct from fatal ones. High-risk worker populations as defined by those with high admitted CFRs, experiencing the most severe or fatal injuries, must be the focus of targeted risk factor analysis and occupational safety interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Explaining occupational class differences in sickness absence: results from middle-aged municipal employees.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Lahelma, E

    2010-09-01

    Low socioeconomic position is consistently associated with higher rates of sickness absence. We aimed to examine whether working conditions, health-related behaviours and family-related factors explain occupational class differences in medically certified sickness absence. The study included 5470 women and 1464 men employees of the City of Helsinki, surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were prospectively linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression was used to examine the occurrence of medically certified sickness absence episodes lasting 4 days or more. Medically certified sickness absence was roughly three times more common among manual workers than among managers and professionals in both women and men. Physical working conditions were the strongest explanatory factors for occupational class differences in sickness absence, followed by smoking and relative weight. Work arrangements and family-related factors had very small effects only. The effects of psychosocial working conditions were heterogeneous: job control narrowed occupational class differences in sickness absence while mental strain and job demands tended to widened them. Overall, the findings were quite similar in women and men. Physical working conditions provided strongest explanations for occupational class differences in sickness absence. Smoking and relative weight, which are well-known determinants of health, also explained part of the excess sickness absence in lower occupational classes. Applying tailored work arrangements to employees on sick leave, reducing physically heavy working conditions and promoting healthy behaviours provide potential routes to narrow occupational class differences in sickness absence.

  19. Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

    1997-06-15

    Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted.

  20. Occupational injuries among building construction workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Israel, Dagnachew

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries can pose direct costs, like suffering, loss of employment, disability and loss of productivity, and indirect costs on families and society. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the prevalence of injury and associated factors among building construction employees in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among building construction employees in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from February to April 2015. Multi-stages sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. The sample size of the study was 544. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on injury. The prevalence of injury among building construction employees was reported to be 38.3 % [95 % CI: (33.9, 42.7)] in the past 1 year. Use of personal protective equipments, work experience, khat chewing were factors significantly associated with injury. This is among the few studies describing construction health and safety in Ethiopia. In this study a relatively higher prevalence of injury was reported among building construction employees compared to other studies. If urgent interventions are not in place, the absence from work, loss of productivity and work-related illnesses, disabilities and fatalities will continue to be a major challenge of the construction industry in the future. Therefore, programs to mitigate the burden borne by construction-related injuries should focus on areas, such as provision of safety trainings, promoting use of PPE and monitoring substance abuse in workplace.

  1. [Association between occupational stress, social support, and occupational unintentional injuries: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinxia; Zong, Ying; Huang, Guoxian; Wang, Shuyu; Zhou, Yuchao; Guo, Zhiping; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the association between occupational stress, social support, and occupational unintentional injuries. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in 151 cases of occupational unintentional injuries who were admitted to 6 occupational injury-admitted hospitals in Zhongshan City from October 2013 to December 2013 and 151 matched controls without unintentional injuries in the last year who had matched age, sex, and occupation. Their demographic characteristics, occupational stress (by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire), and social support were investigated with a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data showed that there were significant differences in the score of each dimension of occupational stress, the ratio of effort to reward, and the score of superior support between the case group and the control group (P < 0.05). The Cox regression analysis results showed that more extrinsic efforts (OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.20∼1.80) and over commitment (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.08∼1.55) were the risk factors for occupational unintentional injuries, while more superior supports (OR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.48∼0.84) and higher earnings (>3 000 yuan each month) (OR = 0.67, 95%CI = 0.54∼0.84) were protective factors. Occupational stress and social support have an influence on the occurrence of occupational injuries.

  2. [Scenarios of typical occupational injuries in lumber industry].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vidal; Blank, Vera L G; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2002-12-01

    To describe the scenarios of typical occupational injuries in lumber industry. All occupational injuries reported to a INSS (National Institute of Social Security) center in Lages, SC, Brazil from January 1997 to January 1999 were identified. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out and 254 injury report forms were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC), Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC) and Partition to identify the scenarios of typical occupational injuries. There were identified five scenarios of occupational injuries: 1) workers' falls (40 reports); 2) overexertion in lifting or pushing objects (5 reports); 3) objects or machine parts falling or being ejected from running machines (76 reports); 4) crushing of soft tissue body parts (56 reports); and 5) body contact with running saw machines (77 reports). Multivariate analysis allowed describing the most typical injuries related to specific types of accidents, and provided a better understanding of the circumstances for their occurrence.

  3. Occupation-based intervention in hand injury rehabilitation: Experiences of occupational therapists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Che Daud, Ahmad Zamir; Yau, Matthew K; Barnett, Fiona; Judd, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study consensus was sought from Malaysian occupational therapists of occupation-based intervention (OBI) that was perceived as a means and an end. Occupation as a means refers to occupational and purposeful tasks as a therapeutic agent while occupation as an end refers to occupation as an outcome of intervention. The purpose of this follow-up study was to describe the occupational therapists' experiences of providing OBI in hand injury rehabilitation in Malaysia. Sixteen occupational therapists with more than five years of experience in hand rehabilitation were individually interviewed on their experiences of using OBI in practice. Data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Definition of "Occupation as a means", and "Occupation as an end" was broadened after data analysis of interviews to include two new themes: "Rewarding yet challenging" and "Making OBI a reality". Occupational therapists had positive experiences with OBI and perceived that occupation as a means and an end can be merged into a single therapy session when the occupational therapists use an occupation that is therapeutic. Although occupation as a means and as an end have different purposes, when the ultimate goal is to enhance the clients' maximum level of functioning both can be used for successful rehabilitation of hand injuries.

  4. Obscured by administrative data? Racial disparities in occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Sabbath, Erika L; Boden, Leslie I; Williams, Jessica Ar; Hashimoto, Dean; Hopcia, Karen; Sorensen, Glorian

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Underreporting of occupational injuries is well documented, but underreporting patterns may vary by worker characteristics, obscuring disparities. We tested for racial and ethnic differences in injury reporting patterns by comparing injuries reported via research survey and administrative injury database in the same group of healthcare workers in the US. Methods We used data from a cohort of 1568 hospital patient-care workers who were asked via survey whether they had been injured at work during the year prior (self-reported injury; N=244). Using the hospital's injury database, we determined whether the same workers had reported injuries to the hospital's occupational health service during that year (administratively reported injury; N=126). We compared data sources to test for racial and ethnic differences in injury reporting practices. Results In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and occupational characteristics, black workers' odds of injury as measured by self-report data were 1.91 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-3.49] compared with white workers. The same black workers' odds of injury as measured by administrative data were 1.22 (95% CI 0.54-2.77) compared with white workers. Conclusions The undercount of occupational injuries in administrative versus self-report data may be greater among black compared to white workers, leading to underestimates of racial disparities in workplace injury.

  5. Occupational injury costs and alternative employment in construction trades.

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Dong, Xiuwen S; Miller, Ted; Men, Yurong; Haile, Elizabeth

    2007-11-01

    To present the costs of fatal and non-fatal days-away-from-work injuries in 50 construction occupations. Our results also provide indirect evidence on the cost exposure of alternative construction workers such as independent contractors, on-call or day labor, contract workers, and temporary workers. We combine data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on average annual incidence from 2000 to 2002 with updated per-case costs from an existing cost model for occupational injuries. The Current Population Survey provides data on the percentage of alternative construction workers. Construction laborers and carpenters were the two costliest occupations, with 40% of the industry's injury costs. The 10 costliest construction occupations also have a high percentage of alternative workers. The construction industry has both a high rate of alternative employment and high costs of work injury. Alternative workers, often lacking workers' compensation, are especially exposed to injury costs.

  6. Soldier occupational load carriage: a narrative review of associated injuries.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed.

  7. Occupational therapy for service members with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Mary Vining; Davidson, Leslie; Voydetich, Deborah; Erickson, Mary W

    2009-01-01

    More occupational therapists are needed to provide client-centered, evidence-based rehabilitation to the large numbers of service members who sustained mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while deployed in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Proponency for Rehabilitation and Reintegration tasked a team of occupational and physical therapists to assemble evidence-based best practices specific to mTBI. Despite the fact that evidence-based reviews, guidelines, and research regarding occupational therapy for mTBI are sparse, the team developed the Clinical Practice Guidance: Occupational Therapy and Physical Therapy for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Occupational therapy practice recommendations specific to client education, vision, cognition, resumption of roles, and emotional well-being are summarized for civilians and characterized as practice standards or practice options. By using evidence-informed and holistic services, occupational therapists have the potential to lead rehabilitation and reintegration efforts for service members with mTBI and advance changes in the profession itself.

  8. Fatal occupational injuries of women, Texas 1975-84.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, H; Honchar, P A; Suarez, L

    1987-01-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 348 cases of fatal occupational injuries of civilian females. Homicides accounted for 53 per cent and motor vehicle-related injuries accounted for 26 per cent of the deaths. Injuries from firearms caused 70 per cent of the homicides. One hundred thirty-three deaths occurred to women employed in the retail trade industry; of these, 77 per cent resulted from homicide. Women workers in gasoline service stations, food-bakery-and-dairy stores, and eating-and-drinking places had especially high risks of homicide. Texas female heavy-truck drivers had the highest fatal-injury rate, with motor-vehicle-related injuries causing 89 per cent of their deaths. These results indicate that effective strategies to prevent fatal occupational injuries of Texas women will need to address the problems of workplace violence and the hazards posed by motor vehicles. PMID:3674251

  9. Fatal occupational injuries of women, Texas 1975-84.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Honchar, P A; Suarez, L

    1987-12-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 348 cases of fatal occupational injuries of civilian females. Homicides accounted for 53 per cent and motor vehicle-related injuries accounted for 26 per cent of the deaths. Injuries from firearms caused 70 per cent of the homicides. One hundred thirty-three deaths occurred to women employed in the retail trade industry; of these, 77 per cent resulted from homicide. Women workers in gasoline service stations, food-bakery-and-dairy stores, and eating-and-drinking places had especially high risks of homicide. Texas female heavy-truck drivers had the highest fatal-injury rate, with motor-vehicle-related injuries causing 89 per cent of their deaths. These results indicate that effective strategies to prevent fatal occupational injuries of Texas women will need to address the problems of workplace violence and the hazards posed by motor vehicles.

  10. The nature and burden of occupational injury among first responder occupations: A retrospective cohort study in Australian workers.

    PubMed

    Gray, Shannon E; Collie, Alex

    2017-09-23

    Workers in first responder (FR) occupations are at heightened risk for workplace injury given their exposure to physical/psychological hazards. This study sought to (1) characterise the occupational risk of injury; (2) determine factors associated with injury; and (3) characterise the burden of injury-related disability in police, ambulance officers, fire/emergency workers, compared with other occupations. A retrospective cohort of 2,439,624 claims occurring between July 2003 and June 2012 was extracted from the Australian National Dataset for Compensation-Based Statistics. Cases aged 16-75 years working 1-100 pre-injury hours per week were included. Regression models estimated risk of making a workers' compensation (WC) claim by age, gender, occupation and injury type. Injury burden was calculated using count and time loss, and statistically compared between groups. The risk of making a WC claim among FR occupations was more than 3 times higher than other occupations. Risk of claiming was highest among female FRs and those aged 35-44 years. Ambulance officers had the greatest risk of upper-body MSK injuries and fire and emergency workers the greatest risk of lower-body MSK injuries. The risk of mental health conditions was elevated for all FR occupations but highest among police officers. The total burden of injury (expressed as working weeks lost per 1000 workers) differed significantly between groups and was highest amongst police. First responders record significantly higher rates of occupational injury claims than other occupations. Using a national population based dataset, this study demonstrates that not only are first responders exposed to significantly higher rates of occupational injury than all other occupations combined, but they experience differential injury patterns depending on their occupation. This suggests that among FR occupations injury prevention efforts should reflect these differences and be targeted to occupation-specific patterns of

  11. Traumatic occupational injuries in Hispanic and foreign born workers.

    PubMed

    Forst, Linda; Avila, Susan; Anozie, Stella; Rubin, Rachel

    2010-04-01

    Hispanic and foreign-born workers suffer high rates of occupational fatality. Reasons for this are not well understood. Our aim was to gather information about the details related to severe, non-fatal occupational injuries in this vulnerable population. Eight years of data were obtained from an urban trauma center. In addition, medical consultations of individuals admitted for an occupational injury during an 8-month period are reported. Hispanics were more highly represented than expected; their number of injuries steadily rose. Hispanics were more likely to be injured by machinery and hand tools. Workers reported hazardous working conditions, lack of workers compensation, short time in current employment, and not working in their usual job. Trauma systems can provide a glimpse of risk factors for severe injuries in vulnerable workers. We recommend greater use of this data source, follow backs, long-term follow up of individuals, and improvement of surveillance of vulnerable working populations. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Clinically significant weight gain 1 year after occupational back injury.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Benjamin J; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M; Turner, Judith A; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M

    2013-03-01

    To examine the incidence of clinically significant weight gain 1 year after occupational back injury, and risk factors for that gain. A cohort of Washington State workers with wage-replacement benefits for back injuries completed baseline and 1-year follow-up telephone interviews. We obtained additional measures from claims and medical records. Among 1263 workers, 174 (13.8%) reported clinically significant weight gain (≥7%) 1 year after occupational back injury. Women and workers who had more than 180 days on wage replacement at 1 year were twice as likely (adjusted odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.54 to 3.07; adjusted odds ratio = 2.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.63 to 3.53, respectively; both P < 0.001) to have clinically significant weight gain. Women and workers on wage replacement for more than 180 days may be susceptible to clinically significant weight gain after occupational back injury.

  13. Clinically Significant Weight Gain One Year After Occupational Back Injury

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Turner, Judith A.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence of clinically significant weight gain one year after occupational back injury, and risk factors for that gain. Methods A cohort of Washington State workers with wage-replacement benefits for back injuries completed baseline and 1-year follow-up telephone interviews. We obtained additional measures from claims and medical records. Results Among 1,263 workers, 174 (13.8%) reported clinically significant weight gain (≥7%) 1 year after occupational back injury. Women and workers who had >180 days on wage replacement at 1 year were twice as likely (adjusted OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.54–3.07; adjusted OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.63–3.53, respectively; both P<0.001) to have clinically significant weight gain. Conclusions Women and workers on wage replacement >180 days may be susceptible to clinically significant weight gain following occupational back injury. PMID:23247606

  14. Personal and non-occupational risk factors and occupational injury/illness.

    PubMed

    Craig, Brian N; Congleton, Jerome J; Kerk, Carter J; Amendola, Alfred A; Gaines, William G

    2006-04-01

    The materials handling industry performs is an essential function in the world economy, however, it is plagued with occupationally related injuries and illnesses. Understanding the risk factors may assist this industry in alleviating these injuries and illnesses, as well as their associated costs. Forty-eight personal and non-occupational risk factors were measured and evaluated for statistically significant relationships with occupational injury in 442 volunteer manual material handlers who worked for three different companies, at nine US locations, with 15 different job descriptions. OSHA 200 logs were used to ascertain evidence of occupational injury within this population for 1 year after the testing and measurement was completed. Higher occurrences of injury were significantly associated with six risk factors in the univariate model (odds ratios 1.51-4.00). The significantly (P < 0.05) related risk factors in the univariate model were aerobic power, smoking status, perceived fitness level, fishing/hunting as a hobby, speed limit obeyance, and witnessing or being involved in a violent fight. In the multivariate analysis, five risk factors (aerobic power, smoking status, percent body fat, body mass index, and sit-and-reach measured flexibility) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with occupational injury. Odds ratios in the multivariate analysis varied from 1.42 to 10.11. Evidence of an association of occupational injury occurrence with certain risk factors presented in personal and non-occupational univariate and multivariate models is shown. In industry, effective injury reduction programs should go beyond traditional methods of job-related ergonomic risk factors and include personal factors such as smoking, weight control, and alcohol abuse. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Occupational Therapy Practitioners with Occupational Musculoskeletal Injuries: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Alnaser, Musaed Z

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x(2)(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.

  16. The BLS survey of occupational injuries and illnesses: a primer.

    PubMed

    Wiatrowski, William J

    2014-10-01

    The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) is the nation's primary surveillance vehicle for nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the workplace. Based on recordable injuries and illnesses as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the SOII provides annual counts and rates by industry and state for workers in private industry and state and local government. In addition, the SOII provides details about the most severe injuries and illnesses, including characteristics of the workers involved and details of the circumstances surrounding the incident. To accompany articles that discuss research into the completeness of SOII data, this commentary provides an overview of the SOII. Included is information about the history of capturing data on workplace injuries and illnesses, current survey processes, annual outputs, and an introduction to the current concerns about underreporting.

  17. Fatal occupational injuries among electric power company workers.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D; Dufort, V; Kleckner, R C; Savitz, D A

    1999-03-01

    Surveillance data suggest high rates of electrocutions and fatal falls among workers in electric utility companies, who may be exposed to electric current, heights, flammable agents, and frequent motor vehicle travel. To characterize the occurrence of fatal injuries among electric utility workers, we studied workers in five electric power companies in the United States. A cohort of 127,129 men hired between 1950 and 1986 was followed through 1988. Injuries at work were identified through manual review of death certificates. The occurrence of occupational injuries was analyzed with directly adjusted rates and Poisson regression. The overall rate of fatal occupational injuries was 13.20 per 100,000 person-years (n = 192), with 76% due to electric current, homicide, and falls from heights. Deaths were concentrated in a few groups with elevated injury rates, notably linemen (rate ratio (RR) 3.33), electricians (RR 2.79), and painters (RR 3.27). Occupations requiring daily work on elevations or frequent, direct contact with energized electrical equipment experienced markedly higher rates of fatal injury from falls and electrocutions with rate ratios of 21.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.4-41.5) and 16.7 (95% CI 6.6-42.6), respectively, independent of worker age and seniority. Although fatal injury rates in this industry have declined in recent decades, significant numbers of deaths still occur. Based on the premise that all injuries are preventable, a need for continued vigilance and efforts at prevention is indicated.

  18. Occupant injury severity from lateral collisions: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Laberge-Nadeau, Claire; Bellavance, François; Messier, Stéphane; Vézina, Lyne; Pichette, Fernand

    2009-01-01

    Side impacts are a serious automotive injury problem; they represent about 30% of all fatalities for passenger vehicle occupants. This literature review focuses on occupant injuries resulting from real lateral collisions. It emphasizes the interaction between injury patterns and crash factors, taking into account type of injuries and their severity. It highlights what is known on the subject and suggests further studies. We reviewed papers identified by searches in two electronic databases for the 1996-2009 publication period, and in specific journals and conference proceedings. Studies on the Primary Direction of Force (PDOF) have revealed that fatal crashes occur most frequently when the PDOF is at 3 or 9 o'clock. The risk of serious injury is two to three times higher for the near-side occupant than for the far-side occupant. Head injuries predominate in oblique impacts and thoracic injuries in perpendicular ones. A few results are also reported on side airbag protection. This literature review presents an overall picture of the injuries caused by lateral collisions, though each of the papers or articles examined focuses mostly on some particular aspect of the problem. The incidence of specific injuries depends on the data source used. Very few population-based analyses of lateral collision injuries were found. New studies are needed to evaluate new protective devices (e.g., lateral airbags, inflatable curtains). Without interfering with their care duties, Emergency Medical Technicians could be systematically trained to observe the collision's specific characteristics and to report all their relevant observations to the emergency physicians to increase the likelihood of prompt diagnosis and proper care.

  19. Nonfatal occupational injury among California farm operators.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, S A; Farrar, J A; Beaumont, J J; Samuels, S J; Green, R S; Scott, L C; Schenker, M B

    2004-05-01

    We conducted a population-based telephone survey addressing farm-work-related (FWR) injuries among California farm operators. Of 1947 participants (80.4% response), 135 farm operators reported 160 FWR injuries in the preceding year, yielding a one-year cumulative incidence for any FWR injury of 6.9% (95% CI 5.8%-8.2%), or a mean 8.2 FWR injuries per 100 farmers in the preceding year (95% CI 6.8-9.7). Multiple injury events in the same individual occurred more frequently than predicted by chance. Sprains and strains (29.4%) were the most frequently reported injury and predominantly involved the back. Overexertion represented the most frequent external cause (24.2%), followed by machinery (14.3%), falls (13.0%), and animals (12.4%). Factors associated with FWR injury included white ethnicity (OR 3.19; 95% CI 1.38-7.36), increased annual hours worked on the farm, low levels of administrative work, and increased percentage of time working with livestock. FWR injury experience of California farm operators is comparable with that reported for other agricultural populations. Above-expected frequency of multiple injuries supports involvement of personal or environmental risk factors. Preventive efforts should focus on higher-risk groups and preventing overexertion and muscle strain and injury related to machinery, falls, and animals, especially livestock.

  20. Subconjunctival latex paint from occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Teymoorian, Savak; Lord, Ron K; Lyon, David B

    2013-05-01

    Accidental eye trauma with spray guns are rare, but potentially very serious, injuries. Although it is agreed that these injuries require immediate and vigorous therapy, the specifics of such therapy are poorly defined. With latex paint sprayer injuries to hands and extremities, resulting chemical-induced inflammation, high-pressure necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and gangrene require surgical debridement and possibly, amputation. With eye injuries, treatment is directed at preservation of vision, as there is a potential risk of visual loss. There is currently no consensus on optimal treatment of ocular spray paint injuries. Here we propose a management approach to ocular spray paint injuries with a successful outcome in the case reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of an industrial airless spray gun injury that resulted in subconjunctival deposition of latex paint in a soft contact lens wearer. Vision was preserved with medical management consisting of irrigation and topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and cycloplegics. Although latex paint spray gun injuries to the eye are not encountered frequently in practice, this case shows that conservative medical management with no surgical intervention is effective for ocular injuries with preserved vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The stratifying role of job level for sickness absence and the moderating role of gender and occupational gender composition.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Hannes

    2017-08-01

    The study investigates whether sickness absence is stratified by job level - understood as the authority and autonomy a worker holds - beyond the association with education, income, and occupation. A second objective is to establish the moderating role of gender and occupational gender composition on this stratification of sickness absence. Four competing hypotheses are developed that predict different patterns of moderation. Associations between job level and sickness absence are estimated for men and women in three groups of differing occupational gender composition, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). For the purpose of moderation analysis, this study employs a new method based on Bayesian statistics, which enables the testing of complex moderation hypotheses. The data support the hypothesis that the stratification of sickness absence by job level is strongest for occupational minorities, meaning men in female-dominated and women in male-dominated occupations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomechanics of side impact injuries: evaluation of seat belt restraint system, occupant kinematics and injury potential.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Srirangam; Sances, Anthony; Carlin, Fred; Frieder, Russell; Friedman, Keith; Renfroe, David

    2006-01-01

    Side impact crashes are the second most severe motor vehicle accidents resulting in serious and fatal injuries. One of the occupant restraint systems in the vehicle is the three point lap/shoulder harness. However, the lap/shoulder restraint is not effective in a far-side crash (impact is opposite to the occupant location) since the occupant may slip out of the shoulder harness. The present comprehensive study was designed to delineate the biomechanics of far-side planar crashes. The first part of the study involves a car-to-car crash to study the crash dynamics and occupant kinematics; the second part involves an epidemiological analysis of NASS/CDS 1988-2003 database to study the distribution of serious injury; the third part includes the mathematical MADYMO analysis to study the occupant kinematics in detail; and the fourth part includes an in-depth analysis of a real world far-side accident to delineate the injury mechanism and occupant kinematics. Results indicate that the shoulder harness is ineffective in far-side crashes. The upper torso of the belted driver dummy slips out of the shoulder harness and interacted with the opposite vehicle interior such as the door panel. The unbelted occupants had a similar head injury severity pattern compared to belted occupants. The present study is another step to advance towards better understanding of the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of side impact injuries.

  3. [Occupational stress and the risk of sickness absence in customer service workers].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Sobala, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to indicate psychosocial stressors at work that significantly affect sickness absence a workers. Study subjects included a group of 233 randomly selected women employed as post-office clerks. Sickness absence data covered the period of 2004-2006. The psychosocial factors were assessed by means of the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire. The hazard ratio (HR) of sickness absence was analysed using the Cox regression model, separately for short- (1-9 days) medium- (10-29 days) and long-term (30 days and above) sickness absence. The shortterm sickness absence risk was significantly related with the post-office size--in the offices employing 8-12 workers, the risk was by 50% lower compared to those employing a smaller number of workers (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.27-0.90) and unpleasant working conditions (dirt), which contributed to the increased risk (HR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). In the case of a 10-29-day absence, the risk was slightly elevated by the demand of long-term vigilance, financial responsibility, and strictly determined breaks at work In the model of long-term sickness absence, a significantly higher risk was noted when the number of employees was 16-25 compared to a smaller number of employees (HR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.09-7.82), non-occupational, self-assessed workload was high (HR = 2.97; 95% CI: 1.34-6.62) or moderate (HR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.11-4.44) compared to self-assessed low workload, and the work space was limited (HR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.00-1.47). Our analysis showed a significant effect of stressogenic work conditions on the patterns of sickness absence. Our findings may help in developing programs intended to reduce sickness absence through limiting the prevalence of unfavourable conditions at workplaces.

  4. Occupational injury and treatment patterns of migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Brower, Melissa A; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; May, John J; Jenkins, Paul L

    2009-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are thought to be at increased risk for occupational injury and illness. Past surveillance efforts that employed medical chart review may not be representative of all farmworkers, since the proportion of farmworkers using migrant health centers (MHCs) and area hospital emergency rooms (ERs) was unknown. The purpose of the current study was to determine the proportion of workers using MHCs versus other sources of occupational health care, and to use these data to correct previous occupational injury and illness rate estimates. Researchers conducted a survey of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in two sites: the Finger Lakes Region of New York and the apple, broccoli, and blueberry regions of Maine. Researchers also conducted MHC and ER medical chart reviews in these regions for comparison purposes. Proportions of occupational morbidity by treatment location were calculated from the survey, and a correction factor was computed to adjust chart review morbidity estimates for Maine and New York State. Among 1103 subjects, 56 work-related injuries were reported: 30 (53.6%) were treated at a MHC, 8 (14.3%) at an ER, 9 (16.1%) at some other location (e.g., home, relative, chiropractor), and 9 (16.1%) were untreated. Mechanisms of injuries treated at MHCs versus all other sources did not differ significantly. The survey-based multiplier (1.87) was applied to previous statewide MHC chart review injury counts from Maine and New York. The corrected injury rates were 7.9 per 100 full-time equivalents (FTE) per year in Maine, and 11.7 per 100 FTE in New York. A chart-review based surveillance system, combined with a correction factor, may provide an effective method of estimating occupational illness and injury rates in this population.

  5. Occupational Injury Rate Estimates in Magnetic Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    cadwallader, lee

    2006-11-01

    In nuclear facilities, there are two primary aspects of occupational safety. The first aspect is radiological safety, which has rightly been treated in detail in nuclear facilities. Radiological exposure data have been collected from the existing tokamaks to serve as forecasts for ITER radiation safety. The second aspect of occupational safety, “traditional” industrial safety, must also be considered for a complete occupational safety program. Industrial safety data on occupational injury rates from the JET and TFTR tokamaks, three accelerators, and U.S. nuclear fission plants have been collected to set industrial safety goals for the ITER operations staff. The results of this occupational safety data collection and analysis activity are presented here. The data show that an annual lost workday case rate of 0.3 incidents per 100 workers is a conceivable goal for ITER operations.

  6. Occupational injuries in a poor inner-city population.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H; Williamson, M; Magid, D; Holmes, J H; Grisso, J A

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to characterize occupational injuries in a defined poor inner-city population in terms of demographic features, types, and circumstances of injuries, and medical and financial consequences. It is a case series drawn from a larger population-based injury registry in emergency departments that serve 17 poor census tracts in Philadelphia. Of 335 patients from the study area who had been treated at the emergency departments under study for occupational injuries, 107 could be contacted by telephone 2 to 3 years after their injuries. Interviews sought information on the patients, their employment, their injuries, and the consequences. Respondents were almost all African-American, approximately 50% male, and had a median age of 32. Approximately one third were employed in the health care industry, one fourth in the service sector (including conventional service firms, restaurants, and hotels), and the remainder in construction, retail and wholesale trade, education, transportation, and manufacturing. Major causes of injuries included overexertion, contact with sharp objects, and falls. Major types on injuries included sprain/strains and lacerations. Approximately half the respondents had missed more than 3 days of work, with 15% missing more than 1 month. Almost 40% of respondents reported persistent health problems after their injuries. Only about one quarter had received workers' compensation. We conclude that poor and minority workers are at risk of a wide range of occupational injuries, which may result in considerable lost work time and have serious medical and economic consequences. More, attention to the workplace risks of these relatively marginalized workers and more vigorous preventive interventions are needed.

  7. Fatal occupational electrical injuries in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Jones, J E; Armstrong, C W; Woolard, C D; Miller, G B

    1991-01-01

    Work-related electrical injuries and fatalities in Virginia were reviewed for the period 1977 to 1985. Of 196 workers electrocuted (0.9/100,000/year), 65% (127) died between May and September. Death rates were highest for male workers in utility companies (10.0/100,000), mining (5.9/100,000), and construction industries (3.9/100,000), but these high risk groups accounted for only 50% of the deaths. Most accidental electrocutions resulted from power line contact (53%) and machine or tool usage or repair (22%). Only 1.5% (2/101) of the workers who died within 6 hours of injury and had blood alcohol concentration tested were legally intoxicated. All workers need safety education on active measures to prevent hazardous electrical exposures, not just those at high risk for electrical injury. Every work-related electrical injury represents a sentinel health event--an opportunity for preventive intervention in the workplace.

  8. Congenital absence of the radius: the occupational therapist and a new orthosis.

    PubMed

    Butts, D E; Goldberg, M J

    1977-02-01

    Congenital absence of the radius (radial club hand) is a relatively common and disabling limb deficiency characterized by dislocation of the hand and carpus from the single forearm bore, the ulna. An understanding of the clinical-pathologic anatomy and consequent disruption of hand mechanics enables the orthopedic surgeon and the occupational therapist to formulate a team approach to this birth defect that can result in maximum functional capability for the child. The role of the occupational therapist and a specific therapy program for early stimulation and achievement of hand function are described. Orthotic support of the arm is indispensable to successful management. The design and fabrication of a dynamic upper-extremity orthosis for radial club hand is presented.

  9. Deindustrialisation and the long term decline in fatal occupational injuries

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Richardson, D; Bena, J; Bailer, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine the extent to which deindustrialisation accounts for long term trends in occupational injury risk in the United States. Methods: Rates of fatal unintentional occupational injury were computed using data from death certificates and the population census. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression. Standardisation and regression methods were used to adjust for the potential effect of structural change in the labour market. Results: The fatal occupational injury rate for all industries declined 45% from 1980 to 1996 (RR (rate ratio) 0.55, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.57). Adjustment for structural changes in the workforce shifted the RR to 0.62 (95% CI 0.60 to 0.65). Expanding industries enjoyed more rapid reduction in risk (–3.43% per year, 95% CI –3.62 to –3.24) than those that contracted (–2.65% per year, 95% CI –2.88 to –2.42). Conclusions: Deindustrialisation contributed to the decline of fatal occupational injury rates in the United States, but explained only 10–15% of the total change. PMID:15208378

  10. Occupational injuries suffered by flight attendants while on board.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, R; Gonzalez, G; Morales, S T

    1989-11-01

    Inflight occupational injuries suffered by flight attendants are an important cause of medical disabilities. Mexicana Airlines has made an evaluation of this problem from 1983 to 1987. The injuries most frequently observed were contusions, skin cuts, sprains, fractures, spine disorders, and severe barotitis. The anatomic regions commonly affected were the hands, feet, and spine. These injuries are responsible for 15,573 work days lost for the average of 1,631 flight attendants. This study identified some unsafe actions and conditions in the flight attendants' working environment. The company has initiated an extensive training program to avoid unsafe actions and to eliminate certain unsafe conditions where possible.

  11. Occupant and crash characteristics for case occupants with cervical spine injuries sustained in motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Deborah M; Kufera, Joseph A; Ho, Shiu M; Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; O'Connor, James V; Scalea, Thomas M

    2011-02-01

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the leading cause of spine and spinal cord injuries in the United States. Traumatic cervical spine injuries (CSIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to evaluate both the epidemiologic and biomechanical risk factors associated with CSI in MVCs by using a population-based database and to describe occupant and crashes characteristics for a subset of severe crashes in which a CSI was sustained as represented by the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database. Prospectively collected CIREN data from the eight centers were used to identify all case occupants between 1996 and November 2009. Case occupants older than 14 years and case vehicles of the four most common vehicle types were included. The National Automotive Sampling System's Crashworthiness Data System, a probability sample of all police-reported MVCs in the United States, was queried using the same inclusion criteria between 1997 and 2008. Cervical spinal cord and spinal column injuries were identified using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score codes. Data were abstracted on all case occupants, biomechanical crash characteristics, and injuries sustained. Univariate analysis was performed using a χ analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify significant risk factors in a multivariate analysis to control for confounding associations. CSIs were identified in 11.5% of CIREN case occupants. Case occupants aged 65 years or older and those occupants involved in rollover crashes were more likely to sustain a CSI. In univariate analysis of the subset of severe crashes represented by CIREN, the use of airbag and seat belt together (reference) were more protective than seat belt alone (odds ratio [OR]=1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.32-2.27) or the use of neither restraint system (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.02-2.07). The most frequent injury sources in CIREN crashes were roof and its components (24.8%) and noncontact sources (15

  12. Occupational injury in rural Bangladesh: data gathering using household survey.

    PubMed

    Davies, Hugh; Koehlmoos, Tracy Pérez; Courtice, Midori N; Ahmad, S Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Occupational injuries are estimated to cause over 300,000 deaths per year worldwide. Many low- and middle-income countries often lack effective injury surveillance systems. We attempted to utilize household surveys to collect occupational injury data to develop more accurate injury incidence data. We undertook a pilot study of this approach in the rural area of Mirsarai, Bangladesh. Surveys were administered to 2,017 males and 120 females. Sixty-five percent were self-employed and over 80% worked in work places with less than six employees; over 60% worked seven days per week. Just over 50% of subjects reported at least one injury at work in the prior year. Incidence of lost-time injuries was 31%. The median number of work days lost was 7. The injury rates were higher than ILO estimates for Bangladesh, perhaps because of our study's focus on a rural population. We recommend expanding to larger and a more representative sample of the Bangladesh working community.

  13. Heavy drinking and the risk of occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D A

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluated the association between the frequency of heavy drinking and the risk of occupational injury, using nationally representative data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The sample consisted of 29,192 adults who were employed at some time during the year preceding the NHIS interview. Overall, 7.2% reported an on-the-job injury during the preceding year, but the rates were higher--about 13%--for those employed as skilled or unskilled laborers or who reported engaging in repeated strenuous physical activity at work. Slightly more than one-fourth of the employed adults reported at least one occasion of drinking five or more drinks during the preceding year. After adjusting for the effects of age, gender, education, occupation, and strenuous job activity, the odds of occupational injury increased with frequency of heavy drinking, with odds ratios varying from 1.08 (one occasion of heavy drinking) to 1.74 (daily heavy drinking). Odds ratios were decreased slightly by the inclusion of smoking as a control variable, indicating that some of the excess risk of injury among heavy drinkers may reflect their greater propensity to take health-related risks rather than direct effects of ethanol. The odds ratios also were slightly lower when the analysis was restricted to current drinkers, suggesting that the risk of work injury was increased by light or moderate as well as heavy drinking.

  14. California's nurse-to-patient ratio law and occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Markis, Carrie A; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Romano, Patrick S

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether state-mandated minimum nurse-to-patient staffing ratios in California hospitals had an effect on reported occupational injury and illness rates. The difference-in-differences method was applied: The change in injury rates among hospital nurses after implementation of the law in California was compared to the change in 49 other states and the District of Columbia combined. Data were drawn from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the California Employment Development Department, including numerator estimates of injury and illness cases and denominator estimates of the number of registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) employed in hospitals. Confidence intervals (CIs) for rates were constructed based on assumptions that favored the null hypothesis. The most probable difference-in-differences estimate indicated that the California law was associated with 55.57 fewer occupational injuries and illnesses per 10,000 RNs per year, a value 31.6 % lower than the expected rate without the law. The most probable reduction for LPNs was 38.2 %. Analyses of CIs suggested that these reductions were unlikely to be due to chance [corrected]. Despite significant data restrictions and corresponding methodological limitations, the evidence suggests that the law was effective in reducing occupational injury and illness rates for both RNs and LPNs. Whether these 31.6 and 38.2 % reductions are maintained over time remains to be seen [corrected].

  15. Occupational injuries among construction workers in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W

    1994-12-01

    Accidents on construction sites are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Hong Kong. We studied 122 injured construction workers in a hospital and an equal number of workmate controls. Data on injuries were obtained from medical records in the hospital. Personal and occupational data were obtained from the cases by interview. Similar data were sought from controls. Single injuries were seen in 80% of cases. Of 149 injuries classified by body region, 49% were external, 26% involved either the upper or lower extremities, and 11% were spinal injuries. Healthcare and compensation costs per capita were high. Working at height was associated with the injury severity score. Safety hazards were identified in the work environment in 68% of cases. Significant odds ratios for accidents were obtained for no formal education, no safety training and current smokers. Much needs to be done in improving the work environment and promoting safety education among construction workers.

  16. Injury Patterns Compared to Injury Costs in Car to Car Accidents of Belted Occupants with Major Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hell, Wolfram; Langwieder, Klaus; Sporner, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the injury patterns of belted occupants as a function of different collision scenarios in a major accident sample. 1,100 car to car accidents involving major bodily injuries (AIS 2+) have been analyzed for the research on the injury pattern and injury costs of belted car occupants in isolated frontal, side and rear-end collisions. 41 accidents with airbag-equipped cars fulfilling the selection criteria were analyzed for purposes of comparison.

  17. [Medical visits before return to work, after a long lasting absence, above 60 days, for injuries or common diseases in a public transport company. Analysis and discussions of utility and consequences in term of evaluation of fitness to specific job].

    PubMed

    Verga, A; Bordini, L; Ricci, M G; Di Lucca, P; Todaro, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the opportunity to do medical visits before return to work, after a long continuous absence, above 60 days, for injuries (occupational and non-occupational) or common diseases. We have examined medical records of 403 workers, in 2010 and 2011, occupied in a public transport company, in order to control the following variables: job, age, clinical conditions related to the absences, classification of the absence as injuries or common disease and conclusions about medical fitness to specific job. Our findings have shown an equal percentage of causes of absences in term of injuries or common diseases. The main cause of absence and of non fit to specific job, after medical evaluation, is depending on orthopaedic post-traumatic diseases. This evidence support the importance to do medical visits after long-lasting absence from work, particularly in case of jobs (bus, tram, subway drivers) at risk for other people.

  18. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  19. Fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd Razzak B; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia's Social Security organization, the Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO). We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the 5-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. On scene injury severity prediction (OSISP) algorithm for car occupants.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Ruben; Candefjord, Stefan; Fagerlind, Helen; Bálint, András; Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne

    2015-08-01

    Many victims in traffic accidents do not receive optimal care due to the fact that the severity of their injuries is not realized early on. Triage protocols are based on physiological and anatomical criteria and subsequently on mechanisms of injury in order to reduce undertriage. In this study the value of accident characteristics for field triage is evaluated by developing an on scene injury severity prediction (OSISP) algorithm using only accident characteristics that are feasible to assess at the scene of accident. A multivariate logistic regression model is constructed to assess the probability of a car occupant being severely injured following a crash, based on the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA) database. Accidents involving adult occupants for calendar years 2003-2013 included in both police and hospital records, with no missing data for any of the model variables, were included. The total number of subjects was 29128, who were involved in 22607 accidents. Partition between severe and non-severe injury was done using the Injury Severity Score (ISS) with two thresholds: ISS>8 and ISS>15. The model variables are: belt use, airbag deployment, posted speed limit, type of accident, location of accident, elderly occupant (>55 years old), sex and occupant seat position. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) is 0.78 and 0.83 for ISS>8 and ISS>15, respectively, as estimated by 10-fold cross-validation. Belt use is the strongest predictor followed by type of accident. Posted speed limit, age and accident location contribute substantially to increase model accuracy, whereas sex and airbag deployment contribute to a smaller extent and seat position is of limited value. These findings can be used to refine triage protocols used in Sweden and possibly other countries with similar traffic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational injury disparities in the US hotel industry.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Susan; Vossenas, Pamela; Krause, Niklas; Moriarty, Joan; Frumin, Eric; Shimek, Jo Anna M; Mirer, Franklin; Orris, Peter; Punnett, Laura

    2010-02-01

    Hotel employees have higher rates of occupational injury and sustain more severe injuries than most other service workers. OSHA log incidents from five unionized hotel companies for a three-year period were analyzed to estimate injury rates by job, company, and demographic characteristics. Room cleaning work, known to be physically hazardous, was of particular concern. A total of 2,865 injuries were reported during 55,327 worker-years of observation. The overall injury rate was 5.2 injuries per 100 worker-years. The rate was highest for housekeepers (7.9), Hispanic housekeepers (10.6), and about double in three companies versus two others. Acute trauma rates were highest in kitchen workers (4.0/100) and housekeepers (3.9/100); housekeepers also had the highest rate of musculoskeletal disorders (3.2/100). Age, being female or Hispanic, job title, and company were all independently associated with injury risk. Sex- and ethnicity-based disparities in injury rates were only partially due to the type of job held and the company in which the work was performed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Occupational and non-occupational factors associated with work-related injuries among construction workers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    Many factors contribute to occupational injuries. However, these factors have been compartmentalized and isolated in most studies. To examine the relationship between work-related injuries and multiple occupational and non-occupational factors among construction workers in the USA. Data from the 1988-2000 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (N = 12,686) were analyzed. Job exposures and health behaviors were examined and used as independent variables in four multivariate logistic regression models to identify associations with occupational injuries. After controlling for demographic variables, occupational injuries were 18% (95% CI: 1.04-1.34) more likely in construction than in non-construction. Blue-collar occupations, job physical efforts, multiple jobs, and long working hours accounted for the escalated risk in construction. Smoking, obesity/overweight, and cocaine use significantly increased the risk of work-related injury when demographics and occupational factors were held constant. Workplace injuries are better explained by simultaneously examining occupational and non-occupational characteristics.

  3. Occupational and non-occupational factors associated with work-related injuries among construction workers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Wang, Xuanwen; Largay, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many factors contribute to occupational injuries. However, these factors have been compartmentalized and isolated in most studies. Objective: To examine the relationship between work-related injuries and multiple occupational and non-occupational factors among construction workers in the USA. Methods: Data from the 1988–2000 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (N = 12,686) were analyzed. Job exposures and health behaviors were examined and used as independent variables in four multivariate logistic regression models to identify associations with occupational injuries. Results: After controlling for demographic variables, occupational injuries were 18% (95% CI: 1.04–1.34) more likely in construction than in non-construction. Blue-collar occupations, job physical efforts, multiple jobs, and long working hours accounted for the escalated risk in construction. Smoking, obesity/overweight, and cocaine use significantly increased the risk of work-related injury when demographics and occupational factors were held constant. Conclusions: Workplace injuries are better explained by simultaneously examining occupational and non-occupational characteristics. PMID:25816923

  4. Occupational Injuries and Illnesses and Associated Costs in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to enumerate the annual morbidity and mortality incidence and estimate the direct and indirect costs associated with occupational injuries and illnesses in Bangkok in 2008. In this study, data on workmen compensation claims and costs from the Thai Workmen Compensation Fund, Social Security Office of Ministry of Labor, were aggregated and analyzed. Methods To assess costs, this study focuses on direct costs associated with the payment of workmen compensation claims for medical care and health services. Results A total of 52,074 nonfatal cases of occupational injury were reported, with an overall incidence rate of 16.9 per 1,000. The incidence rate for male workers was four times higher than that for female workers. Out of a total direct cost of $13.87 million, $9.88 million were for medical services and related expenses and $3.98 million for compensable reimbursement. The estimated amount of noncompensated lost earnings was an additional $2.66 million. Conclusion Occupational injuries and illnesses contributed to the total cost; it has been estimated that workers' compensation covers less than one-half to one-tenth of this cost. PMID:25180136

  5. Occupational skin injury by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Izu, K; Yamamoto, O; Asahi, M

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in products such as rocket fuel, bleaching preparations and topical disinfectants. Contact of hydrogen peroxide with the skin can cause severe skin damage. In this report, we describe a case of skin injury induced by hydrogen peroxide. The patient was a 34-year-old man working in a dry cleaning shop. While he was pouring 35% hydrogen peroxide, some of it accidentally splashed over his left shoulder and back, and then an erythema, purpura and vacuolar eruption, similar to bubble wrap, appeared on his left shoulder and down the left side of his back. Histologically, numerous vacuolar structures were observed in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Coupled with the clinical features, these vacuolar structures were considered as 'oxygen bubbles'. Subcutaneous emphysema was detected by chest X-ray examination. All skin eruptions rapidly healed without scarring by using a steroid ointment. As far as we know, this is the first time such clinical and histological features have been described Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Disabling occupational injury in the US construction industry, 1996.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Theodore K; Matz, Simon; Webster, Barbara S

    2002-12-01

    In 1996 the US construction industry comprised 5.4% of the annual US employment but accounted for 7.8% of nonfatal occupational injuries and illness and 9.7% of cases involving at least a day away from work. Information in the published literature on the disability arising from construction injuries is limited. The construction claims experience (n = 35,790) of a large workers' compensation insurer with national coverage was examined. The leading types and sources of disabling occupational morbidity in 1996 in the US construction industry were identified. Disability duration was calculated from indemnity payments data using previously published methods. The average disability duration for an injured construction worker was 46 days with a median of 0 days. The most frequently occurring conditions were low back pain (14.8%), foreign body eye injuries (8.5%), and finger lacerations (4.8%). Back pain also accounted for the greatest percentage of construction claim costs (21.3%) and disability days (25.5%). However, the conditions with the longest disability durations were sudden-onset injuries, including fractures of the ankle (median = 55 days), foot (42 days), and wrist (38 days). Same-level and elevated falls were the principal exposures for fractures of the wrist and ankle, whereas elevated falls and struck by incidents accounted for the majority of foot fractures. Manual materials handling activities were most often associated with low back pain disability. The results suggest that these most disabling injuries can be addressed by increasing primary prevention resources in slips and falls and exposures related to injuries of sudden-onset as well as in reducing manual materials handling and other exposures associated with more gradual-onset injuries.

  7. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    PubMed

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  8. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  9. The Risk of Occupational Injury Increased According to Severity of Noise Exposure After Controlling for Occupational Environment Status in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P < 0.05). Compared to the non-exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07–1.80) and 1.67 (1.13–2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. Conclusions: The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure. PMID:27991467

  10. Work-injury absence and compensation among partnered and lone mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of a work-injury absence and the likelihood of receiving compensation among partnered and lone mothers and fathers. This study utilized data from an annual survey of Canadian residents. Logistic regression models examined the association between family status and the receipt of workers' compensation, and absences due to work-related injury or illnesses of 7 or more days. Being a lone mother was significantly associated with the risk of work-injury absence. Gender differences were observed for workers' compensation: mothers were half as likely as fathers to receive workers' compensation benefits, which may be attributed to differences in work experiences between men and women. Findings may help in understanding whether some parental situations are more vulnerable than others and may contribute to identifying policies that could help workers sustain employment or return to work following an injury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Oa; Olusanya, Ba

    2014-11-01

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and December 2011 was conducted. Three patients were identified, and their charts were reviewed for demographic information, mechanism of injury, initial and final visual acuity, surgeries performed, as well as anatomic and visual outcome. The three patients were males and were aged 45, 22, and 49 years, respectively. They were all involved in cattle-related jobs, and they all had unilateral open-globe injuries with corneoscleral lacerations. Presenting visual acuity was nil light perception in the injured eyes. The contralateral eyes were all normal. Two of the patients required evisceration of the eye, while the third patient underwent repair of lacerations. Visual improvement was not achieved in any of the patients. Cow horn eye injuries may be quite severe and could result in loss of the eye with monocular blindness. Careful attention must be paid to prevent such injuries. Cattle rearers and dealers should wear safety goggles, and proper restraint of the animals is advocated.

  12. Workplace social capital and risk of long-term sickness absence. Are associations modified by occupational grade?

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, Peter; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Aust, Birgit; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace social capital (WSC) is an emerging topic among both work environment professionals and researchers. We examined (i) whether high WSC protected against risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in a random sample of the Danish workforce during a 1-year follow-up and (ii) whether the association of WSC with sickness absence was modified by occupational grade. Methods: We measured WSC by self-report in a cohort of 3075 employees and linked responses to a national register of sickness absence. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of onset of LTSA (≥21 days), adjusted for covariates. We stratified analyses by occupational grade and examined if there was an interaction effect of WSC and occupational grade. Results: A one standard deviation higher WSC score predicted a reduced risk of sickness absence after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, prevalent health problems and health behaviours (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74–0.99). The HR was attenuated and lost statistical significance after further adjustment for occupational grade (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78–1.04). When stratified by occupational grade, high WSC predicted a decreased risk of sickness absence among higher grade workers (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44–0.84) but not among lower grade workers (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.83–1.15). The interaction effect of WSC and occupational grade was statistically significant (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.99). Conclusion: High WSC might reduce risk of LTSA. However, the protective effect appears to be limited to workers of higher occupational grade. PMID:26823442

  13. 76 FR 36414 - Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements-NAICS Update and Reporting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... information on the causes of workplace incidents and lead to greater prevention of injuries. The additional... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1904 RIN 1218-AC50 Occupational Injury and Illness... A to Subpart B of its Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting regulation. Appendix A contains a...

  14. Worker substance use, workplace problems and the risk of occupational injury: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R; Smith, Gordon S

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the tendency toward problem behavior as an explanation for the relationship between problem substance use and occupational injury. The authors used a matched case-control study nested in a cohort of 26,413 workers, in which cases (n = 3,994) were workers suffering an occupational injury. Five controls per case (n = 19,970) were selected from the cohort of workers active on the day of the injury and matched on job type. Conditional logistic regression modeled the association of problem substance use with occupational injury, controlling for problem behaviors and worker characteristics. Problem substance use was indicated indirectly if any of the following were alcohol/drug-involved during the comparison period: Employee Assistance Program visit, excused absence or disciplinary action. Discipline records identified minor (absenteeism) and serious (dishonesty, theft, assault, harassment, disrespect) problem behaviors during the comparison period. The odds of injury among workers with an indicator of problem substance use was 1.35 (p = .015) times greater than the odds among workers without an indicator, controlling for job type and demographics as well as adjusting for exposure. This ratio declined to 1.21 (p = .138) when problem behaviors were also controlled for. Minor and serious problem behaviors were significantly associated with occupational injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73, p < .001, and OR = 2.19, p < .001, respectively), controlling for demographics and substance use. The relationship of problem substance use with occupational injury was weak when problem behaviors were controlled for, suggesting that this relationship, observed in previous studies, may be explained by a workers tendency toward problem behaviors. Workplace injury prevention programs should address the expression of problem behaviors as a complement to drug and alcohol deterrent programs.

  15. Occupant and Crash Characteristics in Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Injuries Resulting From Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raj D.; Berry, Chirag; Yoganandan, Narayan; Agarwal, Arnav

    2016-01-01

    Background context Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) are a leading cause of thoracic and lumbar (T and L) spine injuries. Mechanisms of injury in vehicular crashes that result in thoracic and lumbar fractures and the spectrum of injury in these occupants have not been extensively studied in the literature. Purpose The objective was to investigate the patterns of T and L spine injury following MVC; correlate these patterns with restraint use, crash characteristics and demographic variables; and study the associations of these injuries with general injury morbidity and fatality. Study design/Setting Retrospective study of a prospectively gathered database. Patient sample Six hundred and thirty-one occupants with T and L (T1-L5) spine injuries from 4572 occupants included in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database between 1996 and 2011. Outcome measures No clinical outcome measures were evaluated in this study. Methods The CIREN database includes moderate to severely injured occupants from MVC involving vehicles manufactured recently. Demographic, injury and crash data from each patient was analyzed for correlations between pattern of T and L spine injury, associated extra-spinal injuries and overall injury severity score (ISS), type and use of seat belts, and other crash characteristics. T and L spine injury pattern was categorized using a modified Denis classification, to include extension injuries as a separate entity. Results T and L spine injuries were identified in 631 of 4572 vehicle occupants, of whom 299 sustained major injuries (including 21 extension injuries) and 332 sustained minor injuries. Flexion-distraction injuries were more prevalent in children and young adults, and extension injuries in older adults (mean age 65.7 years). Occupants with extension injuries had a mean BMI of 36.0 and a fatality rate of 23.8%, much higher than the fatality rate for the entire cohort (10.9%). The most frequent extra-spinal injuries (Abbreviated

  16. Occupant and crash characteristics in thoracic and lumbar spine injuries resulting from motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Rao, Raj D; Berry, Chirag A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Agarwal, Arnav

    2014-10-01

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) are a leading cause of thoracic and lumbar (T and L) spine injuries. Mechanisms of injury in vehicular crashes that result in thoracic and lumbar fractures and the spectrum of injury in these occupants have not been extensively studied in the literature. The objective was to investigate the patterns of T and L spine injuries after MVC; correlate these patterns with restraint use, crash characteristics, and demographic variables; and study the associations of these injuries with general injury morbidity and fatality. The study design is a retrospective study of a prospectively gathered database. Six hundred thirty-one occupants with T and L (T1-L5) spine injuries from 4,572 occupants included in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database between 1996 and 2011 were included in this study. No clinical outcome measures were evaluated in this study. The CIREN database includes moderate to severely injured occupants from MVC involving vehicles manufactured recently. Demographic, injury, and crash data from each patient were analyzed for correlations between patterns of T and L spine injuries, associated extraspinal injuries and overall injury severity score (ISS), type and use of seat belts, and other crash characteristics. T and L spine injuries patterns were categorized using a modified Denis' classification to include extension injuries as a separate entity. T and L spine injuries were identified in 631 of 4,572 vehicle occupants, of whom 299 sustained major injuries (including 21 extension injuries) and 332 sustained minor injuries. Flexion-distraction injuries were more prevalent in children and young adults and extension injuries in older adults (mean age, 65.7 years). Occupants with extension injuries had a mean body mass index of 36.0 and a fatality rate of 23.8%, much higher than the fatality rate for the entire cohort (10.9%). The most frequent extraspinal injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale Grade 2 or more

  17. Registration of fatal occupational injuries in Costa Rica, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana Maria; Mora-Mora, Maria Gabriela; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Data on fatal occupational injuries (FOIs) for Latin America are controversial. Costa Rican national rates are inconsistent with estimates extrapolated from other countries. We reviewed the files for all possible FOIs in Costa Rica for 2005-2006 at the National Insurance Institute and at the Center of Forensic Sciences by formality/informality of work, sex, age, economic activity, occupation, and cause of death. The national mortality rate was estimated at 9.5/100,000 person-years (342 deaths). The informal/formal rate ratio was 1.06. Men's rates were over 10 times higher than women's and increased with age. The highest rates were found for transport, storage, and communication (32.1/100,000 person-years), and, by occupation, for messengers and delivery men (91.4). Leading causes of death were traffic injuries and gunshots. Recalculated rates are probably underestimates. Data limitations include the absence of systematic identification and registration among informal sector workers and other groups such as children and farm workers.

  18. Factors of occupational injury: a survey in a chemical company.

    PubMed

    Saha, Asim; Kumar, Sunil; Vasudevan, D M

    2008-04-01

    Chemical industries being the seat of dangerous occurrences frequently resulting in injuries, an occupational injury surveillance study was initiated involving 307 permanent and 419 temporary workers in a chemical company to understand the contribution of different possible factors on injury causation. Risk calculation was undertaken in relation to every individual factor using univariate and multivariate analysis techniques. Workers of lower age were found to be more susceptible to accidents (as evidenced by negative correlation coefficient), though non-significantly. Lower job duration (experience) had a significant impact on injury causation (correlation coefficient -0.5115, p<0.05). Alcohol habit could not show any significant impact but smoking/chewing habit showed significant effect (OR, 7.29: 95% CI, 3.88-9.33) on accident occurrence. Nature of job had no significant impact but nature of employment was found to have considerable effect on the causation of injuries. Temporary nature of employment was at greater risk (OR, 2.51: 95% CI, 1.42-3.77) in comparison to permanent workers.

  19. Occupational therapy treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Teresa; Perritt, Ginger; Thimmaiah, Deepa; Heisler, Lauren; Offutt, Jennifer Lookingbill; Cantoni, Kara; Hseih, Ching-Hui; Gassaway, Julie; Ozelie, Rebecca; Backus, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Occupational therapy (OT) is a critical component of the rehabilitation process after spinal cord injury (SCI), the constitution of which has not been studied or documented in full detail previously. Objective To describe the type and distribution of SCI rehabilitation OT activities, including the amount of time spent on evaluation and treatment, and to discuss predictors (patient and injury characteristics) of the amount of time dedicated to OT treatment activities. Methods Six inpatient rehabilitation centers enrolled 600 patients with traumatic SCI in the first year of the SCIRehab. Occupational therapists documented 32 512 therapy sessions including time spent and specifics of each therapeutic activity. Analysis of variance and contingency tables/chi-square tests were used to test differences across neurologic injury groups for continuous and categorical variables. Results SCIRehab patients received a mean total of 52 hours of OT over the course of their rehabilitation stay. Statistically significant differences among four neurologic injury groups were seen in time spent on each OT activity. The activities that consumed the most OT time (individual and group sessions combined) were strengthening/endurance exercises, activities of daily living (ADLs), range of motion (ROM)/stretching, education, and a grouping of ‘therapeutic activities’ that included tenodesis training, fine motor activities, manual therapy, vestibular training, edema management, breathing exercise, cognitive retraining, visual/perceptual training desensitization, and don/doff adaptive equipment. Seventy-seven percent of OT work occurred in individual treatment sessions, with the most frequent OT activity involving ADLs. The variation in time (mean minutes per week) spent on OT ROM/stretching, ADLs, transfer training, assessment, and therapeutic activities can be explained in part by patient and injury characteristics, such as admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM

  20. Does Occupation Explain Gender and Other Differences in Work-Related Eye Injury Hospitalization Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon S.; Lincoln, Andrew E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Bell, Nicole S.; Vinger, Paul F.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Lombardi, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective We sought to determine whether demographic differences in eye injury rates persist after adjusting for occupational exposure. Methods On-duty eye injury hospitalizations were linked to occupation among active-duty US Army personnel. Results Eye injury rates were higher for white solidiers, men, and for younger soldiers, even after adjusting for occupational group and specific job titles using multivariate models. Conclusions This finding contrasts with studies of other injuries, suggesting that occupation does not fully account for variations in eye injury risk. Because protective eyewear can prevent most serious eye injuries, we hypothesize that differences in protective eyewear use between men and women may contribute to differences in eye injury rates, although follow-up studies are needed to confirm this. Prevention efforts should consider targeting high-risk demographic groups in addition to high-risk occupations. PMID:15951724

  1. Costs of occupational injury and illness across states.

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha; Leigh, J Paul; Cassady, Diana; Miller, Ted R

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate occupational injury and illness costs per worker across states. Analysis was conducted on injury data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and costs data from workers' compensation records. The following states were at the top of the list for average cost (cost per worker): West Virginia, Alaska, Wyoming, Kentucky, and Mississippi. The following states were at the bottom: South Carolina, Delaware, Minnesota, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. The following variables (and signs on regression coefficients comparing this industry with manufacturing) were important in explaining the variation across states: employment in farming (+), agricultural service, forestry, fishing (+), mining (+), transportation and public utilities (+), wholesale trade (-), and finance, insurance, real estate (-). Southern and especially Western states were disproportionately represented in the high cost per worker list. A significant amount of the variation in cost per worker across states was explained by the composition of industries.

  2. Vehicle occupant injury severity on highways: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Zoi; Cohen, Simon; Karlaftis, Matthew G

    2010-11-01

    Accident severity analysis is important to both researchers and practitioners because of its implications in accident cost estimation, external cost estimation and road safety. Although much research has been done to explore the factors influencing crash-injury severity, few studies have investigated the association between severity and traffic characteristics collected real-time during the time the accident occurred. We apply a random parameters ordered probit model to explore the influence of speed and traffic volume on the injury level sustained by vehicle occupants involved in accidents on the A4-A86 junction in the Paris region. Results indicate that increased traffic volume has a consistently positive effect on severity, while speed has a differential effect on severity depending on flow conditions. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bayesian decision support for coding occupational injury data.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Gaurav; Grattan, Kathleen M; Chu, MyDzung T; Davis, Letitia K; Lehto, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Studies on autocoding injury data have found that machine learning algorithms perform well for categories that occur frequently but often struggle with rare categories. Therefore, manual coding, although resource-intensive, cannot be eliminated. We propose a Bayesian decision support system to autocode a large portion of the data, filter cases for manual review, and assist human coders by presenting them top k prediction choices and a confusion matrix of predictions from Bayesian models. We studied the prediction performance of Single-Word (SW) and Two-Word-Sequence (TW) Naïve Bayes models on a sample of data from the 2011 Survey of Occupational Injury and Illness (SOII). We used the agreement in prediction results of SW and TW models, and various prediction strength thresholds for autocoding and filtering cases for manual review. We also studied the sensitivity of the top k predictions of the SW model, TW model, and SW-TW combination, and then compared the accuracy of the manually assigned codes to SOII data with that of the proposed system. The accuracy of the proposed system, assuming well-trained coders reviewing a subset of only 26% of cases flagged for review, was estimated to be comparable (86.5%) to the accuracy of the original coding of the data set (range: 73%-86.8%). Overall, the TW model had higher sensitivity than the SW model, and the accuracy of the prediction results increased when the two models agreed, and for higher prediction strength thresholds. The sensitivity of the top five predictions was 93%. The proposed system seems promising for coding injury data as it offers comparable accuracy and less manual coding. Accurate and timely coded occupational injury data is useful for surveillance as well as prevention activities that aim to make workplaces safer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  4. Vulnerability of motorcycle riders and co-riders to injuries in multi-occupant crashes.

    PubMed

    Oluwadiya, Kehinde Sunday; Ojo, Owolabi Dele; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka Oladiran; Mock, Charles; Popoola, Ogunsuyi Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, most motorcycles are ridden with more than one occupant. The objective of this study was to establish the relative vulnerability of riders and co-riders to injury and determine the injury risk factors in multi-occupant motorcycle crashes. Between January and December 2010, we collected crash and injury data from victims of multi-occupant motorcycle. It is a hospital-based study. The probability of sustaining injuries was similar for co-riders and riders, but co-riders were more likely to sustain severe injuries. Occupants of >2-occupant motorcycles were also more likely to be involved in risky behaviours like not wearing helmet and speeding than those on 2-occupant motorcycles. Occupants of motorcycles on which there were more than two occupants were at an increased risk of sustaining injuries compared with occupants of motorcycles with only two occupants (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3). Motorcycle co-riders were more vulnerable to severe injuries than riders. The significance of the study finding to prevention was discussed.

  5. Occupational injury deaths among females. The US experience for the decade 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, E L

    1994-03-01

    From 1980 through 1989, females accounted for 44% of the total employed population. Thus, occupational safety and health issues specific to the experience of women merit consideration. Research has demonstrated that the occupational fatality experience of females is not adequately described by the group of all workers. The leading cause of death for all workers is motor vehicle incidents, while the leading cause of occupational injury death of females is homicide. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has compiled a decade of data on the fatal occupational injury experience of US workers, providing a sufficient number of female cases to allow separate analyses. Over the decade, 3821 females died as a result of injuries sustained at work, with an average annual fatality rate of 0.82/100,000 female workers. Among industries, retail trade and services accounted for nearly half of all occupational injury deaths to females. The detailed occupations with the highest rates of work-related injury death were airplane pilots and navigators, drivers of heavy trucks, construction laborers, and police and detectives. Information on the causes of work-related injury death by occupation is fundamental to the prevention of these deaths. The causes of death in the highest-risk occupations included aircraft crashes, motor vehicle collisions, pedestrians struck by motor vehicles, and homicides by firearms. These data provide a foundation for the prevention of occupational injury deaths among females in the United States.

  6. Military Occupations Most Affected by Head/Sensory Injuries and the Potential Job Impact of Those Injuries.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Ben D; Kass, Steven J; Dhillon, Kieran K; Milam, Lana S; Cho, Timothy H; Rupert, Angus H

    2016-08-01

    Identifying Department of Defense (DoD) occupations affected by injuries to the head and sensory systems. We explored the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database to identify occupations with the highest incidence of injured personnel, then ranked how frequently they occurred in a top 10 list for each of four injury categories (head/brain, visual, auditory, vestibular) encompassing 25 injury codes. Across all four categories, the most affected occupations were identified, among which we chose three Army combat-related military occupational specialties (MOSs) for detailed study. We identified skills needed to perform these MOSs and explored whether MOS-critical deficits could be expected following the injuries. Some DoD occupations are more likely to suffer from these injuries, including Infantry, Combat Operations Control, Artillery/Gunnery, Motor Vehicle Operator, Combat Engineering, and Armor/Amphibious. Within these DoD occupations, we explored three Army combatant MOSs: Infantry (11B), Cavalry Scout (19D), and Artillery (13B), confirming that these jobs are likely to be disrupted by injuries within the four categories. Head and sensory injuries disproportionately affect certain military occupations. Relatively few injuries disrupt combat-related abilities that are job critical (e.g., firearms operation) and job specific (e.g., Artillery gunnery problems); these should be the focus of efforts to improve rehabilitation and RTD outcomes. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Sports injury, occupational physical activity, joint laxity, and meniscal damage.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul; Coggon, David; Reading, Isabel; Barrett, David; McLaren, Magnus; Cooper, Cyrus

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the risk factors for meniscal damage, an important determinant of knee osteoarthritis. We studied 243 men and women aged 20-59 years in whom the diagnosis of a meniscal tear was confirmed for the first time at arthroscopy, over a 25 month period, in 2 British hospitals. Each case was compared with one or 2 community controls, matched by age and sex, who were registered with the same general practitioner. Information on exposure to risk factors was obtained by a structured questionnaire and physical examination. Meniscal tear was strongly associated with participation in sports during the 12 months preceding the onset of symptoms; the risk was particularly high for soccer (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.1-6.6). Higher body mass index and occupational kneeling (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.3-11.0) and squatting (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.0-8.0) were associated with an increased risk of degenerative meniscal lesions, after adjustment for social class, joint laxity, and sports participation. Joint laxity was associated with degenerative meniscal lesions independently of occupational physical activity, sports, and obesity. Our results confirm the importance of sporting activities entailing knee torsion in acute meniscal tear. They also point to a role for occupational activity, adiposity, and joint laxity in the pathogenesis of degenerative meniscal lesions. Modifying these mechanical risk factors may serve to reduce the risk of meniscal injury and may also help to prevent later knee osteoarthritis.

  8. Occupational injuries and sick leaves in household moving works.

    PubMed

    Hwan Park, Myoung; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2017-09-01

    This study is concerned with household moving works and the characteristics of occupational injuries and sick leaves in each step of the moving process. Accident data for 392 occupational accidents were categorized by the moving processes in which the accidents occurred, and possible incidents and sick leaves were assessed for each moving process and hazard factor. Accidents occurring during specific moving processes showed different characteristics depending on the type of accident and agency of accidents. The most critical form in the level of risk management was falls from a height in the 'lifting by ladder truck' process. Incidents ranked as a 'High' level of risk management were in the forms of slips, being struck by objects and musculoskeletal disorders in the 'manual materials handling' process. Also, falls in 'loading/unloading', being struck by objects during 'lifting by ladder truck' and driving accidents in the process of 'transport' were ranked 'High'. The findings of this study can be used to develop more effective accident prevention policy reflecting different circumstances and conditions to reduce occupational accidents in household moving works.

  9. Self-Certified Sickness Absence among Young Municipal Employees-Changes from 2002 to 2016 and Occupational Class Differences.

    PubMed

    Sumanen, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Mänty, Minna

    2017-09-26

    We examined changes in self-certified, one-to-three day sickness absence (SA) among young employees from 2002 to 2016 and the magnitude of occupational class differences during that period. All 18-34-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland were included (2002-2016, n = ~11,725 per year). Employer's personnel and SA registers were used. Occupational class was categorized to four groups. Changes in self-certified SA from 2002 to 2016 were analyzed with Joinpoint regression and the magnitudes of occupational class differences were estimated with the relative index of inequality (RII). Most of the trends first increased and turned to decrease in 2007/2010. Managers and professionals had the least amount of SA, but steadily increasing trends were observed among men. Self-certified SA followed only partially the typical socioeconomic gradient, as routine non-manuals had the highest levels of SA. The magnitude of occupational class differences in self-certified SA was stable during the study period only among women. Self-certified SA and occupational class differences have increased in recent years among men in the lower occupational classes. Socioeconomic differences exist in self-certified SA among young employees, but gradient is only partial. Overall, high amounts of self-certified SA especially in the lower occupational classes require further studies and preventive measures.

  10. Hospital Qualities Related to Return to Work from Occupational Injury after Controlling for Injury Severity as Well as Occupational Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong-Uk; Seok, Hongdeok; Rhie, Jeongbae; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-05-01

    We examined associations between hospital quality in the workers' compensation system and injured patients' return to work after controlling for injury severity, occupational factors, and demographic factors. Return to work data of injured workers were constructed from 2 datasets: 23,392 patients injured in 2009-2011 from the Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service and return to work data from Korea Employment Information Services. After de-identifying the data, quality scores were matched for each hospital that cared for injured patients. Injury severity was measured by Abbreviated Injury Scales. Relative risk and 95% confidence interval were calculated using log binomial regression models. After adjusting for age, sex, injury severity, occupation, factory size, city, and hospital type, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for the total score was 1.04 (1.02-1.06), 1.06 (1.04-1.09), and 1.07 (1.05-1.10) in the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) quartiles, respectively, compared to the 1(st) quartile. The RR (95% CI) in the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) quartiles was 1.05 (1.02-1.07), 1.05 (1.02-1.08), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09) for the process score; and 1.02 (1.01-1.04), 1.05 (1.03-1.07), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09) for the outcome score compared to the 1(st) quartile score, respectively. In conclusion, our study design with blinded merge methods shows that total, process, and outcome qualities are related to the return to work of injured workers after controlling for other factors.

  11. Prevention of occupational musculo-skeletal injuries. Labour Inspectorate investigation.

    PubMed

    Kemmlert, K

    1996-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect on ergonomic conditions by Labour Inspectorate intervention at the work place and to follow health and employment among occupationally injured. 195 reports on occupational musculo-skeletal injury (accidents and diseases) from men and women with different occupations were collected consecutively at three Labour Inspectorate offices. Fifteen Labour Inspectors volunteered to investigate half of the reports by work place visits within three months. The other half was kept for control. The inspectors were trained in ergonomics and also got complementary training in ergonomic work place assessment. A check-list was designed for the purpose and tested for validity and reliability. Eighteen months after the time of the injury reports, all work places were visited by ergonomists to evaluate possible improvements in ergonomic conditions. Due to turnover and prolonged sick-leaves, evaluations were performed for only 92 of the injured. At 160 work places other employees had performed similar tasks as the injured at the time of the injury report. Evaluations of possible improvements in ergonomic conditions were performed also for these employees. As regards changes at the work place there were no differences between the injured in the study and control groups. The inspectors had delivered 11 inspection notices to the employers demanding improvements for the injured and 14 notices regarding the conditions of work-mates. For this latter group there was a significant association between delivered notices and improved ergonomic conditions eighteen months after the reports. Three years after the time of the reports a postal questionnaire on health, psychological well-being and employment was distributed to the injured. The response rate was 93%. Questionnaire answers were compared to results from other studies, where identical questions were used. There was a significantly higher prevalence of musculo-skeletal and

  12. [An epidemiological study of occupational injuries in Xuzhou railway from 1975 to 2015].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of occupational injuries in Xuzhou Railway, and to provide a scientific basis for the management of railway occupational safety and hygiene. Methods: From January to March, 2016, it was used the descriptive epidemiology research methods to collect the files of the professional injuries cases reported in Xuzhou railway from 1975 to 2015 to retrospectively survey and study and analyze the characteristics of professional injuries in the aspect of sociology, time, work, damage type and nature, etc. Results: From 1975 to 2015, the number of people in Xuzhou railway who had professional injuries, reached injure level and professionally died are 804, 558 and 4. The rate of occupational injuries was 0.07‰~5.87‰ and the occupational injuries rate of up to grade was 0.03‰~1.50‰. The annual average incidence rate was 0.79‰ and the annual average incidence rate of up to grade was 0.55‰. The mortality of occupational injuries was 3.95×10(-3)‰. The occurrence rate of occupational injuries showed a downward trend in wave mode. The proportion of occupational injuries of 26 to 30 years old and 11 to 15 working years workers was higher, respectively, 18.03% and 19.28%. The proportion of male occupational injuries (88.56%) was higher than that of female (11.44%) . The proportion of workers with low cultural level was higher. The time period of occupational injury was more concentrated in 2: 00~3: 00 and 16: 00~17: 00, and the proportion of occupational injuries was higher in August and the first quarter. The difference in occupational injuries rates of different years had the statistical significance (χ(2)=6 546.121, P=0.000) . The difference in the occupational injuries rates of up to grade of different years had the statistical significance (χ(2)=1 981.623, P=0.000) . The mainly departments and posts involved in occupational injuries were locomotive department (26.12%) and shunting operation (25

  13. Use of a national reporting system for occupational injuries in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Susan; Krantz, Anne; Klempner, Sophia; Alvarado, Rebeca; Wesseling, Catharina; Fernández, Eduardo; Forst, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Occupational injury surveillance in developing countries may be hindered by the lack of health data infrastructure as well the large numbers of informal-sector workers. The goal of this study was to elucidate the scope of occupational injury in the Monteverde district of Costa Rica using data collected through the national workers social security system. A list of occupational injuries occurring in the district reported to the National Insurance Institute (INS) central office between 1998 and 2002 was taken to the regional INS office, and the original injury reports for the cases were pulled. Specific data on the injuries were collected. There were 184 injuries reported during the five year period. Occupations with the highest number of injuries included production, building and grounds maintenance, and agricultural/forestry/fishing. Descriptive data showed that prevention efforts in this rural region should target food manufacturing, hotels, and construction.

  14. Occupational Characteristics of Adults with Pediatric-Onset Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employment rates among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are lower than in the general population and little is known about the specific occupations in which they are employed. Objectives: To describe specific occupations of adults with pediatric-onset SCI using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and to determine associations between SOC occupations and demographic factors. Methods: Cross-sectional data specific to education and employment were collected from the last interviews of a larger longitudinal study. Occupations were categorized according to the 2010 SOC system. SOC groups were compared within gender level of injury and final education. Results: Of the 461 total participants 219 (47.5%) were employed and specific occupations were available for 179. Among the SOC groups Education Law Community Service Arts and Media Occupations were most prevalent (30.2%) followed by Management Business and Finance Occupations (21.1%) Computer Engineering and Science Occupations (10.6%) Administrative and Office Support Occupations (10.0%) Service Occupations (7.3%) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations (3.9%) and Production Occupations (3.4%). Differences were found in the distribution of SOC groups between gender levels of injury and final education groups. Conclusion: A wide variety of occupations were reported in adults with pediatric-onset SCI generally in concordance with final education and functional ability levels. PMID:25762856

  15. Occupational characteristics of adults with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Miriam; Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2015-01-01

    Employment rates among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are lower than in the general population and little is known about the specific occupations in which they are employed. To describe specific occupations of adults with pediatric-onset SCI using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system and to determine associations between SOC occupations and demographic factors. Cross-sectional data specific to education and employment were collected from the last interviews of a larger longitudinal study. Occupations were categorized according to the 2010 SOC system. SOC groups were compared within gender level of injury and final education. Of the 461 total participants 219 (47.5%) were employed and specific occupations were available for 179. Among the SOC groups Education Law Community Service Arts and Media Occupations were most prevalent (30.2%) followed by Management Business and Finance Occupations (21.1%) Computer Engineering and Science Occupations (10.6%) Administrative and Office Support Occupations (10.0%) Service Occupations (7.3%) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations (3.9%) and Production Occupations (3.4%). Differences were found in the distribution of SOC groups between gender levels of injury and final education groups. A wide variety of occupations were reported in adults with pediatric-onset SCI generally in concordance with final education and functional ability levels.

  16. Influence of pre-collision occupant parameters on injury outcome in a frontal collision.

    PubMed

    Bose, D; Crandall, J R; Untaroiu, C D; Maslen, E H

    2010-07-01

    Optimal performance of adaptive restraint systems in the vehicle requires an accurate assessment of occupant characteristics including physical properties and pre-collision response of the occupant. To provide a feasible framework for incorporating occupant characteristics into adaptive restraint schemes, this study evaluates the sensitivity of injury risk in frontal collisions to four occupant parameters: mass, stature, posture and bracing level. The numerical approach includes using commercial multi-body software to develop occupant models that span a range of occupant parameters representative of the real-world driver population. Coupled with a multi-body model of the vehicle interior and standard restraint system, risk of occupant injuries within specific body regions are predicted through numerical simulations in conjunction with established injury risk functions. The results show occupant posture to be the most significant parameter affecting the overall risk of injury in frontal collisions. The causal relationship as predicted using the numerical model has been compared to the traffic injury epidemiology findings, and the feasibility of an analytical methodology to provide real-time estimates of injury severity has been discussed. Preliminary estimates from the study indicate that the proposed methodology will provide a framework to optimize restraint performance and potentially reduce the risk of injuries up to 35% (based on parameter-specific optimization), using accurate information regarding the pre-collision occupant characteristics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Head injuries to restrained occupants in single-vehicle pure rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Mattos, G A; Grzebieta, R H; Bambach, M R; McIntosh, A S

    2013-01-01

    Studies performed previously of seat-belted occupants in real-world passenger vehicle rollover-only crashes have identified the head as one of the body regions most often seriously injured. However, there have been few studies investigating how these head injuries occur in any detail. This study aims to investigate the characteristics and patterns of head injury to seat-belted occupants in real-world rollover-only crashes and to identify possible biomechanical mechanisms responsible for head injury to aid in the development of a dynamic rollover test protocol. National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data were used to generate summary statistics and perform logistic regression analysis of restrained and contained occupants in U.S. pure trip-over rollover crashes. Specific information from selected CDS cases focused on identifying potential mechanisms and patterns of serious head injury and the rollover conditions under which the injury occurred are also presented. Twenty-one percent of seriously injured occupants in pure trip-over rollovers had a serious head injury. On average, occupants seated on the far side of the rollover sustained serious head injuries more frequently and were more likely to receive injuries to the inboard side of the head than near-side occupants. Serious head injuries appear to be decoupled from serious injuries to other body regions except for a relationship found between basal skull fractures and cervical spine fractures. Serious head injuries were sustained by some occupants who had less than 15 cm of roof crush above their seated position. Serious brain injuries appear to occur frequently as a result of loading to the periphery of the head from contact with the roof assembly. Two mechanisms of injury for basal skull fractures in rollover crashes were identified. The injury patterns and locations of contact to the head are sensitive to the seated position of the occupant.

  18. A severe penetrating cardiac injury in the absence of cardiac tamponade.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Tara M; Kolcow, Walenty; Veerasingam, Dave; DaCosta, Mark

    2016-10-26

    Penetrating cardiac injury is rare and frequently not survivable. Significant haemorrhage resulting in cardiac tamponade commonly ensues. Such cardiac tamponade is a clear clinical, radiological and sonographic indicator of significant underlying injury. In the absence of cardiac tamponade, diagnosis can be more challenging. In this case of a 26-year old sailor stabbed at sea, a significant pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade did not occur despite an injury transversing the pericardium. Instead, the pericardial haemorrhage drained into the left pleural cavity resulting in a haemothorax. This case is notable due to a favourable outcome despite a delay in diagnosis due to a lack of pericardial effusion, a concomitant cerebrovascular event and a long delay from injury to appropriate medical treatment in the presence of a penetrating cardiac wound deep enough to cause a muscular ventricular septal defect and lacerate a primary chordae of the anterior mitral leaflet.

  19. A case-crossover study of risk factors for occupational eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Justin; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    To study transient risk factors for occupational eye injuries. A case-crossover study was conducted among patients treated for occupational eye injuries in the emergency department at an eye hospital in Alabama. A questionnaire was administered to collect information regarding risk factors at the time of and prior to eye treatment. Incidence rate ratios were used to measure the relationship between each risk factor and injury occurrence. Protective eyewear reduced the risk of occupational eye injury, while increased risk was observed for the following: being distracted, use of tools, tool malfunction, performing an unfamiliar task, being rushed, working overtime, and feeling fatigued. Although use of protective eyewear can significantly reduce the risk of an eye injury, other factors are important contributors. Identification of potentially modifiable transient risk factors can be used to prevent occupational eye injuries.

  20. Exploring Study Designs for Evaluation of Interventions Aimed to Reduce Occupational Diseases and Injuries

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Stocks, Susan J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Effective interventions to reduce work-related exposures are available for many types of work-related diseases or injuries. However, knowledge of the impact of these interventions on injury or disease outcomes is scarce due to practical and methodological reasons. Study designs are considered for the evaluation of occupational health interventions on occupational disease or injury. Latency and frequency of occurrence of the health outcomes are two important features when designing an evaluation study with occupational disease or occupational injury as an outcome measure. Controlled evaluation studies—giving strong indications for an intervention effect—seem more suitable for more frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Uncontrolled evaluation time or case series studies are an option for evaluating less frequently occurring injuries or diseases. Interrupted time series offer alternatives to experimental randomized controlled trials to give an insight into the effectiveness of preventive actions in the work setting to decision and policy makers. PMID:27014496

  1. Door velocity and occupant distance affect lateral thoracic injury mitigation with side airbag.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between thoracic injury risk and parameters of door velocity and occupant distance was delineated in blunt lateral impact with side airbag deployment. A sled impact model was exercised with the validated MADYMO fiftieth percentile facet occupant model and a generalized finite element torso side airbag. Impact velocity was incremented from 4.0 to 9.0m/s; occupant-airbag distance (at time of airbag activation) was incremented from 2.0 to 24.0 cm; simulations without airbag were also examined. Using compression, deflection rate, and the Viscous Criterion, airbag performance was characterized with respect to occupant injury risk at three points of interest: occupant distance of most protection, distance of greatest injury risk, and the newly defined critical distance. The occupant distance which demonstrated the most airbag protection, i.e., lowest injury risk, increased with increasing impact velocity. Greatest injury risk resulted when the occupant was nearest the airbag regardless of impact velocity. The critical distance was defined as the farthest distance at which airbag deployment exacerbated injury risk. This critical distance only varied considering chest compression, between 3 and 10 cm from the airbag, but did not vary when the Viscous Criterion was evaluated. At impact velocities less than or equal to 6m/s, the most protective occupant location was within 2 cm of the critical distance at which the airbag became harmful. Therefore, injury mitigation with torso airbag may be more difficult to achieve at lower ΔV.

  2. Door Velocity and Occupant Distance Affect Lateral Thoracic Injury Mitigation with Side Airbag

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, Jason J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between thoracic injury risk and parameters of door velocity and occupant distance was delineated in blunt lateral impact with side airbag deployment. A sled impact model was exercised with the validated MADYMO fiftieth percentile facet occupant model and a generalized finite element torso side airbag. Impact velocity was incremented from 4.0 to 9.0 m/s; occupant-airbag distance (at time of airbag activation) was incremented from 2.0 to 24.0 cm; simulations without airbag were also examined. Using compression, deflection rate, and the Viscous Criterion, airbag performance was characterized with respect to occupant injury risk at three points of interest: occupant distance of most protection, distance of greatest injury risk, and the newly defined critical distance. The occupant distance which demonstrated the most airbag protection, i.e., lowest injury risk, increased with increasing impact velocity. Greatest injury risk resulted when the occupant was nearest the airbag regardless of impact velocity. The critical distance was defined as the farthest distance at which airbag deployment exacerbated injury risk. This critical distance only varied considering chest compression, between 3 and 10 cm from the airbag, but did not vary when the Viscous Criterion were evaluated. At impact velocities less than or equal to 6 m/s, the most protective occupant location was within 2 cm of the critical distance at which the airbag became harmful. Therefore, injury mitigation with torso airbag may be more difficult to achieve at lower ΔV. PMID:21376873

  3. The influence of damage distribution on serious brain injury in occupants in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Raul; Conroy, Carol; Hoyt, David B; Pacyna, Sharon; May, MarSue; Erwin, Steve; Tominaga, Gail; Kennedy, Frank; Sise, Michael; Velky, Tom

    2008-07-01

    In spite of improvements in motor vehicle safety systems and crashworthiness, motor vehicle crashes remain one of the leading causes of brain injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if the damage distribution across the frontal plane affected brain injury severity of occupants in frontal impacts. Occupants in "head on" frontal impacts with a Principal Direction of Force (PDOF) equal to 11, 12, or 1o'clock who sustained serious brain injury were identified using the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) database. Impacts were further classified based on the damage distribution across the frontal plane as distributed, offset, and extreme offset (corner). Overall, there was no significant difference for brain injury severity (based on Glasgow Coma Scale<9, or brain injury AIS>2) comparing occupants in the different impact categories. For occupants in distributed frontal impacts, safety belt use was protective (odds ratio (OR)=0.61) and intrusion at the occupant's seat position was four times more likely to result in severe (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)<9) brain injury (OR=4.35). For occupants in offset frontal impacts, again safety belt use was protective against severe brain injury (OR=0.25). Possibly due to the small number of brain-injured occupants in corner impacts, safety belts did not significantly protect against increased brain injury severity during corner impacts. This study supports the importance of safety belt use to decrease brain injury severity for occupants in distributed and offset frontal crashes. It also illustrates how studying "real world" crashes may provide useful information on occupant injuries under impact circumstances not currently covered by crash testing.

  4. Occupational injury and illness surveillance: conceptual filters explain underreporting.

    PubMed

    Azaroff, Lenore S; Levenstein, Charles; Wegman, David H

    2002-09-01

    Occupational health surveillance data are key to effective intervention. However, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics survey significantly underestimates the incidence of work-related injuries and illnesses. Researchers supplement these statistics with data from other systems not designed for surveillance. The authors apply the filter model of Webb et al. to underreporting by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, workers' compensation wage-replacement documents, physician reporting systems, and medical records of treatment charged to workers' compensation. Mechanisms are described for the loss of cases at successive steps of documentation. Empirical findings indicate that workers repeatedly risk adverse consequences for attempting to complete these steps, while systems for ensuring their completion are weak or absent.

  5. Occupational Injury and Illness Surveillance: Conceptual Filters Explain Underreporting

    PubMed Central

    Azaroff, Lenore S.; Levenstein, Charles; Wegman, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health surveillance data are key to effective intervention. However, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics survey significantly underestimates the incidence of work-related injuries and illnesses. Researchers supplement these statistics with data from other systems not designed for surveillance. The authors apply the filter model of Webb et al. to underreporting by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, workers’ compensation wage-replacement documents, physician reporting systems, and medical records of treatment charged to workers’ compensation. Mechanisms are described for the loss of cases at successive steps of documentation. Empirical findings indicate that workers repeatedly risk adverse consequences for attempting to complete these steps, while systems for ensuring their completion are weak or absent. PMID:12197968

  6. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  7. Suited Occupant Injury Potential During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dub, Mark O.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Constellation Space Suit Element [CSSE], a new space-suit architecture will be created for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Microgravity Extra- Vehicular Activity [EVA], and post-landing crew operations, safety and, under emergency conditions, survival. The space suit is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort [LEA] suit architectures in that it utilizes rigid mobility elements in the scye (i.e., shoulder) and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also utilizes rigid thigh disconnect elements to create a quick disconnect approximately located above the knee. This feature allows commonality of the lower portion of the suit (from the thigh disconnect down), making the lower legs common across two suit configurations. This suit must interface with the Orion vehicle seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to the unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic vehicle events, risks have been identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series has been developed in coordination with the Injury Biomechanics Research Laboratory [IBRL] to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing includes use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices [ATDs; vernacularly referred to as "crash test dummies"], Post Mortem Human Subjects [PMHS], and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on test purpose and objectives; test hardware, facility, and setup; and preliminary results.

  8. Intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among Canada's immigrants.

    PubMed

    Tiagi, R

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence on occupational injury and/or fatality rates among Canada's immigrants has been largely mixed and has almost exclusively focused on the first generation. Over time, as immigrants assimilate into the economy, future generations may be expected to work in less hazardous occupations compared with prior generations. There has been no prior analysis of the differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among later generations. To analyse whether there are intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among the first, second and third (or more) immigrant generations in Canada. Data drawn from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between the first or the third generation and the second generation, using a Poisson regression framework. Second-generation immigrants worked in jobs with lower occupational injury rates compared with the first generation and the third generation (or more). Similar results were observed for occupational fatality rates. Second-generation immigrants worked in less hazardous jobs compared with the first generation and compared with the third (or more) generations. These results suggest that the second generation may not face the same economic hurdles and challenges, in terms of workplace injuries or fatalities, as those faced by the first or third (or more) generations of immigrants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Possibilities and challenges in occupational injury surveillance of day laborers.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Blecker, Hillary; Camp, Janice; De Castro, Butch; Hecker, Steven; Arbabi, Saman; Traven, Neal; Seixas, Noah S

    2010-02-01

    Day laborers in the US, comprised largely of undocumented immigrants from Mexico and Central America, suffer high rates of occupational injury according to recent estimates. Adequate surveillance methods for this highly transient, largely unregulated group do not currently exist. This study explores chart abstraction of hospital-based trauma registry records as a potential injury surveillance method for contingent workers and day laborers. We sought to determine the degree of completeness of work information in the medical records, and to identify day laborers and contingent workers to the extent possible. Work-related injury cases from a hospital-based trauma registry (2001-2006) were divided by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic origin) and presence of social security number (SSN: yes, no), resulting in four groups of cases. Medical records were abstracted for 40 cases from each group; each case was assigned values for the variables "day labor status" (yes, no, probably not, probable, unknown) and "employment type" (contingent, formal, unknown). Work information was missing for 60% of Hispanic cases lacking SSN, as compared with 33-47% of the other three groups. One "probable" day laborer was identified from the same group. Non-Hispanics with SSN were less frequently identified as contingent workers (5% as compared with 15-19%). This method revealed severe limitations, including incomplete and inconsistent information in the trauma registry and medical records. Approaches to improve existing resources for use in surveillance systems are identified. The potential of an active surveillance approach at day labor hiring centers is also briefly discussed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Possibilities and Challenges in Occupational Injury Surveillance of Day Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Sarah J.; Blecker, Hillary; Camp, Janice; De Castro, Butch; Hecker, Steven; Arbabi, Saman; Traven, Neal; Seixas, Noah S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Day laborers in the US, comprised largely of undocumented immigrants from Mexico and Central America, suffer high rates of occupational injury according to recent estimates. Adequate surveillance methods for this highly transient, largely unregulated group do not currently exist. This study explores chart abstraction of hospital-based trauma registry records as a potential injury surveillance method for contingent workers and day laborers. We sought to determine the degree of completeness of work information in the medical records, and to identify day laborers and contingent workers to the extent possible. Methods Work-related injury cases from a hospital-based trauma registry (2001–2006) were divided by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic origin) and presence of social security number (SSN: yes, no), resulting in four groups of cases. Medical records were abstracted for 40 cases from each group; each case was assigned values for the variables “day labor status” (yes, no, probably not, probable, unknown) and “employment type” (contingent, formal, unknown). Results Work information was missing for 60% of Hispanic cases lacking SSN, as compared with 33–47% of the other three groups. One “probable” day laborer was identified from the same group. Non-Hispanics with SSN were less frequently identified as contingent workers (5% as compared with 15–19%). Conclusions This method revealed severe limitations, including incomplete and inconsistent information in the trauma registry and medical records. Approaches to improve existing resources for use in surveillance systems are identified. The potential of an active surveillance approach at day labor hiring centers is also briefly discussed. PMID:19722216

  11. Factors associated with occupational injuries at a beverage manufacturing company in Harare, Zimbabwe--2008.

    PubMed

    Gonese, G; Tshimanga, M; Chirenda, J; Chadambuka, A; Gombe, N T; Shambira, G

    2011-01-01

    A beverage manufacturing company reported 59.3% increase in occupational injuries between 2006 and 2007. Factors associated with occupational injuries at this company in Harare were characterized, described the injuries, identified the hazards and control measures in place. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted. Two plants of a beverage manufacturing company in Harare. We interviewed randomly selected workers at the 2 plants of the company Prevalence of occupational injuries, Factors associated with injury, occupational hazards, control measures Of 392 workers interviewed, 53.3% reported having had a work-related injury. Twenty-six percent had not reported the injuries. Independent risk factors were: working in packaging department OR = 3.64 (95% CI: 2.25-5.88), having sleep disorder OR = 2.26 (95% CI: 1.21-4.22) and 7 day working week without rest OR = 1.88 (95% CI: 1.01-3.47). Hazards identified were noise, broken bottles, unguarded machines and coal dust. High risk areas were automated. Common injuries were cuts/lacerations (70.8%) and the most affected parts being the fingers 27.3% (57/209) and the hands 17.2% (36/209). Most injuries (74.8%) occurred in the packaging department due to breaking bottles. Prevalence of occupational injuries is high. We recommended regular machinery maintenance to minimize bottle breakages, reduction in working time and supply of adequate personal protective clothing.

  12. Occupational traumatic injuries among workers in health care facilities - United States, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ahmed E; Tapp, Loren C; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Vanoli, Kelly; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Raudabaugh, William M; Nowlin, Susan; Sprigg, Susan M

    2015-04-24

    In 2013, one in five reported nonfatal occupational injuries occurred among workers in the health care and social assistance industry, the highest number of such injuries reported for all private industries. In 2011, U.S. health care personnel experienced seven times the national rate of musculoskeletal disorders compared with all other private sector workers. To reduce the number of preventable injuries among health care personnel, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), with collaborating partners, created the Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) to collect detailed injury data to help target prevention efforts. OHSN, a free, voluntary surveillance system for health care facilities, enables prompt and secure tracking of occupational injuries by type, occupation, location, and risk factors. This report describes OHSN and reports on current findings for three types of injuries. A total of 112 U.S. facilities reported 10,680 OSHA-recordable* patient handling and movement (4,674 injuries); slips, trips, and falls (3,972 injuries); and workplace violence (2,034 injuries) injuries occurring from January 1, 2012-September 30, 2014. Incidence rates for patient handling; slips, trips, and falls; and workplace violence were 11.3, 9.6, and 4.9 incidents per 10,000 worker-months,† respectively. Nurse assistants and nurses had the highest injury rates of all occupations examined. Focused interventions could mitigate some injuries. Data analyzed through OHSN identify where resources, such as lifting equipment and training, can be directed to potentially reduce patient handling injuries. Using OHSN can guide institutional and national interventions to protect health care personnel from common, disabling, preventable injuries.

  13. Reflecting on the 5th National Occupational Injury Research Symposium and looking forward ☆

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Dawn N.; Collins, James

    2015-01-01

    For 2-1/2 days in October, 2011, more than 200 researchers convened at the 5th National Occupational Injury Research Symposium (NOIRS) to celebrate advances and successes in the field, to learn from each other about recent and ongoing occupational injury research, and to network and establish new professional relationships to advance occupational injury research in the future. This special issue highlights some of the research presented at that meeting. There has been considerable progress in research and worker safety since the first NOIRS in 1997, with demonstrated reductions in worker deaths and injury, an increased depth and breadth of research, and the development and validation of prevention strategies. Despite this progress, occupational injuries continue to exert too high a toll on workers, employers and society, and there are numerous challenges that need to be addressed to continue advancements in worker safety. PMID:23398698

  14. Influencing factors and sensitivity analysis of occupant impact injury in passenger compartment.

    PubMed

    Suchao, Xie; Hongqi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    The study reported in this article addressed the influence of each factor (impact acceleration, table height h, table to seat distance l₁, interseat distance l₂, table contact stiffness k₁, seat contact stiffness k₂, etc.) on the extent of occupant impact injury in a railway vehicle secondary collision. The vehicle's passenger compartment-occupant coupling model was established using proprietary software (MADYMO). The simulated occupant was MADYMO's validated Hybrid III 50th percentile dummy model, and the vehicle's passenger compartment model included the floor surface, side wall, seat (with cushion), backrest, and table. The floor surface and side wall were modeled as flat surfaces; the seat (with its cushion), backrest, and table were modeled as ellipsoids. Some 25 samples were selected for numerical simulation based on a 2-factor, 5-level, full-factorial experimental design: the response surface method (RSM) was applied to fit the mapping relationship between the occupant's injury parameters (head injury criterion [HIC] and thoracic cumulative 3-ms injury criterion [TC(3ms)]) and other multi-influence factors. Taking the seat-table structure model and seat-seat structure model as examples, the influence of each factor on the extent of the passenger compartment occupant's impact injury was assessed from the basis of traditional passenger compartment configurations found on Chinese trains. The sensitivity analysis of occupant injury parameters on these influence factors was carried out to determine the extent of the influence of each factor on each impact injury parameter. The response surfaces of the occupant's injury parameters (HIC and TC(3ms)), and changes therein as the system's variables were altered showed that impact injury parameters and change thereto could be described intuitively and qualitatively. Some meaningful conclusions were obtained through the sensitivity analysis of occupant injury parameters to changes in these influence factors. The

  15. Diversity of trends in occupational injury mortality in the United States, 1980–96

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Bena, J; Bailer, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Although the United States has generally enjoyed declining rates of fatal occupational injury, the rate of decline has not been uniform. To examine the heterogeneity of trends, changes in fatal occupational injury rates from 1980 to 1996 were estimated by occupation, industry, geographic region, and demographic group. Methods: Deaths due to injury at work during 1980–96 were identified from the US National Traumatic Occupational Fatality database and populations at risk were estimated from the census of population. Mortality rates were computed for unintentional injuries, homicides, and all injuries combined. The annual rate of change was estimated using Poisson regression to model the death rate as a function of time. Results: The estimated average rates for all fatal occupational injuries and for unintentional injuries declined by 3% per year, while the estimated rate of homicide declined <1% per year. The improvement was faster for men (3% per year) than for women (<1% per year) and for younger relative to older workers (7% per year v 2%–3% per year). Trends were also geographically heterogeneous, with the most rapid declines (7%–8% per year) in the South and West. Injury rates for most occupations and industries declined at near the average rate, but some experienced no change or an increase. The rate of homicide also increased in a number of occupations and industries. Conclusions: Broad downward trends in occupational fatality rates may be explained by several factors, including organized safety efforts, product and process changes, and the ongoing shift of employment toward safer sectors. Disparities in fatal injury trends draw attention to potential opportunities to reduce risk: work settings with increasing injury rates are of particular concern. PMID:12642551

  16. The prevalence and correlates of occupational injuries in small-scale manufacturing enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Swanson, Naomi G; Fujioka, Yosei; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-09-01

    Workers involved in small-scale manufacturing businesses are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury. The present study investigated the prevalence and correlates of occupational injury in this population. A self-administered questionnaire that solicited answers about occupational information including injury, demographic characteristics, health conditions and lifestyle factors was collected from a sample of 1,298 workers in 228 small-scale manufacturing enterprises (defined as fewer than 50 workers) aged 16-78 (mean 46) yr in Yashio city, Saitama, Japan (response rate 65.5%). The enterprises were randomly selected from the 2000 edition of the city commercial directory corresponding to the distribution of types of businesses in the city. Occupational injury was assessed by asking subjects, ;Have you ever been injured during your work, including minor scratches and cuts in the previous 1-yr period?' The possible response was either ;yes' or ;no.' The prevalence of study-defined occupational injury among the workers was 35.6% (male 43.0%, female 17.9%). Among job types, manufacturing (44.2%) and driving (43.5%) had high rates of occupational injuries. Similarly, occupational injuries were high in the papermaking (54.5%) and machinery (47.7%) industries. For males, younger age, current or former smoking, insomnia symptoms, and disease(s) currently under treatment were correlated with injury, whereas for females, being unmarried, higher educational status, and insomnia symptoms were the correlating factors. Occupational injury is common among small-scale manufacturing businesses, and is associated with multiple controllable factors. Countermeasures such as prohibiting smoking during work, sleep health education, job safety training for young/inexperienced workers are appropriate methods for eliminating or reducing injuries.

  17. Occupational safety and health enforcement tools for preventing occupational diseases and injuries.

    PubMed

    Mischke, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Job, Jenny; Morata, Thais C; Alvesalo-Kuusi, Anne; Neuvonen, Kaisa; Clarke, Simon; Pedlow, Robert I

    2013-08-30

    There is uncertainty as to whether and what extent occupational safety and health regulation and legislation enforcement activities, such as inspections, are effective and efficient to improve workers' health and safety. We use the term regulation to refer both to regulation and legislation. To assess the effects of occupational safety and health regulation enforcement tools for preventing occupational diseases and injuries. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (embase.com), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO (Ovid), OSH update, HeinOnline, Westlaw International, EconLit and Scopus from the inception of each database until January 2013. We also checked reference lists of included articles and contacted study authors to identify additional published, unpublished and ongoing studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs), interrupted time series (ITS) and econometric panel studies of firms or workplaces evaluating inspections, warnings or orders, citations or fines, prosecution or firm closure by governmental representatives and if the outcomes were injuries, diseases or exposures.In addition, we included qualitative studies of workers' or employers' attitudes or beliefs towards enforcement tools. Pairs of authors independently extracted data on the main characteristics, the risk of bias and the effects of the interventions. We expressed intervention effects as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD). We recalculated other effect measures into RRs or MDs. We combined the results of similar studies in a meta-analysis. We located 23 studies: two RCTs with 1414 workplaces, two CBAs with 9903 workplaces, one ITS with six outcome measurements, 12 panel studies and six qualitative studies with 310 participants. Studies evaluated the effects of inspections in general and the effects of their consequences, such as penalties. Studies on the effects of prosecution, warnings

  18. The use of sentinel injury deaths to evaluate the quality of multiple source reporting for occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon S; Veazie, Mark A; Benjamin, Katy L

    2005-03-01

    This study sought to develop an efficient method for evaluating the validity and completeness of routinely available sources of occupational injury fatality data. Deaths due to falls from elevations, machinery, and electrocutions were selected as sentinel injuries likely to have occurred at work. Deaths from these injuries were identified from Maryland vital statistics over 7 years. The work-relatedness of these injuries and sensitivity of reporting were determined from death certificates, medical examiner reports, the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality System (NTOF), the Maryland Occupational Safety and Health Administration (MOSH), and Workers' Compensation (WC) data. A total of 527 deaths were identified for ages 16 and above, of which, 45% were work-related. Identification of work-related deaths varied by source: medical examiner (100%), death certificates (89%), NTOF (68%), MOSH (59%), and WC (44%). Reporting differed by age, cause of injury, year, occupation, and industry. Examination of work-relatedness for deaths from certain causes is an efficient means of evaluating the quality of occupational injury reporting source data. These sentinel injuries uncovered significant underreporting in sources used by national surveillance systems, resulted in improved NTOF reporting, and suggest the need to make more use of medical examiner data when available.

  19. Occupational Injuries among U.S. Correctional Officers, 1999–2008☆

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Srinivas; Reichard, Audrey A.; Tiesman, Hope M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study describes fatal and nonfatal occupational injuries among U.S. correctional officers. Methods Fatal injuries were obtained from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries; nonfatal injuries were identified from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System- Occupational Supplement. Results From 1999–2008, there were 113 fatalities and an estimated 125,200 (CI=±70,100) nonfatal injuries were treated in emergency departments. Assaults and violent acts (n = 45, 40%) and transportation related fatalities (n = 45, 40%) were the two primary fatal injury events. Assaults and violent acts (n = 47,500 (CI = ±24,500), 38%) and bodily reaction and exertion (n = 25,400 (CI = ± 16,800), 20%) were the leading events resulting in nonfatal injuries. Conclusions While workplace violence is the primary cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries among correctional officers, transportation events and bodily reactions are also leading causes of occupational injury. Future research is needed to identify risk factors unique to these events and develop appropriate prevention and intervention efforts. Impact on Industry This study adds to the literature on occupational injuries among correctional officers and provides a national level description of fatal and nonfatal injuries across a 10-year period. Given that assaults and violent acts, transportation events, and bodily reaction and exertion were significant injury events, future research should describe detailed injury circumstances and risk factors for correctional officers unique to these events. This would allow appropriate prevention and control efforts to be developed to reduce injuries from these events. PMID:22974683

  20. Prevalence of occupational injury and its contributing factors among rubber tappers in Galle, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Stankevitz, Kayla; Staton, Catherine; Schoenfisch, Ashley; de Silva, Vijitha; Tharindra, Hemajith; Stroo, Marissa; Ostbye, Truls

    2016-10-01

    Rubber tapping involves carrying heavy loads, navigating rough terrain, and using sharp tools. However, little is known about occupational injury among this vulnerable working population. To assesses the prevalence, severity, and contributing factors associated with occupational injury among Sri Lankan rubber tappers and to identify possible interventions to improve occupational safety. A questionnaire was administered to 300 Sri Lankan rubber tappers. The associations between tapper characteristics and injury within the last year were examined using log-binomial regression models. Short response answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 300 tappers reported 594 injuries in the previous 12 months, and missed 1,080 days of work. The prevalence of one or more injuries was 49%. Factors associated with injury were being female, working an additional job, tapping with a two-handed approach, and depressive symptomology. Qualitative findings suggest three interventions to address injuries: (1) landscaping, (2) personal protective equipment, and (3) provision of eyeglasses. Work-related injuries are common among Sri Lankan rubber tappers. These results highlight the importance of working with and including informal workers in the creation of Sri Lankan occupational health and safety regulations. We believe that the three interventions identified by respondents could help to reduce the risk of occupational injury among rubber tappers.

  1. Musculoskeletal occupational injury among surgeons: effects for patients, providers, and institutions.

    PubMed

    Davis, William T; Fletcher, Sarah A; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational musculoskeletal injury during a surgeon's career and the effects of these injuries for patients, providers, and institutions. We hypothesized that surgeons have occupational injuries, which affect work performance. Electronic RedCAP surveys on workplace injury were distributed statewide via e-mail to the members of the Tennessee chapter of the American College of Surgeons. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey data. A total of 260 of 793 surveys (33%) were returned. Forty percent of surgeons sustained ≥ 1 injuries in the workplace. Although 50% of injured surgeons received medical care for their most recent injuries, only 20% of these injuries were reported to their institution. Twenty-two percent of injured surgeons missed work and 35% performed fewer operations while they were recovering from their injury. Fifty-three percent of injured surgeons reported that pain from their injury had a minimal or moderate effect on their performance in the operating room. Surgeons appear to be at moderate risk for occupation-related injuries. The low rate of institutional reporting for these injuries is concerning, as this is a required step to access institutional support once injured. Surgeon injury results in lost productivity due to missed workdays and may impact the quality of surgical care because of performance issues while recovering from injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in rates of occupational fatal injuries in the United States (1983-92)

    PubMed Central

    Bailer, A. J.; Stayner, L. T.; Stout, N. A.; Reed, L. D.; Gilbert, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An updated version of a national surveillance system of traumatic occupational fatalities was used to explore adjusted and unadjusted trends in rates of fatal injury. METHODS: Data from the national traumatic occupational fatalities surveillance system were combined with data on employment from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Poisson regression was then used to examine trends in rates of occupational fatality injuries while controlling for demographic and workplace characteristics. RESULTS: Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decline of 6.2% for workers in technical and administrative support occupations--for example, health, science, and engineering technicians, pilots, computer programmers--to an increase of 1.6% in machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. For industries, annual changes ranged from a decline of 5.3% for workers in public administration--for example, justice, public order, and safety workers--to an increase of 2.6% for workers in the wholesale trade. By comparison, the annual decline over all industries and occupations was 3.1%. In many industries and occupations, an effect modification of annual trends by the age of the worker was also found with the oldest workers experiencing either no decline or a significant increase in rates of fatal injuries. CONCLUSIONS: This general pattern of decline, adjusted for the effects of demographic characteristics of the worker population, is encouraging; however, increases in rates of fatal injuries found in particular industries and occupations, suggest appropriate targets for increased injury prevention efforts.   PMID:9816383

  3. Trends in rates of occupational fatal injuries in the United States (1983-92).

    PubMed

    Bailer, A J; Stayner, L T; Stout, N A; Reed, L D; Gilbert, S J

    1998-07-01

    An updated version of a national surveillance system of traumatic occupational fatalities was used to explore adjusted and unadjusted trends in rates of fatal injury. Data from the national traumatic occupational fatalities surveillance system were combined with data on employment from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Poisson regression was then used to examine trends in rates of occupational fatality injuries while controlling for demographic and workplace characteristics. Adjusted annual changes in rates of fatal injuries ranged from a decline of 6.2% for workers in technical and administrative support occupations--for example, health, science, and engineering technicians, pilots, computer programmers--to an increase of 1.6% in machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. For industries, annual changes ranged from a decline of 5.3% for workers in public administration--for example, justice, public order, and safety workers--to an increase of 2.6% for workers in the wholesale trade. By comparison, the annual decline over all industries and occupations was 3.1%. In many industries and occupations, an effect modification of annual trends by the age of the worker was also found with the oldest workers experiencing either no decline or a significant increase in rates of fatal injuries. This general pattern of decline, adjusted for the effects of demographic characteristics of the worker population, is encouraging; however, increases in rates of fatal injuries found in particular industries and occupations, suggest appropriate targets for increased injury prevention efforts.

  4. "The absence of rigor and the failure of implementation": occupational health and safety in China.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Tim E; Frost, Stephen D

    2003-01-01

    Despite government concern with occupational health and safety (OHS) in China and the promulgation of new laws and regulations in 2002, a lack of rigor and lax implementation are major impediments to improvements in workplace safety. The article highlights important elements from the new Work Safety Law and the Law on the Prevention and Cure of Occupational Diseases, then analyzes key issues arising from bureaucratic excesses, the impact of government restructuring, continuing confusions and contradictions in government responsibility for OHS, and ongoing questions about the official duties and responsibilities of employing units, workers, and the trade union.

  5. Injury risk for rear-seated occupants in small overlap crashes.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Locey, Caitlin M; Hammond, Rachel; Belwadi, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Small overlap crashes, where the primary crash engagement is outboard from the longitudinal energy absorbing structures of the vehicle, have received recent interest as a crash dynamic that results in high likelihood of injury. Previous analyses of good performing vehicles showed that 24% of crashes with AIS 3+ injuries to front seat occupants were small overlap crashes. However, similar evaluations have not been conducted for those rear seated. Vehicle dynamics suggest that rear seat occupants may be at greater risk due to lack of lateral seating support and a steering wheel to hold, making them more sensitive to lateral movement seen in these crashes. Thus, the objective was to calculate injury risk for rear-seated occupants in small overlap collisions. AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk was calculated from NASS-CDS data from 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were vehicles of model year 2000 or later, with CDC codes of "FL" or "FR", and an occupant in the second or third row. AIS2+ injury risk was 5.1%, and AIS3+ injury risk was 2.4%. Of note, half of the occupants were <15 years of age indicating rear seat protection should emphasize the young. Occupants seated near side were nearly three times as likely to sustain an AIS2+ injury than occupants seated far side. Particular attention should be paid to the prominence of head injuries in this crash dynamic and consideration given to their mitigation. Additional research should determine whether countermeasures being implemented for front seat occupants can be beneficial to rear seat occupants.

  6. Analysis of injury severity and vehicle occupancy in truck- and non-truck-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Chang, L Y; Mannering, F

    1999-09-01

    The impact that large trucks have on accident severity has long been a concern in the accident analysis literature. One important measure of accident severity is the most severely injured occupant in the vehicle. Such data are routinely collected in state accident data files in the U.S. Among the many risk factors that determine the most severe level of injury sustained by vehicle occupants, the number of occupants in the vehicle is an important factor. These effects can be significant because vehicles with higher occupancies have an increased likelihood of having someone seriously injured. This paper studies the occupancy/injury severity relationship using Washington State accident data. The effects of large trucks, which are shown to have a significant impact on the most severely injured vehicle occupant, are accounted for by separately estimating nested logit models for truck-involved accidents and for non-truck-involved accidents. The estimation results uncover important relationships between various risk factors and occupant injury. In addition, by comparing the accident characteristics between truck-involved accidents and non-truck-involved accidents, the risk factors unique to large trucks are identified along with the relative importance of such factors. The findings of this study demonstrate that nested logit modeling, which is able to take into account vehicle occupancy effects and identify a broad range of factors that influence occupant injury, is a promising methodological approach.

  7. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    PubMed

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2016-11-10

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  8. Occupational stress and work-related unintentional injuries among Iranian car manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Soori, H; Rahimi, M; Mohseni, H

    2008-01-01

    This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries. Data were collected from 608 male workers (508 at-risk general workers and 100 with injuries in the last year). Job stress was assessed by the Belkic occupational stress index. The prevalence of job stress was 21.3%. The main occupational stressors were time pressure (78.5%), mode of payment and evaluation (56.4%), and interaction with people and machines (41.3%). The risk of injury among those with job stress was significantly higher than those without job stress (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20-3.30). Job stress was responsible for 11.9% of all occupational injuries in this group.

  9. An In-depth Study of Abdominal Injuries Sustained by Car Occupants in Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Richard; Lenard, James; Compigne, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Currently, neither abdominal injury risk nor rear seat passenger safety is assessed in European frontal crash testing. The objective of this study was to provide real world in-depth analysis of the factors related to abdominal injury for belted front and rear seat occupants in frontal crashes. Rear occupants were significantly more at risk of AIS 2+ and 3+ abdominal injury, followed by front seat passengers and then drivers. This was still the case even after controlling for occupant age. Increasing age was separately identified as a factor related to increased abdominal injury risk in all seating positions. One exception to this trend concerned rear seated 15 to 19 year olds who sustained moderate to serious abdominal injury at almost the same rate as rear occupants aged 65+.No strong association was seen between AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates and gender. The majority of occupant body mass indices ranged from underweight to obese. Across that range, the AIS 2+ abdominal injury rates were very similar but a small number of very obese and extremely obese occupants outside of the range did exhibit noticeably higher rates. An analysis of variance in the rate of AIS 2+ abdominal injury with different restraint systems showed that simple belt systems, as used by most rear seat passengers, were the least protective. Increasing sophistication of the restraint system was related to lower rates of injury. The ANOVA also confirmed occupant age and crash severity as highly associated with abdominal injury risk. The most frequently injured abdominal organs for front seat occupants were the liver and spleen. Abdominal injury patterns for rear seat passengers were very different. While they also sustained significant injuries to solid organs, their rates of injury to the hollow organs (jejunum-ileum, mesentary, colon) were far higher even though the rate of fracture of two or more ribs did not differ significantly between seat positions. These results have implications for the

  10. Enabling Work: Occupational Therapy Interventions for Persons with Occupational Injuries and Diseases: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Blas, Alexa Jane T; Beltran, Kenneth Matthew B; Martinez, Pauline Gail V; Yao, Daryl Patrick G

    2017-09-08

    Purpose This review aims to map the scope of published research on occupational therapy (OT) interventions and pertinent work and work-related outcomes for persons with occupational injuries and diseases. Methods The scoping review adapted Arksey and O'Malley's framework. Six electronic databases were searched. Ancestral search was also done on five systematic reviews. The search was conducted from September 2015 to October 2015. Interventions and outcomes were coded using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation to plot trends. Results Forty-six articles were included in the review. The top five intervention approaches included: acquiring skills (12.27%), health services, systems, and policies (10.43%), products and technology for employment (9.20%), handling stress and other psychological demands (7.98%), and apprenticeship (6.74%). The top five outcomes targeted included: remunerative employment (15.71%); sensation of pain (10.99%); emotional functions (5.76%); handling stress and other psychological demands (5.76%); economic self-sufficiency (4.71%); muscle endurance functions (4.71%); exercise tolerance functions (4.71%); undertaking multiple tasks (4.19%); acquiring, keeping, and terminating a job (4.19%); and looking after one's health (4.19%). Conclusion The trend in interventions show the use of activities and environment facilitators which are attuned to the conceptual nature of OT. Furthermore, the trend in outcomes show that there is substantial evidence that supports the use of OT to target work. This review may provide a platform for collaboration with other professionals and also help identify research directions to strengthen the evidence base for OT in work-related practice.

  11. Mild traumatic brain injury in the occupational setting.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor H; Lombard, Lisa A; Greher, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    The evaluation and management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the occupational setting may pose significant challenges for even the most-seasoned practitioner. Providers must simultaneously address the clinical management of mTBI and be familiar with the systematic and administrative requirements related to the management of injured workers with mTBI who are covered by workers' compensation insurance, including causation, return to work, and the potential of permanent impairment. Given the primarily subjective nature of many mTBI symptoms, an injured worker with a delayed recovery may raise the question, if not suspicion, of symptom magnification and secondary gain. This review discusses the evaluation and treatment of the injured worker with mTBI, and focuses on the medicolegal issues that are present in the workers' compensation system, especially the role of neuropsychological evaluations. Although significant differences exist regarding classification schema, for the purposes of this discussion, mTBI is used to encompass the terms concussion, postconcussive syndrome, and persistent postconcussive syndrome.

  12. The effects of airbags and seatbelts on occupant injury in longitudinal barrier crashes.

    PubMed

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-02-01

    Longitudinal barriers, such as guardrails, are designed to prevent a vehicle that leaves the roadway from impacting a more dangerous object while minimizing the risk of injury to the vehicle occupants. Current full-scale test procedures for these devices do not consider the effect of occupant restraints such as seatbelts and airbags. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which restraints are used or deployed in longitudinal barrier collisions and their subsequent effect on occupant injury. Binary logistic regression models were generated to predict occupant injury risk using data from the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System from 1997 through 2007. In tow-away longitudinal barrier crashes, airbag deployment rates were 70% for airbag-equipped vehicles. Compared with unbelted occupants without an airbag available, seat belt restrained occupants with an airbag available had a dramatically decreased risk of receiving a serious (MAIS 3+) injury (odds-ratio (OR)=0.03; 95% CI: 0.004-0.24). A similar decrease was observed among those restrained by seat belts, but without an airbag available (OR=0.03; 95% CI: 0.001- 0.79). No significant differences in risk of serious injuries were observed between unbelted occupants with an airbag available compared with unbelted occupants without an airbag available (OR=0.53; 95% CI=0.10-2.68). This study refutes the perception in the roadside safety community that airbags rarely deploy in frontal barrier crashes, and suggests that current longitudinal barrier occupant risk criteria may over-estimate injury potential for restrained occupants involved in a longitudinal barrier crash. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Magnitude of Occupational Class Differences in Sickness Absence: 15-Year Trends among Young and Middle-Aged Municipal Employees.

    PubMed

    Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-06-09

    Background: Our aim was to examine the magnitude of relative occupational class differences in sickness absence (SA) days over a 15-year period among female and male municipal employees in two age-groups. Methods: 18-34 and 35-59-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki from 2002 to 2016 were included in our data (n = ~37,500 per year). Occupational class was classified into four groups. The magnitude of relative occupational class differences in SA was studied using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results: The relative occupational class differences were larger among older than younger employees; the largest differences were among 35-59-year-old men. Among women in both age-groups the relative class differences remained stable during 2002-2016. Among younger and older men, the differences were larger during the beginning of study period than in the end. Among women in both age-groups the RII values were between 2.19 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.98, 2.42) and 3.60 (95% CI 3.28, 3.95). The corresponding differences varied from 3.74 (95% CI 3.13, 4.48) to 1.68 (95% CI 1.44, 1.97) among younger and from 6.43 (95% CI 5.85, 7.06) to 3.31 (95% CI 2.98, 3.68) among older men. Relative occupational class differences were persistent among employees irrespective of age group and gender. Preventive measures should be started at young age.

  14. Influence of active muscle contribution on the injury response of restrained car occupants.

    PubMed

    Bose, Dipan; Crandall, Jeff R

    2008-10-01

    Optimal performance of adaptive restraint systems requires an accurate assessment of occupant parameters including physical properties and pre-collision behavior of the occupant. Muscle bracing, one of the key reflexive actions adopted by car occupants to mitigate the severity of an impending collision, is ignored in restraint designing since conventional human surrogate tools used for injury assessment due to collision loading provide limited insight into this effect. This study is aimed at evaluating the effect of pre-collision muscle bracing on the injury outcome of an occupant using a simplified numerical musculoskeletal model. The activation levels for 12 major muscle groups loading the ankle, knee, hip and elbow joints, were determined using an optimization routine with data collected from previously reported volunteer sled tests. A whole body injury metric, weighted to the severity of injury and the injured body region, was used to evaluate the potential risk of injuries estimated for different levels of bracing. The musculoskeletal model was further used to determine the requirements on the restraint system properties to minimize overall injuries for an occupant in a relaxed and a braced condition. Significant variation was observed in the load-limiting value and pre-tensioner firing time, as the restraint properties were optimized to account for the bracing behavior. The results of the study provide a framework for improving the performance of adaptive restraint systems, currently designed for passive anthropometric tests devices, by taking into account realistic response of the occupant involved in a collision.

  15. Crash characteristics and injury patterns of restrained front seat occupants in far-side impacts.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Halloway, Dale E; Pintar, Frank A; Maiman, Dennis J; Szabo, Aniko; Rudd, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the association between vehicle-, crash-, and demographic-related factors and injuries to front seat far-side occupants in modern environments. Field data were obtained from the NASS-CDS database for the years 2009-2012. Inclusion factors included the following: adult restrained front outboard-seated occupants, no ejection or rollovers, and vehicle model years less than 10 years old at the time of crash. Far-side crashes were determined by using collision deformation classification. Injuries were scored using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Injuries (MAIS 2+, MAIS 3+, M denotes maximum score) were examined based on demographics, change in velocity, vehicle type, direction of force, extent zone, collision partner, and presence of another occupant in the front seat. Only weighted data were used in the analysis. Injuries to the head and face, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and upper and lower extremity regions were studied. Odds ratios and upper and lower confidence intervals were estimated from multivariate analysis. Out of 519,195 far-side occupants, 17,715 were MAIS 2+ and 4,387 were MAIS 3+ level injured occupants. The mean age, stature, total body mass, and body mass index (BMI) were 40.7 years, 1.7 m, 77.2 kg, and 26.8 kg/m2, respectively. Of occupants with MAIS 2+ injuries, 51% had head and 19% had thorax injuries. Of occupants with MAIS 3+ injuries, 50% had head and 69% had thorax injuries. The cumulative distribution of changes in velocities at the 50th percentile for the struck vehicle for all occupants and occupants with MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries were 19, 34, and 42 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, 73% of MAIS 2+ injuries and 86% of MAIS 3+ injuries occurred at a change in velocity of 24 km/h or greater. Odds of sustaining MAIS 2+ and MAIS 3+ injuries increased with each unit increase in change in velocity, stature, and age, with one exception. Odds of sustaining injuries were higher with the presence of an occupant in

  16. What occupant kinematics and neuromuscular responses tell us about whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P

    2011-12-01

    Literature-based review. To review the published data on occupant kinematic and neuromuscular responses during low-speed impacts and analyze how these data inform our understanding of whiplash injury. A stereotypical kinematic and neuromuscular response has been observed in human subjects exposed to rear-end impacts. Combined with various models of injury, these response data have been used to develop anti-whiplash seats that prevent whiplash injury in many, but not all, individuals exposed to a rear-end crash. Synthesis of the literature. Understanding of the occupant kinematics and neuromuscular responses, combined with data from various seat-related interventions, have shown that differential motion between the superior and inferior ends of the cervical spine is responsible for many whiplash injuries. The number of whiplash injuries not prevented by current anti-whiplash seats suggests than further work remains, possibly related to designing seats that respond dynamically to the occupant and collision properties. Neck muscles alter the head and neck kinematics during the interval in which injury likely occurs, even in initially relaxed occupants. It remains unclear whether muscle activation mitigates or exacerbates whiplash injury. If muscle activation mitigates injury, then advance warning could be used to help occupant tense their muscles before impact. Alternatively, if muscle activation exacerbates whiplash injury, then a loud preimpact sound that uncouples the startle and postural components of the muscle response could reduce peak muscle activation during a whiplash exposure. Our improved understanding of whiplash injury has led to anti-whiplash seats that have prevented many whiplash injuries. Further work remains to optimize these and possibly other systems to further reduce the number of whiplash injuries.

  17. Depression as a psychosocial consequence of occupational injury in the US working population: findings from the medical expenditure panel survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence describing the psychosocial consequences of occupational injury is still limited. The effect of occupational injury on depression might pose unique challenges in workers compared with other kinds of injury. This study aimed to assess the differential impact of workplace injury compared with non-workplace injury on depression over time, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with post-injury depression in the US working population. Methods Using pooled panel data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000–2006, a total of 35,155 workers aged 18–64 years who had been followed for about 18 months in each panel were analyzed. Injuries in the 4–5 months before baseline, and subsequent depression incidence during follow-up, were identified using ICD-9 codes for the medical conditions captured in personal interviews. A discrete time-proportional odds model was used. Results A total of 5.5% of workers with occupational injury at baseline reported depression at follow-up, compared with 4.7% of workers with non-occupational injury and 3.1% of workers without injuries. Those with occupational injuries had more severe injuries and required longer treatment, compared with those with non-occupational injuries. Only 39% of workers with workplace injuries were paid Workers’ Compensation (WC). The association between injury and depression appeared to be stronger for workplace injury, and the adjusted odds ratio for depression was 1.72 for those with occupational injury (95% CI: 1.27–2.32), and 1.36 for those with non-occupational injury (95% CI: 1.07–1.65) compared with the no-injury group, after controlling for relevant covariates. Occupational injury was associated with higher odds of developing depression over time. WC as a source of medical payment was associated with 33% higher odds of developing depression (95% CI: 1.01–1.74). Part-time work, shorter job tenure, and long working hours were independently

  18. On-Duty Nonfatal Injury that Lead to Work Absences Among Police Officers and Level of Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    West, Christine; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Harlow, Siobán; Bingham, C Raymond; McCullagh, Marjorie; Park, Sung Kyun; Violanti, John

    2017-08-14

    We examined prevalence, frequency, duration, and recency of injury leave and the association of duty-related injury with perceived stress in U.S. police officers. This cross-sectional study contained 422 active duty police officers from a mid-sized urban police department. For each participating officer, work history records were used to assess on-duty injuries that lead to work absences. Linear regression analyses were used for analyses. Most participants had experienced at least one injury (62%), and among those injured, 67% experienced more than one duty-related injury. The average number of injuries per officer was three (range 1 to 12). There was a significant linear trend in mean perceived stress across injury count even after adjusting for age, rank, and sex (P = 0.025). Findings suggest that work-related injury is common and repeated work-related injuries are psychologically distressing in U.S. police officers.

  19. Obesity and Its Relationship with Occupational Injury in the Canadian Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ian; Bacon, Eric; Pickett, William

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine associations between obesity and occupational injury. Methods. Participants consisted of a representative sample of 7,678 adult Canadian workers. Participants were placed into normal weight, overweight, and obese categories based on their body mass index. Different injury types, location, and external causes were measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships. Results. By comparison to normal weight workers, obese workers were more likely to report any occupational injuries (odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98–1.99) and serious occupational injuries (1.49, 0.99–2.26). These relationships were more pronounced for sprains and strains (1.80, 1.04–3.11), injuries to the lower limbs (2.14, 1.12–4.11) or torso (2.36, 1.13–4.93), and injuries due to falls (2.10, 0.86–5.10) or overexertion (2.08, 0.96–4.50). Female workers, workers ≥40 years, and workers employed in sedentary occupations were particularly vulnerable. Increased risks were not identified for overweight workers. Conclusions. Obese workers experienced 40–49% higher risks for occupational injury. PMID:21773008

  20. Crash characteristics and injury patterns of restrained front seat occupants in far-side impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W. J.; Halloway, Dale E.; Pintar, Frank A.; Maiman, Dennis J.; Szabo, Aniko; Rudd, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective The study was conducted to determine the association between vehicle-, crash- and demographic-related factors and injuries to front seat far-side occupants in modern environments. Methods Field data were obtained from the United States (US) National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database, for the years 2009–2012. Inclusion factors: adult restrained front outboard seated occupants, no ejection or rollovers, and vehicle model years less than 10 years old at the time of crash. Far-side crashes were determined by using collision deformation classification. Injuries were scored using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Injuries (MAIS2+, MAIS3+, M denotes maximum score) were examined based on demographics, change in velocity, vehicle type, direction of force, extent zone, collision partner and presence of another occupant in the front seat. Only weighted data were used in the analysis. Injuries to the head and face, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity regions were studied. Odds ratios and upper and lower confidence intervals were estimated from multivariate analysis. Results Out of 519,195 far-side occupants, 17,715 were MAIS2+ and 4,387 were MAIS3+ level injured occupants. The mean age, stature, total body mass, and BMI were 40.7 years, 1.7 m, 77.2 kg, and 26.8 kg/m2, respectively. Of occupants with MAIS2+ injuries, 51% had head and 19% had thorax injuries. Of occupants with MAIS 3+ injuries, 50% had head and 69% had thorax injuries. The cumulative distribution of changes in velocities at the 50th percent level for the struck vehicle for all occupants and, MAIS2+ and MAIS3+ occupants were 19, 34 and 42 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, 73% of MAIS2+ injuries and 86% of MAIS3+ injuries occurred at a change in velocity of 24 km/h or greater. Odds of sustaining MAIS2+ and MAIS3+ injuries increased with unit increase in change in velocity, stature and age, with one exception

  1. Identifying occupational attributes of jobs performed after spinal cord injury: implications for vocational rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sinden, Kathryn E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Although individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrate a breadth of ability and employment potential, return-to-work (RTW) outcomes are low. In Canada, only 38% of individuals RTW after SCI. Refining the process of job suitability and enhancing job search strategies have been suggested to improve RTW outcomes. Our primary study objective was to identify occupational attributes of jobs performed after SCI that might be used to inform vocational rehabilitation strategies and improve RTW outcomes after SCI. A secondary analysis of participants from the Study of Health and Activity in People with Spinal Cord Injury employed in an occupation for which they received pay, was conducted. Frequency distributions for various occupational attributes including physical demands and educational requirements were examined across 181 reported occupations. χ-tests identified whether the primary mode of mobility was related to occupational physical demands. Analysis of the physical demand attribute identified that 58% of occupations required sitting and 33% required sitting/standing or walking. Forty-four percent of occupations required upper or multiple limb coordination. Eighty-three percent of occupations required a limited strength capacity. Sixty percent of occupations required college education and 58% required an undergraduate university education. χ-analysis revealed nonsignificant associations between primary mode of mobility and physical demands. In conclusion, a breadth of occupational attributes in jobs performed by individuals after SCI was identified. These results are suggested to inform future vocational rehabilitation strategies.

  2. Occupational injury and fatality investigations: the application of forensic nursing science.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The forensic evaluation of trauma in occupational injuries and fatalities can provide the benefit of a more thorough analysis of incident causation. Forensic nursing science applied during workplace investigations can assist investigators to determine otherwise unknown crucial aspects of the incident circumstances that are important to event reconstruction, the enforcement of occupational health and safety requirements, and the direction of workplace prevention initiatives. Currently, a medical and forensic medical knowledge gap exists in the subject-matter expertise associated with occupational accident investigations. This gap can be bridged with the integration of forensic nursing in the investigation of workplace fatalities and serious injuries.

  3. Forecasting impact injuries of unrestrained occupants in railway vehicle passenger compartments.

    PubMed

    Xie, Suchao; Zhou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the injury parameters of the occupants corresponding to different experimental parameters and to determine impact injury indices conveniently and efficiently, a model forecasting occupant impact injury was established in this work. The work was based on finite experimental observation values obtained by numerical simulation. First, the various factors influencing the impact injuries caused by the interaction between unrestrained occupants and the compartment's internal structures were collated and the most vulnerable regions of the occupant's body were analyzed. Then, the forecast model was set up based on a genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) hybrid algorithm, which unified the individual characteristics of the back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and the genetic algorithm (GA). The model was well suited to studies of occupant impact injuries and allowed multiple-parameter forecasts of the occupant impact injuries to be realized assuming values for various influencing factors. Finally, the forecast results for three types of secondary collision were analyzed using forecasting accuracy evaluation methods. All of the results showed the ideal accuracy of the forecast model. When an occupant faced a table, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ± 6.0 percent and the average relative error (ARE) values did not exceed 3.0 percent. When an occupant faced a seat, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ± 5.2 percent and the ARE values did not exceed 3.1 percent. When the occupant faced another occupant, the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values of the respective injury parameters were kept within ± 6.3 percent and the ARE values did not exceed 3.8 percent. The injury forecast model established in this article reduced repeat experiment times

  4. Spinal injury in car crashes: crash factors and the effects of occupant age.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Brown, Julie

    2011-08-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of serious spinal injury in most developed nations. However, since these injuries are rare, systematic analyses of the crash factors that are predictive of spinal injury have rarely been performed. This study aimed to use a population-reference crash sample to identify crash factors associated with moderate to severe spinal injury, and how these vary with occupant age. The US National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS) data for 1993-2007 were analysed using logistic regression to identify crash factors associated with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)2+ spinal injury among restrained vehicle passengers. Risk of moderate or severe spinal injury (AIS2+) was associated with higher severity crashes (OR=3.5 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.6)), intrusion into an occupant's seating position (OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.9 to 3.7)), striking a fixed object rather than another car (OR=1.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 2.1)), and use of a shoulder-only belt (OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8)). Older occupants (65 years or older) were at higher risk of spinal injury than younger adults in frontal, side and rollover crashes. Children under 16 were at a lower risk of spinal injury than adults in all crash types except frontal crashes. While the risk of serious spinal injury in motor vehicle crashes is low, these injuries are more common in crashes of higher severity or into fixed objects, and in the presence of intrusion. There are elevated risks of spinal injury for older occupants compared with younger adults, which may reflect changes in biomechanical tolerances with age. Children appear to be at lower risk of serious spinal injury than adults except in frontal crashes.

  5. [Causes of occupational injuries in Spain: a longitudinal analysis with panel data].

    PubMed

    García Mainar, Inmaculada; Montuenga Gómez, Víctor

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of several personal and occupational characteristics on the occurrence of occupation injuries, expressed in different categories (minor, serious, fatal and overall) by applying tools that are widely used in economic analyses. Panel data were used to estimate occupational injuries in an aggregate manner: both by regions and occupational categories and by industries and occupational categories. Data on occupational injuries were drawn from the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs while the remaining information was drawn from the Workforce Population Survey for all quarters from 1999 to 2002. Permanent workers, male workers, public sector employees and those with secondary education or who had received on-the-job training were safer at their workplaces. Male and foreign workers were at greater risk of occupational injuries. The risk of serious or fatal accidents was reduced by greater work experience and was increased by working longer hours. Prevention would help to reduce the risk of accidents in temporary, male, private-sector and foreign workers. To reduce the incidence of serious and fatal accidents, the number of hours worked should be limited, especially in employees without extensive work experience.

  6. Development of an occupational illness and injury surveillance database for the electric energy sector.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Kelsh, M A; Zhao, K; Mrad, R

    2001-02-01

    Currently available occupational injury and illness data for electric energy companies provide only overall summary rates. Specific information about types of injury or illnesses, rates by occupational or work environments, and injury costs and severity are generally not readily available. Relevant data such as personnel and claims information are frequently not integrated into a comprehensive health and safety surveillance system suitable for epidemiologic and health and safety research purposes. Epidemiological methods are valuable for identifying key risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses and assessing their magnitude, as well establishing priorities for health and safety research. Application of such methods can result in long-term reductions in injury and illness rates and their attendant costs. Aggregation of relevant health and safety data across companies improves statistical power for the assessment of rare (yet costly) injuries or illness or specific at-risk subgroups within the electric energy sector. A pilot occupational injury and illness database has been developed that can incorporate and standardize data across a spectrum of companies of differing sizes and configurations. In illustrative data analyses, injury trends were summarized by company size, occupation, and demographic factors, among others. Trends observed in these illustrative analyses were consistent with results previously reported in the epidemiological literature, however, results are considered preliminary pending development of the full database. This study shows that development of a standardized surveillance occupational injury and illness database across companies with different database configurations is feasible. This database will ultimately provide a stable and accurate occupational health and safety assessment tool not currently available for this sector.

  7. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  8. Long-term sickness absence - risk indicators among occupationally active residents of a Danish county.

    PubMed

    Eshøj, P; Jepsen, J R; Nielsen, C V

    2001-08-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors and their prevalence in long-term sickness absence. The study is designed as a case-referent study which comprises 481 participants who have experienced a sickness absence lasting >10 weeks and a reference group of 1326 individuals in active employment. Multivariate analysis identified the following significant risk factors for men: (i) age >50 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4]; (ii) short period of education (OR = 2.3); (iii) unemployment within the last 3 years (OR = 1.7); (iv) heavy-duty work (OR = 2.1); (v) monotonous, repetitive work (OR = 1.7); (vi) lack of job satisfaction (OR = 2.1); and (vii) much back pain during the last 3 years (OR = 2.1). The following risk factors were identified for women: (i) leaving school without graduation (OR = 2.6); (ii) unemployment within the last 3 years (OR = 1.5); (iii) heavy-duty work (OR = 2.8); (iv) lack of influence on own job situation (OR = 2.1); and (v) much back pain within the last 3 years (OR = 1.8). It is concluded that the identification of working environment risk factors constitutes a case for improvement of the working environment which may be instrumental in reducing long-term sickness absence.

  9. Is the societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    PubMed

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2013-02-01

    Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003-2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. The societal costs-total, mean, and median costs-of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector research by industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Is the Societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    PubMed Central

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2015-01-01

    Problem Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. Method This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003–2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. Results During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. Discussion The societal costs—total, mean, and median costs—of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. Impact on Industry To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector

  11. A comparison of fatal occupational injury event characteristics from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Vital Statistics Mortality System.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Suzanne M; Jackson, Larry L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine utility of appending International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes from Vital Statistics Mortality (VSM) data to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), and compare occupational event characteristics based on ICD external cause and BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) event codes. We linked VSM records with CFOI records for 2003 and 2004. Ninety-five percent of approximately 11,000 CFOI cases were linked to VSM cases. Linked data suggest that CFOI OIICS event and VSM ICD codes identified similar leading events. However, VSM data were generally less specific. Lack of detail inherent in ICD codes and death narratives limits specificity of injury characteristics in VSM data. Appending ICD codes to CFOI appears to offer little value. Research comparing work- and non-work-related events may be better served by having a defined framework to crosswalk both coding schemes to facilitate comparisons. Over the last two decades, both ICD and OIICS have been used to characterize occupational injury circumstances; however, this is the first study to use linked case comparisons of the OIICS and ICD codes at a detailed level. This study confirmed that multiple source data systems provide more detail surrounding an incident than a single source data system does. Our results suggest that OIICS-coded CFOI data are a better source for occupational injury research and prevention purposes. For future comparison studies requiring ICD, it would be advantageous to have a defined framework that could easily be used to map both coding schemes (OIICS and ICD). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Work related injuries in Washington State's Trucking Industry, by industry sector and occupation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline K; Williams, Jena

    2014-04-01

    The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational health nursing interventions to reduce third-party liability in workplace injuries.

    PubMed

    Delk, Kayla L

    2012-03-01

    This article explores general principles of workers' compensation law and the ability to sue third parties for employee injuries by using case law and the treatise Larson's Workers' Compensation Law. This overview provides occupational health nurses with a background on workers' compensation law, who is liable for employee injuries, and how recovery from third parties is distributed between the employer or insurer and the employee. The author then explores interventions that occupational health nurses can implement to reduce employee injury and employer costs for providing workers' compensation. The goal of this article is to stimulate occupational health nurses' critical-thinking and problem-solving skills so they may identify risks and implement cost-effective solutions that will prevent injuries to employees.

  14. The impact of injuries study. multicentre study assessing physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning post injury--a protocol.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Denise; O'Brien, Claire; Christie, Nicola; Coupland, Carol; Quinn, Casey; Avis, Mark; Barker, Marcus; Barnes, Jo; Coffey, Frank; Joseph, Stephen; Morris, Andrew; Morriss, Richard; Rowley, Emma; Sleney, Jude; Towner, Elizabeth

    2011-12-31

    Large numbers of people are killed or severely injured following injuries each year and these injuries place a large burden on health care resources. The majority of the severely injured are not fully recovered 12-18 months later. Psychological disorders are common post injury and are associated with poorer functional and occupational outcomes. Much of this evidence comes from countries other than the UK, with differing health care and compensation systems. Early interventions can be effective in treating psychological morbidity, hence the scale and nature of the problem and its impact of functioning in the UK must be known before services can be designed to identify and manage psychological morbidity post injury. A longitudinal multi-centre study of 680 injured patients admitted to hospital in four areas across the UK: Nottingham, Leicester/Loughborough, Bristol and Surrey. A stratified sample of injuries will ensure a range of common and less common injuries will be included. Participants will complete a baseline questionnaire about their injury and pre-injury quality of life, and follow-up questionnaires 1, 2, 4, and 12 months post injury. Measures will include health and social care utilisation, perceptions of recovery, physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore the experiences of a sample of participants, their carers and service providers to inform service design. This study will quantify physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health and social care utilisation following a range of different types of injury and will assess the impact of psychological disorders on function and health service use. The findings will be used to guide the development of interventions to maximise recovery post injury.

  15. The impact of injuries study. multicentre study assessing physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning post injury - a protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Large numbers of people are killed or severely injured following injuries each year and these injuries place a large burden on health care resources. The majority of the severely injured are not fully recovered 12-18 months later. Psychological disorders are common post injury and are associated with poorer functional and occupational outcomes. Much of this evidence comes from countries other than the UK, with differing health care and compensation systems. Early interventions can be effective in treating psychological morbidity, hence the scale and nature of the problem and its impact of functioning in the UK must be known before services can be designed to identify and manage psychological morbidity post injury. Methods/Design A longitudinal multi-centre study of 680 injured patients admitted to hospital in four areas across the UK: Nottingham, Leicester/Loughborough, Bristol and Surrey. A stratified sample of injuries will ensure a range of common and less common injuries will be included. Participants will complete a baseline questionnaire about their injury and pre-injury quality of life, and follow-up questionnaires 1, 2, 4, and 12 months post injury. Measures will include health and social care utilisation, perceptions of recovery, physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore the experiences of a sample of participants, their carers and service providers to inform service design. Discussion This study will quantify physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health and social care utilisation following a range of different types of injury and will assess the impact of psychological disorders on function and health service use. The findings will be used to guide the development of interventions to maximise recovery post injury. PMID:22208707

  16. Injury patterns to other body regions and load vectors in nearside impact occupants with and without shoulder injuries

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stadter, Gregory W.; Halloway, Dale E.; Pintar, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    CIREN and NASS-CDS databases were used to analyze nearside impact injuries. Front seat occupants with and without shoulder injuries were examined on an individual basis in both databases. All vehicles were from model year 2000 or newer. Variables such as the type of collision, change in velocity, principal direction force, demographics, injuries scored by the MAIS and ISS metrics, and injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis were included. Shoulder injuries included fractures to the humerus, scapula and clavicle, and associated joint traumas. The median changes in velocities for occupants with and without shoulder injuries were 36 and 32 km/h in CIREN and 29 and 32 km/h in NASS databases. Approximately two-thirds of all cases occurred below 40 km/h. In both databases, the clavicle, scapula and humerus fractures, and AC joint dislocations were found, and the scapula fracture was associated with the clavicle, AC joint, acromion and humerus injuries in few occupants. The clavicle fracture was associated with AC joint and humerus injuries only in the NASS database. Thorax, abdomen and pelvic injuries and skull fractures increased with the presence of shoulder injuries in both databases, albeit not at the same rate. Anterior oblique loading was more frequent than pure lateral loading in both databases suggesting the importance of the oblique vector in side impact trauma. These findings underscore a need for detailed examinations of shoulder load-sharing using biomechanical studies to better understand its role in side impact traumas, shoulder biofidelity and injury assessments in dummies. PMID:24406953

  17. Association Between NCAP Ratings and Real-World Rear Seat Occupant Risk of Injury.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Kristina B; Gruschow, Siobhan; Durbin, Dennis R; Curry, Allison E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the correlation between U.S. or Euro New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings and injury risk to front seat occupants, in particular driver injuries. Conversely, little is known about whether NCAP 5-star ratings predict real-world risk of injury to restrained rear seat occupants. The NHTSA has identified rear seat occupant protection as a specific area under consideration for improvements to its NCAP. In order to inform NHTSA's efforts, we examined how NCAP's current 5-star rating system predicts risk of moderate or greater injury among restrained rear seat occupants in real-world crashes. We identified crash-involved vehicles, model year 2004-2013, in NASS-CDS (2003-2012) with known make and model and nonmissing occupant information. We manually matched these vehicles to their NCAP star ratings using data on make, model, model year, body type, and other identifying information. The resultant linked NASS-CDS and NCAP database was analyzed to examine associations between vehicle ratings and rear seat occupant injury risk; risk to front seat occupants was also estimated for comparison. Data were limited to restrained occupants and occupant injuries were defined as any injury with a maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or greater. We linked 95% of vehicles in NASS-CDS to a specific vehicle in NCAP. The 18,218 vehicles represented an estimated 6 million vehicles with over 9 million occupants. Rear seat passengers accounted for 12.4% of restrained occupants. The risk of injury in all crashes for restrained rear seat occupants was lower in vehicles with a 5-star driver rating in frontal impact tests (1.4%) than with 4 or fewer stars (2.6%, P =.015); results were similar for the frontal impact passenger rating (1.3% vs. 2.4%, P =.024). Conversely, side impact driver and passenger crash tests were not associated with rear seat occupant injury risk (driver test: 1.7% for 5-star vs. 1.8% for 1-4 stars; passenger test: 1.6% for 5

  18. Morbidity, injuries and sick absence in fishermen and seafarers--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tomaszunas, S; Wecławik, Z; Lewiński, M

    1988-01-01

    In the period 1986-1988 a prospective study comprising 30 crew members of deep-sea factory-trawlers (altogether 2468 fishermen) and 85 of the merchant navy vessels (total 2906 seafarers). At least one chronic ailment or a deviation from the norm was found in 32.5% of fishermen and in 45.4% of seafarers. On the average the seafarers were older than their counterparts fishermen by 2 years and 2 month. Traumas, fractures, wounds and injuries were the most often, the prevailing reason for the sick absence (619 days sick absence per 1000 fishermen and 1075 days sick absence per 1000 seamen annually). The most frequent in fishermen were: acute infections of the respiratory tract, skin diseases, diseases of the oral cavity and teeth, diseases of the articulations. The diseases of a highest prevalence in seafarers were: acute infections of the respiratory tract, diseases of the oral cavity and teeth, skin diseases, gastritis and duodenitis. There were noted 27 serious ailments and 9 accidents requiring repatriations on shore and home in fishermen and 18 such diseases and 21 accidents in seafarers.

  19. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J M; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T K

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury in the state. Collaborative efforts have contributed to reducing crash rates and mortality in Alaska's rapidly expanding helicopter logging industry and have played an important supportive role in the substantial progress made in reducing the mortality rate in Alaska's commercial fishing industry (historically Alaska's and America's most dangerous industry). Alaska experienced a 46% overall decline in work-related acute traumatic injury deaths from 1991 to 1998, a 64% decline in commercial fishing deaths, and a very sharp decline in helicopter logging-related deaths. Extending this regional approach to other parts of the country and applying these strategies to the entire spectrum of occupational injury and disease hazards could have a broad effect on reducing occupational injuries. PMID:10670623

  20. Political economy of US states and rates of fatal occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Loomis, Dana; Schulman, Michael D; Bailer, A John; Stainback, Kevin; Wheeler, Matthew; Richardson, David B; Marshall, Stephen W

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the extent to which the political economy of US states, including the relative power of organized labor, predicts rates of fatal occupational injury. We described states' political economies with 6 contextual variables measuring social and political conditions: "right-to-work" laws, union membership density, labor grievance rates, state government debt, unemployment rates, and social wage payments. We obtained data on fatal occupational injuries from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality surveillance system and population data from the US national census. We used Poisson regression methods to analyze relationships for the years 1980 and 1995. States differed notably with respect to political-economic characteristics and occupational fatality rates, although these characteristics were more homogeneous within rather than between regions. Industry and workforce composition contributed significantly to differences in state injury rates, but political-economic characteristics of states were also significantly associated with injury rates, after adjustment accounting for those factors. Higher rates of fatal occupational injury were associated with a state policy climate favoring business over labor, with distinct regional clustering of such state policies in the South and Northeast.

  1. Political Economy of US States and Rates of Fatal Occupational Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, Michael D.; Bailer, A. John; Stainback, Kevin; Wheeler, Matthew; Richardson, David B.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which the political economy of US states, including the relative power of organized labor, predicts rates of fatal occupational injury. Methods. We described states’ political economies with 6 contextual variables measuring social and political conditions: “right-to-work” laws, union membership density, labor grievance rates, state government debt, unemployment rates, and social wage payments. We obtained data on fatal occupational injuries from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatality surveillance system and population data from the US national census. We used Poisson regression methods to analyze relationships for the years 1980 and 1995. Results. States differed notably with respect to political–economic characteristics and occupational fatality rates, although these characteristics were more homogeneous within rather than between regions. Industry and workforce composition contributed significantly to differences in state injury rates, but political–economic characteristics of states were also significantly associated with injury rates, after adjustment accounting for those factors. Conclusions. Higher rates of fatal occupational injury were associated with a state policy climate favoring business over labor, with distinct regional clustering of such state policies in the South and Northeast. PMID:19542025

  2. Epidemiologic study of occupational injuries among foreign and native workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, T N; Liou, S H; Hsu, C C; Chao, S L; Liou, S F; Ko, K N; Yeh, W Y; Chang, P Y

    1997-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the risk of occupational injuries in foreign workers compared to native workers in Taiwan. The cohort of foreign workers under study was constructed by records of legally registered workers migrated from foreign countries to Taiwan from July 1, 1991 to December 31, 1993. The native Taiwanese workers for comparison were labor-insured workers working in the same industries as foreign workers in 1992. The number of occupational injuries in the first year of employment were obtained by matching the cohort of foreign workers with the labor insurance payment records by name, birth date and passport number. The 1-year incidence rate of occupational injuries in the first year of employment was calculated and a standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) was used for comparison with adjustment for age distribution and to accommodate the small sample size of foreign workers. The risk to occupational injuries among total (SMR = 0.86) and male (SMR = 0.58) foreign workers was not higher; indeed, it was even lower, than that among native workers in Taiwan. However, the risk to female migrant workers, especially in the construction industry, was significantly higher than that of female Taiwanese workers (SMR = 1.60). Stratified by industry, the incidence was high in the fabricated metal products manufacturing industry and in machinery and equipment manufacturing industry for male foreign workers, while a high incidence for the female foreign workers occurred in construction industry and rubber products manufacturing industry. The risk of occupational injuries was greater for foreign workers who had been in Taiwan for only a short time. Most of the injuries occurred within the first 6 months of employment. Eighty-four out of the 394 occupational injuries among foreign workers resulted in disabilities. None of the accidents was fatal, but most of the disabilities were severe. The most common disabling injuries were cut or crushed fingers. The finding of a

  3. An occupational health intervention programme for workers at high risk for sickness absence. Cost effectiveness analysis based on a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Taimela, S; Justén, S; Aronen, P; Sintonen, H; Läärä, E; Malmivaara, A; Tiekso, J; Aro, T

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether, from a healthcare perspective, a specific occupational health intervention is cost effective in reducing sickness absence when compared with usual care in occupational health in workers with high risk of sickness absence. Methods: Economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial. 418 workers with high risk of sickness absence from one corporation were randomised to intervention (n = 209) or to usual care (n = 209). The subjects in the intervention group were invited to occupational health service for a consultation. The intervention included, if appropriate, a referral to specialist treatment. Register data of sickness absence were available for 384 subjects and questionnaire data on healthcare costs from 272 subjects. Missing direct total cost data were imputed using a two-part regression model. Primary outcome measures were sickness absence days and direct healthcare costs up to 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness (CE) was expressed as an incremental CE ratio, CE plane and CE acceptability curve with both available direct total cost data and missing total cost data imputed. Results: After one year, the mean of sickness absence was 30 days in the usual care group (n = 192) and 11 days less (95% CI 1 to 20 days) in the intervention group (n = 192). Among the employees with available cost data, the mean days of sickness absence were 22 and 24, and the mean total cost €974 and €1049 in the intervention group (n = 134) and in the usual care group (n = 138), respectively. The intervention turned out to be dominant—both cost saving and more effective than usual occupational health care. The saving was €43 per sickness absence day avoided with available direct total cost data, and €17 with missing total cost data imputed. Conclusions: One year follow-up data show that occupational health intervention for workers with high risk of sickness absence is a cost effective use of

  4. Profitability and occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines☆

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Abay; Mark, Christopher; Pana-Cryan, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background Coal plays a crucial role in the U.S. economy yet underground coal mining continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the country. In addition, there are large variations in both profitability and the incidence of occupational injuries across mines. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the association between profitability and the incidence rate of occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines between 1992 and 2008. Data and method We used mine-specific data on annual hours worked, geographic location, and the number of occupational injuries suffered annually from the employment and accident/injury databases of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and mine-specific data on annual revenue from coal sales, mine age, workforce union status, and mining method from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. A total of 5669 mine-year observations (number of mines × number of years) were included in our analysis. We used a negative binomial random effects model that was appropriate for analyzing panel (combined time-series and cross-sectional) injury data that were non-negative and discrete. The dependent variable, occupational injury, was measured in three different and non-mutually exclusive ways: all reported fatal and nonfatal injuries, reported nonfatal injuries with lost workdays, and the ‘most serious’ (i.e. sum of fatal and serious nonfatal) injuries reported. The total number of hours worked in each mine and year examined was used as an exposure variable. Profitability, the main explanatory variable, was approximated by revenue per hour worked. Our model included mine age, workforce union status, mining method, and geographic location as additional control variables. Results After controlling for other variables, a 10% increase in real total revenue per hour worked was associated with 0.9%, 1.1%, and 1.6% decrease, respectively, in the incidence rates of all reported injuries, reported injuries with lost

  5. Obesity and Occupational Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study of 69,515 Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; De Vogli, Roberto; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and overweight are suggested to increase the risk of occupational injury but longitudinal evidence to confirm this is rare. We sought to evaluate obesity and overweight as risk factors for occupational injuries. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 69,515 public sector employees (80% women) responded to a survey in 2000–2002, 2004 or 2008. Body mass index (kg/m2) was derived from self-reported height and weight and was linked to records of subsequent occupational injuries obtained from national registers. Different injury types, locations and events or exposures (the manner in which the injury was produced or inflicted) were analyzed by body mass index category adjusting for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, work characteristics, health-risk behaviors, physical and mental health, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration. During the mean follow-up of 7.8 years (SD = 3.2), 18% of the employees (N = 12,204) recorded at least one occupational injury. Obesity was associated with a higher overall risk of occupational injury; multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.21 (95% CI 1.14–1.27). A relationship was observed for bone fractures (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10–1.70), dislocations, sprains and strains (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25–1.49), concussions and internal injuries (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11–1.44), injuries to lower extremities (HR = 1.62; 95%: 1.46–1.79) and injuries to whole body or multiple sites (HR = 1.37; 95%: 1.10–1.70). Furthermore, obesity was associated with a higher risk of injuries caused by slipping, tripping, stumbling and falling (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.40–1.73), sudden body movement with or without physical stress (HR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10–1.41) and shock, fright, violence, aggression, threat or unexpected presence (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03–1.72). The magnitude of the associations between overweight and injuries was smaller, but the associations were generally in the same

  6. Occupational injury risk by sex in a manufacturing cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Slade, Martin D; Taiwo, Oyebode A; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study expands previous research comparing injury risk for women and men in a cohort of 24 000 US aluminium manufacturing workers in 15 facilities from 2001 to 2010. Methods We compared injury rates (all injury, first aid, medical treatment, restricted work and lost work time) by sex and by job and sex. Using a mixed effect modelling approach, we calculated ORs and 95% CIs adjusting for age, job tenure, ethnicity and year as fixed effects and person, job and plant as random effects. Additionally, we modelled the data stratified by plant type to examine potential differences in injury risk between smelter (generally recognised as more hazardous) and fabrication production environments. Results Risk of injury was higher for women in four out of the five injury outcomes: all injuries combined (OR: 1.58, CI 1.48 to 1.67), injuries requiring first aid (OR: 1.61, CI 1.54 to 1.70), injuries requiring medical treatment (OR: 1.18, CI 1.03 to 1.36) and injuries requiring restricted work (OR: 1.65, CI 1.46 to 1.87). No difference in the risk of lost time injury by sex was found in this cohort. Analyses stratified by plant type showed similarly elevated injury risk for women, although the risk estimates were higher in smelters than fabrication plants. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest single-firm study examining injury risk by sex with sufficient data to appropriately adjust for job. We show a consistently higher injury risk for women compared with men in the smelting and fabrication environments. PMID:24924313

  7. Occupational injury and work organization among immigrant Latino residential construction workers.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Marín, Antonio; Summers, Phillip; Lang, Wei; Mills, Thomas; Evia, Carlos; Rushing, Julia; Donadio, Katherine; Arcury, Thomas A

    2012-08-01

    Rates of occupational injury among immigrant workers are widely believed to be underestimated. The goal of this study was to enhance understanding of the burden of occupational injury and the work organization factors underlying injury among immigrant Latino residential construction workers. Prospective data were obtained from a community-based sample of Latino residential construction workers (N = 107) over a 3-month period. Twenty-eight participants were injured, resulting in an injury incidence rate of 55.0/100 FTE (95% CI = 41.4-71.6) during the 3-month observation period. The injury rate involving days away from work during the observation period was 3.9/100 FTE (CI = 0.2-7.2). Injuries were elevated among roofers relative to framers and general construction workers. Roofers had elevated exposure to a variety of deleterious work organization factors. Although imprecise given the small sample, our results suggest a threefold to fourfold underestimate of the injury burden to immigrant Latino construction workers. Work organization may contribute to elevated rates of non-fatal occupational injury, particularly among roofers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Are psychosocial factors associated with low back pain and work absence for low back pain in an occupational cohort?

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Donna M; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Forbes, Andrew B; Sim, Malcolm R

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between individual and work-related psychosocial factors and low back pain (LBP) and associated time off work in an occupational cohort. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by nurses working across 3 major public hospitals. Participants provided sociodemographic data and information on the occurrence of LBP, time off work, and psychosocial factors. One thousand one hundred eleven participants (response rate 38.6%) were included in the study. Fifty-six percent of participants reported LBP in the previous year. When individual psychosocial factors were examined in the same model, the relationship between somatization and LBP persisted (OR 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35, 2.01). Low job security was also significantly associated with LBP independent of the other work-related factors (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69, 0.98). Of those participants with LBP, 30% reported absence from work due to LBP. When absence from work was examined, negative beliefs (OR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94, 1.00) and pain catastrophizing (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.71) were independently associated with time off work, along with low job satisfaction (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51, 0.97) and high job support (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.75). Somatization and low job security were found to be independently associated with occupational LBP, whereas negative beliefs, pain catastrophizing, reduced job satisfaction, and high job support were independently related to time off work. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these individual and work-related psychosocial factors predict, or alternatively, are outcomes of pain and time off work associated with LBP.

  9. Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Chin, Wei-Shan; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.

  10. Effectiveness of source documents for identifying fatal occupational injuries: a synthesis of studies.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, N; Bell, C

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complete and accurate identification of fatal occupational injuries among the US work force is an important first step in developing work injury prevention efforts. Numerous sources of information, such as death certificates, Workers' Compensation files, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) files, medical examiner records, state health and labor department reports, and various combinations of these, have been used to identify cases of work-related fatal injuries. Recent studies have questioned the effectiveness of these sources for identifying such cases. METHODS: At least 10 studies have used multiple sources to define the universe of fatal work injuries within a state and to determine the capture rates, or proportion of the universe identified, by each source. Results of these studies, which are not all available in published literature, are summarized here in a format that allows researchers to readily compare the ascertainment capabilities of the sources. RESULTS: The overall average capture rates of sources were as follows: death certificates, 81%; medical examiner records, 61%; Workers' Compensation reports, 57%; and OSHA reports 32%. Variations by state and value added through the use of multiple sources are presented and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of 10 state-based studies summarizes the effectiveness of various source documents for capturing cases of fatal occupational injuries to help researchers make informed decisions when designing occupational injury surveillance systems. PMID:1827569

  11. [Occupational injury in foreign workers by economic activity and autonomous community (Spain 2005)].

    PubMed

    López-Jacob, Ma José; Ahonen, Emily; García, Ana M; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2008-01-01

    While the immigrant collective in Spain has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about working conditions and their corresponding effects on occupational injury in this group. The objective of this study was to compare the incidences for both fatal and non-fatal injuries in foreign workers to that of Spanish workers in 2005, by autonomous community and economic activity. injury data came from the accident registry of the ministry of labor and social issues, and denominators were taken from available social security affiliation statistics from general and coal mining social security system. Incidence indices for fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries for foreign and spanish workers were calculated. In addition, relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by autonomous community and economic activity, using spanish workers as the reference group. Overall, relative risk for occupational injury in foreign workers in 2005 was superior to base risk for both fatal (1.34; 95% CI: 1.11-1.62) and non-fatal injury (1.13; 95% CI: 1.13-1.14), though there were important differences by autonomous community and activity sectors. Compared with Spanish workers, risk for occupational injury was higher for foreign workers in industrial activities, while it was lower in construction, commerce and restaurants and hotels. By autonomous community, Aragón and Catalonia showed the highest risks for foreign workers. A higher risk for occupational injury among foreign workers is confirmed, and may be higher than that observed. The differences in risk among economic activities and autonomous communities require more detailed analysis.

  12. Risk factors for occupational injuries among older workers: an analysis of the health and retirement study.

    PubMed Central

    Zwerling, C; Sprince, N L; Wallace, R B; Davis, C S; Whitten, P S; Heeringa, S G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined risk factors for occupational injury among older workers. METHODS: We analyzed data on 6854 employed nonfarmers from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a population-based sample of Americans 51 through 61 years old. RESULTS: Occupational injuries were associated with the following: the occupations of mechanics and repairers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27), service personnel (OR = 1.68), and laborers (OR = 2.18); jobs requiring heavy lifting (OR = 2.75); workers' impaired hearing (OR = 1.60) and impaired vision (OR = 1.53); and jobs requiring good vision (OR = 1.43). Self-employment was associated with fewer injuries (OR = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the importance of a good match between job demands and worker capabilities. PMID:8806386

  13. Cardiac injuries in car occupants in fatal motor vehicle collisions--an autopsy-based study.

    PubMed

    Turk, Elisabeth E; Tsang, Yee-Wah; Champaneri, Anisha; Pueschel, Klaus; Byard, Roger W

    2010-08-01

    Motor vehicle accidents contribute widely to population morbidity and mortality around the world, and cardiac injuries are a major factor determining outcome. Autopsy reports from 380 motor vehicle occupants who died in motor vehicle crashes in Adelaide, Australia, and Hamburg, Germany, over a 6-year period were reviewed, analysing the presence and type of cardiac injuries and their correlation with factors such as crash type, presence of seatbelt/airbag and vehicle speed as well as with the presence of other injuries which might predict the presence of cardiac injuries in a clinical setting. 21.1% had cardiac injuries identified macroscopically autopsy or histology. Cardiac injuries were the only cause of death or contributed to a fatal outcome in 76% of these cases. Sternal fractures and left-sided serial rib fractures were predictive of cardiac injury.

  14. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  15. Absence of galectin-3 promotes neuroprotection in retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Carla Andreia; De Lima, Silmara Veline; Mendonça, Henrique Rocha; Goulart, Camila de Oliveira; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco

    2017-03-01

    A trauma to the mature central nervous system (CNS) often leads to persistent deficits, due to the inability of axons to regenerate after being injured. Increasing evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic genes can present a major obstacle to promoting neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells and consequently succeed in axonal regeneration. This study evaluated the effect of the absence of galectin-3 (Gal-3) on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration/degeneration after optic nerve crush injury. Two weeks after crush there was a 2.6 fold increase in the rate of cell survival in Gal-3-/- mice (1283±79.15) compared to WT animals (495.4±53.96). However, no regeneration was observed in the Gal-3-/- mice two weeks after lesion. Furthermore, axonal degeneration presented a particular pattern on those mice; Electron Microscopy (EM) analysis showed incomplete axon degeneration while the WT mice presented an advanced stage of degeneration. This suggests that the removal of the nerve fibers in the Gal 3-/- mice could be deficient and this would cause a delay in the process of Wallerian degeneration once there is a decrease in the number of macrophages/microglia in the nerve. This study demonstrates how the absence of Gal-3 can affect RGC survival and optic nerve regeneration/degeneration after lesion. Our results suggest that the absence of Gal-3 plays an important role in the survival of RGC and thus can be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in RGC neuroprotection.

  16. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results During the follow-up period, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (P<0.0001). In addition, both long term [≥20 years; hazard ratio (HR) 1.76 95% CI 1.39-2.22] and short term (<10 years; HR 1.20 95% CI 1.02-1.41) exposure to kneeling work increased the risk of LTSA. Lifting-years, but not the other mechanical exposures, were associated with risk of disability pension (HR 1.75 95% CI 1.01-3.04). Conclusions Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life - such as lifting and kneeling work - increased the risk of LTSA. Importantly, being exposed to lifting increased the risk of disability pension.

  17. A study of the effect of OHSAS 18001 on the occupational injury rate in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Summala, Heikki

    2017-03-01

    The occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) has been a widely used approach for managing occupational health and safety more effectively worldwide. Despite the interest of organizations in implementing OHSMS in recent decades, few studies have examined the effectiveness of these interventions. This study presents an empirical investigation of the effect of occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001 as a worldwide-accepted OHSMS on the occupational injury rate (OIR) in Iran. This study was carried out in six companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified, including 998 occupational injuries for 15,842 person-months. A before-after analysis showed a positive safety performance change in one out of the three certified companies. For all 66 study years in the six companies, a negative binomial regression did not indicate a lower occupational injury during the certified years and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not confirm the effect of certification. The results of this study indicated that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 is not a guarantee of improved safety.

  18. Case-control study on the prevention of occupational eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Yen, Ya-Lin; Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Chiang, Hung-Che; Shen, Ying-Ying; Chang, Po-Ya

    2008-01-01

    The risk factors for occupational eye injuries have never been published in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study to analyze the differences among workers on their knowledge, attitude to and practice (KAP) of occupational accident prevention. In the study, a statistical model was also set up for predicting the occupational problem. Subjects, including 31 cases of work-related eye injuries and 62 controls, completed a structured questionnaire on KAP, which revealed that 80.6% and 62.7% of workers in the case and control groups, respectively, did not wear eye protection during work. Furthermore, we found that temporary employment (OR, 10.7; 95% CI, 3.03-36.16) and fewer than 10 years of education (OR, 4.44; 95% CI, 1.73-11.44) were the major risk factors for occupational eye injuries. In addition, we developed a logistic regression model with four predictors (temporary employment, education years less than 10, poor management of industrial health and safety in the workplace, and poor attitude towards accident prevention) for the occurrence of occupational eye injuries. In conclusion, in Taiwan, compulsory regulation of wearing eye protection during work, good education, management of work safety and hygiene and employee (especially temporary worker) commitment to safety and health are strongly recommended prevention strategies.

  19. Association between heat stress and occupational injury among Thai workers: findings of the Thai Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kjellstrom, Tord; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Global warming will increase heat stress at home and at work. Few studies have addressed the health consequences in tropical low and middle income settings such as Thailand. We report on the association between heat stress and workplace injury among workers enrolled in the large national Thai Cohort Study in 2005 (N=58,495). We used logistic regression to relate heat stress and occupational injury separately for males and females, adjusting for covariate effects of age, income, education, alcohol, smoking, Body Mass Index, job location, job type, sleeping hours, existing illness, and having to work very fast. Nearly 20% of workers experienced occupational heat stress which strongly and significantly associated with occupational injury (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.87-2.42 for males and 1.89, 95%CI 1.64-2.18 for females). This study provides evidence connecting heat stress and occupational injury in tropical Thailand and also identifies several factors that increase heat exposure. The findings will be useful for policy makers to consider work-related heat stress problems in tropical Thailand and to develop an occupational health and safety program which is urgently needed given the looming threat of global warming.

  20. Occupational injuries and illnesses in the solid waste industry: a call for action.

    PubMed

    Olorunnishola, Olumide Adewale; Kidd-Taylor, Andrea; Byrd, Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Work-related injuries and illnesses are multi-factorial and remain major problems of public health magnitude requiring the attention of all stakeholders in the solid waste industry. The objective of this article was to describe the patterns of occupational injury and illness (OII) reporting incidence among workers in a major private U. S. solid waste management company. A five-year (2003-2007) retrospective review of the corporate Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) logs 300/300A/301 was conducted and employee OII reports (n = 1895) were analyzed from 37 establishments across 11 different states. The OII reporting rates were compared to industry average.

  1. Medical expenditures associated with nonfatal occupational injuries among immigrant and U.S.-born workers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Junxin; Lu, Bo; Wheeler, Krista; Zhao, Weiyan; Wilkins, J R; Smith, Gary A

    2012-08-20

    No national study has investigated whether immigrant workers are less likely than U.S.-workers to seek medical treatment after occupational injuries and whether the payment source differs between two groups. Using the 2004-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, we estimated the annual incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries per 100 workers. Logistic regression models were fitted to test whether injured immigrant workers were less likely than U.S.-born workers to seek professional medical treatment after occupational injuries. We also estimated the average mean medical expenditures per injured worker during the 2 year MEPS reference period using linear regression analysis, adjusting for gender, age, race, marital status, education, poverty level, and insurance. Types of service and sources of payment were compared between U.S.-born and immigrant workers. A total of 1,909 injured U.S.-born workers reported 2,176 occupational injury events and 508 injured immigrant workers reported 560 occupational injury events. The annual nonfatal incidence rate per 100 workers was 4.0% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.3%) for U.S.-born workers and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.6%-3.3%) for immigrant workers. Medical treatment was sought after 77.3% (95% CI: 75.1%-79.4%) of the occupational injuries suffered by U.S.-born workers and 75.6% (95% CI: 69.8%-80.7%) of the occupational injuries suffered by immigrant workers. The average medical expenditure per injured worker in the 2 year MEPS reference period was $2357 for the U.S.-born workers and $2,351 for immigrant workers (in 2009 U.S. dollars, P = 0.99). Workers' compensation paid 57.0% (95% CI: 49.4%-63.6%) of the total expenditures for U.S.-born workers and 43.2% (95% CI: 33.0%-53.7%) for immigrant workers. U.S.-born workers paid 6.7% (95% CI: 5.5%-8.3%) and immigrant workers paid 7.1% (95% CI: 5.2%-9.6%) out-of-pocket. Immigrant workers had a statistically significant lower incidence rate of nonfatal occupational injuries than U

  2. Determinants of occupational injury in Kombolcha textile factory, North-East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yessuf Serkalem, S; Moges Haimanot, G; Ahmed Ansha, N

    2014-04-01

    Textile factory is among the most common manufacturing industries that has higher rate of work-related injuries. Knowing the associated factors of work-related injuries can be a critical step for improving the working condition of workers in the sector. To assess the major determinants of occupational injury among workers in Kombolcha textile factory, North-East Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 15, 2013 on 455 randomly selected workers after stratification by working departments. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview by data collectors of 6 occupational health experts and 6 nurses. Working >48 hrs/wk (aOR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.18-6.24), handling objects >20 kg (aOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.24-4.45), visual concentration (aOR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.42-6.75), timely maintenance of machine (aOR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11-2.93), and sleep disorder (aOR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.47-5.92) were significant factors for the occurrence of occupational injuries. Many factors including working for a long time with accurate instruments and sleep disorders can cause occupational injury in textile industries.

  3. Impact of organization on occupational injury risk: evidence from high-speed railway construction.

    PubMed

    Bena, Antonella; Berchialla, Paola; Debernardi, Maria Luisa; Pasqualini, Osvaldo; Farina, Elena; Costa, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    The construction industry is at the top of the list of priorities for surveillance and research, although it is often difficult to perform detailed analysis of the risk factors. In mid-2002, construction work started on the Torino to Novara high-speed railway line. A Regional Epidemiological Observatory developed a standardized data collection system that provided a rare opportunity for researchers in Italy to analyze risk factors for occupational injury in a large cohort of workers involved in a single major construction project. The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of a cohort of workers employed at construction sites of the high-speed Torino to Novara railway between 2003 and 2005, analyze the main determinants of occupational injury risk and estimate incidence rates. Frequency rates of occupational injury were calculated by characteristics of workers and firms and relative risks were estimated using a Poisson model. Annual injury incidence decreased over the period and was higher than the Italian construction industry rate. The risk was highest among workers performing the least skilled jobs and with the shortest contracts. Moreover the risk was higher in large enterprises. Although calculated within a specific context, the results provide information applicable to all construction sites. The high risk of occupational injury associated with short-term contracts suggests, at such large and long-term construction sites, to engage workers on a permanent basis for the duration of the construction project. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Possible gasoline-induced chronic liver injury due to occupational malpractice in a motor mechanic: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gunathilaka, Mahesh Lakmal; Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Luke, Nathasha Vihangi; Piyarathna, Chathura Lakmal; Siriwardena, Rohan Chaminda; De Silva, Arjuna Priyadarshin; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-07-03

    Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a well-known clinical entity among petroleum industry workers. There are many types of hydrocarbon exposure, with inhalation being the most common. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a rarely suspected and commonly missed etiological agent for liver injury. We report a case of a non-petroleum industry worker with chronic liver disease secondary to hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury caused by chronic low-grade hydrocarbon ingestion due to occupational malpractice. A 23-year-old Sri Lankan man who was a motor mechanic presented to our hospital with decompensated cirrhosis. He had been chronically exposed to gasoline via inadvertent ingestion due to occupational malpractice. He used to remove gasoline from carburetors by sucking and failed to practice mouth washing thereafter. On evaluation, he had histologically proven established cirrhosis. A comprehensive history and workup ruled out other nonoccupational etiologies for cirrhosis. The patient's long-term occupational gasoline exposure and clinical course led us to a diagnosis of hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury leading to decompensated cirrhosis. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury should be considered as a cause when evaluating a patient with liver injury with possible exposure in relevant occupations.

  5. Non-fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abas, Adinegara Bin Lutfi; Said, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Bin Aziz; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed data on non-fatal occupational injuries reported to Malaysia's social security organization from 2002 to 2006. There was a decrease in both the absolute number and the incidence rates of these injuries over time. About 40% of cases occurred in the manufacturing sector followed by the service (17%) and trading (17%) sectors. The agriculture sector reported the highest incidence rate (24.1/1,000), followed by the manufacturing sector subcategories of wood-product manufacturing (22.1/1,000) and non-metallic industries (20.8/1,000). Men age 40 to 59 and persons of Indian ethnicity had a greater tendency to sustain injuries. Government and non-governmental organizations should strive to develop strategies to reduce the occupational injuries targeting vulnerable groups. Enforcement of safety measures will further play an important role to ensure that both employees and employers take special precautions to address workplace hazards.

  6. Non-fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    ABAS, ADINEGARA BIN LUTFI; SAID, ABDUL RAZZAK BIN MOHD; MOHAMMED, MOHAMMED AZMAN BIN AZIZ; SATHIAKUMAR, NALINI

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed data on non-fatal occupational injuries reported to Malaysia’s social security organization from 2002 to 2006. There was a decrease in both the absolute number and the incidence rates of these injuries over time. About 40% of cases occurred in the manufacturing sector followed by the service (17%) and trading (17%) sectors. The agriculture sector reported the highest incidence rate (24.1/1,000), followed by the manufacturing sector subcategories of wood-product manufacturing (22.1/1,000) and non-metallic industries (20.8/1,000). Men age 40 to 59 and persons of Indian ethnicity had a greater tendency to sustain injuries. Government and non-governmental organizations should strive to develop strategies to reduce the occupational injuries targeting vulnerable groups. Enforcement of safety measures will further play an important role to ensure that both employees and employers take special precautions to address workplace hazards. PMID:21344818

  7. Contributions of occupational hazards and human factors in occupational injuries and their associations with job, age and type of injuries in railway workers.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nearkasen; Gauchard, Gerome C; Dehaene, Dominique; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Touron, Christian; Perrin, Philippe P; Mur, Jean-Marie

    2007-05-01

    To assess the contributions of environmental hazards, technical dysfunctions, lack of work organization, know-how and job knowledge, and other human factors in occupational injuries and their relationships with job, age and type of accidents in railway workers. The sample included 1,604 male workers, having had at least one occupational injury with sick leave during a 2-year period in voluntary French railway services. A standardized questionnaire was filled in by the person-in-charge of prevention, with the injured worker. Data analysis was performed via the chi(2) independence test and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with Mantel-Haenszel test. The environmental hazards were implicated in 24.7%, technical dysfunctions in 16.0%, lack of work organization in 13.7%, lack of know-how in 17.6%, lack of job knowledge in 5.2%, and the other human factors in 31.9% of occupational injuries. The injuries caused by lack of know-how or job knowledge were more represented in workers aged less than 30 (ORs adjusted for job 1.45, 95% CI 1.02-2.06 and 2.06, 1.22-3.49, respectively), those by environmental hazards in energy and electrical traction maintenance operators and train drivers (ORs adjusted for age 2.04, 1.16-3.58 and 1.80, 1.01-3.20, respectively), and those by lack of work organization in mechanical maintenance operators and in energy and electrical traction maintenance operators (ORs adjusted for age 2.24, 1.13-4.45 and 1.83, 1.30-2.57, respectively). The causes considered were strongly related with the type of injuries. This study found that environmental hazards, technical dysfunctions, lack of work organization, lack of knowledge and other human factors had important contributions in injuries, and they were related to job, age and type of injuries. These findings are useful for prevention. Training is necessary for young workers. The occupational physician could help the workers to be more aware of the risks.

  8. The ICF and Postsurgery Occupational Therapy after Traumatic Hand Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitinghoff, Helene; Lindqvist, Birgitta; Nygard, Louise; Ekholm, Jan; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of hand rehabilitation programmes and have linked the outcomes to the concept of ICF but not to specific ICF category codes. The objective of this study was to gain experience using ICF concepts to describe occupational therapy interventions during postsurgery hand rehabilitation, and to describe…

  9. The ICF and Postsurgery Occupational Therapy after Traumatic Hand Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitinghoff, Helene; Lindqvist, Birgitta; Nygard, Louise; Ekholm, Jan; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of hand rehabilitation programmes and have linked the outcomes to the concept of ICF but not to specific ICF category codes. The objective of this study was to gain experience using ICF concepts to describe occupational therapy interventions during postsurgery hand rehabilitation, and to describe…

  10. Parametric analysis of occupant ankle and tibia injuries in frontal impact

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fuhao; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Shuyong; Xiao, Zhi; Shi, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective Non-fatal tibia and ankle injuries without proper protection from the restraint system has gotten wide attention from researchers. This study aimed to investigate occupant tibia and ankle injuries under realistic frontal impact environment that is rarely considered in previous experimental and simulant studies. Methods An integrated occupant-vehicle model was established by coupling an isolated car cab model and a hybrid occupant model with a biofidelic pelvis-lower limb model, while its loading conditions were extracted from the realistic full-frontal impact test. A parametric study was implemented concerning instrument panel (IP) design and pedal intrusion/rotation parameters. Results The significant influences of the IP angle, pedal intrusion and pedal rotation on tibia axial force, tibia bending moment and ankle dorsiflexion angle are noted. By coupling their effects, a new evaluation index named CAIEI (Combined Ankle Injury Evaluation Index) is established to evaluate ankle injury (including tibia fractures in ankle region) risk and severity in robustness. Conclusions Overall results and analysis indicate that ankle dorsiflexion angle should be considered when judging the injury in lower limb under frontal impact. Meanwhile, the current index with coupling effects of tibia axial force, bending moment and ankle dorsiflexion angle is in a good correlation with the simulation injury outcomes. PMID:28910377

  11. Injury Risk for Children in Rear Impacts: Role of the Front Seat Occupant

    PubMed Central

    Jermakian, Jessica Steps; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    As more children move to the rear rows, there is a need to understand the rear impact environment for children to guide future regulatory and due care activities in this impact direction. A probability sample of 1,035 restrained child occupants, aged 0–12 years, seated in a second row outboard position in rear impact tow-away crashes, weighted to represent 10,079 children, was collected from an on-going child specific crash surveillance system between 3/1/00 and 12/31/06. These data were analyzed to quantify the overall injury risk and the influence of both front seat occupant presence and reported front seat back deformation on injury risk. Overall risk of AIS 2+ injury for restrained child occupants seated in the rear row outboard position in rear impact crashes was 2.3%. Occupants were seated in front of these children in 71% of cases and deformation of the front seat back into the child’s space was reported in 8% of cases. For those children with seatback deformation occurring directly in front of them, there was a doubling of the injury risk (4.8% vs. 2.1%, adjusted OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2–4.8). This paper provides the first population-based estimates of the injury risk of rear row-seated children in rear impact crash events and points to the importance of understanding the role of front seat back design on rear impact injury risk for both the front seat and rear seat occupants. PMID:19026228

  12. Costs of occupational injuries in construction in the United States.

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Dong, Xiuwen S; Miller, Ted; Haile, Elizabeth; Men, Yurong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries for the construction industry using 2002 national incidence data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and a comprehensive cost model that includes direct medical costs, indirect losses in wage and household productivity, as well as an estimate of the quality of life costs due to injury. Costs are presented at the three-digit industry level, by worker characteristics, and by detailed source and event of injury. The total costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries in the construction industry were estimated at $11.5 billion in 2002, 15% of the costs for all private industry. The average cost per case of fatal or nonfatal injury is $27,000 in construction, almost double the per-case cost of $15,000 for all industry in 2002. Five industries accounted for over half the industry's total fatal and nonfatal injury costs. They were miscellaneous special trade contractors (SIC 179), followed by plumbing, heating and air-conditioning (SIC 171), electrical work (SIC 173), heavy construction except highway (SIC 162), and residential building construction (SIC 152), each with over $1 billion in costs.

  13. Complete cervical intervertebral disc extrusion with spinal cord injury in the absence of facet dislocation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yue, James J; Lawrence, Brandon D; Sutton, Karen M; Strugar, John J; Haims, Andrew H

    2004-05-01

    Complete cervical disc complex extrusion, defined as the extrusion of both cartilaginous end-plates, the entire nucleus pulposus, and portions of the anulus fibrosus, is rare. A case of complete cervical disc complex extrusion with spinal cord injury in the absence of facet dislocation or subluxation in an obtunded patient is reported. To report an unusual presentation of spinal cord injury and the occurrence of complete traumatic cervical disc complex extrusion in the absence of facet dislocation and normal plain radiographic findings. Traumatic cervical disc herniation occurs in 54% to 80% of patients with facet dislocation. A report of complete extrusion of a cervical intervertebral disc complex (cartilaginous endplate, anulus, and nucleus pulposus) with spinal cord injury in the absence of dislocation has not been described, to the best of the authors' knowledge. A clinical and radiographic review of such a case of complete traumatic cervical disc complex herniation in the absence of dislocation was performed. Plain radiographic imaging did not show any injury. A nondisplaced fracture of the left inferior facet joint was evident on computed tomography. The diagnosis of C4-C5 intervertebral disc extrusion was made only after magnetic resonance imaging. The vacuum effect of complete disc extrusion created a "white-out" appearance to the disc space on the sagittal T2 magnetic resonance image. The patient underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with additional posterior cervical fusion. He subsequently regained functional strength against gravity in two of four limbs. He remains completely paraparetic in the left upper extremity and partially paraparetic in the left lower extremity. The case report highlights the occurrence of complete traumatic cervical disc extrusion in the absence of facet dislocation with normal plain radiographic findings and consequent spinal cord injury, which can accompany such an injury.

  14. Bilateral Upper Extremity Hyperesthesia and Absence of Neck Tenderness in Four Adolescent Athletes With Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jay Douglas; Thorpe, Elizabeth Lewis

    2017-01-24

    Cervical spine injury in the pediatric athlete is an uncommon but potentially devastating condition that can require a heightened index of suspicion to correctly diagnose. Although some cervical spine injuries present overtly with paraplegia due to cord transection, others can present more subtly with symptoms suggestive of bilateral peripheral neuropathy. Patients with traumatic brachial neuropraxia or "stinger" physiology can present similarly, but symptoms are exclusively unilateral. We present 4 patients with bilateral upper extremity hyperesthesias and absence of tenderness over the cervical vertebral landmarks who were subsequently diagnosed with cervical spine injuries.

  15. [Psychiatric sequelae of severe burn injuries: emotional distress and resources of occupationally versus non occupationally insured patients 1 year after burn injury].

    PubMed

    Ripper, S; Stolle, A; Seehausen, A; Klinkenberg, M; Germann, G; Hartmann, B; Renneberg, B

    2010-11-01

    Severe burn injuries are traumatic events and can have serious impact on all areas of life frequently causing high emotional distress. In a multicentre study resources and emotional distress of patients with serious burn injuries were assessed during the first hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Patients with severe burn injuries after accidents in a private environment (NBG patients) and patients after occupational accidents covered by the German Social Accident Insurance (BG patients) were compared. All patients reported marked emotional impairment, particularly during the hospitalization. At follow-up a reduction of emotional distress was detected. Nearly half of the patients received a diagnosis of one or more mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. When treating patients with burns, special attention should be given to their mental health. They should be offered psychological support to cope with the aftermath of the accident, especially after discharge from hospital when returning to their normal surroundings.

  16. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. Patients and Methods: The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs’ offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer’s V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. Results: There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim’s education, age of victim and victim’s experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Conclusions: Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace’s management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces. PMID:26568848

  17. Analysis of Occupational Accident Fatalities and Injuries Among Male Group in Iran Between 2008 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Seyed Shamseddin; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Because of occupational accidents, permanent disabilities and deaths occur and economic and workday losses emerge. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors responsible for occupational accidents occurred in Iran. The current study analyzed 1464 occupational accidents recorded by the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs' offices in Iran during 2008 - 2012. At first, general understanding of accidents was obtained using descriptive statistics. Afterwards, the chi-square test and Cramer's V statistic (Vc) were used to determine the association between factors influencing the type of injury as occupational accident outcomes. There was no significant association between marital status and time of day with the type of injury. However, activity sector, cause of accident, victim's education, age of victim and victim's experience were significantly associated with the type of injury. Successful accident prevention relies largely on knowledge about the causes of accidents. In any accident control activity, particularly in occupational accidents, correctly identifying high-risk groups and factors influencing accidents is the key to successful interventions. Results of this study can cause to increase accident awareness and enable workplace's management to select and prioritize problem areas and safety system weakness in workplaces.

  18. Effect of Increased Rear Row Occupancy on Injury to Seat Belt Restrained Children in Side Impact Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Matthew R.; Chen, Irene G.; Arbogast, Kristy B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work identified a similar risk of injury for children seated on the struck side and center rear in side impact crashes in passenger cars. In order to further explain this finding, we investigated the effect of sharing the rear row with other occupants on injury risk and delineated differences in injury patterns among the seat positions. These analyses, conducted from a large child specific crash surveillance system, included: children 4–15 years old, rear seated, seat belt restrained, in a passenger car, and in a side impact crash. Injury risk was compared among each rear seat position stratified by the presence of other occupants on the rear row. Occupants are at an increased risk of injury if they sit alone on their row as compared to sitting with other occupants. Patterns of injuries distinct to each seat position were delineated. PMID:16179151

  19. 75 FR 4728 - Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... not result in lost-workdays. For occupational illnesses (skin diseases or disorders, respiratory... that resulted in days away from work, BLS uses information from its survey about the nature of the... MSDs include those in which the nature of the injury is a sprain, strain, tear, soreness, hernia...

  20. 76 FR 28383 - Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... proposed rule to revise its Recordkeeping regulations to restore a column on the OSHA 300 Log that... Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting (Recordkeeping) regulation to restore a column to the... only additional requirement the proposed rule would impose is for employers to mark the MSD column...

  1. An Occupational Therapy Work Skills Assessment for Individuals with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an occupational therapy skills assessment protocol developed and used to evaluate physical, cognitive, and behavioral abilities for persons seeking to return to work following head injuries. It measures them within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills, and safety. (Contains 48 references.) (Author/JOW)

  2. Applying data mining techniques to explore factors contributing to occupational injuries in Taiwan's construction industry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Wu; Leu, Sou-Sen; Cheng, Ying-Mei; Wu, Tsung-Chih; Lin, Chen-Chung

    2012-09-01

    Construction accident research involves the systematic sorting, classification, and encoding of comprehensive databases of injuries and fatalities. The present study explores the causes and distribution of occupational accidents in the Taiwan construction industry by analyzing such a database using the data mining method known as classification and regression tree (CART). Utilizing a database of 1542 accident cases during the period 2000-2009, the study seeks to establish potential cause-and-effect relationships regarding serious occupational accidents in the industry. The results of this study show that the occurrence rules for falls and collapses in both public and private project construction industries serve as key factors to predict the occurrence of occupational injuries. The results of the study provide a framework for improving the safety practices and training programs that are essential to protecting construction workers from occasional or unexpected accidents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of injuries, crashes, and outcomes for pediatric rear occupants in traffic motor vehicle collisions.

    PubMed

    Charyk Stewart, Tanya; McClafferty, Kevin; Shkrum, Michael; Comeau, Jean-Louis; Gilliland, Jason; Fraser, Douglas D

    2013-02-01

    This study was initiated was initiated to describe pediatric rear-occupant motor vehicle collision (MVC) injuries, including injury patterns and outcomes as well as characteristics associated with severe injury to the head and abdomen. A retrospective cohort of severely injured (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 12) pediatric (age <18 years) patients involved in a traffic MVC as a rear occupant and treated at one of two Ontario trauma centers (2001-2010) was studied was studied. Demographic, injury, crash and outcome data were obtained from the trauma registries. Data were statistically compared by two pediatric age groups: children (0-8 years; requiring a child or booster seat) versus adolescents (9-17 years; requiring a lap-shoulder belt). There were 36 children (34%) and 70 adolescents (66%) severely injured as rear occupants in MVCs. Despite similar ISS (p = 0.716) and mortality rates (p = 0.680) between age groups, there were significant differences in injury patterns and risk factors. Children were more likely to have severe head injuries (78% vs. 39%, p < 0.001) associated with a lack of an age-appropriate child restraints (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-10.8; p = 0.029), middle seating (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.5-26.1; p = 0.013), and side-impact crashes (p = 0.007). Adolescents were more likely to have severe abdominal injuries (23% vs. 6%, p < 0.001) associated with the use of lap-shoulder belts (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.3; p = 0.034), single-vehicle MVCs (p = 0.007), and vehicle extrications (p = 0.035). While safer than the front seat for children, additional study is needed on the restraint systems and the potential for injury to pediatric rear occupants in an MVC. Our data suggest that pediatric age groups differ in injuries, risk factors, and MVC impacts. Recommendations for improved protection of child occupants and preferred seating positions are required. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  4. Crash injury risks for obese occupants using a matched-pair analysis.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S; Edwards, Mark L

    2008-03-01

    The automotive safety community is questioning the impact of obesity on the performance and assessment of occupant protection systems. This study investigates fatality and serious injury risks for front-seat occupants by body mass index (BMI) using a matched-pair analysis. It also develops a simple model for the change in injury risk with obesity. A simple model was developed for the change in injury risk with obesity. It included the normal mass (m) and stiffness (k) of the body resisting compression during a blunt impact. Stiffness is assumed constant as weight is gained (Delta m). For a given impact severity, the risk of injury was assumed proportional to compression. Energy balance was used to determine injury risks with increasing mass. NASS-CDS field data were analyzed for calendar years 1993-2004. Occupant injury was divided into normal (18.5 kg/m2 < or = BMI < 25.0 kg/m2) and obese (BMI > o= 30 kg/m2) categories. A matched-pair analysis was carried out. Driver and front-right passenger fatalities or serious injuries (MAIS 3+) were analyzed in the same crash to determine the effect of obesity. This also allowed the determination of the relative risk of younger (age < or = 55 years), older (age >55 years), male, and female drivers that were obese compared to normal BMI. The family of Hybrid III crash test dummies was evaluated for BMI and the amount of ballast was determined so they could represent an obese or morbidly obese occupant. Based on the simple model, the relative injury risk (r) for an increase in body mass is given by: r = (1 + Delta m / m)(0.5). For a given stature, an obese occupant (BMI = 30-35 kg/m2) has 54-61% higher risk of injury than a normal BMI occupant (22 kg/m2). Matched pairs showed that obese drivers have a 97% higher risk of fatality and 17% higher risk of serious injury (MAIS 3+) than normal BMI drivers. Obese passengers have a 32% higher fatality risk and a 40% higher MAIS 3+ risk than normal passengers. Obese female drivers have

  5. The Injury Risk to Wheelchair Occupants Using Motor Vehicle Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Songer, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Shirley G.; Rotko, Katherine A.

    2004-01-01

    The transportation safety experience for persons using wheelchairs is largely unknown. Motor vehicle crash involvement and injury frequency was examined in a telephone interview completed by 596 wheelchair users. Overall, 42% were drivers. Most subjects also rode as passengers in private vehicles (87%) and public vehicles (61%). Wheelchair use as a seat in the vehicle was higher among passengers than drivers. Crash involvement was highest among drivers and lower in passengers. Reported injuries from non-crash scenarios, though, were higher in passengers compared to drivers. Persons seated in wheelchairs in vehicles appear to be at a greater safety risk. PMID:15319121

  6. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyas, Elisabet Huertas; Pérez, Eduardo José Pedrero; Águila Maturana, Ana M.; Mota, Gloria Rojo; Piédrola, Rosa Martínez; de Heredia Torres, Marta Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients’ level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (p<0.001). All the patients with ABI, especially those with right-sided injury, derived benefit from the multicomponent intervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills. PMID:27358224

  7. Perceptions of occupational injury and illness costs by size of organization.

    PubMed

    Haslam, C; Haefeli, K; Haslam, R

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how organizations perceive and monitor occupational injury and illness costs. To explore perceptions of injury and illness costs, the extent to which organizations monitor their impact, attitudes towards this practice and views on using cost information in health and safety campaigns. Interviews were conducted with 212 representatives from 49 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and 80 large organizations from a range of industry sectors. Health and safety investments were driven by a range of factors, of which cost reduction was only one. Human costs were also considered important. Injuries were perceived to represent a substantial business cost by 10% of respondents from SMEs and 56% of those from large organizations. Most were uncertain about the financial impact of work-related illness. No organizations had attempted to monitor occupational illness costs. Injury costs had been assessed within 3 SMEs and 30 large organizations. Only 12% of SME representatives recognized the benefits of costing health and safety failures and around half were unreceptive to the use of cost information in health and safety promotions. Two-thirds of those from large organizations recognized some benefit in measuring costs, and over three-quarters welcomed the provision of industry-specific information. Provision of information that focuses solely on the economic implications of occupational injury and illness may be of limited value and agencies involved in the promotion of health and safety should incorporate a range of information, taking into account the needs and concerns of different sectors.

  8. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; Rojo Mota, G; Martínez Piédrola, R; Pérez de Heredia Torres, M

    2016-01-01

    Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients' level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (p<0.001). All the patients with ABI, especially those with right-sided injury, derived benefit from the multicomponent intervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills.

  9. Report on audit of Department of Energy contractor occupational injury and illness reporting practices

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-07

    The Department and its contractors are responsible for ensuring that a safe and healthy work environment is provided to Department and contractor employees at its operating facilities. Contractors are responsible for establishing a comprehensive occupational safety and health program, which includes reporting of significant work-related employee injuries. The Department is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the contractor`s programs. Two performance indicators used by the Department to measure a contractor`s safety performance are the number and severity of work-related employee injuries and of lost workdays rates. The objective of the audit was to determine whether Department of Energy contractors accurately reported occupational injuries and illnesses in accordance with Departmental requirements.

  10. A case-crossover study of transient risk factors for occupational acute hand injury

    PubMed Central

    Sorock, G; Lombardi, D; Hauser, R; Eisen, E; Herrick, R; Mittleman, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Workers with acute hand injuries account for over 1 000 000 emergency department visits annually in the United States. Aims: To determine potential transient risk factors for occupational acute hand injury. Methods: Subjects were recruited from 23 occupational health clinics in five northeastern states in the USA. In a telephone interview, subjects were asked to report the occurrence of seven potential risk factors within a 90-minute time period before an acute hand injury. Each case also provided control information on exposures during the month before the injury. The self-matched feature of the study design controlled for stable between-person confounders. Results: A total of 1166 subjects were interviewed (891 men, 275 women), with a mean age (SD) of 37.2 years (11.4). The median time interval between injury and interview was 1.3 days. Sixty three per cent of subjects had a laceration. The relative risk of a hand injury was increased when working with equipment, tools, or work pieces not performing as expected (11.0, 95% CI 9.4 to 12.8), or when using a different work method to do a task (10.5, 95% CI 8.7 to 12.7). Other transient factors in decreasing order of relative risk were doing an unusual task, being distracted, and being rushed. Wearing gloves reduced the relative risk by 60% (0.4, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.5). Occupational category, job experience, and safety training were found to alter several of these effects. Conclusion: The results suggest the importance of these transient, potentially modifiable factors in the aetiology of acute hand injury at work. Attempts to modify these exposures by various strategies may reduce the incidence of acute hand injury at work. PMID:15031387

  11. High pressure injection injuries: a serious occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1987-01-01

    High pressure injection equipment such as airless paint sprayers, high pressure grease guns, and fuel injection apparatus constitute a serious safety hazard resulting in significant morbidity. These devices are capable of delivering contaminants such as paint, solvents, and grease at pressures ranging from 600-12,000 psi. This allows the substance to penetrate through a minute skin wound and to spread widely through fascial planes and tendon sheaths and to produce significant vascular compression and systemic toxicity. High pressure injection injuries frequently result in amputation. Fifty-five suspected high pressure injection injury cases were evaluated. Twenty were determined to be actual injection injuries from equipment producing pressures in the range of 1,500-12,000 psi. The injected contaminants included latex paint, mineral spirits, and concrete sealer. Fourteen injuries involved digits. Digital amputation was necessary in three patients. Hospital admissions averaged 6.5 days. Successful management of these cases involves awareness of the impending problem and rapid referral of the patient to an emergency department and to a competent orthopedic or plastic surgeon.

  12. Work-Related Eye Injuries: Important Occupational Health Problem in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Leeungurasatien, Thidarat; Sengupta, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine demographics, clinical characteristics, and factors associated with work-related eye injury in Northern Thailand. A prospective case series. Eye injuries from any cause treated at a university-based hospital in Northern Thailand from March 2007 to June 2008 were included. In addition to comprehensive eye examination and standard treatments, patients' occupation, type of activity at the time of injury, alcohol consumption, and eye protection were studied. Eye injuries were classified based on the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System. Demographic and clinical data were documented using a form adapted from the United States Eye Injury Registry. Of the 101 eyes (97 patients) with work-related injury, 94% were men with a mean age of 39.5 ± 12.9 years (range, 19-72 years). Ninety-eight percent (95/97 patients) did not use protective eyewear. Open-globe injuries were found in 58/101 (57%) eyes. Agricultural workers experienced a higher number of open-globe injuries (37/58 eyes, 64%), whereas construction workers experienced a higher number of closed-globe injuries (25/43 eyes, 58%). In multivariable logistic regression models, nailing (odds ratio, 97.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-363.4; P = 0.01) and motorized grass trimming (odds ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-206.2; P = 0.05) were significantly associated with open-globe injuries when compared with closed-globe injuries. Significantly greater numbers of eyes with open-globe injuries had final vision equivalent to legal blindness (visual acuity, <3/60) compared with closed-globe injuries (42% vs 12%, P = 0.001). Work-related open-globe injuries are relatively more common among agricultural workers in Northern Thailand. Protective eyewear should be aggressively promoted among workers engaged in nailing and motorized grass trimming.

  13. Nonfatal Occupational Injury Rates and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Housekeeping Employees of a Hospital in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kirtigandha; Kumar, Shrawan; Hood, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in hospital cleaners. Methods. Injury data on all hospital employees were extracted from occupational health records and compared. Additionally an interview-based modified Nordic Questionnaire (response rate 98.14%) was conducted. Results. The mean total injury rate for cleaners was 35.9 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE), while that for other employees was 13.64 per 100 FTE. Slips/trips/falls and MMH contributed 4.39 and 2.37 per 100 FTE among cleaners and rest of the hospital employees, respectively. The most common type of injury was strain while the most common cause of injury was a striking object. Conclusion. The cleaners have higher injury rates and morbidity as compared to other employees of the hospital. The lower back was most commonly affected. PMID:21776437

  14. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships.

    PubMed

    Ádám, Balázs

    2013-01-01

    Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were collected. Publicly available employment data were used to calculate the cumulative incidence rates for Danish, non-Danish European Union (EU) and non-EU employees working on non-passenger ships. Crude injury rates and rates adjusted for occupational status were statistically compared. The majority of accidents happened to Danish and non-EU workers on non-passenger ships. The injury rate varied around 70 per 1000 among Danish seafarers, while the rate for non-Danish employees was about 30 per 1000. Crude and adjusted relative risk was found significantly lower for EU (0.33-0.46;0.26-0.39) and for non-EU (0.41-0.53; 0.54-0.65) workers compared to Danish seafarers. The difference decreased, but remained significant in most cases for serious injuries. Occupational injury rates show considerable nationality differences as reported from non-passenger ships registered under the Danish flag. The differences can only be partly explained by varying reporting practices. The findings confirm the results of previous studies and point out the need for effective interventions in the high-risk groups.

  15. Prevalence of Injury in Occupation and Industry: Role of Obesity in the National Health Interview Survey 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ja K; Charles, Luenda E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C; Andrew, Michael E; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of injury by occupation and industry and obesity's role. Self-reported injuries were collected annually for US workers during 2004 to 2013. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from fitted logistic regression models. Overall weighted injury prevalence during the previous three months was 77 per 10,000 workers. Age-adjusted injury prevalence was greatest for Construction and Extraction workers (169.7/10,000) followed by Production (160.6) among occupations, while workers in the Construction industry sector (147.9) had the highest injury prevalence followed by the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing/Mining/Utilities sector (122.1). Overweight and obese workers were 26% to 45% more likely to experience injuries than normal-weight workers. The prevalence of injury, highest for Construction workers, gradually increased as body mass index levels increased in most occupational and industry groups.

  16. A comprehensive overview of the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants and subsequent implications in terms of injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010's by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: -58 % fatalities and -64 % hospitalized (compared to -39% and -55% for pedestrians, and -21% and -44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars.

  17. Determinants of occupational injury for US home health aides reporting one or more work-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Probst, Janice C; Khan, Mahmud M; Bellinger, Jessica; Porter, Candace

    2017-08-04

    Home health aides (HHAs) work in a high-risk industry and experience high rates of work-related injury that have been significantly associated with reduction in workers and organisational productivity, quality and performance. The main objective of the study was to examine how worker environment and ergonomic factors affect HHA risk for reporting occupational injuries. We used cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2007 National Home Health and Hospice Aide Survey (NHHAS). The study sample consisted of a nationally represented sample of home health aides (n=3.377) with a 76.6% response rate. We used two scales(1): a Work Environment Scale and(2) an Ergonomic Scale. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to describe HHA work-related injury across individual, job and organisational factors. To measure scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of reported occupational injury. In terms of Work Environment Scale, the injury risk was decreased in HHAs who did not consistently care for the same patients (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.73). In terms of Ergonomic Scale, the injury risk was decreased only in HHAs who reported not needing any other devices for job safety (OR=0.30, 95% (CI): 0.15 to 0.61). No other Work Environment or Ergonomic Scale factors were associated with HHAs' risk of injury. This study has great implications on a subcategory of the workforce that has a limited amount of published work and studies, as of today, as well as an anticipated large demand for them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Occupational toxicant inhalation injury: the World Trade Center (WTC) experience.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Shohet, Michael R; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Levin, Stephen M; Herbert, Robin

    2008-02-01

    Clinical descriptive data is presented on a group of 554 former workers and volunteers (with more than 90 different occupations) at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. A subsample of 168 workers (30% of the group) was selected to examine lower airway disease risk in relation to smoking and WTC exposure variables. Five diagnostic categories clearly predominate: upper airway disease (78.5%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (57.6%), lower airway disease (48.9%), psychological (41.9%) and chronic musculoskeletal illnesses (17.8%). The most frequent pattern of presentation was a combination of the first three of those categories (29.8%). Associations were found between arrival at the WTC site within the first 48 h of the terrorist attack and lower airway and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and between past or present cigarette smoking and lower airway disease. Occupational exposures at the WTC remain consistently associated with a disease profile, which includes five major diagnostic categories. These conditions often coexist in different combinations, which (as expected) mutually enhances their clinical expression, complicates medical management, and slows recovery. Cigarette smoking and early arrival at the WTC site appear to be risk factors for lower airway disease diagnosis.

  19. Absence of chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) predisposes to acute kidney injury but has minimal impact on recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CLIC4, a member of the CLIC family of proteins, was recently demonstrated to translocate to the nucleus in differentiating keratinocytes where it potentiates TGFβ-driven gene regulation. Since TGFβ signaling is known to play important roles in the fibrotic response to acute kidney injury, and since CLIC4 is abundantly expressed in kidney, we hypothesized that CLIC4 may play a role in the response to acute kidney injury. Methods Previously described Clic4 null mice were analyzed for the effect of absence of CLIC4 on growth, development and response to kidney injury. Kidney size, glomerular counts and density of peritubular capillaries of matched WT and Clic4 null mice were determined. Cohorts of WT and Clic4 null mice were subjected to the folic acid model of acute kidney injury. Extent of acute injury and long term functional recovery were assessed by plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN); long term fibrosis/scarring was determined by histochemical assessment of kidney sections and by residual renal mass. Activation of the TGFβ signaling pathway was assessed by semi-quantitative western blots of phosphorylated SMADs 2 and 3. Results CLIC4 is abundantly expressed in the apical pole of renal proximal tubule cells, and in endothelial cells of glomerular and peritubular capillaries. CLIC4 null mice are small, have smaller kidneys with fewer glomeruli and less dense peritubular capillary networks, and have increased proteinuria. The Clic4 null mice show increased susceptibility to folic acid-induced acute kidney injury but no difference in recovery from acute injury, no nuclear redistribution of CLIC4 following injury, and no significant difference in activation of the TGFβ-signaling pathway as reflected in the level of phosphorylation of SMADs 2 and 3. Conclusions Absence of CLIC4 results in morphologic changes consistent with its known role in angiogenesis. These changes may be at least partially responsible for the increased susceptibility to acute kidney

  20. Physically demanding jobs and occupational injury and disability in the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Ilyssa E; Bell, Nicole S

    2010-10-01

    Effective job assignments should take into account physical capabilities to perform required tasks. Failure to do so is likely to result in increased injuries and musculoskeletal disability. To evaluate the association between job demands and health outcomes among U.S. Army soldiers. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis is used to describe associations between job demands, hospitalizations, and disability among 261,096 enlisted Army soldiers in heavily, moderately, and lightly physically demanding occupations (2000-2005) who were followed for up to 5 years. Controlling for gender, race, and age, soldiers in heavily demanding jobs were at increased risk for any-cause injury, on-duty injuries, any-cause hospitalizations, and any-cause disability, but not for musculoskeletal disability. Army job assignments should more accurately match physical capabilities to job demands and/or jobs should be redesigned to reduce injuries. Though musculoskeletal disorders are often the result of acute injury, the demographic and occupational risk patterns differ from acute injury.

  1. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Patterson, P. Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Songer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep, and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. Methods We obtained three years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. Results The cohort contained 966,082 shifts, 4,382 employees, and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 hours in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51–0.96) compared to shifts >8 & ≤12 hours. Relative to shifts >8 & ≤12 hours, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22–2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 hours. Conclusions Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers. PMID:26371071

  3. Severe injury to near- and far-seated occupants in side impacts by crash severity and belt use.

    PubMed

    Viano, David C; Parenteau, Chantal S

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the risk of severe-to-fatal injury (MAIS 4+F) to near- and far-seated front occupants in side impacts by belt use and crash severity (delta V). 1993-2007 NASS-CDS was analyzed for front-seat occupants in side impacts while they were either the near-side or far-side occupant by belt use. Light vehicles were included with model year 1994+. Injury severity was subdivided into MAIS 0-2, 3, and 4+F. The risk for MAIS 4+F injury was determined by dividing the number of MAIS 4+F by the number of exposed occupants with known injuries. Individual NASS-CDS cases were downloaded from the 1997-2007 electronic data to evaluate injury patterns causing high relative risks. In 35+ mph side-impact delta Vs, the risk for MAIS 4+F injury was 75.4 +/- 41.0% for unbelted near-side and 48.1 +/- 14.6% for unbelted far-side occupants. The risk was 51.8 +/- 14.8% for belted near-side and 30.9 +/- 8.2% for far-side occupants. Seat belt use was 81.4% effective in preventing MAIS 4+F injury for near-side occupants and 93.5% for far-side occupants. The relative risk (RR) for unbelted compared to belted occupants was 35.9 for far-side occupants in 10-15 mph delta V crashes. The relative risk was 35.1 for near-side occupants in < 10 mph delta V side impacts. The high relative risks were associated with complex, high-speed multi-collision crashes often with occupant impacts on the windshield, steering wheel, or other frontal components and ejection. Seat belt use was more effective in preventing severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to far-side occupants than near-side occupants in < 25 mph delta V impacts. High relative risk for unbelted occupants in low-speed side impacts was explained by the fact that the accidents were high-speed, multi-impact collisions. Severe injury was caused by ejection, impact with the side interior, or impact with the frontal components where airbags sometimes deployed.

  4. Functional capacity evaluations for the prevention of occupational re-injuries in injured workers.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Norashikin; Schonstein, Eva; Schaafsma, Frederieke; Lehtola, Marika M; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Verbeek, Jos H; Reneman, Michiel F

    2010-07-07

    Functional capacity evaluation (FCE) has been widely used to assess workers' physical state of readiness to return to work (RTW) after an injury and to make recommendations for the time and capacity in which they might return. FCEs are also used to prevent re-injury after RTW. Despite being a commonly used tool, little is known about how effective FCE is in preventing occupational injuries. To assess the effectiveness of FCE-based return to work recommendations in preventing occupational re-injuries of injured workers compared with no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2009), EMBASE (1980 to December 2009), CINAHL (1980 to December 2009), PsycINFO (1983 to December 2009) and PEDro (1929 to December 2009). The searches were not restricted by date, language or type of publication. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of FCE-based return to work recommendations for preventing occupational re-injuries in injured workers. Four authors (NM, ES, JV, ML), in pairs, independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We found no studies that compared FCE to no intervention. We found one RCT with 372 participants in which a short-form of one FCE was compared to the standard long-form FCE (Isernhagen Work Systems). Outcomes were recurrence rates of re-injuries. There was no significant difference between the two forms of FCE.We rated the overall quality of the evidence as low. There is no evidence for or against the effectiveness of FCE compared to no intervention. A short version of FCE showed similar effectiveness to a long version in preventing re-injury. More RCTs are needed.

  5. Impact of improved recording of work-relatedness in primary care visits at occupational health services on sickness absences: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Salla; Ojajärvi, Ulla; Talola, Nina; Viljamaa, Mervi; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Uitti, Jukka

    2017-07-26

    Employment protects and fosters health. Occupational health services, particularly in Finland, have a central role in protecting employee health and preventing work ability problems. However, primary care within occupational health services is currently underused in informing preventive activities. This study was designed to assess whether the recording of work ability problems and improvement of follow-up of work-related primary care visits can reduce sickness absences and work disability pensions after 1 year. A pragmatic trial will be conducted using patient electronic registers and registers of the central pensions agency in Finland. Twenty-two occupational health centres will be randomised to intervention and control groups. Intervention units will receive training to improve recording of work ability illnesses in the primary care setting and improved follow-up procedures. The intervention impact will be assessed through examining rates of sickness absence across intervention and control clinics as well as before and after the intervention. The trial will develop knowledge of the intervention potential of primary care for preventing work disability pensions and sickness absence. The use of routine patient registers and pensions registers to assess the outcomes of a randomised controlled trial will bring forward trial methodology, particularly when using register-based data. If successful, the intervention will improve the quality of occupational health care primary care and contribute to reducing work disability. ISRCTN Registry reference number ISRCTN45728263 . Registered on 18 April 2016.

  6. Neuropathology and neurobehavioral alterations in a rat model of traumatic brain injury to occupants of vehicles targeted by underbody blasts.

    PubMed

    Tchantchou, Flaubert; Fourney, William L; Leiste, Ulrich H; Vaughan, Joshua; Rangghran, Parisa; Puche, Adam; Fiskum, Gary

    2017-03-01

    Many victims of blast-induced traumatic brain injury are occupants of military vehicles targeted by land mines. Recently improved vehicle designs protect these individuals against blast overpressure, leaving acceleration as the main force potentially responsible for brain injury. We recently developed a unique rat model of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration where exposure to acceleration as low as 50G force results in histopathological evidence of diffuse axonal injury and astrocyte activation, with no evidence of neuronal cell death. This study investigated the effects of much higher blast-induced accelerations (1200 to 2800G) on neuronal cell death, neuro-inflammation, behavioral deficits and mortality. Adult male rats were subjected to this range of accelerations, in the absence of exposure to blast overpressure, and evaluated over 28days for working memory (Y maze) and anxiety (elevated plus maze). In addition, brains obtained from rats at one and seven days post-injury were used for neuropathology and neurochemical assays. Sixty seven percent of rats died soon after being subjected to blasts resulting in 2800G acceleration. All rats exposed to 2400G acceleration survived and exhibited transient deficits in working memory and long-term anxiety like behaviors, while those exposed to 1200 acceleration G force only demonstrated increased anxiety. Behavioral deficits were associated with acute microglia/macrophage activation, increased hippocampal neuronal death, and reduced levels of tight junction- and synapse- associated proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that exposure of rats to high underbody blast-induced G forces results in neurologic injury accompanied by neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation and evidence for neurosynaptic alterations.

  7. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries: a case-crossover study in two Danish emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent; Kines, Pete; Möller, Jette; Lauritsen, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002 occupational injuries seen in 2013 at two emergency departments in Denmark. Effect estimates were calculated using the matched-pair interval approach. Results Increased risk for an occupational injury was found for time pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-2.0], feeling sick (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.9), being distracted by someone (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), non-routine task (OR 8.2, 95% CI 5.3-12.5), altered surroundings (OR 20.9, 95% CI 12.2-35.8), and broken machinery or materials (OR 20.6, 95% CI 13.5-31.7). The risk of occupational injury did not vary substantially in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries. In particular, equipment (broken machinery or materials) and work-practice-related factors (non-routine task and altered surroundings) increased the risk of an occupational injury. Elaboration of results in relation to hazard period and information bias is warranted.

  8. How do employment types and job stressors relate to occupational injury? A cross-sectional investigation of employees in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, K; Nakata, A; Ikeda, T; Otsuka, Y; Kawahito, J

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether 1) the risk of occupational injury differs among permanent employees and specific types of temporary workers, 2) the risk of occupational injury differs across different employment types depending on the degree of job stressors. A cross-sectional study design based on self-report survey data. A total of 36,688 full-time workers (28,868 men and 7820 women; average age = 35.4) were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Employment types consisted of permanent employment and two forms of temporary employment: direct-hire and temporary work agent (TWA). Job characteristics including job demands, job control, and social support at work were measured. Occupational injury was measured by asking whether the participant had an injury on the job in the past 12 months that required a medical treatment. To investigate the relationships between employment types, job stressors, and occupational injury, hierarchical moderated logistic regression tests were conducted. High job demands (OR = 1.44) and low job control (OR = 1.21) were significantly associated with an increased risk of occupational injury, while controlling for demographic, life style, health, and occupational factors. In addition, direct-hires (OR = 1.85) and temporary agent workers (OR = 3.26) had a higher risk of occupational injury compared with permanent employees. However, the relationship between employment types and the risk of occupational injury depended on the levels of job demands and job control. Specifically, the magnitude of the relationship between job demands and the risk of occupational injury was substantially greater for temporary work agents than for permanent employees when they reported low levels of job control. Such an interaction effect between job demands and job control on the risk of occupational injury was not observed between permanent employees and direct-hire temporary workers. The current study indicated that temporary workers might be

  9. Analysis of occupational injuries in four foundries in Alexandria and Beheira from 1998 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Adel; El Maghraby, Gamal

    2003-01-01

    Occupational injuries of foundry workers might occur due to a variety of inherent hazardous conditions in foundries. The aim of the present work is to analyse occupational injuries in four foundries, two in Alexandria, El Nasr and Ramsis and two in Behiera, Misr Spining and Weaving and Misr Rayon Companies in a three years period from 1998 to 2000. The raw injuries data have been gathered from the four foundries and tabulated as related to age group, injured part, cause and mean of injury. Frequency rates and severity rates have been computed for the three years of study. The results of the present study revealed that there was a significant increase of injuries incidence rate in Ramsis Company than in the other three companies especially in age groups 30-40 and 41-50 years (P < 0.01). lower extremities and higher extremities have recorded the highest incidence rate in the four companies in the three years of study, respectively (P < 0.05-P < 0.001). Ramsis company has recorded a significant increase in all injured parts except for head injuries in 1998 (P < 0.05-P < 0.001). Transportation and lifting was the main cause of injuries in the four companies in the three years of study (P < 0.01), however work environment was a main cause of injuries in Ramsis company (P < 0.01). Contact hot object in Ramsis was the main mean of injuries in the three years (P < 0.01) followed by faulty action and striking against and falling objects (P < 0.01). Ramsis Company has recorded the highest frequency rates (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and severity rates (P < 0.01-P < 0.001).

  10. Use of OSHA inspections data for fatal occupational injury surveillance in New Jersey.

    PubMed Central

    Stanbury, M; Goldoft, M

    1990-01-01

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) computerized inspections data, death certificates, and medical examiner records identified 204 fatal occupational injuries in New Jersey, 1984-85. OSHA computerized data uniquely identified seven cases. They did not identify 35 fatalities under OSHA's jurisdiction, of which 24 were investigated by OSHA but not recorded, four were not considered work-related, and seven were not known to OSHA. Eighty-seven were outside OSHA's jurisdiction; 28 were among the self-employed who are not under the health and safety protection of any governmental agency. PMID:2297066

  11. Occupational medicine in taking over work injuries from family practice--a one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lalić, Hrvoje

    2009-09-01

    Occupational medicine has taken over from Family practice the treatment of work injuries and occupational diseases in the Republic of Croatia since January 1, 2008. The reason was too many long-lasting sick leaves which general practitioners were unable to curb adequately. The research objective was to show the results of the one-year follow-up of the carried out reform, i.e. the efficiency of Occupational medicine in the new function. The methods of data comparison and McNemar statistics were used of one-year follow-up in an Occupational medicine surgery that cares for 5800 employees in Littoral-Mountainous County. From 32 patients in February 2008, 30 work injuries and 2 occupational diseases, the overall number diminished in February 2009 to 13 patients with work injuries and no diagnosed occupational disease, p < 0.001 for work injuries. Also the number of patients on sick leave over three months fell from 14 to 4. Occupational medicine has proved to be more efficient than Family practice in assessing sick leave. This does not mean that family practice, due to a number of reasons mentioned in the research, is of less importance. For the patient can always return to his general practitioner for further treatment, and sick leave if necessary, but not on the grounds of work injury and occupational disease.

  12. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  13. Selection bias in follow-up interviews with individuals attending the emergency department for occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether supplementary interview participation was comparable for occupationally injured patients attending two hospital emergency departments and to investigate the magnitude of selection bias in relation to sex, age, severity, job tasks and industry risk level. Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments were compared for study recruitment by age and sex. Respondents and non-respondents to the interview were compared for age, sex, injury severity, job tasks and industry risk level. Of 4002 patients attending the two hospitals, 1693 (42%) participated in the interview. One hospital had a markedly higher response rate to the questionnaire, but the proportions of participation in the interview were similar in the two hospitals. Patients aged <30 years were over-represented among non-respondents whereas sex, injury severity, job task and industry risk level were not significantly different between respondents and non-respondents. Despite a relatively low interview participation rate among injured individuals attending the emergency department, selection bias was limited. This indicates that results regarding injury risk patterns may be more widely generalisable when examining the causality of occupational injuries. However, the study also showed that young injured workers were less likely to participate in follow-up interviews, which is an important factor when interpreting age-related risk of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Occupational Therapy for Patients With Acute Lung Injury: Factors Associated With Time to First Intervention in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ciesla, Nancy; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Very early occupational therapy intervention in the intensive care unit (ICU) improves patients’ physical recovery. We evaluated the association of patient, ICU, and hospital factors with time to first occupational therapy intervention in ICU patients with acute lung injury (ALI). METHOD. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 514 consecutive patients with ALI from 11 ICUs in three hospitals in Baltimore, MD. RESULTS. Only 30% of patients ever received occupational therapy during their ICU stay. Worse organ failure, continuous hemodialysis, and uninterrupted continuous infusion of sedation were independently associated with delayed occupational therapy initiation, and hospital study site and admission to a trauma ICU were independently associated with earlier occupational therapy. CONCLUSION. Severity of illness and ICU practices for sedation administration were associated with delayed occupational therapy. Both hospital study site and type of ICU were independently associated with timing of occupational therapy, indicating modifiable environmental factors for promoting early occupational therapy in the ICU. PMID:23597694

  15. Work-related activities associated with injury in occupational and physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Darragh, Amy R; Campo, Marc; King, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine work activities associated with work-related injury (WRI) in occupational and physical therapy. 1,158 occupational and physical therapists in Wisconsin responded to a mailed survey, from a total of 3,297 OTs and PTs randomly selected from the State licensure list. The study used a cross-sectional, survey design. Participants reported information about WRI they sustained between 2004 and 2006, including the activities they were performing when injured. Investigators analyzed 248 injury incidents using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Data were examined across OT and PT practice in general, and also by practice area. Manual therapy and transfers/lifts were associated with 54% of all injuries. Other activities associated with injury were distinct to practice area, for example: floor work in pediatrics; functional activities in acute care; patient falls in skilled nursing facilities; and motor vehicle activities in home care. Injury prevention activities must address transfers and manual therapy, but also must examine setting-specific activities influenced by environment and patient population.

  16. Nonfatal occupational injuries associated with slips and falls in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hoon-Yong; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine nonfatal occupational injury data associated with slip and fall accidents by extracting the latest information from the database of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Systematic information on the cost and causes of industrial slip and fall accidents are not readily available from statistical and survey data sources, as such, detailed information regarding the slip-/fall-related injuries in US industries categorized by various factors are presented in this study. Nonfatal injuries resulting in days lost from work due to fall and slip were categorized by the number and incidence rate by various characteristics such as major US industry, nature of injury, source of injury, types of fall, occupation, part of body injured, age of the injured, gender of the injured and number of lost workdays utilizing the BLS database. Additionally, cost per claim associated with industrial slip and fall accidents are reviewed using the National Safety Council database. This information may be used to focus our attention toward most relevant intervention strategies associated with workplace slip and fall accidents. PMID:20607131

  17. Nonfatal occupational injuries associated with slips and falls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hoon-Yong; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine nonfatal occupational injury data associated with slip and fall accidents by extracting the latest information from the database of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Systematic information on the cost and causes of industrial slip and fall accidents are not readily available from statistical and survey data sources, as such, detailed information regarding the slip-/fall-related injuries in US industries categorized by various factors are presented in this study. Nonfatal injuries resulting in days lost from work due to fall and slip were categorized by the number and incidence rate by various characteristics such as major US industry, nature of injury, source of injury, types of fall, occupation, part of body injured, age of the injured, gender of the injured and number of lost workdays utilizing the BLS database. Additionally, cost per claim associated with industrial slip and fall accidents are reviewed using the National Safety Council database. This information may be used to focus our attention toward most relevant intervention strategies associated with workplace slip and fall accidents.

  18. Work-Related Activities Associated with Injury in Occupational and Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Marc; King, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine work activities associated with work-related injury (WRI) in occupational and physical therapy. Participants 1,158 occupational and physical therapists in Wisconsin responded to a mailed survey, from a total of 3,297 OTs and PTs randomly selected from the State licensure list. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, survey design. Participants reported information about WRI they sustained between 2004 and 2006, including the activities they were performing when injured. Investigators analyzed 248 injury incidents using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results Data were examined across OT and PT practice in general, and also by practice area. Manual therapy and transfers/lifts were associated with 54% of all injuries. Other activities associated with injury were distinct to practice area, for example: floor work in pediatrics; functional activities in acute care; patient falls in skilled nursing facilities; and motor vehicle activities in home care. Conclusions Injury prevention activities must address transfers and manual therapy, but also must examine setting-specific activities influenced by environment and patient population. PMID:22523031

  19. Occupational fatalities, injuries, illnesses, and related economic loss in the wholesale and retail trade sector.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Vern Putz; Schulte, Paul A; Sestito, John; Linn, Herb; Nguyen, Long S

    2010-07-01

    The wholesale and retail trade (WRT) sector employs over 21 million workers, or nearly 19% of the annual average employment in private industry. The perception is that workers in this sector are generally at low risk of occupational injury and death. These workers, however, are engaged in a wide range of demanding job activities and are exposed to a variety of hazards. Prior to this report, a comprehensive appraisal of the occupational fatal and nonfatal burdens affecting the retail and wholesale sectors was lacking. The focus of this review is to assess the overall occupational safety and health burden in WRT and to identify various subsectors that have high rates of burden from occupational causes. Ultimately, these findings should be useful for targeted intervention efforts. We reviewed Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2006 fatality, injury, and illness data for the WRT sector and provide comparisons between the WRT sector, its' subsectors, and private industry, which serves as a baseline. The BLS data provide both counts and standardized incidence rates for various exposures, events, and injury types for fatalities, injuries, and illnesses. In an effort to estimate the economic burden of these fatalities, injuries, and illnesses, a focused review of the literature was conducted. In 2006, WRT workers experienced 820,500 injuries/illnesses and 581 fatalities. The total case injury/illness rate for the retail sector was 4.9/100 FTE and for the wholesale sector 4.1/100 FTE. The WRT sector represents 15.5% of the private sector work population in 2006, yet accounts for 20.1% of nonfatal injuries and illnesses of the private sector. In 2003, the disparity was only 2% but increased to 3% in 2004 and 2005. Three WRT subsectors had injury/illness rates well above the national average: beer/wine/liquor (8.4/100); building materials/supplies (7.6/100); and grocery-related products (7.0/100). Occupational deaths with the highest rates were found in gasoline stations (9

  20. Differential Risk of Injury in Child Occupants by Passenger Car Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kallan, Michael J.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.; Menon, Rajiv A.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both comparisons. Parents who are purchasing passenger cars should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness. PMID:12941234

  1. Economic Burden of Occupational Injury and Illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Context The allocation of scarce health care resources requires a knowledge of disease costs. Whereas many studies of a variety of diseases are available, few focus on job-related injuries and illnesses. This article provides estimates of the national costs of occupational injury and illness among civilians in the United States for 2007. Methods This study provides estimates of both the incidence of fatal and nonfatal injuries and nonfatal illnesses and the prevalence of fatal diseases as well as both medical and indirect (productivity) costs. To generate the estimates, I combined primary and secondary data sources with parameters from the literature and model assumptions. My primary sources were injury, disease, employment, and inflation data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as costs data from the National Council on Compensation Insurance and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. My secondary sources were the National Academy of Social Insurance, literature estimates of Attributable Fractions (AF) of diseases with occupational components, and national estimates for all health care costs. Critical model assumptions were applied to the underreporting of injuries, wage-replacement rates, and AFs. Total costs were calculated by multiplying the number of cases by the average cost per case. A sensitivity analysis tested for the effects of the most consequential assumptions. Numerous improvements over earlier studies included reliance on BLS data for government workers and ten specific cancer sites rather than only one broad cancer category. Findings The number of fatal and nonfatal injuries in 2007 was estimated to be more than 5,600 and almost 8,559,000, respectively, at a cost of $6 billion and $186 billion. The number of fatal and nonfatal illnesses was estimated at more than 53,000 and nearly 427,000, respectively, with cost estimates of $46 billion and $12 billion. For injuries

  2. Association of Amplitude and Stability of Circadian Rhythm, Sleep Quality, and Occupational Stress with Sickness Absence among a Gas Company Employees-A Cross Sectional Study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Zare, Rezvan; Choobineh, Alireza; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the relationship between sickness absence and occupational stress, sleep quality, and amplitude and stability of circadian rhythm as well as to determine contributing factors of sickness absence. This cross sectional study was conducted on 400 randomly selected employees of an Iranian gas company. The data were collected using Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Karolinska sleepiness scale, circadian type inventory, and Osipow occupational stress questionnaires. The mean age and job tenure of the participants were 33.18 ± 5.64 years and 6.06 ± 4.99 years, respectively. Also, the participants had been absent from work on average 2.16 days a year. According to the results, 209 participants had no absences, 129 participants had short-term absences, and 62 participants had long-term absences. The results showed a significant relationship between short-term absenteeism and amplitude of circadian rhythm [odds ratio (OR) = 6.13], sleep quality (OR = 14.46), sleepiness (OR = 2.08), role boundary (OR = 6.45), and responsibility (OR = 5.23). Long-term absenteeism was also significantly associated with amplitude of circadian rhythm (OR = 2.42), sleep quality (OR = 21.56), sleepiness (OR = 6.44), role overload (OR = 4.84), role boundary (OR = 4.27), and responsibility (OR = 3.72). The results revealed that poor sleep quality, amplitude of circadian rhythm, and occupational stress were the contributing factors for sickness absence in the study population.

  3. Neighborhood-level built environment and social characteristics associated with serious childhood motor vehicle occupant injuries.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Glen D; Lu, Xiaoning

    2011-07-01

    The effect of residential neighborhood characteristics on a child's risk of serious motor vehicle traffic occupant injuries was evaluated in New York State, USA, for the years 1993-2003, with particular focus on the effect of neighborhood walkability. Risk increased significantly (p < 0.0001) with decreasing street connectivity and as more workers commuted more than 30 min using means other than public transportation, along with more single-parent households and less college attainment in the neighborhood, regardless of whether New York City was in the study. After adjusting for age, gender and socio-economic community factors, the apparent loss of walkability in a child's neighborhood increases their risk of serious injury as an occupant of a motor vehicle.

  4. Effects of personal and occupational stress on injuries in a young, physically active population: a survey of military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bedno, Sheryl; Hauret, Keith; Loringer, Kelly; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Mallon, Timothy; Jones, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to document risk factors for any injury and sports- and exercise-related injuries, including personal and occupational stress among active duty service members (SMs) in the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. A total of 10,692 SMs completed the April 2008 Status of Forces Survey of Active Duty Members. The survey asked about demographics, personal stress and occupational stress, injuries from any cause, and participation in sports- and exercise- related activities in the past year. The survey used a complex sampling procedure to create a representative sample of SMs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of injury outcomes with potential risk factors. 49% of SMs sought medical care for an injury in the past year and 25% sustained a sports- and exercise-related activities injury. Odds of injury were higher for the Army and Marine Corps than for the Air Force or Navy. This survey showed that higher personal and occupational stress was associated with higher risks of injury. SMs who experienced higher levels of personal or occupational stress reported higher risks of injuries. The effects of stress reduction programs on injury risks should be evaluated in military and other young physically active populations.

  5. Absence of clinical findings reliably excludes unstable cervical spine injuries in children 5 years or younger.

    PubMed

    Hale, Diane F; Fitzpatrick, Colleen M; Doski, John J; Stewart, Ronald M; Mueller, Deborah L

    2015-05-01

    Increased accessibility and rapidity of computed tomography (CT) have led to increased use and radiation exposure to pediatric trauma patients. The thyroid is radiosensitive and therefore at risk for developing malignancy from radiation exposure during cervical spine CT. This analysis aimed to determine which preelementary trauma patients warrant cervical spine CT by defining incidence and clinical characteristics of preelementary cervical spine injury. This was a retrospective review of pre-elementary trauma patients from 1998 to 2010 with cervical spine injury admitted to a Level I trauma center. Patients were identified from the trauma registry using DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes and reviewed for demographics, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, injury location, injury type, treatment, and outcome. A total of 2,972 preelementary trauma patients were identified. Twenty-two (0.74%) had confirmed cervical spine injuries. Eleven (50%) were boys, and the mean (SD) age was 3 (1.7) years. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (n = 16, 73%). The majority (59%) were in extremis, and 12 (55%) arrived intubated. The median Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 3 (interquartile range, 3-10); the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 33 (interquartile range, 17-56). Nineteen injuries (76%) were at the level of C4 level and higher. The mortality rate was 50%. All patients had clinical findings suggestive of or diagnostic for cervical spine injury; 18 (82%) had abnormal neurologic examination result, 2 (9%) had torticollis, and 2 (9%) had neck pain. The incidence of cervical spine injury in preelementary patients was consistent with previous reports. Missing a cervical spine injury in asymptomatic preelementary patients is extremely low. Reserving cervical spine CT to symptomatic preelementary patients would decrease unnecessary radiation exposure to the thyroid. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  6. Special Issue on Occupational Therapy for Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Powell, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the incidence and consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased in recent years, along with interest in knowing how best to treat this complex condition. This editorial provides an overview of the various factors that contribute to the complexity of TBI and introduces the six systematic reviews and one qualitative study included in this special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy focusing on interventions for TBI from an occupational therapy perspective. Issues with the generation and interpretation of research evidence are discussed, along with the importance of valuing clinician expertise and client perspectives along with research findings in implementing evidence-based and evidence-informed practice. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice: associations with musculoskeletal pain and injury-related absence among construction apprentices

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M.; Okechukwu, Cassandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper sought to assess organizational safety practices at three different levels of hierarchical workplace structure and to examine their association with injury outcomes among construction apprentices. Methods Using a cross-sectional sample of 1,775 construction apprentices, three measures of organizational safety practice were assessed: contractor-, steward-, and coworker-safety practice. Each safety practice measure was assessed using three similar questions (i.e., on-the-job safety commitment, following required or recommended safe work practices, and correcting unsafe work practices); the summed average of the responses ranged from 1 to 4, with a higher score indicating poorer safety practice. Outcome variables included the prevalence of four types of musculoskeletal pain (i.e., neck, shoulder, hand, and back pain) and injury-related absence. Results In adjusted analyses, contractor-safety practice was associated with both hand pain (OR: 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.04, 1.54) and back pain (OR: 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.17, 1.68); coworker-safety practice was related to back pain (OR: 1.42, 95 % CI: 1.18, 1.71) and injury-related absence (OR: 1.36, 95 % CI: 1.11, 1.67). In an analysis that included all three safety practice measures simultaneously, the association between coworker-safety practice and injury-related absence remained significant (OR: 1.68, 95 % CI: 1.20, 2.37), whereas all other associations became non-significant. Conclusions This study suggests that organizational safety practice, particularly coworker-safety practice, is associated with injury outcomes among construction apprentices. PMID:23748366

  8. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  9. Evaluation of a nationally funded state-based programme to reduce fatal occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Chaumont Menendez, Cammie; Castillo, Dawn; Rosenman, Kenneth; Harrison, Robert; Hendricks, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) programme was established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to help prevent occupational traumatic fatalities by funding states to conduct targeted fatality investigations within cause-specific focus areas and associated prevention efforts. To investigate the impact of the state-based FACE programme on two previous focus areas. A longitudinal time-series analysis spanning 22 years compared state fatality rates for occupational falls and electrocutions before and after FACE programme funding with states not receiving FACE programme funding. Lag periods were utilised to allow time for the programme to have an effect, and rates were adjusted for a variety of covariates. Separate analyses were conducted for each injury outcome. A reduction in fall fatality rates that was of borderline significance (1-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.84 to 1.00)) and a non-significant reduction in electrocution fatality rates (3-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.82 to 1.03)) were observed in states with FACE programme funding, Best-fit models presented two separate lag periods. While it is challenging to quantitatively evaluate effectiveness of programmes such as FACE, the data suggest the FACE programme may be effective in preventing occupational injury deaths within its outcome focus areas throughout the state. It is important to look for ways to measure intermediate effects more precisely, as well as ways to maintain effects over time.

  10. Evaluation of a nationally funded state-based programme to reduce fatal occupational injuries

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Cammie Chaumont; Castillo, Dawn; Rosenman, Kenneth; Harrison, Robert; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) programme was established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to help prevent occupational traumatic fatalities by funding states to conduct targeted fatality investigations within cause-specific focus areas and associated prevention efforts. Purpose To investigate the impact of the state-based FACE programme on two previous focus areas. Methods A longitudinal time-series analysis spanning 22 years compared state fatality rates for occupational falls and electrocutions before and after FACE programme funding with states not receiving FACE programme funding. Lag periods were utilised to allow time for the programme to have an effect, and rates were adjusted for a variety of covariates. Separate analyses were conducted for each injury outcome. Results A reduction in fall fatality rates that was of borderline significance (1-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.84 to 1.00)) and a non-significant reduction in electrocution fatality rates (3-year lag adjRR=0.92 (0.82 to 1.03)) were observed in states with FACE programme funding, Best-fit models presented two separate lag periods. Conclusions While it is challenging to quantitatively evaluate effectiveness of programmes such as FACE, the data suggest the FACE programme may be effective in preventing occupational injury deaths within its outcome focus areas throughout the state. It is important to look for ways to measure intermediate effects more precisely, as well as ways to maintain effects over time. PMID:22864251

  11. Hazard perception and occupational injuries in the welders and lathe machine operators of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A

    2001-02-01

    To study the prevalence of occupational injuries in the welders and lathe machine operators and their hazard perception. This study was conducted in the welders and lathe machine operators working in the welding and metal working shops in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by two trained health interviewers using uniform questionnaire with both close and open-ended questions. Two hundred and eight welders and 104 lathe machine operators were interviewed. Thirty nine (18.7%) welders and 27 (26%) lathe machine operators reported an injury in the past three months, while 63 (30.3%) welders and 76 (73.8%) lathe machine operators reported sustaining an injury in the past twelve months. However, only half of the welders and 31 (29.8%) lathe machine operators believed that their occupation was hazardous for health. For effective public health policy there is a need preventive education and enforcement of safety regulations for the informal occupational sector in Pakistan.

  12. Decreasing occupational injury and disability: the convergence of systems theory, knowledge transfer and action research.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jaime; Yassi, Annalee; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many work injuries and their associated disabilities are preventable, but effective prevention requires coordinated action by multiple stakeholders. In trying to achieve coordinated action occupational health practitioners can learn valuable lessons from systems theory, knowledge transfer and action research. Systems theory provides a broad view of the factors leading to injury and disability and a means to refocus stakeholder energies from mutual blaming to effective strategies for system change. Experiences from knowledge transfer will help adopt a stakeholder-centered approach that will facilitate the concrete application of the best and most current occupational health knowledge. Action research is a methodology endorsed by the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control, which provide methods for successfully engaging stakeholders needed to attain sustainable change. By combining concepts from the three fields we propose MAPAC (Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Act, Check), a five-step framework for developing projects aimed at decreasing occupational injury and disability. Although most practitioners would be familiar with some of the concepts, we believe an explicit framework linked to transferable knowledge from these diverse fields can help design and implement effective programs. We provide examples of model application in workers compensation and in the healthcare workplace.

  13. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, KyooSang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the nature of association between job stress and occupational injuries among firefighters in Korea. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting We conducted a nationwide survey using self-reported questionnaires in South Korea. Participants A survey was conducted among 30 630 firefighters; 25 616 (83.6%) responded. Our study included firefighters who were 20–59 years old. Individuals with <12 months of current job experience and those with missing data were excluded; ultimately, 14 991 firefighters were analysed. Results Among fire suppression personnel, high job demands (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.77), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.37), a poor organisational system (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.55), and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.64) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; high job demands (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) were also associated with the frequency of injuries. Among emergency medical services personnel, high job demands (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), a poor organisational system (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.85), lack of reward (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.69) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; low job control (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), lack of reward (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and a negative workplace climate (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) were also associated with a greater number of injuries. Among officers, high job demands (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.85) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries; however, there was no significant correlation between job stress and the number of injuries. Conclusions High job stress among firefighters was

  14. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, KyooSang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-11-25

    We aimed to assess the nature of association between job stress and occupational injuries among firefighters in Korea. Cross-sectional study. We conducted a nationwide survey using self-reported questionnaires in South Korea. A survey was conducted among 30 630 firefighters; 25 616 (83.6%) responded. Our study included firefighters who were 20-59 years old. Individuals with <12 months of current job experience and those with missing data were excluded; ultimately, 14 991 firefighters were analysed. Among fire suppression personnel, high job demands (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.77), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.37), a poor organisational system (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.55), and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.64) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; high job demands (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) were also associated with the frequency of injuries. Among emergency medical services personnel, high job demands (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), a poor organisational system (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.85), lack of reward (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.69) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; low job control (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), lack of reward (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and a negative workplace climate (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) were also associated with a greater number of injuries. Among officers, high job demands (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.85) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries; however, there was no significant correlation between job stress and the number of injuries. High job stress among firefighters was associated with both the occurrence of occupational injury

  15. Occupational Injuries on Thoroughbred Horse Farms: A Description of Latino and Non-Latino Workers’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Clouser, Jessica M.; Westneat, Susan C.; Marsh, Mary W.; Reed, Deborah B.

    2013-01-01

    Animal production is a dangerous industry and increasingly reliant on a Latino workforce. Within animal production, little is known about the risks or the occupational hazards of working on farms involved in various aspects of thoroughbred horse breeding. Extant research suggests that horse workers are at risk of musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms, kicks, and other injuries. However, limited known research has examined the experiences of the industry’s workers, including immigrant workers, despite their prominence and increased vulnerability. Using data collected from thoroughbred farm representatives via a phone-administered survey, a 2-hour face-to-face semi-structured interview, and farm injury logs, this article identifies and describes types of injuries experienced by workers (N = 284) and their surrounding circumstances. Results indicate that general injuries and musculoskeletal strains, sprains, and tears account for a majority of injuries among workers on thoroughbred farms. Upper limbs and extremities are most frequently injured, while direct contact with the horse accounted for over half of all injuries. No differences in the diagnoses or distribution of injury were found by ethnicity; however, Latinos were more often struck by or trampled by a horse while non-Latinos were more often injured by an insect or plant. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24351785

  16. Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres - based on official statistics.

    PubMed

    Engkvist, I-L; Svensson, R; Eklund, J

    2011-04-01

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  17. Occupational injuries on thoroughbred horse farms: a description of Latino and non-Latino workers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Clouser, Jessica M; Westneat, Susan C; Marsh, Mary W; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-11-29

    Animal production is a dangerous industry and increasingly reliant on a Latino workforce. Within animal production, little is known about the risks or the occupational hazards of working on farms involved in various aspects of thoroughbred horse breeding. Extant research suggests that horse workers are at risk of musculoskeletal and respiratory symptoms, kicks, and other injuries. However, limited known research has examined the experiences of the industry's workers, including immigrant workers, despite their prominence and increased vulnerability. Using data collected from thoroughbred farm representatives via a phone-administered survey, a 2-hour face-to-face semi-structured interview, and farm injury logs, this article identifies and describes types of injuries experienced by workers (N = 284) and their surrounding circumstances. Results indicate that general injuries and musculoskeletal strains, sprains, and tears account for a majority of injuries among workers on thoroughbred farms. Upper limbs and extremities are most frequently injured, while direct contact with the horse accounted for over half of all injuries. No differences in the diagnoses or distribution of injury were found by ethnicity; however, Latinos were more often struck by or trampled by a horse while non-Latinos were more often injured by an insect or plant. Implications and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  18. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Pratt, B; Cheesman, J; Breslin, C; Do, M T

    2016-05-01

    Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. We analyzed records for youth aged 10-17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) emergency departments (EDs) from 1991-2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group) that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males) made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males) made up 4.8% of work-related ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94-10.67), crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79-7.80), electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64-10.00), bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47-5.79), open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59-2.78) and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20-2.83) in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace.

  19. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, B.; Cheesman, J.; Breslin, C.; Do, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) emergency departments (EDs) from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group) that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males) made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males) made up 4.8% of work-related ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67), crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80), electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00), bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79), open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78) and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83) in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace. PMID:27172126

  20. Costs of occupational injury and illness across industries.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Waehrer, Geetha; Miller, Ted R; Keenan, Craig

    2004-06-01

    This study has ranked industries using estimated total costs and costs per worker. This incidence study of nationwide data was carried out in 1993. The main outcome measure was total cost for medical care, lost productivity, and pain and suffering for the entire United States (US). The analysis was conducted using fatal and nonfatal injury and illness data recorded in large data sets from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Cost data were derived from workers' compensation records, estimates of lost wages, and jury awards. Current-value calculations were used to express all costs in 1993 in US dollars. The following industries were at the top of the list for average cost (cost per worker): taxicabs, bituminous coal and lignite mining, logging, crushed stone, oil field services, water transportation services, sand and gravel, and trucking. Industries high on the total-cost list were trucking, eating and drinking places, hospitals, grocery stores, nursing homes, motor vehicles, and department stores. Industries at the bottom of the cost-per-worker list included legal services, security brokers, mortgage bankers, security exchanges, and labor union offices. Detailed methodology was developed for ranking industries by total cost and cost per worker. Ranking by total costs provided information on total burden of hazards, and ranking by cost per worker provided information on risk. Industries that ranked high on both lists deserve increased research and regulatory attention.

  1. [Hemipelvectomy due to blast injuries: possibilities of occupational rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Cesarec, M; Majski-Cesarec, S

    1996-09-01

    A case of traumatic hemipelvectomy due to explosion of an antitank shell in a 21-year-old Croatian Army soldier is described. Explosion was due to inadvertent handling of the shell in the army barracks. Literature data on persons who survived traumatic hemipelvectomy are extremely scarce; the injury is characterized by a very high death rate (60-100%). After prompt surgical treatment the patient developed a postoperative anaerobic clostridial infection. Owing to intensive clinical and physical therapy the patient was enabled for moving around in a special wheel-chair and walking with the help of crutches and a prosthesis. He was also enrolled in a training course in computer use. Continual physical therapy and psychotherapy were essential because of a high degree of disablement. Making the patient self-sufficient, fit for work and finding him an appropriate job is considered to be the responsibility not only of the professional medical team but also of joint efforts on the part of competent state ministries, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, State Pension and Insurance Fund and Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.

  2. A descriptive epidemiological study on the patterns of occupational injuries in a coastal area and a mountain area in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liping; Liu, Xiaojian; Lu, Yaogui; Yu, Min

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study compared patterns of occupational injuries in two different areas, coastal (industrial) and mountain (agricultural), in Southern China to provide information for development of occupational injury prevention measures in China. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Data were obtained from the Hospital Injury Surveillance System based on hospital data collected from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2008. Participants Cases of occupational injury, defined as injury that occurred when the activity indicated was work. Outcome measures Distribution and differences of patterns of occupational injuries between the two areas. Results Men were more likely than women to experience occupational injuries, and there was no difference in the two areas (p=0.112). In the coastal area, occupational injury occurred more in the 21–30-year age group, but in the mountain area, it was the 41–50-year age group (p<0.001). Occupational injuries in the two areas differed by location of hometown, education and occupation (all p<0.001). Occupational injuries peaked differently in the month of the year in the two areas (p<0.001). Industrial and construction areas were the most frequent locations where occupational injuries occurred (p<0.001). Most occupational injuries were unintentional and not serious, and patients could go home after treatment. The two areas also differed in external causes and consequences of occupational injuries. Conclusions The differing patterns of occupational injuries in the coastal and mountain areas in Southern China suggest that different preventive measures should be developed. Results are relevant to other developing countries that have industrial and agricultural areas. PMID:22710129

  3. National Trends in Occupational Injuries Before and After 1992 and Predictors of Workers' Compensation Costs

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. Methods We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. Results From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973–2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992–2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. Conclusion We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973–2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on

  4. National trends in occupational injuries before and after 1992 and predictors of workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973-2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992-2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973-2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on investments.

  5. Readiness for work injury management and prevention: important attributes for early graduate occupational therapists and physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Adam, Kerry; Strong, Jenny; Chipchase, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Early graduate occupational therapists (OTs) and physiotherapists (PTs) are routinely employed in work injury management and prevention in Australia. However, our understanding is limited about employer requirements for early graduates entering the field, and how commencing practitioners manage transition to practice. In addition, employers have expressed concerns anecdotally about the preparedness of early graduates for work injury management and prevention. However, evidence is limited about early gradutate preparedness for the field. The study aimed to develop a detailed qualitative account of the perceptions of employers and early graduates on the attributes required of early graduates in work injury management and prevention, and processes for effective transition to practice in this field. A purposive sample of 12 employers and 12 early graduates in work injury management and prevention participated in semi-structured interviews. Questions to employers focused on recruitment, supervision and readiness for practice. Questions to early graduates focused on challenges in transition and effective learning methods. Transcripts were analysed by Leximancer™ and supported by manual coding and synthesis. Four themes with findings were, 1) 'Job and workplace requirements'; skills required by employers and support needed for early graduates, 2) 'Learning for work injury management and prevention'; options for early graduate development and learning methods early graduates found effective, 3) 'Employer expectations of early graduates in transition to work injury management and prevention', responses to transition; and 4) 'Early graduate perceptions on transition to work injury management and prevention'; early graduates responses to transition. Findings for employers and early graduates were similar to those expected in other areas of practice for OTs and PTs. Work injury management and prevention skills were not expected of early graduates by employers. Employers and

  6. Occupant injury in rollover crashes - Contribution of planar impacts with objects and other vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Johan; Poplin, Gerald; McMurry, Tim; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Planar impacts with objects and other vehicles may increase the risk and severity of injury in rollover crashes. The current study compares the frequency of injury measures (MAIS 2+, 3+, and 4+; fatal; AIS 2+ head and cervical spine; and AIS 3+ head and thorax) as well as vehicle type distribution (passenger car, SUV, van, and light truck), crash kinematics, and occupant demographics between single vehicle single event rollovers (SV Pure) and multiple event rollovers to determine which types of multiple event rollovers can be pooled with SV Pure to study rollover induced occupant injury. Four different types of multiple event rollovers were defined: single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is the most severe event (SV Prim and MV Prim) and single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is not the most severe event (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim). Information from real world crashes was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the period from 1995 through 2011. Belted, contained or partially ejected, adult occupants in vehicles that completed 1-16 lateral quarter turns were assigned to one of the five rollover categories. The results showed that the frequency of injury in non-primary rollovers (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim) involving no more than one roof inversion is substantially greater than in SV Pure, but that this disparity diminishes for crashes involving multiple inversions. It can further be concluded that for a given number of roof inversions, the distribution of injuries and crash characteristics in SV Pure and SV Prim crashes are sufficiently similar for these categories to be considered collectively for purposes of understanding etiologies and developing strategies for prevention.

  7. Early Predictors of Occupational Back Re-Injury: Results from a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Turner, Judith A.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective population-based cohort study Objective To identify early predictors of self-reported occupational back re-injury within 1 year after work-related back injury Summary of Background Data Back injuries are the costliest and most prevalent disabling occupational injuries in the United States. A substantial proportion of workers with back injuries have re-injuries after returning to work, yet there are few studies of risk factors for occupational back re-injuries. Methods We aimed to identify the incidence and early (in the claim) predictors of self-reported back re-injury by approximately 1 year after the index injury among Washington State workers with new work disability claims for back injuries. The Washington Workers’ Compensation Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC) provided a large, population-based sample with information on variables in seven domains: sociodemographic, employment-related, pain and function, clinical status, health care, health behavior, and psychological. We conducted telephone interviews with workers 3 weeks and 1 year after submission of a time-loss claim for the injury. We first identified predictors (p-values < 0.10) of self-reported re-injury within 1 year in bivariate analyses. Those variables were then included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting occupational back re-injury. Results 290 (25.8%) of 1,123 (70.0% response rate) workers who completed the one-year follow-up interview and had returned to work reported having re-injured their back at work. Baseline variables significantly associated with re-injury (p-value < 0.05) in the multivariate model included male gender, constant whole body vibration at work, a history of previous similar injury, 4 or more previous claims of any type, possessing health insurance, and high fear-avoidance scores. Baseline obesity was associated with reduced odds of re-injury. No other employment-related or psychological variables were

  8. The development of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: an occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury.

    PubMed

    Soeker, Mogammad Shaheed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodology used in order to develop the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury. Nine males and one female participated in the study. Face to face, semi structured individual interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using a qualitative approach to explicate patterns and themes. The study was conducted in two phases, namely, Phase one described the lived experience of individuals with brain injury who had returned to work and Phase two described the development of the model by means of theory generation methodology. Four themes emerged that reflected the lived experiences for people returning to work after a brain injury. (1) A sense of loss of former self; (2) Uncertainty about the future; (3) The road to acceptance and believing in yourself; and (4) Participation in occupation enables growth. The above themes contributed to the central concept called Occupational Self Efficacy that resulted in the development of the occupational therapy practice model. The findings of the study suggest that theory generation methodology is adequate for the conceptual development of an occupational therapy practice model.

  9. Biomechanics of side impact: injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Stemper, Brian D; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Weigelt, John A

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized.

  10. Biomechanics of side impact: Injury criteria, aging occupants, and airbag technology

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Gennarelli, Thomas A.; Weigelt, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of side impact trauma-related biomedical investigations with specific reference to certain aspects of epidemiology relating to the growing elderly population, improvements in technology such as side airbags geared toward occupant safety, and development of injury criteria. The first part is devoted to the involvement of the elderly by identifying variables contributing to injury including impact severity, human factors, and national and international field data. This is followed by a survey of various experimental models used in the development of injury criteria and tolerance limits. The effects of fragility of the elderly coupled with physiological changes (e.g., visual, musculoskeletal) that may lead to an abnormal seating position (termed out-of-position) especially for the driving population are discussed. Fundamental biomechanical parameters such as thoracic, abdominal and pelvic forces; upper and lower spinal and sacrum accelerations; and upper, middle and lower chest deflections under various initial impacting conditions are evaluated. Secondary variables such as the thoracic trauma index and pelvic acceleration (currently adopted in the United States Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards), peak chest deflection, and viscous criteria are also included in the survey. The importance of performing research studies with specific focus on out-of-position scenarios of the elderly and using the most commonly available torso side airbag as the initial contacting condition in lateral impacts for occupant injury assessment is emphasized. PMID:16527285

  11. Occupational injury history and universal precautions awareness: a survey in Kabul hospital staff.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Garner, Paul

    2010-01-30

    Health staff in Afghanistan may be at high risk of needle stick injury and occupational infection with blood borne pathogens, but we have not found any published or unpublished data. Our aim was to measure the percentage of healthcare staff reporting sharps injuries in the preceding 12 months, and to explore what they knew about universal precautions. In five randomly selected government hospitals in Kabul a total of 950 staff participated in the study. Data were analyzed with Epi Info 3. Seventy three percent of staff (72.6%, 491/676) reported sharps injury in the preceding 12 months, with remarkably similar levels between hospitals and staff cadres in the 676 (71.1%) people responding. Most at risk were gynaecologist/obstetricians (96.1%) followed by surgeons (91.1%), nurses (80.2%), dentists (75.4%), midwives (62.0%), technicians (50.0%), and internist/paediatricians (47.5%). Of the injuries reported, the commonest were from hollow-bore needles (46.3%, n = 361/780), usually during recapping. Almost a quarter (27.9%) of respondents had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about universal precautions were found insufficient across all hospitals and cadres. Occupational health policies for universal precautions need to be implemented in Afghani hospitals. Staff vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended.

  12. Entry-level physiotherapists' strategies to lower occupational injury risk in physiotherapy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret; Jones, Sue

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify entry-level physiotherapists perceptions of workplace injuries in private practice and the strategies they may use to reduce occupational injury risk in physiotherapy. Seventy-nine final year physiotherapy students were presented with a private practice workplace scenario, recent injury statistics, and common job risk factors in physiotherapy and were required to choose between the options of being a salaried employee or contractor and to discuss self-management strategies. This question was part of a substantive written examination that is a compulsory aspect of the final assessment for these students. Students identified nine categories for self-management and reducing injury risk with the majority of students choosing the option of being a contractor in preference to being a salaried employee. Regardless of the preferred employment option, students tended to select self-management strategies that would have a negative impact on income and service delivery and may be reflective of the relative inexperience of these students in private sector workplace settings. Given the high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) in the 5 five years postgraduation, the findings from this study highlight the need for educational institutions and employers to address occupational health and risk factors in physiotherapy, which would include education on prevention as well as appropriate self-management strategies within each workplace.

  13. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Bertrand, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Otero Sierra, Carmen; Michaely, Jean-Pierre; Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; d'Houtaud, Alphonse; Mur, Jean-Marie; Chau, Nearkasen

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries (adjusted ORs vs. JT 0-1: 2.21, 95%CI 1.27-3.86 for JT 2-6 and 3.82, 2.14-6.82 for JT>or=7), and significant ORs>or=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  14. Salivary melatonin and cortisol and occupational injuries among Italian hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Valent, Francesca; Mariuz, Marika; Liva, Giulia; Verri, Sara; Arlandini, Sara; Vivoli, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Stress, circadian patterns, and sleep-related factors may have a role on occupational injuries. We investigated the association between occupational injuries among the workers of an Italian hospital and their secretion of salivary melatonin and cortisol. We used a case-control study design. 27 injured cases and 31 non-injured controls provided 5 salivary samples every 60 min from 9 pm to 1 am. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured, and the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) derived using two fixed thresholds (1 and 3 pg/mL). The associations between injury, melatonin, cortisol, and DLMO were assessed through univariate and multivariate analyses. Non-injured controls had higher melatonin (median 2.28 pg/mL) and lower cortisol concentrations (0.71 ng/mL), as well as earlier DLMO times (9:00 pm with the 1 pg/mL melatonin cutoff) than cases (1.01 pg/mL, 1.14 ng/mL and 9:12 pm, respectively), although only few results were statistically significant. Measuring these hormones might be helpful to characterize the risk of injury among hospital workers.

  15. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3–6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. Design and setting MAIS 3–6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Participants Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3–6 injured, in light truck vehicles–passenger cars (LTV–PC) side impact crashes. Outcome measures Distribution of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. Results The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3–6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants were zones ‘D’ and ‘Y’, and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone ‘B’. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 occupants was zone ‘E’, whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone ‘G+M’. Conclusions The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3–6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV–PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck

  16. Associations between damage location and five main body region injuries of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Youming; Cao, Libo; Kan, Steven

    2014-05-08

    To examine the damage location distribution of five main body region injuries of maximum abbreviated injury score (MAIS) 3-6 injured occupants for nearside struck vehicle in front-to-side impact crashes. MAIS 3-6 injured occupants information was extracted from the US-National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System in the year 2007; it included the head/face/neck, chest, pelvis, upper extremity and lower extremity. Struck vehicle collision damage was classified in a three-dimensional system according to the J224 Collision Deformation Classification of SAE Surface Vehicle Standard. Nearside occupants seated directly adjacent to the struck side of the vehicle with MAIS 3-6 injured, in light truck vehicles-passenger cars (LTV-PC) side impact crashes. Distribution of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants by body regions and specific location of damage (lateral direction, horizontal direction and vertical direction) were examined. Injury risk ratio was also assessed. The lateral crush zone contributed to MAIS 3-6 injured occupants (n=705) and 50th centile injury risks when extended into zone 3. When the crush extended to zone 4, the injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants approached 81%. The horizontal crush zones contributing to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants were zones 'D' and 'Y', and the injury risk ratios were 25.4% and 36.9%, respectively. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 5.67% caused by zone 'B'. The vertical crush zone which contributed to the highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 occupants was zone 'E', whose injury risk ratio was 58%. In contrast, the lowest injury risk ratio was 0.14% caused by zone 'G+M'. The highest injury risk ratio of MAIS 3-6 injured occupants caused by crush intrusion between 40 and 60 cm in LTV-PC nearside impact collisions and the damage region of the struck vehicle was in the zones 'E' and 'Y'.

  17. Occupant accelerations and injury potential during an ambulance-to-curb impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ellen L; Hayes, Wilson C

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents real world acceleration data for an ambulance driving up and over a curb. A full scale reenactment was performed for a litigated case in which a patient on a gurney in an ambulance claimed a variety of bodily injuries after the ambulance struck a curb. A height and weight matched surrogate rode on the gurney during the tests. Results demonstrated that peak vehicle and occupant accelerations never exceeded 1.1g's. To address the claimed injuries, the accelerations likely sustained by the patient were compared to those experienced during daily life. Since ambulances are wide vehicles that travel fast on potentially narrow arterial, collector or local roadways, curb or median impacts may occur during the normal course of driving. Thus, these results may be useful for forensic experts in dealing with similar cases involving claimed injuries following curb impacts.

  18. Fatal and nonfatal occupational injuries involving wood chippers--United States, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    2004-12-10

    Tree damage from storms and routine tree-trimming operations prompt the need for disposing of branches and brush. Mobile wood chippers shred branches and tree trimmings into mulch. Branches are fed into a chute, in which rotating blades macerate the wood. Mobile chippers pose potential dangers to operators, who can become caught in the feed mechanism and pulled into the rotating chipper knives or struck by the hood of the machine while it is being opened or closed with the knives still rotating. This report summarizes data describing fatal and nonfatal injuries related to occupational wood chipper use, which indicate that those working with mobile wood chippers are at risk for serious injury and death, but that these injuries can be prevented through proper training, machine maintenance, and the use of personal protective equipment.

  19. Marginal structural modeling of associations of occupational injuries with voluntary and involuntary job loss among nursing home workers

    PubMed Central

    Bacic, Janine; Velasquez, Esther; Hammer, Leslie B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Qualitative studies have highlighted the possibility of job loss following occupational injuries for some workers, but prospective investigations are scant. We used a sample of nursing home workers from the Work, Family, and Health Network to prospectively investigate association between occupational injuries and job loss. Methods We merged data on 1331 workers assessed four times over an 18-month period with administrative data that include job loss from employers and publicly-available data on their workplaces. Workers self-reported occupational injuries in surveys. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated risk ratios for the impact of occupational injuries on overall job loss, whereas multinomial models were used to estimate odds ratio of voluntary and involuntary job loss. Use of marginal structural models allowed for adjustments of multilevel list of confounders that may be time-varying and/or on the causal pathway. Results By 12 months, 30.3% of workers experienced occupational injury, whereas 24.2% experienced job loss by 18 months. Comparing workers who reported occupational injuries to those reporting no injuries, risk ratio of overall job loss within subsequent 6 months was 1.31 (95% CI=0.93–1.86). Comparing the same groups, injured workers had higher odds of experiencing involuntary job loss (OR:2.19; 95% CI:1.27–3.77). Also, compared to uninjured workers, those injured more than once had higher odds of voluntary job loss (OR:1.95; 95% CI:1.03–3.67), while those injured once had higher odds of involuntary job loss (OR:2.19; 95% CI:1.18–4.05). Conclusions Despite regulatory protections, occupational injuries were associated with increased risk of voluntary and involuntary job loss for nursing home workers. PMID:26786757

  20. Marginal structural modelling of associations of occupational injuries with voluntary and involuntary job loss among nursing home workers.

    PubMed

    Okechukwu, Cassandra Adiba; Bacic, Janine; Velasquez, Esther; Hammer, Leslie B

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative studies have highlighted the possibility of job loss following occupational injuries for some workers, but prospective investigations are scant. We used a sample of nursing home workers from the Work, Family and Health Network to prospectively investigate association between occupational injuries and job loss. We merged data on 1331 workers assessed 4 times over an 18-month period with administrative data that include job loss from employers and publicly available data on their workplaces. Workers self-reported occupational injuries in surveys. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated risk ratios for the impact of occupational injuries on overall job loss, whereas multinomial models were used to estimate OR of voluntary and involuntary job loss. Use of marginal structural models allowed for adjustments of multilevel lists of confounders that may be time varying and/or on the causal pathway. By 12 months, 30.3% of workers experienced occupational injury, whereas 24.2% experienced job loss by 18 months. Comparing workers who reported occupational injuries to those reporting no injuries, risk ratio of overall job loss within the subsequent 6 months was 1.31 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.86). Comparing the same groups, injured workers had higher odds of experiencing involuntary job loss (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.77). Also, compared with uninjured workers, those injured more than once had higher odds of voluntary job loss (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.03 to 3.67), while those injured once had higher odds of involuntary job loss (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.18 to 4.05). Despite regulatory protections, occupational injuries were associated with increased risk of voluntary and involuntary job loss for nursing home workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Risk of injury and fatality in single vehicle rollover crashes: danger for the front seat occupant in the "outside arc".

    PubMed

    Jehle, Dietrich; Kuebler, Joseph; Auinger, Peggy

    2007-10-01

    Rollover crashes are responsible for a large portion of motor vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities. To examine if there is an increased risk of injury or death for either front seat occupant depending on the direction the vehicle rolled over. Between 1992 and 2002, crash data were collected and analyzed from the National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database of police reported tow-away crashes in the United States. These data were limited to information concerning single vehicle crashes with right or left initial rollover, in which both driver and front seat passenger were present and secured with lap-shoulder belts. The "outside arc" occupant was defined as the occupant who underwent the greatest degree of initial rotational torque during the rollover. Crashes involving sport utility vehicles (SUVs) were further evaluated for risks of injury or death based on the direction of the initial rollover. The location of roof crush and the types of injuries were also analyzed for these rollovers. This weighted database allows for the calculation of mortality and injury prevalence in the population. There was a significantly higher fatality rate for outside arc occupants than inside arc occupants in rollover crashes. The weighted percentage fatality for the occupant on the outside arc for all classes of light passenger vehicles was 0.38%, while the percentage fatality for the occupant on the inside arc was 0.23% (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; p = 0.04). As a subgroup, the SUV class showed a weighted outside arc fatality percentage of 0.23%, while the inside arc fatality percentage was 0.02% (OR, 10.69; p = 0.06). Additionally, in SUVs, the weighted percentage having an Injury Severity Score of 9-75 was 0.99% for the outside arc passengers but only 0.19% for the inside arc passengers (OR, 5.42; p = 0.04). Roof crush was located more commonly on the outside arc of the rollovers than on the inside arc (42% vs. 26.3%; p < 0.01). There was a

  2. [Occupational injury risk in the shoe industry: frequency, types of injuries and equipment involved, improvement interventions].

    PubMed

    Tognon, Ilaria Desirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work has been to evaluate the risk of injuries connected to the use of machinery and work tools in the footwear industry. The analysis of the data related to injuries in the footwear industry, deduced from the registers of injuries collected in the investigated factories, shows that most accidents arise from the contact of the operator's hands with tools and machinery parts during their use. Risk factors generally include the inherent specific danger of some work tools and machines, the lack or inadequacy of safety devices, the obsolescence of the equipment, the imprudence and underestimation of risk.

  3. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18-29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  4. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Alexander; Varnaccia, Gianni; Lahmann, Nils; Kottner, Jan; Kroll, Lars Eric

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18–70 years, n = 14,041), the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4–3.2) of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7–1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7–5.0). In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16) and age 18–29 (OR 1.54), as well as agricultural (OR 5.40), technical (OR 3.41), skilled service (OR 4.24) or manual (OR 5.12), and unskilled service (OR 3.13) or manual (OR 4.97) occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78), working in awkward postures (OR 1.46), environmental stress (OR 1.48), and working under pressure (OR 1.41). Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47) and obesity (OR 1.73) present a significantly higher chance of occupational

  5. Effects of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in the population with chronic spinal cord injury: preparing for the best outcomes with occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the implications of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in spinal cord injury (SCI). The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory will be used to further examine the interplay of shoulder pain, quality of life and engagement in this population. Method Analysis of literature. Results Persons with SCI have a high prevalence of shoulder pain and injury, affecting 37-84% of analysed studies; chronic pain limits occupational engagement and decreases quality of life. Remediation of pain provides improved occupational engagement, functional independence and quality of life in those with high self-efficacy and low depression. Conclusion Shoulder pain is a serious complication following SCI and the Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory can be utilized in conjunction for a framework to evaluate, treat and prevent shoulder pain and its devastating effects on occupational engagement and quality of life in the spinal cord injured population. Thereafter, rehabilitation professionals will have a greater understanding of these interactions to serve as a guide for evaluation and intervention planning to promote optimal occupational engagement through limiting the experiences of occupational injustices for those with SCI and shoulder pain. Implications for Rehabilitation Musculoskeletal pain at the shoulder joint and depression are common complications following spinal cord injury that limit occupational engagement and decrease quality of life. To increase engagement and quality of life in this population, treatments need to address all factors including the under-lying psychosocial instead of task and environment modification alone. The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-efficacy Theory are effective frameworks that can be used for evaluation, treatment planning and outcome measurement to maximize occupational engagement and quality of life.

  6. A Comparison of Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses among Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic Workers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Dene T.; Lebbon, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the trends and changes in patterns of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among Hispanic workers versus non-Hispanic minority workers in the United States between 1992 and 2009. Injuries and illnesses are also examined by the severity of cases and across industry sectors. The differences in the mean share of…

  7. 20 CFR 10.110 - What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? 10.110 Section 10.110 Employees' Benefits...; Submitting Evidence Notices and Claims for Injury, Disease, and Death-Employer's Actions § 10.110 What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 10.110 - What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? 10.110 Section 10.110 Employees' Benefits...; Submitting Evidence Notices and Claims for Injury, Disease, and Death-Employer's Actions § 10.110 What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? (a)...

  9. 20 CFR 10.110 - What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? 10.110 Section 10.110 Employees' Benefits...; Submitting Evidence Notices and Claims for Injury, Disease, and Death-Employer's Actions § 10.110 What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? (a)...

  10. 20 CFR 10.110 - What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? 10.110 Section 10.110 Employees' Benefits...; Submitting Evidence Notices and Claims for Injury, Disease, and Death-Employer's Actions § 10.110 What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? (a)...

  11. 20 CFR 10.110 - What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? 10.110 Section 10.110 Employees' Benefits...; Submitting Evidence Notices and Claims for Injury, Disease, and Death-Employer's Actions § 10.110 What should the employer do when an employee files a notice of traumatic injury or occupational disease? (a)...

  12. Absence of B cells does not compromise intramembranous bone formation during healing in a tibial injury model.

    PubMed

    Raggatt, Liza J; Alexander, Kylie A; Kaur, Simranpreet; Wu, Andy C; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Pettit, Allison R

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have generated conflicting results regarding the contribution of B cells to bone formation during physiology and repair. Here, we have investigated the role of B cells in osteoblast-mediated intramembranous anabolic bone modeling. Immunohistochemistry for CD45 receptor expression indicated that B cells had no propensity or aversion for endosteal regions or sites of bone modeling and/or remodeling in wild-type mice. In the endocortical diaphyseal region, quantitative immunohistology demonstrated that young wild-type and B-cell deficient mice had similar amounts of osteocalcin(+) osteoblast bone modeling surface. The degree of osteoblast-associated osteomac canopy was also comparable in these mice inferring that bone modeling cellular units were preserved in the absence of B cells. In a tibial injury model, only rare CD45 receptor positive B cells were located within areas of high anabolic activity, including minimal association with osterix(+) osteoblast-lineage committed mesenchymal cells in wild-type mice. Quantitative immunohistology demonstrated that collagen type I matrix deposition and macrophage and osteoclast distribution within the injury site were not compromised by the absence of B cells. Overall, osteoblast distribution during normal growth and bone healing via intramembranous ossification proceeded normally in the absence of B cells. These observations support that in vivo, these lymphoid cells have minimal influence, or at most, make redundant contributions to osteoblast function during anabolic bone modeling via intramembranous mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} mediates progression of acute liver injury in the absence of sufficient cyclooxygenase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Vishakha S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Latendresse, John R.; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that injury initiated by toxicants progresses even after most of the toxicant is eliminated from the body. One mechanism of progression of injury is the extracellular appearance of hydrolytic enzymes following leakage or upon cell lyses. Under normal conditions, after exposure to low to moderate doses of toxicants, secretory phospholipase A{sub 2} (sPLA{sub 2}) and other hydrolytic enzymes are known to appear in the extracellular spaces in order to cleanup the post-necrotic debris in tissues. We tested the hypothesis that sPLA{sub 2} contributes to progression of toxicant-initiated liver injury because of hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids of hepatocytes in the perinecrotic areas in the absence of sufficient cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either a moderately hepatotoxic dose (MD, 2 ml CCl{sub 4}/kg, ip) or a highly hepatotoxic dose (HD, 3 ml CCl{sub 4}/kg, ip) of CCl{sub 4}. After MD, liver sPLA{sub 2} and COX-2 were co-localized in the necrotic and perinecrotic areas and their activities in plasma and liver increased before decreasing in tandem with liver injury (ALT and histopathology) leading to 100% survival. In contrast, after the HD, high extracellular and hepatic sPLA{sub 2} activities were accompanied by minimal COX-2 activity and localization in the liver throughout the time course. This led to progression of liver injury and 70% mortality. These data suggested a destructive role of sPLA{sub 2} in the absence of sufficient COX-2. Time- and dose-dependent destruction of hepatocytes by sPLA{sub 2} in isolated hepatocyte incubations confirmed the destructive ability of sPLA{sub 2} when present extracellularly, suggesting its ability to spread injury in vivo. These findings suggest that sPLA{sub 2}, secreted for cleanup of necrotic debris upon initiation of hepatic necrosis, requires the co-presence of sufficiently induced COX-2 activity to prevent the run-away destructive action of sPLA{sub 2

  14. Socioeconomic Inequalities and Occupational Injury Disability in China: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haochen; Chen, Gong; Wang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of occupational injury disability (OID) and to examine the socioeconomic status of OID in China. Methods: The data derived from the China National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006 involving people aged 16–59 years old. Descriptive statistics are used to measure OID’s prevalence, and a binary logistic regression is used to identify the risk factors. Results: The population-weighted prevalence of OID is 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67–1.94). Socioeconomic risk factors include male sex, older age, living in urban areas, junior high school education, income below the poverty line, a lack of occupational injury insurance, living in the western region and working in high-risk occupations. Conclusions: OID is common among Chinese people aged 16–59 years old. Being male or older and having a lower income are risk factors for OID, similar to the results of previous research, but education is different. More training and education needs to be implemented to prevent OID. PMID:26030469

  15. Fatal occupational injuries in the North Carolina construction industry, 1978-1994.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Seronda A; Loomis, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Occupational injury is a major public health problem and the cause of high rates of fatalities. The construction industry is one of the leading industries for on-the-job fatalities. The North Carolina Medical Examiner's system was used to identify all fatal unintentional injuries that occurred on the job in the state's construction industry between 1978 and 1994. The populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. censuses. There were 525 identified deaths. All except two decedents were male, and the majority were Caucasian (79.2%). The mean age of decedents was 39 years. Death rates were higher among older workers. The crude fatality rate for the overall study period was 15.4 per 100,000 worker-years, with higher rates found among African-Americans (22.9) than among Caucasians (14.5). Occupations within the industry with the highest rates were laborers (49.5), truck drivers (43.2), operating engineers (37.2), roofers (32.8), and electricians (29.0). Falls (26.7%), electrocutions (20.4%), and motor vehicle accidents (18.9%) were found to be the leading causes of death. These findings suggest a need for continued attention to the hazards of heights and electric currents and a need for occupational safety standards for motor vehicles. This study also suggests that the hazards facing construction laborers require further investigation.

  16. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-02-27

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel.

  17. The association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Matthew D.; Patterson, P. Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Songer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers are shift workers in a high-risk, uncontrolled occupational environment. EMS-worker fatigue has been associated with self-reported injury, but the influence of extended weekly work hours is unknown. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed using historical shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports. Using multilevel models, we examined the association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and injury or illness. Results In total, 966,082 shifts and 950 reports across 14 EMS agencies were obtained over a 1-3 year period. Weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Schedule characteristics that yield decreased exposure to occupational hazards, such as part-time work and night work, conferred reduced risk of injury or illness. Conclusions Extended weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Future work should focus on transient exposures and agency-level characteristics that may contribute to adverse work events. PMID:26391202

  18. The association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Patterson, P Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G; Freiberg, Matthew S; Songer, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers are shift workers in a high-risk, uncontrolled occupational environment. EMS-worker fatigue has been associated with self-reported injury, but the influence of extended weekly work hours is unknown. A retrospective cohort study was designed using historical shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports. Using multilevel models, we examined the association between weekly work hours, crew familiarity, and injury or illness. In total, 966,082 shifts and 950 reports across 14 EMS agencies were obtained over a 1-3 year period. Weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Schedule characteristics that yield decreased exposure to occupational hazards, such as part-time work and night work, conferred reduced risk of injury or illness. Extended weekly work hours were not associated with occupational injury or illness. Future work should focus on transient exposures and agency-level characteristics that may contribute to adverse work events. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Occupational injury and disease incidence and risk factors in Finnish agriculture based on 5-year insurance records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  20. Laboratory Animal Workers’ Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certifications status, level of education, and responses to Likert-scale questions related to attitudes and perceptions of occupational risk and injury. Nonparametric (χ2) testing and measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to analyze and describe the data. According to 88.6% of respondents, biologic safety training is provided with information about zoonotic diseases of laboratory animals. Level of education was significantly related to perception of importance regarding wearing personal protective equipment. Participants indicated that appropriate support from coworkers and management staff is received, especially when performance and perception are hindered due to stress and fatigue. Laboratory animal staff are susceptible to injury and exposure to dangerous organisms and toxic substances. For this reason, to maximize safety, yearly biologic safety training should be provided, the importance of protective equipment adherence strengthened, and the culture of safety made a priority within the institution. PMID:27423148

  1. Laboratory Animal Workers' Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certifications status, level of education, and responses to Likert-scale questions related to attitudes and perceptions of occupational risk and injury. Nonparametric (χ(2)) testing and measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to analyze and describe the data. According to 88.6% of respondents, biologic safety training is provided with information about zoonotic diseases of laboratory animals. Level of education was significantly related to perception of importance regarding wearing personal protective equipment. Participants indicated that appropriate support from coworkers and management staff is received, especially when performance and perception are hindered due to stress and fatigue. Laboratory animal staff are susceptible to injury and exposure to dangerous organisms and toxic substances. For this reason, to maximize safety, yearly biologic safety training should be provided, the importance of protective equipment adherence strengthened, and the culture of safety made a priority within the institution.

  2. Innovative Solutions Shockproof Protection In Occupations Associated With An Increased Risk Of Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, O. V.; Buligin, Y. I.; Ponomarev, A. E.; Ponomareva, I. A.; Lebedeva, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    An important direction in the development of the shockproof devices for occupations associated with an increased risk of injury is reducing their overall size with the preservation the ability of energy absorption. The fixture protection of large joints, with the brace in the coils of an elastic-plastic material with shape memory effect, can effectively protect people from injury and can be used in the domain of occupational safety to reduce injuries by shocks or jolts. In innovative anti-shock device as elastic-plastic material applied equiatomic Titanium-Nickel alloy which has acceptable temperature phase transitions that is necessary to restore shape. As an experienced model first approximation was adopted shockproof device, having in its composition a bandage in coils of elastic-plastic material with shape memory effect and with electric contacts at the ends. This solution allows the punches to plastically deform with the absorption of the impact energy, and then recover the original shape, including at the expense of electric heating.

  3. Do Drug-Free Workplace Programs Prevent Occupational Injuries? Evidence from Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Wickizer, Thomas M; Kopjar, Branko; Franklin, Gary; Joesch, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of a publicly sponsored drug-free workplace program on reducing the risk of occupational injuries. Data Sources Workers' compensation claims data from the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries covering the period 1994 through 2000 and work-hours data reported by employers served as the data sources for the analysis. Study Design We used a pre–post design with a nonequivalent comparison group to assess the impact of the intervention on injury risk, measured in terms of differences in injury incidence rates. Two hundred and sixty-one companies that enrolled in the drug-free workplace program during the latter half of 1996 were compared with approximately 20,500 nonintervention companies. We tested autoregressive, integrated moving-average (ARIMA) models to assess the robustness of our findings. Principal Findings The drug-free workplace intervention was associated (p<.05) with a statistically significant decrease in injury rates for three industry groups: construction, manufacturing, and services. It was associated (p<.05) with a reduction in the incidence rate of more serious injuries involving four or more days of lost work time for two industry groups: construction and services. The ARIMA analysis supported these findings. Conclusions The drug-free workplace program we studied was associated with a selective, industry-specific preventive effect. The strongest evidence of an intervention effect was for the construction industry. Estimated net cost savings for this industry were positive though small in magnitude. PMID:14965079

  4. Risks associated with occupational glass injury in bar staff with special consideration of hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    McLean, W; Shepherd, J P; Brann, C R; Westmoreland, D

    1997-04-01

    Since bar workers often sustain cuts from unwashed bar glasses, the aims of this study were to investigate risk of injury and to examine the sero-prevalence of markers for hepatitis B amongst bar staff. Ninety-one bar staff recruited by newspaper advertisement were asked about injury experience and life-style risks associated with transmission of hepatitis B and were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and core antibody (anti-HBc). Seventy-four per cent reported lacerations from broken glassware at work: 18% had sustained such injuries in more than 10 incidents. Fifty-five per cent of respondents reported occupational skin contact with body fluids. Anti-HBc prevalence for the study group was 1.1%, suggesting that bar staff were not at increased risk from hepatitis B infection. Although 30% wore gloves for high-risk tasks, there was no evidence that glove wearing prevented glass lacerations. This level of injury experience and exposure to body fluids is unacceptable and represents a potential risk of cross-infection. Hepatitis B immunization should be considered in this group. Urgent action, including the replacement, wherever possible, of annealed with tempered bar-glassware, is necessary to protect bar workers from glass injury.

  5. Occupational injury and illness recording and reporting requirements--NAICS update and reporting revisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-18

    OSHA is issuing a final rule to update the appendix to its Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting regulation. The appendix contains a list of industries that are partially exempt from requirements to keep records of work-related injuries and illnesses due to relatively low occupational injury and illness rates. The updated appendix is based on more recent injury and illness data and lists industry groups classified by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The current appendix lists industries classified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). The final rule also revises the requirements for reporting work-related fatality, injury, and illness information to OSHA. The current regulation requires employers to report work-related fatalities and in-patient hospitalizations of three or more employees within eight hours of the event. The final rule retains the requirement for employers to report work-related fatalities to OSHA within eight hours of the event but amends the regulation to require employers to report all work-related in-patient hospitalizations, as well as amputations and losses of an eye, to OSHA within 24 hours of the event.

  6. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew D; Patterson, P Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G; Freiberg, Matthew S; Songer, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. We obtained 3 years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. The cohort contained 966,082 shifts, 4382 employees and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 h in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.96) compared with shifts >8 and ≤12 h. Relative to shifts >8 and ≤12 h, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22 to 2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 h. Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Fujioka, Yosei; Swanson, Naomi G; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-08-01

    Workers involved in manufacturing are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury, and this risk is greater in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in SMEs. One thousand forty-nine men and 721 women from 244 SMEs participated in this study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last 1-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR = 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. High variance in workload (OR = 1.70) and high job future ambiguity (OR = 1.35) in men, and low job control (OR = 2.04) and high intragroup conflict (OR = 1.66) in women were significantly associated with occupational injury. In manufacturing/production workers, high quantitative workload (OR = 1.91), high variance in workload (OR = 2.02), and high depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) were significantly associated with injury in men, while low social support from colleagues (OR = 2.36) or family (OR = 2.51) was related to injury in women. These data point to an independent relationship between psychosocial job stress and self-reported occupational injury in SMEs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  8. Distribution and characteristics of occupational injuries and diseases among farmers: a retrospective analysis of workers' compensation claims.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-08-01

    Research indicates occupational injuries and diseases are not evenly distributed among workers. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of compensated occupational injuries and diseases requiring medical care in the Finnish farming population. The study population consisted of 93,564 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members who were covered by the mandatory workers' compensation insurance in 2002. This population had a total of 133,207 occupational injuries and 9,148 occupational diseases over a 26-year period (1982-2008). Clustering of claims was observed. Nearly half (47.1%) of the population had no compensated claims while 52.9% had at least one; 50.9% of farmers had one or more injuries and 8.1% had one or more diseases. Ten percent of the population had half of injury cases, and 3% of the population had half of occupational disease cases. Claims frequently involved work tasks related to animal husbandry and repair and maintenance of farm machinery. Injury and disease characteristics (work activity, cause, ICD-10 code) differed between individuals with high and low personal claim rate. Injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system had a tendency to reoccur among those with high claim rate. These outcomes were often related to strenuous working motions and postures in labor-intensive animal husbandry. Analyses of longitudinal insurance data contributes to better understanding of the long-term risk of occupational injury and disease among farmers. We suggest focusing on recurrent health outcomes and their causes among high risk populations could help design more effective interventions in agriculture and other industries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Occupational Safety in the Age of the Opioid Crisis: Needle Stick Injury among Baltimore Police.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier A; Beletsky, Leo; Sawyer, Anne; Serio-Chapman, Chris; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Han, Jennifer; Robinowitz, Natanya; Sherman, Susan G

    2017-01-19

    At a time of resurgence in injection drug use and injection-attributable infections, needle stick injury (NSI) risk and its correlates among police remain understudied. In the context of occupational safety training, a convenience sample of 771 Baltimore city police officers responded to a self-administered survey. Domains included NSI experience, protective behaviors, and attitudes towards syringe exchange programs. Sixty officers (8%) reported lifetime NSI. Officers identifying as Latino or other race were almost three times more likely (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.96) to have experienced NSI compared to whites, after adjusting for potential confounders. Findings highlight disparate burdens of NSIs among officers of color, elevating risk of hepatitis, HIV, and trauma. Training, equipment, and other measures to improve occupational safety are critical to attracting and safeguarding police, especially minority officers.

  10. Interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of sickness absence among young employees in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Sumanen, Hilla; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahti, Jouni; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2015-04-08

    A low socioeconomic position (SEP) is consistently associated with ill health, sickness absence (SA) and permanent disability, but studies among young employees are lacking. We examined the interrelationships between education, occupational class and income as determinants of SA among 25-34-year-old employees. We also examined, whether the association between SEP and SA varied over time in 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. The analyses covered young, 25-34-year-old women and men employed by the City of Helsinki over the time periods 2002-2007 and 2008-2013. Four-level education and occupational class classifications were used, as well as income quartiles. The outcome measure was the number of annual SA days. Education had the strongest and most consistent independent association with SA among women and men in both periods under study. Occupational class had weaker independent and less consistent association with SA. Income had an independent association with SA, which strengthened over time among the men. The interrelationships between the SEP indicators and SA were partly explained by prior or mediated through subsequent SEP indicators. Socioeconomic differences followed only partially a gradient for occupational class and also for income among men. Preventive measures to reduce the risk of SA should be considered, especially among young employees with a basic or lower-secondary education.

  11. A Comprehensive Overview of the Frequency and the Severity of Injuries Sustained by Car Occupants and Subsequent Implications in Terms of Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010’s by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: −58 % fatalities and −64 % hospitalized (compared to −39% and −55% for pedestrians, and −21% and −44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars

  12. Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Norton, Robyn; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Robinson, Elizabeth; Civil, Ian; Dunn, Roger; Bailey, John; Jackson, Rod

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the contribution of driver sleepiness to the causes of car crash injuries. Design Population based case control study. Setting Auckland region of New Zealand, April 1998 to July 1999. Participants 571 car drivers involved in crashes where at least one occupant was admitted to hospital or killed (“injury crash”); 588 car drivers recruited while driving on public roads (controls), representative of all time spent driving in the study region during the study period. Main outcome measures Relative risk for injury crash associated with driver characteristics related to sleep, and the population attributable risk for driver sleepiness. Results There was a strong association between measures of acute sleepiness and the risk of an injury crash. After adjustment for major confounders significantly increased risk was associated with drivers who identified themselves as sleepy (Stanford sleepiness score 4-7 v 1-3; odds ratio 8.2, 95% confidence interval 3.4 to 19.7); with drivers who reported five hours or less of sleep in the previous 24 hours compared with more than five hours (2.7, 1.4 to 5.4); and with driving between 2 am and 5 am compared with other times of day (5.6, 1.4 to 22.7). No increase in risk was associated with measures of chronic sleepiness. The population attributable risk for driving with one or more of the acute sleepiness risk factors was 19% (15% to 25%). Conclusions Acute sleepiness in car drivers significantly increases the risk of a crash in which a car occupant is injured or killed. Reductions in road traffic injuries may be achieved if fewer people drive when they are sleepy or have been deprived of sleep or drive between 2 am and 5 am. What is already known on this topicDriver sleepiness is considered a potentially important risk factor for car crashes and related injuries but the association has not been reliably quantifiedPublished estimates of the proportion of car crashes attributable to driver sleepiness vary from

  13. Absence of cytochrome P450 2A5 enhances alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Liu, Xiyu; Ward, Stephen S; Xiong, Huabao; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Lu, Yongke

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol can induce cytochrome P450 2E1, an active generator of reactive oxygen species, and this cytochrome is considered a risk factor for oxidative liver injury. Recently, we found that in addition to P450 2E1 also cytochrome P450 2A5, another isoform of cytochrome P450, can be induced by ethanol, and that ethanol induction of cytochrome P450 2A5 is P450 2E1-dependent. To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 2A5 in alcohol-induced liver injury. Cytochrome P450 2A5-knockout mice and wild type mice were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol liquid diet to induce liver injury. Controls were fed the Lieber-Decarli control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding with Lieber-Decarli diet, ethanol-induced liver injury was enhanced in the knockout mice compared with wild type mice, as indicated by serum transaminases, hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis), and necroinflammation observed in liver sections with Haematoxylin & Eosin staining. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress was also higher in the knockout mice than the wild types. Ethanol feeding induced cytochrome P450 2A5 in wild type mice but not in the knockout mice, while induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 was comparable in the knockout and wild type mice. These results suggest that cytochrome P450 2A5 protects against ethanol-induced oxidative liver injury. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interdisciplinary residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury: effects on symptom severity and occupational performance and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Speicher, Sarah M; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  15. The nature and source of the head injuries sustained by restrained front-seat car occupants in frontal collisions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Bradford, M

    1995-08-01

    The paper examines the types of head injury sustained by restrained front-seat car occupants in frontal collisions. Injuries are classified into soft tissue, diffuse and focal brain injuries and facial bone or skull fractures. Survivors seldom sustain focal injuries although these are common amongst fatalities. The contact sources within the car are described. Intruding structures and high crash severities are typically associated with high rates of the more severe injuries from steering wheel contact, although some are sustained with intrusion below 11 cm. Low-speed impact testing on nondeployed airbag-equipped wheels is suggested. Toughened glass windscreens are overrepresented amongst those sustaining injuries from glazing materials. Test procedures to reduce injuries from pillar contacts should take account of the dynamic effects of an intruding pillar. Contacts with objects outside the car caused higher rates of severe fractures and brain injury; however, the total numbers are greater from interior contacts.

  16. Optimization of vehicle deceleration to reduce occupant injury risks in frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Itakura, Takuya; Hirabayashi, Satoko; Tanaka, Eiichi; Ito, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In vehicle frontal impacts, vehicle acceleration has a large effect on occupant loadings and injury risks. In this research, an optimal vehicle crash pulse was determined systematically to reduce injury measures of rear seat occupants by using mathematical simulations. The vehicle crash pulse was optimized based on a vehicle deceleration-deformation diagram under the conditions that the initial velocity and the maximum vehicle deformation were constant. Initially, a spring-mass model was used to understand the fundamental parameters for optimization. In order to investigate the optimization under a more realistic situation, the vehicle crash pulse was also optimized using a multibody model of a Hybrid III dummy seated in the rear seat for the objective functions of chest acceleration and chest deflection. A sled test using a Hybrid III dummy was carried out to confirm the simulation results. Finally, the optimal crash pulses determined from the multibody simulation were applied to a human finite element (FE) model. The optimized crash pulse to minimize the occupant deceleration had a concave shape: a high deceleration in the initial phase, low in the middle phase, and high again in the final phase. This crash pulse shape depended on the occupant restraint stiffness. The optimized crash pulse determined from the multibody simulation was comparable to that from the spring-mass model. From the sled test, it was demonstrated that the optimized crash pulse was effective for the reduction of chest acceleration. The crash pulse was also optimized for the objective function of chest deflection. The optimized crash pulse in the final phase was lower than that obtained for the minimization of chest acceleration. In the FE analysis of the human FE model, the optimized pulse for the objective function of the Hybrid III chest deflection was effective in reducing rib fracture risks. The optimized crash pulse has a concave shape and is dependent on the occupant restraint

  17. Minimizing the injury potential of deploying airbag interactions with car occupants.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Harold J; Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2013-11-01

    Minimizing the injury potential of the interactions between deploying airbags and car occupants is the major issue with the design of airbag systems. This concern was identified in 1964 by Carl Clark when he presented the results of human volunteer and dummy testing of the "Airstop" system that was being developed for aircraft. The following is a chronological summary of the actions taken by the car manufacturers, airbag suppliers, SAE and ISO task groups, research institutes and universities, and consumer and government groups to address this issue.

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eskezia, Debassu; Aderaw, Zewdie; Ahmed, Kedir Y; Tadese, Fentaw

    2016-08-24

    Refuse collectors are at a high risk for fatal and non-fatal occupational accidents. This is more intensified in developing countries, like Ethiopia, due to physically demanding nature of the job. However, information on occupational injuries and related factors are almost non-existent in Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of occupational injuries and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among municipal solid waste collectors in four zones of Amhara region from February to May 2015. Computer generated simple random sampling technique was used to select the samples. Interviewer administrated questionnaires were used for the data collection process. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between outcome variables and explanatory variables. In this study, the annual prevalence of at least one occupational injury among solid waste workers was 34.3 % (95 % CI: 29.52, 39.10). Of these, 50.7 % of them were visited health facility to receive health care. The independent predictors of at least one occupational injury were shorter service years, low monthly salary, history of job related stress, and sleeping disturbance related to the job. Being illiterate, having lower monthly income, and those who reported sleeping disturbance were significantly and positively associated with severe occupational injuries of solid waste collectors. The magnitude of occupational injuries among municipal solid waste collectors is lower than other similar studies conducted in Ethiopia. Based on the finding of this and other studies, job rotation among work components, improvement of employees' income, job specific guideline regarding maximum production limits, and replacement of bags and bins with wheeled containers are an interventions expected to cope with the problem. There is also a need of specific periodic health surveillance (PHS) for refuse collectors to detect early signs of work related complaints and

  19. Does sickness absence due to psychiatric disorder predict cause-specific mortality? A 16-year follow-up of the GAZEL occupational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-09-15

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990-1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993-2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence-suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers' health.

  20. Occupational deaths and injuries by the types of street cleaning process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung Yong

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to obtain an overall picture of occupational injuries by the types of street cleaning process. Three hundred and fifty-four injured persons were analyzed in terms of the company size and details of the injured persons and accidents. Results show that 'roadway cleaning' was the most common type of cleaning process for injuries, followed by 'sidewalk cleaning,' 'going/returning to work by bike' and 'lifting/carrying.' The findings also show that most accidents which occur when 'going/returning to work by bike' are in the form of traffic accidents, while in other processes they happen most often in the form of slips. Most of the accidents related to 'lifting/carrying' affected workers in their 50s or younger while other processes had a large portion of injured persons in their 50s or older. The findings of this study can be used as baseline data for preventative policies.

  1. An occupational therapy work skills assessment for individuals with head injury.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Irene; Higham, Julie; McLean, Alison M

    2003-06-01

    Comprehensive and accurate evaluation is a critical step in the return-to-work process for individuals with head injury. Research findings have been reported on the barriers for a successful return to work. Assessment frameworks have been published, but they do not include a protocol that contains each component for the assessment. This paper describes an occupational therapy assessment protocol developed and used in the evaluation of the work skills of individuals with head injury. This protocol focuses on assessment of physical, cognitive and behavioural abilities in relation to the demands of the workplace and measures these within the framework of productivity, interpersonal skills and safety. The functional approach inherent in this protocol provides information to complement the findings of other interdisciplinary team members. This paper also explores the strengths and limitations of this protocol.

  2. Cognitive Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Reference for Occupational Therapists.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jaclyn A; Williamson, Karen-Nicole C; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 1.7 million Americans sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. These injuries can result in physical, emotional, and cognitive consequences. While many individuals receive cognitive rehabilitation from occupational therapists (OTs), the interdisciplinary nature of TBI research makes it difficult to remain up-to-date on relevant findings. We conducted a literature review to identify and summarize interdisciplinary evidence-based practice targeting cognitive rehabilitation for civilian adults with TBI. Our review summarizes TBI background, and our cognitive remediation section focuses on the findings from 37 recent (since 2006) empirical articles directly related to cognitive rehabilitation for individuals (i.e., excluding special populations such as veterans or athletes). This manuscript is offered as a tool for OTs engaged in cognitive rehabilitation and as a means to highlight arenas where more empirical, interdisciplinary research is needed.

  3. Occupational injuries to Oregon workers 24 years and younger: An analysis of workers' compensation claims, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jaime K; Christensen, Kari A; Green, Mandy K; Karam, Lauren E; Kincl, Laurel D

    2010-10-01

    Occupational injuries to adolescents and young adults are a known public health problem. We sought to describe and estimate rates of occupational injuries to workers younger than 25 years of age in Oregon during an 8-year period. Oregon workers' compensation disabling claims data (n = 23,325) and one commercial insurance carrier's non-disabling claims data (n = 16,153) were analyzed. Total employment from the Local Employment Dynamics of the U.S. Census Bureau and the Oregon Labor Market Information System was used as a denominator for rates. Injuries were more frequent among 22-24 year olds and among males, though females accounted for a higher proportion of claims in the youngest age group. The most common injury type was a sprain or strain, but lacerations and burns were more frequently reported in the 14-18 year olds. When non-disabling claims were included, the rate of injury for 14-18 year olds doubled. The overall rate of injury was 122.7/10,000 workers, but was higher in the construction, manufacturing, and transportation sectors, and in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting sector for older teens and young adults. Young workers continue to be at risk for occupational injuries. Our results show that specific interventions may be needed for older teen and young adult workers to reduce their rate of injury. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Absence of multiplicative interactions between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking: a systematic review involving asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    El Zoghbi, Mohamad; Salameh, Pascale; Stücker, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Delva, Fleur; Lacourt, Aude

    2017-02-02

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, but it is not the sole causal factor. Significant proportions of workers are smokers and exposed to occupational lung carcinogens. This study aims to systematically review the statistical interaction between occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Articles were identified using Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, and were limited to those published in English or French, without limitation of time. The reference list of selected studies was reviewed to identify other relevant papers. One reviewer selected the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers checked the eligibility of articles to be included in the systematic review. Data were extracted by one reviewer and revised by two other reviewers. Cohorts and case-control studies were analyzed separately. The risk of bias was evaluated for each study based on the outcome. The results of the interaction between the tobacco smoking and each carcinogen was evaluated and reported separately. Fifteen original studies were included for asbestos-smoking interaction, seven for silica-smoking interaction and two for diesel-smoking interaction. The results suggested the absence of multiplicative interaction between the three occupational lung carcinogens and smoking. There is no enough evidence from the literature to conclude for the additive interaction. We believe there is a limited risk of publication bias as several studies reporting negative results were published. There are no multiplicative interactions between tobacco smoking and occupational lung carcinogens, in particular asbestos, crystalline silica and diesel engine exhaust emissions. Even though, specific programs should be developed and promoted to reduce concomitantly the exposure to occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking.

  5. Lag Times in Reporting Injuries, Receiving Medical Care, and Missing Work: Associations With the Length of Work Disability in Occupational Back Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Besen, Elyssa; Harrell, Mason; Pransky, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the associations between lag times following occupational low back injury and the length of work disability. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study using workers’ compensation claims, random effects Tobit models were used to explore how disability length relates to three lag times: the number of days from the date of injury to reporting the injury, the number of days from the date of injury to medical care, and the number of days from the date of injury to initiating work disability. Results: In general, shorter lag times for each of the different lags were related to shorter lengths of disability. Conclusions: Decreasing the length of the lag times in reporting injuries, receiving medical care, and missing work may help to decrease the length of work disability for workers after low back injury. PMID:26445030

  6. Factors associated with severe occupational injuries at mining company in Zimbabwe, 2010: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimamise, Chipo; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Chadambuka, Addmore; Shambira, Gerald; Chimusoro, Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Injury rate among mining workers in Zimbabwe was 789/1000 workers in 2008. The proportion of severe occupational injuries increased from 18% in 2008 to 37% in 2009. We investigated factors associated with severe injuries at the mine. Methods An unmatched 1:1 case-control study was carried out at the mine, a case was any worker who suffered severe occupational injury at the mine and was treated at the mine or district hospital from January 2008 to April 2010, a control was any worker who did not suffer occupational injury during same period. We randomly selected 156 cases and 156 controls and used interviewer administered questionnaires to collect data from participants. Results Majority of cases, 155(99.4%) and of controls 142(91%) were male, 127(81.4%) of cases and 48(30.8%) of controls worked underground. Majority (73.1%) of severe occupational injuries occurred during night shift. Underground temperatures reached 500C. Factors independently associated with getting severe occupational injuries included working underground (AOR = 10.55; CI 5.97-18.65), having targets per shift (AOR = 12.60; CI 3.46-45.84), inadequate PPE (AOR= 3.65 CI 1.34-9.89) and working more than 8 hours per shift (AOR = 8.65 CI 2.99-25.02). Conclusion Having targets exerts pressure to perform on workers. Prolonged working periods decrease workers’ attention and concentration resulting in increased risk to severe injuries as workers become exhausted, lose focus and alertness. Underground work environment had environmental hazards so managers to install adequate ventilation and provide adequate PPE. Management agreed to standardize shifts to eight hours and workers in some departments have been supplied with adequate PPE. PMID:23504270

  7. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  8. Risk differences in fatal occupational injuries among construction laborers in the United States, 1980-1992.

    PubMed

    Ore, T; Stout, N A

    1997-09-01

    Over 3700 occupational fatalities among all US construction laborers 16 years of age and older during 1980-1992 were analyzed from death certificates to identify differences in mortality rates, higher risk groups, and leading causes of death to be targeted for prevention and monitored over time. Female laborers had an average fatality rate (17.4 deaths/100,000 workers) similar to that for all male construction workers (17.3 deaths/100,000 workers), and ten times higher than for all female construction workers. On average, nonwhite laborers had 27% greater mortality than white laborers. Women were at a higher risk (10.8 deaths/100,000 workers) for motor vehicle injury than were men (6.1 deaths/100,000 workers). The smallest percentage annual decline in cause-specific mortality rates was from motor vehicle for construction laborers (0.1%) and all construction workers (1.4%). Environmental-related fatality rates for laborers rose an average of 0.8% annually. The average years of potential life lost (to age 65) ranged from 27.4 years from explosion to 34.3 years from electrocution. Prevention measures aimed at addressing the highest risk areas, along with research needs, are discussed. With over a quarter of construction fatalities occurring among laborers, occupational injury research on laborers should become a priority.

  9. Does Sickness Absence Due to Psychiatric Disorder Predict Cause-specific Mortality? A 16-Year Follow-up of the GAZEL Occupational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E.; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990–1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993–2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence—suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers’ health. PMID:20732935

  10. Specific occupant and collision characteristics are associated with motor vehicle collision-related blunt cerebrovascular artery injury.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ross P; McGwin, Gerald; Melton, Sherry M; Reiff, Donald A; Whitley, David; Rue, Loring W

    2004-01-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular artery injury (BCI) remains difficult to diagnose but is recognized with increasing frequency after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). Failure to detect this injury in a timely fashion can be devastating. Criteria that can be used to heighten the suspicion of this injury have been suggested; however, more encompassing screening has been recommended. To address this need, we sought to describe occupant, vehicle, and collision characteristics among MVC occupants who sustained a BCI. All cases of BCI identified in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System, a national probability sample of passenger vehicles involved in police-reported tow-away MVCs, between 1993 and 2001 were selected. Information on occupant (e.g., demographics, seating position, and restraint use), collision (e.g., collision type and severity), and vehicle characteristics were obtained and summarized using descriptive statistics. Nine-hundred forty individuals with BCI were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System data files. Over half were belted (57.4%) and 82.3% had airbag deployment; 16.2% were partially or completely ejected from the vehicle. Head and thoracic injuries were common (44.4% and 40.8%, respectively); 27.8% sustained a cervical spine fracture and 21.0% sustained a soft-tissue injury to the neck. The mean Injury Severity Score was 33.6. The case fatality rate was 44.5%. The majority of BCI occupants were drivers (76.0%). Among belted occupants, the lap/shoulder was the most commonly attributed as the injury source (61.4%). Among unbelted occupants, frequent injury sources included air bags (15.0%), windshield (13.7%), and other interior objects. With respect to collision characteristics, the average change in velocity (Delta V) was 43.3 km/h. The majority of collisions were frontal (76.2%). This study indicates that BCI is both a rare and lethal injury typified by specific occupant and collision characteristics. These characteristics

  11. Histone Deacetylase 4 promotes cholestatic liver injury in the absence of Prohibitin-1

    PubMed Central

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Beraza, Naiara; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Ramos, David; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Varela-Rey, Marta; Delgado, Teresa C; Gutiérrez, Virginia; Anguita, Juan; Pares, Albert; Banales, Jesús M; Villa, Erica; Caballería, Juan; Alvarez, Luis; Lu, Shelly C; Mato, Jose M; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz

    2015-01-01

    Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is an evolutionary conserved pleiotropic protein that participates in diverse processes depending on its subcellular localization and interactome. Recent data have indicated a diverse role for PHB1 in the pathogenesis of obesity, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, among others. Data presented here suggest that PHB1 is also linked to cholestatic liver disease. PHB1 expression is markedly reduced in patients with primary billiary cirrhosis and biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome, two major pediatric cholestatic conditions. In the experimental model of bile duct ligation, silencing of PHB1 induced liver fibrosis, reduced animal survival and induced bile duct proliferation. Importantly, the modulatory effect of PHB1 is not dependent on its known mitochondrial function. Importantly, d PHB1 interacts with Histone Deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) in the presence of bile acids. Hence, PHB1 depletion leads to increased nuclear HDAC4 content and its associated epigenetic changes. Remarkably, HDAC4 silencing and the administration of the HDAC inhibitor parthenolide during obstructive cholestasis in vivo promote genomic reprogramming leading to the regression of the fibrotic phenotype in the liver-specific Phb1 KO mice. Conclusion Our data identify PHB1 as an important mediator of cholestatic liver injury regulating the activity of HDAC4, which controls specific epigenetic marks. These results identify potential novel strategies to treat liver injury and fibrosis, particularly as a consequence of chronic cholestasis. PMID:26109312

  12. An Injury Severity-, Time Sensitivity-, and Predictability-Based Advanced Automatic Crash Notification Algorithm Improves Motor Vehicle Crash Occupant Triage.

    PubMed

    Stitzel, Joel D; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Doud, Andrea N; Martin, R Shayn; Meredith, J Wayne

    2016-06-01

    Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithms use vehicle telemetry measurements to predict risk of serious motor vehicle crash injury. The objective of the study was to develop an Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithm to reduce response time, increase triage efficiency, and improve patient outcomes by minimizing undertriage (<5%) and overtriage (<50%), as recommended by the American College of Surgeons. A list of injuries associated with a patient's need for Level I/II trauma center treatment known as the Target Injury List was determined using an approach based on 3 facets of injury: severity, time sensitivity, and predictability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict an occupant's risk of sustaining an injury on the Target Injury List based on crash severity and restraint factors for occupants in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System 2000-2011. The Advanced Automatic Crash Notification algorithm was optimized and evaluated to minimize triage rates, per American College of Surgeons recommendations. The following rates were achieved: <50% overtriage and <5% undertriage in side impacts and 6% to 16% undertriage in other crash modes. Nationwide implementation of our algorithm is estimated to improve triage decisions for 44% of undertriaged and 38% of overtriaged occupants. Annually, this translates to more appropriate care for >2,700 seriously injured occupants and reduces unnecessary use of trauma center resources for >162,000 minimally injured occupants. The algorithm could be incorporated into vehicles to inform emergency personnel of recommended motor vehicle crash triage decisions. Lower under- and overtriage was achieved, and nationwide implementation of the algorithm would yield improved triage decision making for an estimated 165,000 occupants annually. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Investigation of pulmonary contusion extent and its correlation to crash, occupant, and injury characteristics in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Danelson, Kerry A; Armstrong, Elizabeth G; Hoth, J Jason; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary contusion (PC) is a leading injury in blunt chest trauma and is most commonly caused by motor vehicle crashes (MVC). To improve understanding of the relationship between insult and outcome, this study relates PC severity to crash, occupant, and injury parameters in MVCs. Twenty-nine subjects with PC were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database, which contains detailed crash and medical information on MVC occupants. Computed tomography scans of these subjects were segmented using a semi-automated protocol to quantify the volumetric percentage of injured tissue in each lung. Techniques were used to quantify the geometry and location of PC, as well as the location of rib fractures. Injury extent including percent PC volume and the number of rib fractures was analyzed and its relation to crash and occupant characteristics was explored. Frontal and near-side crashes composed 72% of the dataset and the near-side door was the component most often associated with PC causation. The number of rib fractures increased with age and fracture patterns varied with crash type. In near-side crashes, occupant weight and BMI were positively correlated with percent PC volume and the number of rib fractures, and the impact severity was positively correlated with percent PC volume in the lung nearest the impact. This study quantified PC morphology in 29 MVC occupants and examined the relationship between injury severity and crash and occupant parameters to better characterize the mechanism of injury. The results of this study may contribute to the prevention, mitigation, and treatment of PC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    PubMed

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP.

  15. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  16. Exploring the relationship between employer recordkeeping and underreporting in the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Wuellner, Sara E; Bonauto, David K

    2014-01-01

    Background Little empirical data exist to identify the reasons for underreporting in the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) non-fatal occupational injury and illness data. Methods We interviewed occupational injury and illness record keepers from Washington State establishments that participated in the 2008 BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII). Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore recordkeeping and business practices that may explain SOII's incomplete case capture compared with WC claims data. Results Most participants (90%) did not comply with OSHA recordkeeping regulations. Other factors including using workplace injury data to evaluate supervisors' or SOII respondent's job performance, recording injuries for a worksite that operates multiple shifts, and failing to follow SOII instructions were more common among establishments with unreported WC claims. Conclusion Business practices that incentivize low injury rates, disorganized recordkeeping, and limited communication between BLS and survey respondents are barriers to accurate employer reports of work-related injuries and illnesses. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1133–1143, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099477

  17. Exploring the relationship between employer recordkeeping and underreporting in the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wuellner, Sara E; Bonauto, David K

    2014-10-01

    Little empirical data exist to identify the reasons for underreporting in the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) non-fatal occupational injury and illness data. We interviewed occupational injury and illness record keepers from Washington State establishments that participated in the 2008 BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII). Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore recordkeeping and business practices that may explain SOII's incomplete case capture compared with WC claims data. Most participants (90%) did not comply with OSHA recordkeeping regulations. Other factors including using workplace injury data to evaluate supervisors' or SOII respondent's job performance, recording injuries for a worksite that operates multiple shifts, and failing to follow SOII instructions were more common among establishments with unreported WC claims. Business practices that incentivize low injury rates, disorganized recordkeeping, and limited communication between BLS and survey respondents are barriers to accurate employer reports of work-related injuries and illnesses. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Prevalence of Injury in Occupation and Industry: Role of Obesity in the National Health Interview Survey 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ja K.; Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Ma, Claudia C.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of injury by occupation and industry and obesity’s role. Methods Self-reported injuries were collected annually for US workers during 2004 to 2013. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from fitted logistic regression models. Results Overall weighted injury prevalence during the previous three months was 77 per 10,000 workers. Age-adjusted injury prevalence was greatest for Construction and Extraction workers (169.7/10,000) followed by Production (160.6) among occupations, while workers in the Construction industry sector (147.9) had the highest injury prevalence followed by the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing/Mining/Utilities sector (122.1). Overweight and obese workers were 26% to 45% more likely to experience injuries than normal-weight workers. Conclusion The prevalence of injury, highest for Construction workers, gradually increased as body mass index levels increased in most occupational and industry groups. PMID:27058472

  19. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  20. Factors Associated with Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Occupations: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Motaarefi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs), are among the main job-related injuries that health care workers experience. In fact, contraction of hepatitis B or hepatitis C from work-related NSIs is one of the most common occupational hazards among health care workers. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with NSIs in health care occupation. In this study, a systematic and purposive review with emphasis on the research question was run to retrieve, evaluate and consolidate the required information. The following four key words were used to search for the relevant articles published from January 1998 to May 2015: NSI health care workers, risk factor and factors associated, in Science direct, EBSCO Host, PubMed, ProQuest, SID and Cochrane Library. Several steps of evaluation were taken to select and analyse the full texts of relevant articles. According to the inclusion criteria, we finally selected 11 articles from the 18642 retrieved articles. The data of the analysed articles indicated that the highest incidence of NSIs was seen in nurses and that the associated factors were age, level of education, number of shifts per month and history of related training. The highest rate of NSIs was related to instrument preparation followed by injection and recapping of used needles. Findings show that health care workers suffer a high rate of needlestick injuries. It was seen that device, location, or action cannot be separately considered as responsible for all types of the NSIs. Rather, each of them has a contribution to the NSIs. Nevertheless, factors with higher frequency should be given a higher priority.

  1. Factors Associated with Needlestick Injuries in Health Care Occupations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Motaarefi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs), are among the main job-related injuries that health care workers experience. In fact, contraction of hepatitis B or hepatitis C from work-related NSIs is one of the most common occupational hazards among health care workers. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with NSIs in health care occupation. Materials and Methods In this study, a systematic and purposive review with emphasis on the research question was run to retrieve, evaluate and consolidate the required information. The following four key words were used to search for the relevant articles published from January 1998 to May 2015: NSI health care workers, risk factor and factors associated, in Science direct, EBSCO Host, PubMed, ProQuest, SID and Cochrane Library. Several steps of evaluation were taken to select and analyse the full texts of relevant articles. According to the inclusion criteria, we finally selected 11 articles from the 18642 retrieved articles. Results The data of the analysed articles indicated that the highest incidence of NSIs was seen in nurses and that the associated factors were age, level of education, number of shifts per month and history of related training. The highest rate of NSIs was related to instrument preparation followed by injection and recapping of used needles. Findings show that health care workers suffer a high rate of needlestick injuries. Conclusion It was seen that device, location, or action cannot be separately considered as responsible for all types of the NSIs. Rather, each of them has a contribution to the NSIs. Nevertheless, factors with higher frequency should be given a higher priority. PMID:27656466

  2. Paired vehicle occupant analysis indicates age and crash severity moderate likelihood of higher severity injury in second row seated adults in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, T; Gawarecki, L; Tavakoli, M

    2016-04-01

    The majority of advances in occupant protection systems for motor vehicle occupants have focused on occupants seated in the front row of the vehicle. Recent studies suggest that these systems have resulted in lower injury risk for front row occupants as compared to those in the second row. However, these findings are not universal. In addition, some of these findings result from analyses that compare groups of front and second row occupants exposed to dissimilar crash conditions, raising questions regarding whether they might reflect differences in the crash rather than the front and second row restraint systems. The current study examines factors associated with injury risk for pairs of right front seat and second row occupants in frontal crashes in the United States using paired data analysis techniques. These data indicate that the occupant seated in the front row frequently experiences the more severe injury in the pair, however there were no significant differences in the rate of occurrence of these events and events where the more severe injury occurs in the second row occupant of the pair. A logistic regression indicated that the likelihood of the more severe injury occurring in the second row seated occupant of the pair increased as crash severity increased, consistent with data from anatomic test dummy (ATD) tests. It also indicated that the second row occupant was more likely to have the more severe injury in the pair if that occupant was the older occupant of the pair. These findings suggest that occupant protection systems which focus on providing protection specifically for injuries experienced by older occupants in the second row in higher severity crash conditions might provide the greatest benefit.

  3. [Determinants of occupational injuries in the construction of the "high speed train" Bologna-Florence].

    PubMed

    Pavone, Venere Leda Mara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Cinti, Danilo; Cervino, Daniela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Forastiere, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    to study determinants of occupational injuries in tunnel construction using data from the surveillance system which had been implemented in order to monitor accidents during the construction of the "high speed train tracks in the Italian Regions Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. retrospective cohort study. 16 sites for the construction of 14 tunnels of the high speed railway-tract Bologna-Firenze, in Italy. 1,602 workers (of 3,000 employed in the underground tunnelling), aged 18 - 67 years, operating during excavation with traditional method in 1999-2002. A total of 549 injuries occurred among 385 workers. The number of worked hours were used as time at risk. incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals for all injuries, serious injuries and first injuries were considered in separate multiple regression analyses (Poisson). residence, task and working phase were taken into consideration. An increased risk was found for younger workers, for carpenters (IRR "all-events" = 2.33; 95% CI=1.85-2.94; IRR" first-events" = 2.12; 95% CI 1.62-2.77) and miners (IRR "all-events" = 1.76; 95% CI 1.39-2.24; IRR"first-events" = 1.71; 95% CI 1.30-2.24) vs. machinery operators. Construction of inverted arch turns out to have an incidence rate ratio three times higher than digging out (IRR "all-events" = 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43; IRR "firsts-event = 2.98; 95% CI 2.33-3.81). The probability of "serious" injuries (>30 days) is higher for miners (IRR=2.45; 95% CI 1.65-3.64) and for carpenters (IRR=2.31; 95% CI 1.53-3.49). this study pointed out to indicate some determinants (age, task and work phase) of injuries in tunneling about which little had been published previously. These results are useful for addressing preventive measures, for control and prevention activities and point to the need to explore the effect of experience and to study, through a case crossover design, transient working and individual risk factors for traumatic injury within these working sites.

  4. Occupant Injury Severity and Accident Causes in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (1983-2014).

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Macchiarella, Nickolas D

    2016-01-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) transport critically ill patients to/between emergency care facilities and operate in a hazardous environment: the destination site is often encumbered with obstacles, difficult to visualize at night, and lack instrument approaches for degraded visibility. The study objectives were to determine 1) HEMS accident rates and causes; 2) occupant injury severity profiles; and 3) whether accident aircraft were certified to the more stringent crashworthiness standards implemented two decades ago. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident database was used to identify HEMS mishaps for the years spanning 1983-2014. Contingency tables (Pearson Chi-square or Fisher's exact test) were used to determine differences in proportions. A generalized linear model (Poisson distribution) was used to determine if accident rates differed over time. While the HEMS accident rate decreased by 71% across the study period, the fraction of fatal accidents (36-50%) and the injury severity profiles were unchanged. None of the accident aircraft fully satisfied the current crashworthiness standards. Failure to clear obstacles and visual-to-instrument flight, the most frequent accident causes (37 and 26%, respectively), showed a downward trend, whereas accidents ascribed to aircraft malfunction showed an upward trend over time. HEMS operators should consider updating their fleet to the current, more stringent crashworthiness standards in an attempt to reduce injury severity. Additionally, toward further mitigating accidents ascribed to inadvertent visual-to-instrument conditions, HEMS aircraft should be avionics-equipped for instrument flight rules flight.

  5. Unreported workers’ compensation claims to the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses: Establishment factors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Darrin A.; Bonauto, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest employers underreport injuries to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII); less is known about reporting differences by establishment characteristics. Methods We linked SOII data to Washington State workers’ compensation claims data, using unemployment insurance data to improve linking accuracy. We used multivariable regression models to estimate incidence ratios (IR) of unreported workers’ compensation claims for establishment characteristics. Results An estimated 70% of workers’ compensation claims were reported in SOII. Claims among state and local government establishments were most likely to be reported. Compared to large manufacturing establishments, unreported claims were most common among small educational services establishments (IR = 2.47, 95%CI: 1.52–4.01) and large construction establishments (IR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.77–2.37). Conclusions Underreporting of workers’ compensation claims to SOII varies by establishment characteristics, obscuring true differences in work injury incidence. Findings may differ from previous research due to differences in study methods. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:274–289, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26792563

  6. Work Safety Climate, Safety Behaviors, and Occupational Injuries of Youth Farmworkers in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Justin T; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this project were to describe the work safety climate and the association between occupational safety behaviors and injuries among hired youth farmworkers in North Carolina (n = 87). We conducted personal interviews among a cross-sectional sample of youth farmworkers aged 10 to 17 years. The majority of youths reported that work safety practices were very important to management, yet 38% stated that supervisors were only interested in "doing the job quickly and cheaply." Few youths reported appropriate work safety behavior, and 14% experienced an injury within the past 12 months. In bivariate analysis, perceptions of work safety climate were significantly associated with pesticide exposure risk factors for rewearing wet shoes (P = .01), wet clothes (P = .01), and shorts (P = .03). Youth farmworkers perceived their work safety climate as being poor. Although additional research is needed to support these findings, these results strengthen the need to increase employer awareness to improve the safety climate for protecting youth farmworkers from harmful exposures and injuries.

  7. Occupational injuries: comparing the rates of male and female postal workers.

    PubMed

    Zwerling, C; Sprince, N L; Ryan, J; Jones, M P

    1993-07-01

    To compare the injury rates of male and female postal workers, the authors reanalyzed data on a cohort of 2,337 new postal employees in Boston, Massachusetts, hired between 1986 and 1989. The analysis controlled for potential confounding by age, race, smoking status, and drug use. Using Cox proportional hazards models with time-dependent variables, the authors found that, compared with men, women had an increased relative risk for occupational injuries in each of the three largest job classifications: letter carrier, letter-sorting machine clerk, and mail handler. The relative risks were not constant over time. For letter carriers and letter-sorting machine clerks, the increased risks for women were noted only during the first year of employment (relative risk (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.67) and RR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.31-5.15, respectively). For mail handlers, the increased risks for women were noted only after the first year of employment (RR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.15). As the percentage of women in the work force increases, these results suggest the need for further research to define sex-specific injury risks and to devise prevention strategies.

  8. The effect of roof strength on reducing occupant injury in rollovers.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Steve; Orton, Tia; Meyer, Steven E; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2005-01-01

    Roof crush occurs and potentially contributes to serious or fatal occupant injury in 26% of rollovers. It is likely that glazing retention is related to the degree of roof crush experienced in rollover accidents. Occupant ejection (including partial ejection) is the leading cause of death and injury in rollover accidents. In fatal passenger car accidents involving ejection, 34% were ejected through the side windows. Side window glass retention during a rollover is likely to significantly reduce occupant ejections. The inverted drop test methodology is a test procedure to evaluate the structural integrity of roofs under loadings similar to those seen in real world rollovers. Recent testing on many different vehicle types indicates that damage consistent with field rollover accidents can be achieved through inverted drop testing at very small drop heights. Drop test comparisons were performed on 16 pairs of vehicles representing a large spectrum of vehicle types. Each vehicle pair includes a production vehicle and a vehicle with a reinforced roof structure dropped under the same test conditions. This paper offers several examples of post-production reinforcements to roof structures that significantly increase the crush resistance of the roof as measured by inverted drop tests. These modifications were implemented with minimal impact on vehicle styling, interior space and visual clearances. The results of these modifications indicate that roof crush can be mitigated by nearly an order of magnitude, as roof crush was reduced by 44-91% with only a 1-2.3% increase in vehicle weight. Additionally, this paper analyzes the glazing breakage patterns in the moveable tempered side windows on the side adjacent to the vehicle impact point in the inverted drop tests. A comparison is made between the production vehicles and the reinforced vehicles in order to determine if the amount roof crush is related to glazing integrity in the side windows. Lastly, two drop test pairs

  9. Occupant-level injury severity analyses for taxis in Hong Kong: A Bayesian space-time logistic model.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanyu; Xu, Pengpeng; Wong, S C; Huang, Helai; Li, Y C

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the crash-related severity level of injuries in taxis and quantify the associations between these factors and taxi occupant injury severity. Casualties resulting from taxi crashes from 2004 to 2013 in Hong Kong were divided into four categories: taxi drivers, taxi passengers, private car drivers and private car passengers. To avoid any biased interpretation caused by unobserved spatial and temporal effects, a Bayesian hierarchical logistic modeling approach with conditional autoregressive priors was applied, and four different model forms were tested. For taxi drivers and passengers, the model with space-time interaction was proven to most properly address the unobserved heterogeneity effects. The results indicated that time of week, number of vehicles involved, weather, point of impact and driver age were closely associated with taxi drivers' injury severity level in a crash. For taxi passengers' injury severity an additional factor, taxi service area, was influential. To investigate the differences between taxis and other traffic, similar models were established for private car drivers and passengers. The results revealed that although location in the network and driver gender significantly influenced private car drivers' injury severity, they did not influence taxi drivers' injury severity. Compared with taxi passengers, the injury severity of private car passengers was more sensitive to average speed and whether seat belts were worn. Older drivers, urban taxis and fatigued driving were identified as factors that increased taxi occupant injury severity in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrating occupational health services and occupational prevention services.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, L; Deitchman, S; Dervin, K

    2001-09-01

    Despite the human and monetary costs of occupational injury and illness, occupational health care has focused more on treatment than prevention, and prevention is not part of many clinical occupational health practices. This represents a failure of occupational health care to meet the health care needs of the working patients. MEDLINE searches were conducted for literature on occupational medical treatment and the prevention of occupational injury and illness were reviewed to for linkages between prevention and treatment. Policy discussions which identify examples of programs that integrated prevention and treatment were included. Although examples of the integration of clinical and preventive occupational health services exist, there are challenges and barriers to such integration. These include inaction by clinicians who do not recognize their potential role in prevention; the absence of a relationship between the clinician and an employer willing to participate in prevention; economic disincentives against prevention; and the absence of tools that evaluate clinicians on their performance in prevention. Research is needed to improve and promote clinical occupational health preventive services. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Helicopter Transport Improves Survival Following Injury in the Absence of a Time Saving Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joshua B.; Gestring, Mark L.; Guyette, Francis X.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Stassen, Nicole A.; Forsythe, Raquel M.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although survival benefits have been shown at the population level, it remains unclear what drives the outcome benefits for helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in trauma. While speed is often cited as the vital factor of HEMS, we hypothesized a survival benefit would exist in the absence of a time-savings over ground emergency medical services (GEMS). The objective was to examine the association of survival with HEMS compared to GEMS transport across similar prehospital transport times (PHTT). Methods Retrospective cohort of scene HEMS and GEMS transports in the NTDB (2007–2012). Propensity score matching was used to match HEMS and GEMS subjects on the likelihood of HEMS transport. Subjects were stratified by PHTT in 5min increments. Conditional logistic regression determined the association of HEMS with survival across PHTT strata controlling for confounders. Transport distance was estimated from PHTT and average HEMS/GEMS transport speeds. Results There were 155,691 HEMS/GEMS pairs matched. HEMS had a survival benefit over GEMS for PHTT between 6 and 30min. This benefit ranged from a 46% increase in odds of survival between 26–30min (AOR 1.46; 95%CI 1.11—1.93, p<0.01) to an 80% increase in odds of survival between 16–20min (AOR 1.80; 95%CI 1.52—2.03, p<0.01). This PHTT window corresponds to estimated transport distance between 14.3–71.3mi for HEMS and 3.3–16.6mi for GEMS. Conclusions When stratified by PHTT, HEMS had a survival benefit concentrated in a window between 6–30min. Since there was no time-savings advantage for HEMS, these findings may reflect care delivered by HEMS providers. PMID:26603848

  12. Joint-specific changes in locomotor complexity in the absence of muscle atrophy following incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    the absence of muscle atrophy and may be quantified using permutation entropy. Joint-specific differences in kinematic complexity may be attributed to different sources of motor control. This work indicates the importance of the ankle for rehabilitation interventions following spinal cord injury. PMID:23947694

  13. Associations of Work Stress, Supervisor Unfairness, and Supervisor Inability to Speak Spanish with Occupational Injury among Latino Farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Gan, Wenqi; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-06-22

    Little is known about how psychosocial work factors such as work stress, supervisor fairness, and language barriers affect risk of occupational injury among Latino farmworkers. This study attempts to address these questions. Surveys were administered via interviews to 225 Latino thoroughbred farmworkers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational injury in the past year in relation to occupational characteristics. Work stress (OR 6.70, 95% CI 1.84-24.31), supervisor unfairness (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.73), longer tenure at farm (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13-6.34), and supervisor inability to speak Spanish (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-5.00) were significantly associated with increased odds of occupational injury. Due to the associations between work stress, supervisor unfairness, supervisor inability to speak Spanish and injury, supervisor training to improve Spanish language ability and equitable management practices is merited. Future research is needed to understand the antecedents of work stress for Latino farmworkers.

  14. The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dembe, A; Erickson, J; Delbos, R; Banks, S

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To analyse the impact of overtime and extended working hours on the risk of occupational injuries and illnesses among a nationally representative sample of working adults from the United States. Methods: Responses from 10 793 Americans participating in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) were used to evaluate workers' job histories, work schedules, and occurrence of occupational injury and illness between 1987 and 2000. A total of 110 236 job records were analysed, encompassing 89 729 person-years of accumulated working time. Aggregated incidence rates in each of five exposure categories were calculated for each NLSY survey period. Multivariate analytical techniques were used to estimate the relative risk of long working hours per day, extended hours per week, long commute times, and overtime schedules on reporting a work related injury or illness, after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, industry, and region. Results: After adjusting for those factors, working in jobs with overtime schedules was associated with a 61% higher injury hazard rate compared to jobs without overtime. Working at least 12 hours per day was associated with a 37% increased hazard rate and working at least 60 hours per week was associated with a 23% increased hazard rate. A strong dose-response effect was observed, with the injury rate (per 100 accumulated worker-years in a particular schedule) increasing in correspondence to the number of hours per day (or per week) in the workers' customary schedule. Conclusions: Results suggest that job schedules with long working hours are not more risky merely because they are concentrated in inherently hazardous industries or occupations, or because people working long hours spend more total time "at risk" for a work injury. Strategies to prevent work injuries should consider changes in scheduling practices, job redesign, and health protection programmes for people working in jobs involving overtime and extended hours. PMID

  15. Workers' compensation benefits and shifting costs for occupational injury and illness.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Marcin, James P

    2012-04-01

    Whereas national prevalence estimates for workers' compensation benefits are available, incidence estimates are not. Moreover, few studies address which groups in the economy pay for occupational injury and illness when workers' compensation does not. Data on numbers of cases and costs per case were drawn from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and National Council on Compensation Insurance data sets. Costs not covered by workers' compensation were estimated for private and public entities. Total benefits in 2007 were estimated to be $51.7 billion, with $29.8 billion for medical benefits and $21.9 billion for indemnity benefits. For medical costs not covered by workers' compensation, other (non-workers' compensation) insurance covered $14.22 billion, Medicare covered $7.16 billion, and Medicaid covered $5.47 billion. Incidence estimates of national benefits for workers' compensation were generated by combining existing published data. Costs were shifted to workers and their families, non-workers' compensation insurance carriers, and governments.

  16. Service Dogs for People with Spinal Cord Injury: Outcomes Regarding Functional Mobility and Important Occupations.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Claude; Gagnon, Dany H; Routhier, François; Dumont, Frédéric; Poissant, Lise; Corriveau, Hélène; Tousignant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    No research using standardized tests based on direct observations along with longitudinal studies have shown the effects of service dogs on persons with mobility impairment. Our research objectives were to document the consequences of the use of the service dog on wheelchair propelling, grasping objects, shoulder pain, occupational performance, reintegration into normal living and psychosocial impacts for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). A cross sectional study was conducted with 45 males and 21 females with SCI (average age = 41.2). They were assessed in their homes and their communities, two to five years after they received their service dogs. Observations were based on four testing methods. An ongoing longitudinal study is reported, based on 9 months (n = 8 to 16) of data from four standardised questionnaires. Results demonstrate that services dogs are an efficient assistive technology for persons with SCI.

  17. Legal sequelae of occupational back injuries: a longitudinal analysis of Missouri judicial records.

    PubMed

    Tait, Raymond C; Chibnall, John T

    2011-08-01

    Telephone survey and longitudinal analysis of judicial database for cohort of worker's compensation (WC) claimants in Missouri. To compare legal difficulties experienced by African American and white WC claimants presettlement versus postsettlement. Retrospective studies suggest that workers with occupational back injuries experience financial and personal duress after claim settlement. This study examined these issues by comparing financial and domestic court actions for the 5-year presettlement against 5-year postsettlement. Sociodemographic differences also were examined. Missouri judicial records were reviewed for African American (n = 580) and non-Hispanic white (n = 892) WC claimants to determine the frequency with which four types of cases occurred: general financial, domestic financial, residence financial, and domestic behavior. Average annual level of judicial activity during the 5 years before claim settlement was compared to activity for each of five postsettlement years; significance of change was evaluated with univariate and multivariate repeated measures analyses. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) postsettlement increases in legal cases were noted for each of the four categories of cases. There were significant interactions between race and time for general financial and domestic financial cases. A significant interaction between age and time occurred for general financial cases. Significant three-way interactions (race × income change × time) emerged for general and domestic financial cases. The results confirm that workers with occupational back injuries, especially African American and younger adults, encounter long-term financial and domestic duress that appears to escalate with each passing year after claim settlement. This pattern suggests that short-term studies underestimate postsettlement difficulties, particularly among selected demographic cohorts.

  18. State Trauma Registries as a Resource for Occupational Injury Surveillance and Research: Lessons From Washington State, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Sears, Jeanne M; Bowman, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Work-related traumatic injury is a leading cause of death and disability among US workers. Occupational injury surveillance is necessary for effective prevention planning and assessing progress toward Healthy People 2020 objectives. Our objectives were to (1) describe the Washington State Trauma Registry (WTR) as a resource for occupational injury surveillance and research, (2) compare the WTR with 2 population-based data sources more widely used for these purposes, and (3) compare the number of injuries ascertained by the WTR with other data sources. We linked WTR records to hospital discharge records in the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System for 2009 and to workers' compensation claims from the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries for 1998 to 2008. We assessed the 3 data sources for overlap, concordance, and case ascertainment. Of 9185 work-related injuries in the WTR, 3380 (37%) did not link to workers' compensation claims. Use of payer information in hospital discharge records along with the WTR work-relatedness field identified 20% more linked injuries as work related (n = 720) than did use of payer information alone (n = 602). The WTR identified substantial numbers of work-related injuries that were not identified through workers' compensation or hospital discharge records. Workers' compensation and hospital discharge databases are important but incomplete data sources for work-related injuries; many work-related injuries are not billed to, reported to, or covered by workers' compensation. Trauma registries are well positioned to capture severe work-related injuries and should be included in comprehensive injury surveillance efforts.

  19. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities During Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L; Dijkers, Marcel P; Barrett, Ryan S; Horn, Susan D; Giuffrida, Clare G; Timpson, Misti L; Carroll, Deborah M; Smout, Randy J; Hammond, Flora M

    2015-08-01

    To describe the use of occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), and speech therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injury. Multisite prospective observational cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation settings. Patients (N=2130) admitted for initial acute rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. Patients were categorized on the basis of admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogeneous cognitive groups. Not applicable. Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in these activities for each 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. Although advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous practice-based evidence studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compensation for occupational injuries and diseases in special populations: farmers and soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young-Jun; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Some types of workers such as farmers and soldiers are at a higher risk of work-related injury and illness than workers from other occupations. Despite this fact, they are not covered under the Industrial Safety Health (ISH) Act or the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI) Act. The Safety Aid System for Farmers (SASF) is a voluntary insurance scheme, and it is the only public compensation plan for self-employed farmers. Fifty percent of SASF premiums are subsidized by the Korean government. Soldiers are compensated by the Veterans' Pension (VP) Act. The approval standard of and procedure for the VP Act are provided in the Decree of VP Act, and the Council for VP Benefits determines work-relatedness in the claimed cases. Meanwhile, SASF applies the insurance clause automatically without any expert advice or additional procedures. Furthermore, compared with IACI, these programs pay fewer benefits to workers. Thus, a stronger institutional strategy is needed to maintain a safe work environment, to protect workers' health in unavoidably hazardous environments, and to compensate for work-related injuries and diseases.

  1. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  2. Vital signs: health burden and medical costs of nonfatal injuries to motor vehicle occupants - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Gwen; Peterson, Cora; Ederer, David; Florence, Curtis; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Xu, Likang

    2014-10-10

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death and injury in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe the current health burden and medical and work loss costs of nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in the United States. CDC analyzed data on emergency department (ED) visits resulting from nonfatal crash injuries among vehicle occupants in 2012 using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System – All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The number and rate of all ED visits for the treatment of crash injuries that resulted in the patient being released and the number and rate of hospitalizations for the treatment of crash injuries were estimated, as were the associated number of hospital days and lifetime medical and work loss costs. In 2012, an estimated 2,519,471 ED visits resulted from nonfatal crash injuries, with an estimated lifetime medical cost of $18.4 billion (2012 U.S. dollars). Approximately 7.5% of these visits resulted in hospitalizations that required an estimated 1,057,465 hospital days in 2012. Nonfatal crash injuries occur frequently and result in substantial costs to individuals, employers, and society. For each motor vehicle crash death in 2012, eight persons were hospitalized, and 100 were treated and released from the ED. Public health practices and laws, such as primary seat belt laws, child passenger restraint laws, ignition interlocks to prevent alcohol impaired driving, sobriety checkpoints, and graduated driver licensing systems have demonstrated effectiveness for reducing motor vehicle crashes and injuries. They might also substantially reduce associated ED visits, hospitalizations, and medical costs.

  3. Environmental and occupational medicine and injury prevention: education and impact, classroom and community.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Berman, Tamar

    2002-01-01

    The core value guiding the work of physicians and health workers, including those in Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology and Medicine and Injury Prevention, is to protect the health of the public, especially its most vulnerable individuals. In these fields, we emphasize teaching the use of epidemiology, the core discipline of public health, as a tool for early detection and prevention of disease and injury, as well as an instrument for hypothesis testing. The classic core topics are toxic and physical exposures and their effects, and strategies for their prevention; emerging issues are child labor, mass violence, and democide. In environmental health, students need to be prepared for the reality that the most important and severe problems are often the most difficult to investigate, solve, and evaluate. The following are some recommendations for producing graduates who are effective in protecting communities from environmental hazards and risks: (1) Teach the precautionary principle and its application; (2) Evaluate programs for teaching environmental and occupational health, medicine and epidemiology in schools of public health by their impact on the WHO health indicators and their impact on measures of ecosystem sustainability; (3) Develop problem-oriented projects and give academic credit for projects with definable public health impact and redefine the role of the health officer as the chief resident for Schools of Public Health and Community Medicine; (4) Teach the abuses of child labor and working conditions of women in the workplace and how to prevent the hazards and risks from the more common types of child work; (5) Upgrade teaching of injury prevention and prevention of deaths from external causes; (6) Teach students to recognize the insensitivity of epidemiology as a tool for early detection of true risk; (7) Teach the importance of context in the use of tests of statistical significance; (8) Teach the epidemiologic importance of short latency

  4. Mortality Risk in Pediatric Motor Vehicle Crash Occupants: Accounting for Developmental Stage and Challenging Abbreviated Injury Scale Metrics.

    PubMed

    Doud, Andrea N; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Petty, John K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Survival risk ratios (SRRs) and their probabilistic counterpart, mortality risk ratios (MRRs), have been shown to be at odds with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) severity scores for particular injuries in adults. SRRs have been validated for pediatrics but have not been studied within the context of pediatric age stratifications. We hypothesized that children with similar motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries may have different mortality risks (MR) based upon developmental stage and that these MRs may not correlate with AIS severity. The NASS-CDS 2000-2011 was used to define the top 95% most common AIS 2+ injuries among MVC occupants in 4 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18 years. Next, the National Trauma Databank 2002-2011 was used to calculate the MR (proportion of those dying with an injury to those sustaining the injury) and the co-injury-adjusted MR (MRMAIS) for each injury within 6 age groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-18, 0-18, and 19+ years. MR differences were evaluated between age groups aggregately, between age groups based upon anatomic injury patterns and between age groups on an individual injury level using nonparametric Wilcoxon tests and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. Correlation between AIS and MR within each age group was also evaluated. MR and MRMAIS distributions of the most common AIS 2+ injuries were right skewed. Aggregate MR of these most common injuries varied between the age groups, with 5- to 9-year-old and 10- to 14-year-old children having the lowest MRs and 0- to 4-year-old and 15- to 18-year-old children and adults having the highest MRs (all P <.05). Head and thoracic injuries imparted the greatest mortality risk in all age groups with median MRMAIS ranging from 0 to 6% and 0 to 4.5%, respectively. Injuries to particular body regions also varied with respect to MR based upon age. For example, thoracic injuries in adults had significantly higher MRMAIS than such injuries among 5- to 9-year-olds and 10- to 14-year

  5. Why don't you feel how I feel? Insight into the absence of empathy after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Arielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline; Li, Sophie; Dimoska, Aneta; James, Charlotte

    2010-10-01

    Although the existence of empathy deficits in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is generally well accepted, it has been a topic of limited investigation. The current study examined the relationship between self-reported emotional and cognitive empathy and psychophysiological responding to emotionally evocative pictures in 20 patients with severe TBI and 22 control participants. Eighteen pictures with alternating pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were presented whilst facial muscle responses, skin conductance, and valence and arousal ratings were measured. Self-reported emotional and cognitive empathy questionnaires were also administered. In comparison to control participants, those in the TBI group displayed a reduction in the ability to empathize both emotionally and cognitively, and evidence that these two aspects of empathy may be interconnected was established. Further, TBI participants showed reduced facial responding to unpleasant pictures, while also rating them as less unpleasant and arousing than controls. In addition, they exhibited lowered autonomic arousal to all pictures, regardless of affective valence. Interestingly, hypoarousal to pleasant pictures in particular was found to be related to the absence of empathy observed after TBI, and is consistent with the view that impaired emotional responsivity is associated with impairment to the empathy network. The results represent a further step towards understanding what processes shape empathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational burnout and severe injuries: an eight-year prospective cohort study among Finnish forest industry workers.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Kirsi; Salminen, Simo; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Koskinen, Aki; Väänänen, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological consequence of prolonged work stress. Studies have shown that it is related to physical and mental disorders. The safety outcomes of burnout have been studied to a lesser extent and only in the work context. This study explored the effect of burnout on future severe injuries regardless of their context. A total of 10,062 forest industry employees (77% men, 63% manual workers) without previous injuries participated in 1996 or 2000 in the "Still Working" study examining the work-related antecedents of health and mortality. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Injuries leading to death or hospitalization were regarded as severe. We extracted such injuries from independent national registers. The relationship between burnout and new injuries was analyzed using Cox proportional regression. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, marital status, and occupational status. There were 788 new injuries over eight years. Injuries were more common among male and manual workers. After adjustments, each one-unit increase in the burnout score was related to a 9% increase in the risk of injury (95% confidence interval: 1.2-1.17). Experiencing symptoms at least monthly was related to a 1.18-fold adjusted injury risk (95% CI: 1.2-1.36). Of the subscales of burnout, exhaustion and cynicism but not lack of professional efficacy predicted injuries after adjustments. In addition to mental and physical disorders, burnout predicts severe injuries. Developing work conditions and optimizing workload may enhance safety and decrease health expenses related to all injuries.

  7. Nonfatal occupational injuries from slips, trips, and falls among older workers treated in hospital emergency departments, United States 1998.

    PubMed

    Layne, Larry A; Pollack, Keshia M

    2004-07-01

    Falls are a leading cause of injury among older adults. As the workforce demographics shift to an older population, the dearth of information on occupational falls among older adults must be addressed. A national probability sample of hospital emergency departments (EDs) (National Electronic Injury Surveillance System) was utilized to characterize falls at work. Older workers were found not to be at increased risk of a fall injury, but were more likely than younger workers to be hospitalized post-injury. Same-level falls were the most common type of incident among older workers. Falls from height were more prevalent among men than women. The narrative case descriptions for same-level falls to the floor primarily implicated floor contamination and tripping hazards. Fall prevention programs targeted to older workers must examine extrinsic sources of falls, particularly surface traction, contaminant control, and footwear. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. [Effectiveness of a training programme in reducing occupational injuries: the Turin-Novara high-speed railway line experience].

    PubMed

    Bena, Antonella; Berchialla, Paola; Coffano, Elena; Debernardi, Marialuisa; Icardi, L; Dettoni, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    There is little evidence in the literature to suggest that safety training is effective in reducing injuries at the workplace. This study aimed at assessing the impact of a safety training programme on injury rates during construction work on the Turin-Novara high-speed railway line (2002-2006). We adopted a before-after study design. Since workers were enrolled and trained at different times, pre- and post-training periods were calculated individually for each worker At the end of the training programme, the incidence of occupational injuries had fallen by 16% in the case of basic training and 25% for specific training. In the construction workers group (63.5% of trained workers) the reductions were 21% for basic training and 27% for specific training. All variations were statistically significant. Implementation of the training programme described led to a reduction in injury rates.

  9. Construct validity of the canadian occupational performance measure in participants with tendon injury and Dupuytren disease.

    PubMed

    van de Ven-Stevens, Lucelle A W; Graff, Maud J L; Peters, Marlijn A M; van der Linde, Harmen; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2015-05-01

    In patient-centered practice, instruments need to assess outcomes that are meaningful to patients with hand conditions. It is unclear which assessment tools address these subjective perspectives best. The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) in relation to the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) in people with hand conditions. It was hypothesized that COPM scores would correlate with DASH and MHQ total scores only to a moderate degree and that the COPM, DASH questionnaire, and MHQ would all correlate weakly with measures of hand impairments. This was a validation study. The COPM, DASH questionnaire, and MHQ were scored, and then hand impairments were measured (pain [numerical rating scale], active range of motion [goniometer], grip strength [dynamometer], and pinch grip strength [pinch meter]). People who had received postsurgery rehabilitation for flexor tendon injuries, extensor tendon injuries, or Dupuytren disease were eligible. Seventy-two participants were included. For all diagnosis groups, the Pearson coefficient of correlation between the DASH questionnaire and the MHQ was higher than .60, whereas the correlation between the performance scale of the COPM and either the DASH questionnaire or the MHQ was lower than .51. Correlations of these assessment tools with measures of hand impairments were lower than .46. The small sample sizes may limit the generalization of the results. The results supported the hypotheses and, thus, the construct validity of the COPM after surgery in people with hand conditions. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  10. Concept of a platform-based impact isolation system for protection of wheelchair occupants from injuries in vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Balandin, Dmitry V; Bolotnik, Nikolai N; Pilkey, Walter D; Purtsezov, Sergey V; Shaw, C Gregory

    2008-03-01

    To improve the protection of a wheelchair-seated person with disabilities traveling in a vehicle from injuries in a crash, it is proposed to attach the wheelchair to a movable platform separated from the vehicle body by means of a shock isolator. The control of the platform is designed to reduce the occupant's injury risk, as compared with the case of the attachment of the wheelchair directly to the vehicle. The isolator design is based on the minimization of the force transmitted to the wheelchair occupant, provided that the space allowed for the platform to move relative to the vehicle is constrained. The possibility of pre-acting control, when the isolator is engaged for a time prior to the crash, is discussed. Passive tiedown and restraint systems are studied, although it is recognized that active systems could provide even lower injury risks. A multibody model of the platform-based occupied wheelchair is utilized for full-scale simulation of the response of the system to a crash pulse. The simulation shows a noticeable reduction in the injury risk due to the platform and an even greater reduction of injury with pre-acting control.

  11. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-22

    Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities) has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC), and workers born in high income countries (HIC), taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py), but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09), transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23) and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67). Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both SMPC and Moroccan workers in the construction

  12. Relationships of working conditions and individual characteristics to occupational injuries: a case-control study in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Apurna Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Chau, Nearkasen

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed the relationship of age, poor perception of working condition, poor safety environment, poor management and supervision, risk-taking behavior, emotional instability, negative job involvement, job dissatisfaction, job stress, and poor safety performance of workers to occupational injuries. This case-control study was conducted on 202 male coal miners with at least one occupational injury during a five-year period and 202 male controls with no occupational injury, matched on the job. A standardized questionnaire administered by individual interviewers was used. Data were analysed by the logistic regression method. For all workers combined, the factors with significant adjusted odds ratios (ORs) found were: 30-45 and >45 yr age groups (OR vs. <30 yr age group: 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.17 and 2.59, 1.38-4.85 respectively), poor perception of working conditions (1.61, CI 1.00-3.18), emotional instability (2.33, 1.04-5.22), job stress (1.83, 1.00-3.46) and poor safety performance of workers (3.10, 1.45-6.63). No significant interaction was found between these risk factors and the job. It was concluded that older age, poor perception of work conditions, poor work environment, and human behavioral factors played significant roles in occupational injuries. This information would help in implementing preventive programs to improve working conditions and management quality and to help the workers to develop positive psychological traits, but workers with negative traits such as emotional instability and older workers should be employed in less demanding jobs.

  13. Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the NASA Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses on detailed results of the testing that has been conducted under this test series thus far.

  14. Injury Potential Testing of Suited Occupants During Dynamic Spacecraft Flight Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Constellation Program, a space-suit architecture was envisioned for support of Launch, Entry, Abort, Micro-g EVA, Post Landing crew operations, and under emergency conditions, survival. This space suit architecture is unique in comparison to previous launch, entry, and abort (LEA) suit architectures in that it utilized rigid mobility elements in the scye and the upper arm regions. The suit architecture also employed rigid thigh disconnect elements to allow for quick disconnect functionality above the knee which allowed for commonality of the lower portion of the suit across two suit configurations. This suit architecture was designed to interface with the Orion seat subsystem, which includes seat components, lateral supports, and restraints. Due to this unique configuration of spacesuit mobility elements, combined with the need to provide occupant protection during dynamic landing events, risks were identified with potential injury due to the suit characteristics described above. To address the risk concerns, a test series was developed to evaluate the likelihood and consequences of these potential issues. Testing included use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and representative seat/suit hardware in combination with high linear acceleration events. The ensuing treatment focuses o detailed results of the testing that has ben conducted under this test series thus far.

  15. Movement Repetitions in Physical and Occupational Therapy during Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Molly C

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Longitudinal observational study. Objective To quantify the amount of upper and lower extremity movement repetitions (i.e., voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Setting Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centres. Methods Participants 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Interventions Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week prior to discharge. Main Outcome Measures PT and OT time, upper and lower extremity repetitions, and changes in these outcomes over the rehabilitation stay. Results We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, median upper extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Conclusions Repetitions of upper and lower extremity movement are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. PMID:27752057

  16. SDF-1 dynamically mediates megakaryocyte niche occupancy and thrombopoiesis at steady state and following radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Niswander, Lisa M; Fegan, Katherine H; Kingsley, Paul D; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James

    2014-07-10

    Megakaryocyte (MK) development in the bone marrow progresses spatially from the endosteal niche, which promotes MK progenitor proliferation, to the sinusoidal vascular niche, the site of terminal maturation and thrombopoiesis. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), signaling through CXCR4, is implicated in the maturational chemotaxis of MKs toward sinusoidal vessels. Here, we demonstrate that both IV administration of SDF-1 and stabilization of endogenous SDF-1 acutely increase MK-vasculature association and thrombopoiesis with no change in MK number. In the setting of radiation injury, we find dynamic fluctuations in marrow SDF-1 distribution that spatially and temporally correlate with variations in MK niche occupancy. Stabilization of altered SDF-1 gradients directly affects MK location. Importantly, these SDF-1-mediated changes have functional consequences for platelet production, as the movement of MKs away from the vasculature decreases circulating platelets, while MK association with the vasculature increases circulating platelets. Finally, we demonstrate that manipulation of SDF-1 gradients can improve radiation-induced thrombocytopenia in a manner additive with earlier TPO treatment. Taken together, our data support the concept that SDF-1 regulates the spatial distribution of MKs in the marrow and consequently circulating platelet numbers. This knowledge of the microenvironmental regulation of the MK lineage could lead to improved therapeutic strategies for thrombocytopenia.

  17. SDF-1 dynamically mediates megakaryocyte niche occupancy and thrombopoiesis at steady state and following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Niswander, Lisa M.; Fegan, Katherine H.; Kingsley, Paul D.; McGrath, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Megakaryocyte (MK) development in the bone marrow progresses spatially from the endosteal niche, which promotes MK progenitor proliferation, to the sinusoidal vascular niche, the site of terminal maturation and thrombopoiesis. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), signaling through CXCR4, is implicated in the maturational chemotaxis of MKs toward sinusoidal vessels. Here, we demonstrate that both IV administration of SDF-1 and stabilization of endogenous SDF-1 acutely increase MK-vasculature association and thrombopoiesis with no change in MK number. In the setting of radiation injury, we find dynamic fluctuations in marrow SDF-1 distribution that spatially and temporally correlate with variations in MK niche occupancy. Stabilization of altered SDF-1 gradients directly affects MK location. Importantly, these SDF-1-mediated changes have functional consequences for platelet production, as the movement of MKs away from the vasculature decreases circulating platelets, while MK association with the vasculature increases circulating platelets. Finally, we demonstrate that manipulation of SDF-1 gradients can improve radiation-induced thrombocytopenia in a manner additive with earlier TPO treatment. Taken together, our data support the concept that SDF-1 regulates the spatial distribution of MKs in the marrow and consequently circulating platelet numbers. This knowledge of the microenvironmental regulation of the MK lineage could lead to improved therapeutic strategies for thrombocytopenia. PMID:24735964

  18. Evaluation of an occupational therapy program for patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Pillastrini, P; Mugnai, R; Bonfiglioli, R; Curti, S; Mattioli, S; Maioli, M G; Bazzocchi, G; Menarini, M; Vannini, R; Violante, F S

    2008-01-01

    Clinical controlled trial. To evaluate the effectiveness of an occupational therapy (OT) program combined with neuromotor rehabilitation, by assessing the degree of functional independence reached by patients with spinal cord injuries at first hospitalization. Subjects selected from the Spinal Cord Unit of the Rehabilitation Institute of Montecatone (Imola, Italy). Thirty-six male patients below age 60, with complete paraplegia (ASIA-A) in thoracic-lumbar level, at first hospitalization. Patients were divided into experimental and control groups. Subjects in the experimental group underwent neuromotor rehabilitation coupled with an OT program, whereas those in the control group followed neuromotor rehabilitation only. Increase in functional independence at discharge was evaluated by the Valutazione Funzionale Mielolesi (VFM) assessment scale. Patients in the experimental group showed a significant increase in the total VFM score, and in domains concerning transfers and wheelchair use. A significant improvement was observed in unmarried patients as compared to married ones. An OT service within a Spinal Cord Unit allows us to achieve a higher level of functional independence.

  19. Evaluating the Association of Workplace Psychosocial Stressors with Occupational Injury, Illness, and Assault

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lezah P.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Sokas, Rosemary K.; Conroy, Lorraine; Freels, Sally; Swanson, Naomi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research project characterizes occupational injuries, illnesses, and assaults (OIIAs) as a negative outcome associated with worker exposure to generalized workplace abuse/harassment, sexual harassment, and job threat and pressure. Methods Data were collected in a nationwide random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted during 2003–2004. There were 2,151 study interviews conducted in English and Spanish. Analyses included cross tabulation with Pearson’s Chi-Square, and logistic regression analyses. Results Three hundred fifty-one (351) study participants reported having an OIIA during the 12 months preceding the study. Occurrences of generalized workplace harassment (O.R.= 1.53; CI = 1.33 – 1.75, p≤ 0.05), sexual harassment (O.R.= 1. 18; CI = 1.04 –1.34, p≤ 0.05), and job pressure and threat (O.R.=1.26; CI = 1.10–1.45, p≤ 0.05), were significantly associated with reporting an OIIA. Conclusions The psychosocial environment is significantly associated with an increased risk of OIIA. Further research is needed to understand causal pathways and to explore potential interventions. PMID:21154106

  20. The inclusion of homemakers as an occupation amongst people with upper limb repetitive stress injuries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixian; Cheung, Therma Wai Chun

    2016-09-27

    Risk factors contributing to upper limb repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) have been well-documented in literature, but there has been no such data in Singapore. To investigate potential contributory factors to upper limb RSIsMETHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of clients who were referred to outpatient upper limb rehabilitation in 2012. Demographic information was retrieved from an electronic documentation system. Descriptive analyses were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17. A total of 1108 upper limb RSI referrals (827 females, 281 males) were included in this study. The mean age of the group was 53.74 (s.d. 13.03) with a significant proportion within the range of 51-60 years old. The 3 diagnoses which accounted for the majority of clients were: flexor tendinitis of the hand and fingers, DeQuervain's tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. A statistically significant proportion of these clients were also involved in doing housework. Upper limb RSIs are prevalent amongst the general population, especially in females. Participation in housework may entail biomechanical loads which may contribute to or worsen upper limb RSIs. Occupational classification systems should include homemakers as a standalone category, distinct from paid domestic help, given the similar nature of physical work involved.

  1. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Horn, Susan D.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Timpson, Misti L.; Carroll, Deborah M.; Smout, Randy J.; Hammond, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe use of Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT) and Speech Therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Design Multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Setting 9 U.S. and 1 Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. Participants 2130 patients admitted for initial acute rehabilitation following TBI. Patients were categorized based on admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogenous groups. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in the activities, per 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Results Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. While advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. Conclusions The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous PBE studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. PMID:26212399

  2. Movement repetitions in physical and occupational therapy during spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zbogar, D; Eng, J J; Miller, W C; Krassioukov, A V; Verrier, M C

    2017-02-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week before discharge. PT and OT time, upper- and lower-extremity repetitions and changes in these outcomes over the course of rehabilitation stay. We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, the median upper-extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower-extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon-signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Repetitions of upper- and lower-extremity movements are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the course of inpatient rehabilitation stay.

  3. Analysis of occupational injuries in the sea fishing industry according to the type of fishery and the fishing activity.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Christine; Le Bouar, Gilbert; Lardjane, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Sea fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations. Numerous studies have already sought to evaluate the risk level of this occupation through the analysis of the frequency and seriousness of occupational injuries. The purpose of the present study is to analyse these accidents in terms of two main characteristics of the vessels involved: the fishery type (high seas, offshore, coastal, or inshore fishery) and the fishing activity (use of passive or active gears). Injury rates were calculated for the Brittany region and for the year 2012. A second analysis was carried out on 8,286 reported injuries that occurred in France from 2002 to 2012, while vessels were in the process of fishing. This first analysis shows that the incidence rate is very high (103 per 1,000 full-time equivalent fishermen) and that it depends more on the fishery type than on the fishing activity; the highest rates concern the offshore and the coastal fleets. Results of the second analysis show that the nature of accidents depends more on the fishing activity than on the type of fishery. These findings lead to a discussion of the causes of the highest incidence rate values and the causes of the observed variations. The discussion also involves the methodological difficulties related to the incidence rate calculations.

  4. Long-term risk of repeat occupational injury or illness incidents among veterans health administration nursing employees.

    PubMed

    Welch, Charles E

    2010-08-01

    This retrospective population-based study assessed the long-term risk of repeat reported occupational injury or illness incidents among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) nursing employees. Using fiscal year (FY) 2002 as the start date for the longitudinal surveillance of incidents, descriptive analyses included all VHA nursing employees (N = 25,697) who reported an initial (index) incident that occurred between FY 2002 and FY 2005. Adjusted for total administrative loss rates (e.g., attrition, disability, retirements), approximately half of the "surviving" index cases reported repeat incidents during an ensuing 3-year period. This total increased to approximately two thirds during a 6-year period. Compared to their nurse counterparts, practical nurses and nursing assistants had higher cumulative probabilities of multiple reported repeat occupational injury or illness incidents. Study findings suggest that reported levels of repeat occupational injury or illness incidents represent a complex interplay between environmental factors (e.g., location) and nursing staff demographics (e.g., level of education).

  5. Are joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, obesity, or occupational activities predictors for osteoarthritis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Sarah A; Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Ezzat, Allison; Schneider, Kathryn; Schneider, Geoff; Emery, Carolyn A

    2013-08-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To identify risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, hip, and ankle, including joint injury, sport, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and occupational activity, in all age groups. OA is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting up to 10% of men and 18% of women over 60 years of age. There has not been a comprehensive review examining modifiable physical risk factors associated with the onset of OA. This evidence is important to inform the physiotherapy management of individuals following onset of OA. Twelve electronic databases were systematically reviewed. The studies selected met the following criteria: (1) original data; (2) joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and/or occupational activity investigated as risk factors; (3) outcomes included OA (hip, knee, and/or ankle); and (4) analytic component of study design. The data extracted included study design, years of follow-up, study population, OA definition, risk factors, and results (effect estimates reported or calculated where available). The quality of evidence was assessed based on a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity were associated with an increased risk of OA of the knee and hip. Sport and physical activity produced inconsistent findings. Joint injury was identified as a significant risk factor for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.2) and hip OA (combined odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 18.2), as was previous meniscectomy with or without anterior cruciate ligament injury for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval: 4.0, 13.7). There is a paucity of research examining risk factors associated with ankle OA; this review identified only 2 studies with this outcome. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity are associated with an increased risk of knee and hip OA. Some findings

  6. 75 FR 4406 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Applications (RFA) 06-484; and Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Centers, RFA 06-485, Initial..., RFA 06-484; and Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Centers, RFA 06-485.'' There were... Projects Grants, RFA 06-484; Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Centers, RFA...

  7. The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

  8. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  9. Surgical management of a large peritoneal pseudocyst causing acute kidney injury secondary to abdominal compartment syndrome in a rare case of congenital absence of omentum during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin P; Hunjan, Tia; Terry, Jayne

    2016-09-01

    Complete congenital absence of the omentum is very rare with only one previously reported case. We present a unique case of the management of a pregnant woman with a large pelvic pseudocyst caused by complications related to congenital absence of omentum, resulting in acute kidney injury, likely secondary to acute compartment syndrome. This case highlights the importance of considering acute compartment syndrome in critically unwell pregnant women and reiterates the need to measure intra-abdominal pressure when clinically indicated. Given that pregnancy is in itself a state of intra-abdominal hypertension, obstetricians should maintain a high index of suspicion in the context of additional risk factors.

  10. Early Predictors of Lumbar Spine Surgery after Occupational Back Injury: Results from a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A.; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective population-based cohort study Objective To identify early predictors of lumbar spine surgery within 3 years after occupational back injury Summary of Background Data Back injuries are the most prevalent occupational injury in the United States. Little is known about predictors of lumbar spine surgery following occupational back injury. Methods Using Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC) data, we examined the early predictors of lumbar spine surgery within 3 years among Washington State workers with new worker’s compensation temporary total disability claims for back injuries. Baseline measures included worker-reported measures obtained approximately 3 weeks after claim submission. We used medical bill data to determine whether participants underwent surgery, covered by the claim, within 3 years. Baseline predictors (P < 0.10) of surgery in bivariate analyses were included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting lumbar spine surgery. The model’s area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to determine the model’s ability to identify correctly workers who underwent surgery. Results In the D-RISC sample of 1,885 workers, 174 (9.2%) had a lumbar spine surgery within 3 years. Baseline variables associated with surgery (P < 0.05) in the multivariate model included higher Roland Disability Questionnaire scores, greater injury severity, and surgeon as first provider seen for the injury. Reduced odds of surgery were observed for those under age 35, women, Hispanics, and those whose first provider was a chiropractor. 42.7% of workers who first saw a surgeon had surgery, in contrast to only 1.5% of those who saw a chiropractor. The multivariate model’s AUC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.92–0.95), indicating excellent ability to discriminate between workers who would versus would not have surgery. Conclusion Baseline variables in multiple domains predicted lumbar spine surgery. There was a very

  11. Expanded Occupational Safety and Health Administration 300 log as metric for bariatric patient-handling staff injuries.

    PubMed

    Randall, Stephen B; Pories, Walter J; Pearson, Amy; Drake, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization of morbidly obese patients poses significant physical challenges to healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the staff injuries associated with the patient handling of the obese, to describe a process for identifying injuries associated with their mobilization, and to report on the need for safer bariatric patient handling. We performed our study at a 761-bed, level 1 trauma center affiliated with a U.S. medical school. The hospital's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 300 log was expanded to the "E-OSHA 300 log" to specifically identify injuries the staff attributed to bariatric patient handling. The 2007 E-OSHA 300 log was analyzed to identify and describe the frequency, severity, and nature of bariatric versus nonbariatric patient handling injuries. The analyses revealed that during 2007, although patients with a body mass index of > or =35 kg/m(2) constituted <10% of our patient population, 29.8% of staff injuries related to patient handling were linked to working with a bariatric patient. Bariatric patient handling accounted for 27.9% of all lost workdays and 37.2% of all restricted workdays associated with patient handling. Registered nurses and nursing assistants accounted for 80% of the injuries related to bariatric patient handling. Turning and repositioning the patient in bed accounted for 31% of the injuries incurred. The E-OSHA 300 log narratives revealed that staff injuries associated with obese and nonobese patient handling were usually performed using biomechanics and not equipment. Manual mobilization of morbidly obese patients increases the risk of caregiver injury. A tracking indicator on the OSHA 300 logs for staff injury linked to a bariatric patient would provide the ability to compare obese and nonobese patient handling injuries. The E-OSHA 300 log provides a method to identify the frequency, severity, and nature of caregiver injury during mobilization of the obese. Understanding the

  12. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  13. Occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the US: trends and comparisons with older workers.

    PubMed

    Castillo, D N; Malit, B D

    1997-12-01

    To examine patterns of occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the United States for the three year period 1990-2, examine trends since the 1980s, and compare fatality rates with those of older workers. Occupational injury deaths were analyzed using the death certificate based National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Fatality rates were calculated using estimates of full time equivalent (FTE) workers based on data from the Current Population Survey, a monthly household survey. There were 111 deaths of 16 and 17 year olds for the years 1990-2. The average yearly rate was 3.5 deaths/100,000 FTE. The leading causes of death were motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related. All causes occupational injury fatality rates for 16 and 17 year olds were lower than for adults for 1990-2. Rates for the leading causes of death (motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related) were comparable or slightly higher than the rates for young and middle aged adult workers. Although rates decreased dramatically from 1980 to 1983, the decreasing trend attenuated in later years. Comparisons of youth fatality rates to those of adult workers should address differences in patterns of employment, most importantly hours of work. Comparisons to narrow age groupings of adults is preferable to a single category of all workers 18 years and older. Increasing compliance with federal child labor regulations could help reduce work related deaths of youth. Other measures are needed, however, as there are many work hazards, including those associated with homicides, that are not addressed by United States federal child labor law regulations.

  14. Occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the US: trends and comparisons with older workers.

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, D. N.; Malit, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of occupational injury deaths of 16 and 17 year olds in the United States for the three year period 1990-2, examine trends since the 1980s, and compare fatality rates with those of older workers. METHODS: Occupational injury deaths were analyzed using the death certificate based National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities (NTOF) surveillance system. Fatality rates were calculated using estimates of full time equivalent (FTE) workers based on data from the Current Population Survey, a monthly household survey. RESULTS: There were 111 deaths of 16 and 17 year olds for the years 1990-2. The average yearly rate was 3.5 deaths/100,000 FTE. The leading causes of death were motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related. All causes occupational injury fatality rates for 16 and 17 year olds were lower than for adults for 1990-2. Rates for the leading causes of death (motor vehicle related, homicide, and machinery related) were comparable or slightly higher than the rates for young and middle aged adult workers. Although rates decreased dramatically from 1980 to 1983, the decreasing trend attenuated in later years. CONCLUSIONS: Comparisons of youth fatality rates to those of adult workers should address differences in patterns of employment, most importantly hours of work. Comparisons to narrow age groupings of adults is preferable to a single category of all workers 18 years and older. Increasing compliance with federal child labor regulations could help reduce work related deaths of youth. Other measures are needed, however, as there are many work hazards, including those associated with homicides, that are not addressed by United States federal child labor law regulations. PMID:9493624

  15. An estimate of the U.S. government's undercount of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan; McCurdy, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    Debate surrounds the accuracy of U.S. government's estimates of job-related injuries and illnesses in agriculture. Whereas studies have attempted to estimate the undercount for all industries combined, none have specifically addressed agriculture. Data were drawn from the U.S. government's premier sources for workplace injuries and illnesses and employment: the Bureau of Labor Statistics databanks for the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, and the Current Population Survey. Estimates were constructed using transparent assumptions; for example, that the rate (cases-per-employee) of injuries and illnesses on small farms was the same as on large farms (an assumption we altered in sensitivity analysis). We estimated 74,932 injuries and illnesses for crop farms and 68,504 for animal farms, totaling 143,436 cases in 2011. We estimated that SOII missed 73.7% of crop farm cases and 81.9% of animal farm cases for an average of 77.6% for all agriculture. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the percent missed ranged from 61.5% to 88.3% for all agriculture. We estimate considerable undercounting of nonfatal injuries and illnesses in agriculture and believe the undercounting is larger than any other industry. Reasons include: SOII's explicit exclusion of employees on small farms and of farmers and family members and Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages's undercounts of employment. Undercounting limits our ability to identify and address occupational health problems in agriculture, affecting both workers and society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combining Adult Learning Theory with Occupational Therapy Intervention for Bladder and Bowel Management after Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Gina; Bell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Bladder and bowel management is an important goal of rehabilitation for clients with spinal cord injury. Dependence is these areas have been linked to a variety of secondary complications, including decreased quality of life, urinary tract infections and pressure ulcers (Hammell, 2010; Hicken et al, 2001). Occupational therapists have been identified as important members of the health care team in spinal cord injury rehabilitation; however, specific roles and interventions have not been clearly described. This case report will describe occupational therapy interventions embedded with principles of adult learning theory to address bladder and bowel management with an adult client who sustained an incomplete thoracic level spinal cord injury.

  17. Occupant injury and fatality in general aviation aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is certification-mandated.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-06-01

    Towards further improving general aviation aircraft crashworthiness, multi-axis dynamic tests have been required for aircraft certification (14CFR23.562) since 1985. The objective of this study was to determine if occupants in aircraft certified to these higher crashworthiness standards show a mitigated fraction of fatal accidents and/or injury severity. The NTSB aviation database was queried for accidents occurring between 2002 and 2012 involving aircraft certified to, or immune from, dynamic crash testing and manufactured after 1999. Only operations conducted under 14CFR Part 91 were considered. Statistical analysis employed proportion tests and logistic regression. Off-airport landings are associated with high decelerative forces; however for off-airport landings, the fraction of fatal accidents for aircraft subject to, or exempt from, dynamic crash testing was similar (0.53 and 0.60, respectively). Unexpectedly, for on-airport landings a higher fraction of fatalities was evident for aircraft whose certification mandated dynamic crash testing. Improved crashworthiness standards would be expected to translate into a reduced severity of accident injuries. For all accidents, as well as for those deemed survivable, the fraction of minor and serious injuries was reduced for occupants in aircraft certified to the higher crashworthiness standards. Surprisingly, the fraction of occupants fatally injured was not decreased for aircraft subject to dynamic crash tests. To shed light on this unexpected finding flight history, airman demographics and post-impact fires for aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is mandatory or exempt was examined. For the former cohort the median distance of the accident flight was nearly 44% higher. Aircraft subject to dynamic crash testing were also involved in a greater fraction (0.25 versus 0.12, respectively) of post-impact fires. Our data suggest that while the more stringent crashworthiness standards have mitigated minor and serious

  18. Occupational injuries among construction workers treated in a major metropolitan emergency department in the United States.

    PubMed

    Welch, Laura S; Hunting, Katherine L; Murawski, Judith Anderson

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to profile construction workers' injuries for more information about the causes of nonfatal construction worker injuries and identify injury trends for further investigations and prevention programs. An injury-tracking program for emergency departments was established in 1990 to gather the data needed for the study. Profiles were obtained for 2916 construction workers' injuries that were identified on hospital registration forms at the George Washington University Emergency Department in Washington, DC, from November 1990 through October 1997. Laborers and construction workers who did not specify a trade were combined, and together they made up the largest group--29% of the injured workers. The leading cause of injury was contact with cutting or piercing objects-most often pieces of metal, razors, knives, power tools, and nails. Workers striking against objects or being struck by objects (including falling objects) accounted for the second-largest group of injuries, and the third leading injury circumstance was falling--either from a height or on the same level. Detailed injury statistics are presented by trade, showing patterns of injury that reflect tasks of these trades and which injuries predominated in each trade. Although many previous reports have described construction workers' injuries, very few have provided detailed data by trade. The details presented in this analysis allow for a better understanding of the injury circumstances and provide a starting point for injury prevention programs.

  19. A review of serious injuries and deaths among car occupants after motor vehicle crashes in Sweden from 1987 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Boström, L; Wladis, A; Nilsson, B

    2001-01-01

    Car occupants injured in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are a common problem in emergency departments. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence over time, according to the type of injury, age and sex distribution, mortality rate and geographical differences among all patients admitted to Swedish hospitals because of MVC injuries. Between 1987 and 1994, Swedish hospitals admitted 37,871 persons (51,348 admissions) who had been involved in MVC as drivers or passengers. There were 23,369 men and 14,502 women. The annual frequency of hospital admissions ranged from 5,943 to 7,175. There were 74.8 injured persons admitted per 100,000 of the population each year. Males between 16 and 24 years of age were more commonly involved. Injuries to the head and neck were particularly frequent (39%). Older persons, males, and passengers had a poor survival outcome. The incidence of injured car occupants was significantly higher in sparsly populated areas of Sweden.

  20. High strength steels, stiffness of vehicle front-end structure, and risk of injury to rear seat occupants.

    PubMed

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer; Roddis, Kim

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that rear seat occupant protection has decreased over model years, and front-end stiffness is a possible factor causing this trend. In this research, the effects of a change in stiffness on protection of rear seat occupants in frontal crashes were investigated. The stiffness was adjusted by using higher strength steels (DP and TRIP), or thicker metal sheets. Finite element simulations were performed, using an LS Dyna vehicle model coupled with a MADYMO dummy. Simulation results showed that an increase in stiffness, to the extent it happened in recent model years, can increase the risk of AIS3+ head injuries from 4.8% in the original model (with a stiffness of 1,000 N/mm) to 24.2% in a modified model (with a stiffness of 2,356 N/mm). The simulations also showed an increased risk of chest injury from 9.1% in the original model to 11.8% in the modified model. Distribution of injuries from real world accident data confirms the findings of the simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rear seat occupant safety: kinematics and injury of PMHS restrained by a standard 3-point belt in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Jarett; Forman, Jason; Kent, Richard; Kuppa, Shashi

    2008-11-01

    Very little experimental research has focused on the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of rear-seated occupants. This study seeks to develop a baseline response for rear-seated post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) in frontal crashes. Three PMHS sled tests were performed in a sled buck designed to represent the interior rear-seat compartment of a contemporary mid-sized sedan. All occupants were positioned in the right-rear passenger seat and subjected to simulated frontal crashes with an impact speed of 48 km/h. The subjects were restrained by a standard, rear seat, 3-point seat belt. The response of each subject was evaluated in terms of whole-body kinematics, dynamics, and injury. All the PMHS experienced excessive forward translation of the pelvis resulting in a backward rotation of the torso at the time of maximum forward excursion. The three subjects experienced maximum normalized chest deflections of 30%, 45%, and 30%, respectively, and maximum 3 ms clip resultant chest accelerations of 50, 42, and 52 g, respectively. Additionally, each PMHS received at least 13 rib fractures (maximum of 29 fractures), and flexion-tension induced neck injuries initiating in the lower cervical spine (C4-T1). The neck trauma ranged from ligament damage (AIS 1) to complete cervical spine transection (AIS 5).

  2. Beta-blocker exposure in the absence of significant head injuries is associated with reduced mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Bukur, Marko; Lustenberger, Thomas; Cotton, Bryan; Arbabi, Saman; Talving, Peep; Salim, Ali; Ley, Eric J; Inaba, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    The effect of β-blockade in trauma patients without significant head injuries is unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of β-blocker exposure on mortality in critically injured trauma patients who did not sustain significant head injuries. Critically ill trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥ 25) admitted to the surgical intensive care unit from January 2000 to December 2008 without severe traumatic brain injuries (head Abbreviated Injury Score ≥ 3) were included in this retrospective review. Patients who received β-blockers within 30 days of intensive care unit admission were compared with those who did not. The primary outcome measure evaluated was in-hospital mortality. During the 9-year study period, 663 critically injured patients (Injury Severity Score ≥ 25) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Of these, 98 patients (14.8%) received β-blockers. Patients exposed to β-blockers had significantly lower in-hospital mortality (11.2% vs 19.3%, P = .006). Stepwise logistic regression identified β-blocker use as an independent protective factor for mortality (adjusted odds ratio, .37; P = .007) in critically injured patients. Beta-blocker exposure was associated with reduced mortality in critically injured patients without head injuries. Prospective validation of this finding is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prioritizing industries for occupational injury and illness prevention and research, Washington State Workers' compensation claims, 1999-2003.

    PubMed

    Bonauto, David; Silverstein, Barbara; Adams, Darrin; Foley, Michael

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify high-risk industry groups for effective allocation of occupational safety and health prevention and research resources. We used all compensable Washington state workers' compensation claims to rank North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) industry groups by a "prevention index" (PI). The PI is the average of the rank orders of each industry group's claim count and claim incidence rate. Of the 274 industry groups ranked by PI for all compensable workers' compensation claims, the following industry groups ranked the highest: NAICS 2381 Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors, NAICS 4841 General Freight Trucking, and NAICS 2361 Residential Building Construction. Industry group PI rankings are reported for the seven most common costly occupational injury types. Use of a PI can focus prevention and research resources where they can be of most benefit.

  4. Early predictors of lumbar spine surgery after occupational back injury: results from a prospective study of workers in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Benjamin J; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A; Wickizer, Thomas M; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M

    2013-05-15

    Prospective population-based cohort study. To identify early predictors of lumbar spine surgery within 3 years after occupational back injury. Back injuries are the most prevalent occupational injury in the United States. Few prospective studies have examined early predictors of spine surgery after work-related back injury. Using Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC) data, we examined the early predictors of lumbar spine surgery within 3 years among Washington State workers, with new workers compensation temporary total disability claims for back injuries. Baseline measures included worker-reported measures obtained approximately 3 weeks after claim submission. We used medical bill data to determine whether participants underwent surgery, covered by the claim, within 3 years. Baseline predictors (P < 0.10) of surgery in bivariate analyses were included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting lumbar spine surgery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model was used to determine the model's ability to identify co