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Sample records for absence register study

  1. Changes in economic difficulties and subsequent sickness absence: a prospective register-linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives People's economic difficulties are associated with their health, but consequences of changes in economic difficulties are less understood. We aimed to examine the associations between changes in economic difficulties and subsequent sickness absence while considering socioeconomic circumstances and other covariates. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants Municipal employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n=3859), who were respondents to the baseline (2000–2002) and follow-up (2007) questionnaire surveys and had register-based follow-up data on sickness absence until the end of 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Self-certified short (1–3 days) and medically certified intermediate (4–14 days) and long (15+ days) sickness absence spells were examined using employer's personnel register data. Results Persistent frequent economic difficulties predicted short (rate ratios (RR) 1.66 95% CI 1.49 to 1.86), intermediate (RR 2.13 95% CI 1.85 to 2.45) and long (RR 2.18 95% CI 1.75 to 2.70) sickness absence spells. Increasing economic difficulties similarly predicted sickness absence spells. The risks were somewhat stronger the longer the absence, and remained although attenuated somewhat after full adjustment. Weak risks were found also for persistent occasional economic difficulties and decreasing economic difficulties, and they attenuated further after full adjustments. Conclusions Changes in economic difficulties predict subsequent sickness absence even after considering income, baseline health and other covariates. Thus economic difficulties should be considered when addressing causes of sickness absence. PMID:23303901

  2. Sleep and Sickness Absence: A Nationally Representative Register-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lallukka, Tea; Kaikkonen, Risto; Härkänen, Tommi; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Koskinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We aimed to examine various sleep measures as determinants of sickness absence while considering confounders. Design: Nationally representative Health 2000 Survey linked with sickness absence data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Setting: Finland. Participants: Working-aged women (n = 1,875) and men (n = 1,885). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired during daytime than other people of same age, use of sleeping pills, excessive daytime sleepiness, probable sleep apnea (4 items about snoring/apnea), and reporting that sleep duration varies between different seasons were examined as determinants of sickness absence over a 7.2 year follow-up. Poisson and gamma regression models were fitted. After adjusting age, all examined sleep disturbances except excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with sickness absence among men (RRs 1.3-2.5). Among women, after adjusting for age, insomnia-related symptoms, early morning awakenings, being more tired than others, and use of sleeping pills were associated with sickness absence (RRs 1.4-1.8). After further adjustments for education, working conditions, health behaviors, and objectively measured mental and somatic health, the associations somewhat attenuated but mainly remained. The optimal sleep duration with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7.6 hours for women and 7.8 hours for men. Although persistence of other health problems could affect the estimates, direct costs due to sickness absence could decrease by up to 28% if sleep disturbances could be fully addressed. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for prevention of sleep disturbances and promotion of optimal sleep length to prevent sickness absence. Citation: Lallukka T, Kaikkonen R, Härkänen T, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Rahkonen O, Koskinen S. Sleep and sickness absence: a nationally representative register-based follow-up study. SLEEP 2014

  3. Increased Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence, Lower Rate of Return to Work, and Higher Risk of Unemployment and Disability Pensioning for Thyroid Patients: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Watt, T.; Pedersen, J.; Bonnema, S. J.; Hegedüs, L.; Rasmussen, A. K.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Bjorner, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a longitudinal register study, outpatients (n = 862) with nontoxic goiter, hyperthyroidism, Graves' orbitopathy (GO), autoimmune hypothyroidism, or other thyroid diseases and their matched controls (n = 7043) were observed in the years 1994–2011 in Danish national registers of social benefits, health, and work characteristics. Cox regression analyses estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the first year after diagnosis and subsequent years. Main Outcome Measures: Transitions between work, long-term sickness absence, unemployment, and disability pension were measured. Results: Patients differed significantly from the general population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62) and higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.15). Patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism showed a lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62). In subsequent years, GO patients had significantly higher risk of sickness absence (HR 2.08), lower probability of return from sickness absence (HR 0.51), and unemployment (HR 0.52) and a higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.40). Hyperthyroid patients also had difficulties returning from sickness absence (HR 0.71). Conclusions: Thyroid patients' risk of work disability is most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis and attenuates in subsequent years. GO patients have the highest risk of work disability. PMID:24937367

  4. Celotex (Registered) Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S; Hafner, R

    2002-10-01

    The AL-R8 is the pit storage container in most widespread use at Pantex. The AL-R8 container family consists of standard 20-in.-diameter steel drums, 30 to 60 in. in height, with insulation inserts made of Celotex{reg_sign}--a fiberboard product made from processed sugar cane. Celotex is an acceptable material for inserts in many radioactive material shipping and storage containers. It is a good shock mitigator/insulator, does a fair job in fire protection (when oxygen is excluded), shielding, and criticality, and is inexpensive and easily available. However, the fiberboard absorbs water in humid environments which, when combined with chemical residues in the fiberboard, forms corrosive compounds that can shorten the life of the container and affect container contents. To protect the contents from this potentially damaging environment, the AL-R8 SI was developed to isolate the contents within a sealed stainless steel vessel inside the AL-R8. Although the SI protected the contents, corrosion studies indicated the SI lid bolts might corrode over time and surveillance showed that areas of the outer drum were still subject to corrosion. To address this potential problem, DOE/Albuquerque sponsored bolt and Celotex replacement studies. The bolt replacement study was assigned to Mason and Hanger's Pantex Facility and this Celotex Replacement Study to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Celotex Replacement Study evaluated options for replacing Celotex with a material that is chemically compatible with the AL-R8 SI container. The evaluation was limited to materials either used previously in nuclear materials shipping and storage containers or materials with known properties in a low-radiation environment. This limitation was set to ensure that the long-term aging effect on the new material is known a priori. Initial material evaluations narrowed the material choices to foam and cork. Although cork performed better than foam in some tests, cork was considered a less

  5. Return to Work among Employees with Long-Term Sickness Absence in Eldercare: A Prospective Analysis of Register-Based Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Thomas; Friis Andersen, Malenea; Bang Christensen, Karl; Lund, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states predict return to work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence among eldercare staff. We followed 9947 employees in a national register on payment of sickness-absence compensation for 1 year and found that 598 employees had absence periods of 8…

  6. Estimating vaccination coverage in the absence of immunisation registers--the German experience.

    PubMed

    Siedler, A; Rieck, T; Reuss, A; Walter, D; Poggensee, G; Poethko-Muller, C; Reiter, S

    2012-04-26

    Immunisation registers are regarded as an appropriate solution to measure vaccination coverage on a population level. In Germany, a decentralised healthcare system and data protection regulations constrain such an approach. Moreover, shared responsibilities in the process of immunisation and multiple providers form the framework for public health interventions on vaccination issues. On the national level, those interventions consist mainly of conceptualising immunisation strategies, establishing vaccination programmes, and issuing recommendations. This paper provides an overview on sources and methods for collecting appropriate coverage data at national level and their public health relevance in Germany. Methods of data collection and available information on immunisations are described for three approaches: school entrance health examination, population surveys and insurance refund claim data. School entrance health examinations allow regional comparisons and estimation of trends for a specific cohort of children and for all recommended childhood vaccinations. Surveys deliver population based data on completeness and timeliness of selected vaccinations in populations defined by age or socio-demographic parameters and on knowledge and attitudes towards vaccination. Insurance refund claim data inform continuously on immunisation status (e.g. of children aged two years) or on vaccination incidence promptly after new or modified recommendations. In a complex healthcare system, the German National Public Health Institute (Robert Koch Institute, RKI) successfully compiles coverage data from different sources, which complement and validate one another. With the German approach of combining different data sources in the absence of immunisation registers, it is possible to gain solid and reliable data on the acceptance of vaccination programmes and target groups for immunisation. This approach might be of value for other countries with decentralised healthcare systems.

  7. Return to work among employees with long-term sickness absence in eldercare: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Thomas; Friis Andersen, Malene; Christensen, Karl Bang; Lund, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates whether psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states predict return to work (RTW) after long-term sickness absence among eldercare staff. We followed 9947 employees in a national register on payment of sickness-absence compensation for 1 year and found that 598 employees had absence periods of 8 or more consecutive weeks. Using Cox regression analysis, these 598 employees were followed for a year after onset of sickness absence to investigate associations between baseline questionnaire data on psychosocial work characteristics and work-related psychological states on the one side and 'risk' of RTW on the other. The results showed that none of the psychosocial work characteristics, emotional demands, role conflicts, quality of leadership and influence, were significantly associated with RTW. Of the two work-related psychological states, affective organizational commitment and experience of meaning at work, the results showed that sickness-absent employees who experienced low meaning at work at baseline had a significantly reduced 'risk' of RTW when compared with employees who experienced high meaning at work. No significant associations were found for affective organizational commitment. The results imply that experience of meaning at work must be considered an important work-life resource, as it enhances the capacity of sickness-absent employees to RTW after extended sickness-absence periods.

  8. Descriptive study of cough, wheeze and school absence in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Doull, I J; Williams, A A; Freezer, N J; Holgate, S T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory symptoms such as cough and wheeze are associated with significant morbidity, including school absenteeism. METHODS: A respiratory questionnaire was sent to the parents of all 5727 children aged 7-9 years of age registered with 95 general practitioners in the Southampton area to determine (a) the prevalence of asthma, cough and wheeze, (b) the effects of respiratory symptoms on school absenteeism, and (c) the use of anti-asthma medication. RESULTS: A total of 4830 parents replied (response rate 86%). The 12 month prevalence of wheeze in the absence of cough was 5.5%, cough in the absence of wheeze was 10.0%, and 7.6% reported cough and wheeze; 15.2% of children had been diagnosed. Of the 4830 who replied, 12.7% were receiving bronchodilators, 0.6% xanthine derivatives, 1.7% sodium cromoglycate, and 4.1% inhaled corticosteroids. In all, 348 (7.2%) children had missed more than five days of schooling in the preceding year for respiratory symptoms, while 43 children (0.9%) had missed more than 20 days of schooling in the preceding year. Of the children who had missed more than five days of schooling, 43% reported cough and wheeze, 33% cough alone, and 16% wheeze alone in the preceding year. Compared with children who coughed, those who wheezed were significantly more likely to be diagnosed as asthmatic and to be receiving bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, cough was the most frequently reported symptom amongst children missing more than five days of schooling per year. PMID:8693448

  9. Context Switching with Multiple Register Windows: A RISC Performance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsek, Marion B.; Reed, Daniel A.; Watcharawittayakul, Wittaya

    1987-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that a large file of overlapping register windows can greatly reduce procedure call/return overhead, the effects of register windows in a multiprogramming environment are poorly understood. This paper investigates the performance of multiprogrammed, reduced instruction set computers (RISCs) as a function of window management strategy. Using an analytic model that reflects context switch and procedure call overheads, we analyze the performance of simple, linearly self-recursive programs. For more complex programs, we present the results of a simulation study. These studies show that a simple strategy that saves all windows prior to a context switch, but restores only a single window following a context switch, performs near optimally.

  10. Prenatal Maternal Smoking and Tourette Syndrome: A Nationwide Register Study.

    PubMed

    Leivonen, Susanna; Chudal, Roshan; Joelsson, Petteri; Ekblad, Mikael; Suominen, Auli; Brown, Alan S; Gissler, Mika; Voutilainen, Arja; Sourander, Andre

    2016-02-01

    This is the first nationwide register-based study to examine the relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome. A total of 767 children diagnosed with Tourette syndrome were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Each case was matched to four controls. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with Tourette syndrome when comorbid with ADHD (OR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.2-13.5, p = 0.027 for exposure during first trimester, OR 1.7, 95 % CI, 1.05-2.7, p = 0.031 for exposure for the whole pregnancy). There was no association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and Tourette syndrome without comorbid ADHD (OR 0.5, 95 % CI 0.2-1.3, p = 0.166, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.7-1.3, p = 0.567). Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the association between prenatal maternal smoking and Tourette syndrome with comorbid ADHD.

  11. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence

    PubMed Central

    van Rhenen, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. Methods We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD–R) model as theoretical framework. Results Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. Conclusions The JD–R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance. PMID:26872050

  12. Databases and registers: useful tools for research, no studies.

    PubMed

    Curbelo, Rafael J; Loza, Estíbaliz; de Yébenes, Maria Jesús García; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-04-01

    There are many misunderstandings about databases. Database is a commonly misused term in reference to any set of data entered into a computer. However, true databases serve a main purpose, organising data. They do so by establishing several layers of relationships; databases are hierarchical. Databases commonly organise data over different levels and over time, where time can be measured as the time between visits, or between treatments, or adverse events, etc. In this sense, medical databases are closely related to longitudinal observational studies, as databases allow the introduction of data on the same patient over time. Basically, we could establish four types of databases in medicine, depending on their purpose: (1) administrative databases, (2) clinical databases, (3) registers, and (4) study-oriented databases. But a database is a useful tool for a large variety of studies, not a type of study itself. Different types of databases serve very different purposes, and a clear understanding of the different research designs mentioned in this paper would prevent many of the databases we launch from being just a lot of work and very little science. PMID:24509895

  13. Mental disorders in the Greenlandic population. A register study.

    PubMed

    Lynge, I; Mortensen, P B; Munk-Jørgensen, P

    1999-07-01

    In a register study of all psychiatric first hospitalizations (1974-93) of persons born and resident in Greenland rates for all admissions as well as for the separate diagnostic groups, hierarchically organized, were compared with corresponding figures for the population in Denmark. Relative mortality rates for the psychiatric patients compared with the general population were computed for the Greenlandic and Danish populations respectively. No significant differences in the total pattern of hospitalization was found, but Greenlandic men 15-24 years old and Greenlandic women 25-34 years old had significantly higher and older age groups lower first admission rates than Danish men and women, respectively. The rates for affective psychoses were low especially among men in Greenland, whereas the rates for schizophrenia among men were comparatively high. The relative mortality risk compared to the general population was much higher among Danish than Greenlandic psychiatric patients, especially regarding suicide. A probable explanation for that is that the suicide rate in the Green-landic general population is very high.

  14. Does Postponement of First Pregnancy Increase Gender Differences in Sickness Absence? A Register Based Analysis of Norwegian Employees in 1993–2007

    PubMed Central

    Ariansen, Anja M. S.; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2014-01-01

    Background From 1970–2012, the average age at first delivery increased from 23.2–28.5 in Norway. Postponement of first pregnancy increases risks of medical complications both during and after pregnancy. Sickness absence during pregnancy has over the last two decades increased considerably more than in non-pregnant women. The aim of this paper is twofold: Firstly to investigate if postponement of pregnancy is related to increased sickness absence and thus contributing to the increased gender difference in sickness absence; and secondly, to estimate how much of the increased gender difference in sickness absence that can be accounted for by increased sickness absence amongst pregnant women. Methods We employed registry-data to analyse sickness absence among all Norwegian employees with income equivalent to full-time work in the period 1993–2007. Results After control for age, education, and income, pregnant women's sickness absence (age 20–44) increased on average 0.94 percentage points each year, compared to 0.29 in non-pregnant women and 0.14 in men. In pregnant women aged 20–24, sickness absence during pregnancy increased by 0.96 percent points per calendar year, compared to 0.60 in age-group 30–34. Sickness absence during pregnancy accounted for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence, accounting for changes in education, income and age. Conclusions Postponement of first pregnancy does not explain the increase in pregnant women's sickness absence during the period 1993–2007 as both the highest level and increase in sickness absence is seen in the younger women. Reasons are poorly understood, but still important as it accounts for 25% of the increased gender gap in sickness absence. PMID:24667483

  15. Shiftwork and Sickness Absence Among Police Officers: The BCOPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Charles, Luenda E.; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A.; Violanti, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Shiftwork, regarded as a significant occupational stressor, has become increasingly prevalent across a wide range of occupations. The adverse health outcomes associated with shiftwork are well documented. Shiftwork is an integral part of law enforcement, a high-stress occupation with elevated risks of chronic disease and mortality. Sickness absence is an important source of productivity loss and may also serve as an indirect measure of workers’ morbidity. Prior studies of shiftwork and sickness absenteeism have yielded varying results and the association has not been examined specifically among police officers. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of sick leave (any, ≥3 consecutive days) among day-, afternoon-, and night-shift workers in a cohort of police officers and also examine the role of lifestyle factors as potential moderators of the association. Participants (N = 464) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study examined between 2004 and 2009 were used. Daily work history records that included the shift schedule, number of hours worked, and occurrence of sick leave were available for up to 15 yrs starting in 1994 to the date of the BCOPS study examination for each officer. Poisson regression analysis for ungrouped data was used to estimate incidence rates (IRs) of sick leave by shift, and comparison of IRs across shifts were made by computing incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sick leave occurred at a higher rate on the night shift (4.37 per 10 000 person-hours) compared with either day (1.55 per 10000 person-hours) or afternoon (1.96 per 10000 person-hours) shifts. The association between shiftwork and sickness absence depended on body mass index (BMI). For overweight individuals (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), the covariate-adjusted incidence rate of sick leave (≥1 day) was twice as large for night-shift officers compared with those working on the day (IRR = 2.29, 95% CI

  16. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  17. Sickness absence and return to work among Japanese stroke survivors: a 365-day cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Motoki; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Kojimahara, Noriko; Haruyama, Yasuo; Sato, Yasuto; Kato, Rika; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative return to work (RTW) rate and to clarify the predictors of the time to full-time RTW (full RTW) and resignation among Japanese stroke survivors, within the 365-day period following their initial day of sickness absence due to stroke. Setting This study was based on tertiary prevention of occupational health in large-scaled Japanese companies of various industries. Participants The participants in this study were 382 Japanese workers who experienced an episode of sickness leave due to clinically certified stroke diagnosed between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Data were obtained from an occupational health register. Participants were followed up for 365 days after the start day of the first sickness absence. The cumulative RTW rates by Kaplan-Meier estimates and predictors for time to full RTW and resignation by Cox regression were calculated. Results A total of 382 employees had their first sickness absence due to stroke during the 12-year follow-up period. The cumulative full RTW rates at 60, 120, 180 and 365 days were 15.1%, 33.6%, 43.5% and 62.4%, respectively. Employees who took sick leave due to cerebral haemorrhage had a longer time to full RTW (HR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.69) than those with cerebral infarction. Older employees (over 50 years of age) demonstrated a shorter time to resignation than younger employees (HR, 3.30; 95% CI 1.17 to 9.33). Manual workers had a longer time to resignation than non-manual workers (HR, 0.24; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.78). Conclusions Cumulative RTW rates depended on the subtype of stroke, and older age was a predictor of resignation. PMID:26729388

  18. Absence of the flexor digitorum longus tendon: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Taqvi, Syed; Cooper, Robert; Blundell, Chris M; Davies, Mark B

    2012-11-01

    Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is the primary flexor of the lateral four toes. It is a reliable source of tendon for transfer surgery. We present a case whereby a patient who required a reconstruction for adult acquired flatfoot deformity using FDL as a dynamic structure for transfer was found to have an absent FDL tendon at the time of operation, necessitating the use of flexor hallucis longus (FHL) instead. This unusual finding prompted us to investigate the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon. We reviewed our hospital MRI database of foot and ankle images specifically looking for patients with absence of this tendon. After randomization, 756 images were reviewed independently by two surgeons and a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. No instances of an absent FDL tendon were identified. In conclusion, the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon is less than 1 in 750. Surgeons who require FDL for tendon transfer surgery need not image the foot preoperatively to anticipate the need for the use of FHL as an alternative. PMID:22334461

  19. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Australian Registered Training Organisations. Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a study examining organisational culture and structure in ten Australian registered training organisations (RTOs) and is part of a program of research examining the factors which affect and help build the capability of vocational education and training (VET) providers. The study sought to determine: (1) how…

  20. An Exploration of Registered Nurses' Intentions to Leave the Profession: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutter, Stacy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of female registered nurses who have intentions to leave the profession with particular attention to the influence of gender. The theoretical framework of feminist poststructuralism informed this study, which emphasizes the role of discourse and power relations in the…

  1. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  2. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  3. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations. Support Document 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The limitations of…

  4. The Tromsø study: registration of fractures, how good are self-reports, a computerized radiographic register and a discharge register?

    PubMed

    Joakimsen, R M; Fønnebø, V; Søgaard, A J; Tollan, A; Størmer, J; Magnus, J H

    2001-12-01

    In order to compare different methods of fracture registration, we sought all nonvertebral fractures suffered during 8 years (1988-95) among 21,441 persons invited to a survey in 1979/80. We registered a total of 54 hip fracture cases through three separate sources (self-report, computer linkage to the local radiographic archives, discharge register), whereas forearm fractures (a total of 291 cases) were registered through two separate sources (self-report, computer linkage to the radiographic archives). The registration of fractures at other sites (a total of 1321 cases) were from one source (computer linkage to the local radiographic archives), and we have compared three ways of obtaining data from this single source (no ascertainment, ascertainment of records coded as fracture, ascertainment of all records). Ninety-three percent of all hip fractures and 97% of all wrist fractures in the entire study population were found by computer linkage to the radiographic archives, whereas the discharge register detected 87% of all the hip fractures. Computer linkage with ascertainment gave no overreporting of fractures. Among the 11,626 persons who answered a follow-up questionnaire in 1994/95, 97% (CI 84-100%) of all hip fractures and 72% (CI 66-78%) of all wrist fractures were self-reported. We conclude that a computerized search of radiographic archives is a viable method of fracture registration.

  5. Characteristics and publication patterns of obstetric studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Chris; Sherwin, Catherine M T; Koren, Gideon; Campbell, Sarah C; Constance, Jonathan E; Linakis, Matthew; Balch, Alfred; Varner, Michael W; Spigarelli, Michael G

    2014-04-01

    Physiologic changes during pregnancy alter the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of many drugs. For clinicians, there is often uncertainty regarding the safety of these drugs due to a scarcity of published data. This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the characteristics and publication patterns of obstetric studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov from 2007 to 2012. Primary outcome measures, funding sources, inclusion criteria, and the reporting of study results were evaluated. A manual review of Medline/PubMed was performed to identify publications associated with studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Of 93,709 total studies, there were 5,203 (6%) obstetric studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Interventional studies accounted for 70% and 30% were observational. Clinical trials of drugs (49%), procedures (13%), and behavioral interventions (12%) were most common. Among interventional drug trials, 84% featured randomized allocation to study arms and 93% included measures of safety and/or efficacy as primary endpoints. Of 946 (18%) studies completed more than 2 years ago, only 11% had reported results and <7% had been published. In an area with a great need for evidence of safe and effective therapies, the low publication rate of completed studies incorporating elements of high-quality trial design is concerning. The sources of this trend should be closely investigated.

  6. Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders among Registered Nurses: Evidence from the Thai Nurse Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Thinkhamrop, W; Laohasiriwong, W

    2015-01-01

    Background Health, safety, and well being have been known to be influenced by occupational characteristics. Nurses constantly encounter musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) from work demands worldwide. Nevertheless, there is insufficient of knowledge regarding causes of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Thailand. Objective To investigate factors associated with musculoskeletal disorder among registered nurses in Thailand. Method This study is part of the 2009 Thai Nurse Cohort Study which consisted of 18,756 nationally representative sample of registered nurses. Data collection was performed via postal self-administered questionnaires. Manifesting musculoskeletal disorders was self-reported by registered nurses, 1,070 nurses were excluded since they were unemployed during previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Result Of 17,686 registered nurses, the overall 12 months prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was 47.8%. It was found that workplace violence was the strongest factor which statistically significant associated with musculoskeletal disorders (adjusted odds ratio, OR, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.42 to 2.83; P < 0.001), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.96: 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.15; P < 0.001), perceiving job required a lot of physical effort (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.52 to 1.87; P < 0.001), every 10 years increased of age (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.62; P < 0.001), overweight (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.52; P = 0.015). Conclusion Registered nurses were most vulnerable of musculoskeletal disorders especially those who experienced workplace violence, anxiety/depression, strenuous work, older age, and overweight. Consequently, recommending safety practices to nurses should be considered for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) prevention by ergonomics and workplace design. PMID:27180371

  7. New registered nurses' personal responses to professional practice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Kathleen S

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study employed a qualitative description design to inquire into new registered nurses' (RNs') personal responses to being a "new nurse." Six new RNs participated in semistructured interviews. The findings of this pilot study can be used to guide educational activities for nurse leaders and others who work with new RNs. Several strategies are discussed, which may ease new RNs' transition into professional practice.

  8. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls.

    PubMed

    Fertner, Mette; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database. According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn and winter. Antimicrobials were registered for respiratory disorders (79%), joints/limbs/CNS disorders (17%), gastrointestinal disorders (3.7%) and other disorders (0.3%). Of the registered antimicrobials, 15% were for oral and 85% for parenteral administration. Long-acting formulations with a therapeutic effect of more than 48h covered 58% of the drugs for parenteral use. Standardized at the herd-level, as ADD200/100 calves/day, antimicrobial use distributed as median [CI95%] for starter herds (n=22): 2.14 [0.19;7.58], finisher herds (n=24): 0.48 [0.00;1.48], full-line herds (n=183): 0.78 [0.05;2.20] and herds with an inconsistent pattern of movements (n=96): 0.62 [0.00;2.24]. Full-line herds are herds, which purchase calves directly from a dairy herd and raise them to slaughter. Furthermore, we performed a risk factor analysis on the 183 herds with a full-line production. Here, we investigated, whether the number of suppliers, the number of calves purchased, the frequency of purchase, the average age at introduction, the average time in the herd and vaccination influenced the amount of

  9. "Holes in my memories": a qualitative study of men affected by father absence.

    PubMed

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; Power, Tamara; Woods, Andrew; Hutchinson, Marie

    2014-08-01

    This qualitative study explored adult men's experiences of father absence. Interviews with 21 men between the ages of 24 and 70 explored narratives of father absence and how the men perceived this influenced their life trajectory. Thematic analysis revealed that these men experienced a range of difficulties and challenges, including episodes of sadness and depression associated with loss and grief for the paternal relationship, self-esteem issues, feelings of anger and rejection, and difficulty forming trusting relationships particularly with other men. This study contributes to understanding mental health issues that can be associated with paternal absence for men.

  10. Characteristics of antimicrobial studies registered in the USA through ClinicalTrials.Gov.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Chris; Sherwin, Catherine M T; Ampofo, Krow; Hersh, Adam L; Pavia, Andrew T; Byington, Carrie L; Ward, Robert M; Spigarelli, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Increasing rates of antimicrobial-resistant infections and the dwindling pipeline of new agents necessitate judicious, evidence-based antimicrobial prescribing. Clinical trials represent a vital resource for establishing evidence of safety and efficacy, which are crucial to guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the characteristics of antimicrobial research studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Primary outcome measures, funding sources, inclusion criteria and the reporting of study results were evaluated for 16055 antimicrobial studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as of mid 2012. Interventional studies accounted for 93% of registered antimicrobial studies. Clinical trials of drugs (82%) and biologics (9%) were most common. Antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal studies accounted for 43%, 41% and 16% of drug trials, respectively. Among interventional drug trials, 73% featured randomised allocation to study arms and 71% included measures of safety and/or efficacy as primary endpoints. Children were eligible for enrolment in 26% of studies. Among the studies, 60% were sponsored primarily by non-profit organisations, 30% by industry and 10% by the federal government. Only 7% of studies reported results; however, 71% of these were sponsored primarily by industry. Antimicrobial studies commonly incorporated elements of high-quality trial design, including randomisation and safety/efficacy endpoints. Publication of study results and updating of ClinicalTrials.gov should be encouraged for all studies, with particular attention paid to research sponsored by non-profit organisations and governmental agencies. Leveraging the application of these data to guide the careful selection of antimicrobial agents will be essential to preserve their utility for years to come.

  11. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study.

    PubMed

    Farran, Lama K; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-01-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored. PMID:26981626

  12. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Lama K.; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2016-01-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0–24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored. PMID:26981626

  13. Dementia and Traffic Accidents: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2016-01-01

    Background As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Objective Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. Methods We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual’s personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Results Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual’s personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. Discussion This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic

  14. Employee worktime control moderates the effects of job strain and effort-reward imbalance on sickness absence: the 10-town study

    PubMed Central

    Ala-Mursula, L.; Vahtera, J.; Linna, A.; Pentti, J.; Kivimaki, M.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To examine whether the effects of work stress on sickness absence vary by the level of control the employees have over their working times. Design: Prospective cohort study. A survey of job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and control over daily working hours and days off was carried out in 2000–01. The survey responses were linked with registered data on the number of medically certified (>3 days) sickness absences from one year before the survey until the end of 2003. The mean follow up period was 28.2 (SD 8.1) months. Adjustments were made for demographics and behavioural health risks. Aggregated measures of worktime control according to workplaces were used to control for differences in reactivity and response style. Setting: Ten towns in Finland. Participants: 16 139 public sector employees who had no medically certified sickness absences in the year preceding the survey. Main results: Among the women, individually measured control over daily working hours and days off moderated the association between work stress and sickness absence. The combination of high stress and good worktime control was associated with lower absence rates than a combination of high stress and poor worktime control. This finding was replicated in the analyses using workplace aggregates of worktime control. Among the men, the findings were less consistent and not replicable using aggregated measures of worktime control. Conclusions: Good control over working times reduces the adverse effect of work stress on sickness absence especially among female employees. PMID:16166358

  15. Migration and health: exploring the role of migrant status through register-based studies.

    PubMed

    Nørredam, Marie

    2015-04-01

    This thesis aims to explore migrant status as a determinant in register-based studies on migrant health. It is based on eight studies that investigate the following three main issues: 1) What is the importance of migrant status for morbidity patterns among migrants compared with Native Danes? 2) Do migrant status and ethnicity affect clinical indicators of access among migrants compared with native Danes? 3) What is the importance of migrant status for mortality patterns among migrants compared with Native Danes? The thesis builds on a register-based historical prospective cohort design. Through Statistics Denmark, all refugees (n = 29,174) and family reunification immigrants (n = 33,287) who received residence permits in Denmark from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 1999 were included and matched 4:1 on age and sex with Native Danes. Register linkage was obtained twice during follow-ups in 2004 and 2008 respectively. Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the National Patient Registry, the Registry of Coercive Measures in Psychiatric Treatment, the Register of Causes of Death, and the Danish Cancer Registry. Migrant status defined by legal grounds for obtaining a residence permit was dichotomised into refugees and family reunification immigrants and used as the determinant in most studies. Analyses involved both Poisson and Cox regression analysis. Most analyses were stratified by ethnicity and adjusted for age and sex. Some were also stratified for individual income. Three sub-themes were investigated: morbidity, clinical indicators of access, and mortality. The first sub-theme (Papers I-III) showed that refugees had a consistently higher morbidity from several mental health disorders in contrast to family reunification immigrants, whose morbidity from mental disorders was lower than or similar to native Danes. The cancer incidence study did not find an effect of migrant status but found, rather, that migrants

  16. Work factors as predictors of sickness absence: a three month prospective study of nurses' aides

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, W; Bruusgaard, D; Knardahl, S

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To identify the work factors that predict sickness absence in nurses' aides. Methods: The sample comprised 5563 Norwegian nurses' aides, not on leave because of illness or pregnancy when they completed a mailed questionnaire in 1999. Of these, 4931 (88.6%) completed a second questionnaire three months later. The outcome measure was the three month incidence proportion of certified sickness absence (>3 days), as assessed by self reports at follow up. Results: Perceived lack of encouraging and supportive culture in the work unit (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 2.34), working in psychiatric and paediatric wards, having injured the neck in an accident, and health complaints were associated with higher risk of sickness absence, after adjustments for a series of physical, psychological, and organisational work factors, personal engagement in the work unit, demographic characteristics, and daily consumption of cigarettes. Having untraditional jobs (for nurses' aides) (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.77), and engaging in aerobics or gym were associated with a lower risk of sickness absence. Conclusions: The study suggests that the three month effects of work factors on rates of certified sickness absence are modest in nurses' aides. The most important work factor, in terms of predicting sickness absence, seems to be perceived lack of encouraging and supportive culture in the work unit. PMID:12660375

  17. Das sprachliche Register (Speech Registers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess-Luttich, Ernest W. B.

    1974-01-01

    The linguistic behavior of a given individual varies; he will on different occasions speak (or write) differently according to what may be roughly described as different social situations: he will use a number of different registers. The application of such registers both in the field of text analysis and in the preparation of teaching materials…

  18. Pregnancy and birth outcomes of women with intellectual disability in Sweden: a national register study

    PubMed Central

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the antenatal health and demographic factors as well as pregnancy and delivery outcomes in women with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Design. A population-based register study. Setting. The National Patient Register (NPR) linked to the Medical Birth Register (MBR). Sample. Women with ID classified as International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 8–10 who gave birth in 1999–2007 (n = 326), identified from the NPR linked to the MBR, were compared with all first-time, singleton mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnoses during this period in Sweden (n = 340 624). Methods. Population-based data were extracted from the NPR and the MBR. Main outcome measures. Health and socio-demography at first antenatal visit, mode of delivery, pain relief during labor, preterm birth and discharge from hospital. Results. A higher proportion of women with ID were teenagers (18.4 vs. 3.3%), obese (20.1 vs. 8.6%) and single (36.6 vs. 6.2%) compared with women without ID, and women with ID smoked more often (27.9 vs. 7.9%). Women with ID had more often a preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), a cesarean section (CS) (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and used less nitrous oxide as pain relief during labor (59.5 vs. 75.8%). Women with ID had a higher risk for preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) 1.68], CS (OR1.55), non-use of nitrous oxide (OR 1.89) and discharge from hospital to a place other than home (OR 2.24). Conclusion. Pregnant women with ID should be considered a risk group suggesting that better tailored pre- and intrapartum care and support are needed for these women. PMID:22881406

  19. Electronic mail, a new written-language register: a study with French-speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar and familiar forms). Data were collected from 80 adolescents ages 12 to 15 in a natural situation where they had to introduce themselves by e-mail to two addressees (peer/teacher). Participants were divided into two groups (skilled/unskilled in computer-mediated communication). Their emails contained a large number of orthographic deviations (the most frequent being neographic forms). Participants skilled in computer-mediated communication (CMC) deviated more than unskilled ones did. The number of orthographic deviations was not linked to the participants' standard writing ability. The personal-pronoun data clearly showed that adolescents used the familiar form of 'you' (tu) to address the peer and the unfamiliar form (vous) to address the teacher. We conclude that, for adolescents, e-mail constitutes a distinct written-language register. Nevertheless, the e-mail register seems to follow the pragmatic rules of standard spoken and written interaction.

  20. International variation in absence from work attributed to musculoskeletal illness: findings from the CUPID study

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, José Miguel; Serra, Consol; Benavides, Fernando G; Palmer, Keith T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the variation in rates of absence due to musculoskeletal pain across 47 occupational groups (mostly nurses and office workers) from 18 countries, and to explore personal and group-level risk factors that might explain observed differences. Methods A standardised questionnaire was used to obtain information about musculoskeletal pain, sickness absence and possible risk factors in a cross-sectional survey of 12 416 workers (92–1017 per occupational group). Additionally, group-level data on socioeconomic variables, such as sick pay and unemployment rates, were assembled by members of the study team in each country. Associations of sickness absence with risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Results Overall, there were more than 30-fold differences between occupational groups in the 12-month prevalence of prolonged musculoskeletal sickness absence, and even among office workers carrying out similar occupational tasks, the variation was more than tenfold. Personal risk factors included older age, lower educational level, tendency to somatise, physical loading at work and prolonged absence for non-musculoskeletal illness. However, these explained little of the variation between occupational groups. After adjustment for individual characteristics, prolonged musculoskeletal sickness absence was more frequent in groups with greater time pressure at work, lower job control and more adverse beliefs about the work-relatedness of musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions Musculoskeletal sickness absence might be reduced by eliminating excessive time pressures in work, maximising employees’ responsibility and control and providing flexibility of duties for those with disabling symptoms. Care should be taken not to overstate work as a cause of musculoskeletal injury. PMID:23695413

  1. Epilepsy in individuals with a history of Asperger's syndrome: a Danish nationwide register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-06-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register (DNHR) with respect to epilepsy. Mean age at follow-up was 18.1 years (range 4-31 years). Of the 4,180 individuals with AS, 164 (3.9%) were registered with at least one epilepsy diagnosis in the DNHR, which is significantly increased (p < 0.0001) relative to the same age group in the general population, where an estimate is about 2.0%.

  2. Antidepressants and the risk of hyponatremia: a Danish register-based population study

    PubMed Central

    Leth-Møller, Katja Biering; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Torstensson, Maia; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Ødum, Lars; Gislasson, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Holm, Ellen Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between classes of antidepressants and hyponatremia, and between specific antidepressants and hyponatremia. Design Retrospective register-based cohort study using nationwide registers from 1998 to 2012. Setting The North Denmark Region. Participants In total, 638 352 individuals were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Plasma sodium was obtained from the LABKA database. The primary outcome was hyponatremia defined as plasma sodium (p-sodium) below 135 mmol/L and secondary outcome was severe hyponatremia defined as p-sodium below 130 mmol/L. The association between use of specific antidepressants and hyponatremia was analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models. Results An event of hyponatremia occurred in 72 509 individuals and 11.36% (n=6476) of these events happened during treatment with antidepressants. Incidence rate ratios and CIs for the association with hyponatremia in the first p-sodium measured after initiation of treatment were for citalopram 7.8 (CI 7.42 to 8.20); clomipramine 4.93 (CI 2.72 to 8.94); duloxetine 2.05 (CI 1.44 to 292); venlafaxine 2.90 (CI 2.43 to 3.46); mirtazapine 2.95 (CI 2.71 to 3.21); and mianserin 0.90 (CI 0.71 to 1.14). Conclusions All antidepressants except mianserin are associated with hyponatremia. The association is strongest with citalopram and lowest with duloxetine, venlafaxine and mirtazapine. PMID:27194321

  3. EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITIES IN REPEAT ABORTION: A LONGITUDINAL REGISTER STUDY IN FINLAND 1975-2010.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Heini

    2016-11-01

    The proportion of repeat abortions among all abortions has increased over the last decades in Finland. This study examined the association of education with the likelihood of repeat abortion, and the change in this association over time using reliable longitudinal data. A unique set of register data from three birth cohorts were followed from age 20 to 45, including about 22,000 cases of repeat abortion, and analysed using discrete-time event-history models. Low education was found to be associated with a higher likelihood of repeat abortion. Women with low education had abortions sooner after the preceding abortion, and were more often single, younger and had larger families at the time of abortion than more highly educated women. The educational differences were more significant for later than earlier cohorts. The results show a lack of appropriate contraceptive use, possibly due to lack of knowledge of, or access to, services. There is a need to improve access to family planning services, and contraceptives should be provided free of charge. Register data overcome the common problems of under-reporting of abortion and attrition ensuring the results are reliable, unique and of interest internationally. PMID:27128981

  4. [Enlightenment of drug application and evaluation procedures of medicines registered (listed) in Australia on studies of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2014-11-01

    Modern and international studies on new traditional Chinese medicines are the main trend of the development of traditional Chinese medicines at present. In Australia, new traditional Chinese medicines refer to complementary medicines, which are mainly registered and launched as listed medicines. The application documents of registered (listed) medicines in Australia mainly cover detailed description of active pharmaceutical ingredients, pharmacological and toxicological studies, dosage form and adverse effects. Each part has detailed specifications and instructions, which helps ensure that applicants could accurately understand the requirements in application for registering (listing) medicines, and provides very important reference to the studies and development of new traditional Chinese medicines in China.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Studies Investigating the Effects of Father Absence on Children's Cognitive Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.

    A meta-analysis was conducted of 137 studies investigating the effects of father absence due to employment, military service, death, divorce, separation, or desertion on children's cognitive performance as assessed by scores on standardized intelligence, scholastic aptitude, and academic achievement tests and school grades. Aggregation of the…

  6. A time-motion study of registered nurses' workflow in intensive care unit remote monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhihua; Mazabob, Janine; Weavind, Liza; Thomas, Eric; Johnson, Todd R

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing advanced information technology, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) remote monitoring allows highly trained specialists to oversee a large number of patients at multiple sites on a continuous basis. In the current research, we conducted a time-motion study of registered nurses' work in an ICU remote monitoring facility. Data were collected on seven nurses through 40 hours of observation. The results showed that nurses' essential tasks were centered on three themes: monitoring patients, maintaining patients' health records, and managing technology use. In monitoring patients, nurses spent 52% of the time assimilating information embedded in a clinical information system and 15% on monitoring live vitals. System-generated alerts frequently interrupted nurses in their task performance and redirected them to manage suddenly appearing events. These findings provide insight into nurses' workflow in a new, technology-driven critical care setting and have important implications for system design, work engineering, and personnel selection and training.

  7. Prevalence of Intellectual Disability: A Comprehensive Study Based on National Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerinen, Hannu; Kaski, M.; Virta, L.; Almqvist, F.; Iivanainen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Based on standard social benefit registers, the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Finland is estimated to be 0.6%, while epidemiological surveys yield 1.1%. Combining several registers, our aim was to find a more reliable estimate of the prevalence of ID, especially among children and adolescents. This is important when…

  8. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  9. Fertility treatment and risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders: register based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children. Design Prospective register based cohort study. Setting Nationwide register based information from Danish National Health Registers cross linked by a unique personal identification number assigned to all citizens in Denmark. Participants All children born in Denmark in 1995-2003 with follow-up in 2012 when the children were aged 8-17; 33 139 children were conceived after fertility treatment and 555 828 children were born after spontaneous conception. Main outcome measures Absolute risks and hazard ratios for overall and specific mental disorders estimated with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Estimated association between the risk of mental disorders and subtypes of procedures, hormone treatments, gamete types, and cause of infertility. Results The risk of mental disorders in children born after in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection was low, and was no higher than in spontaneously conceived children, except for a borderline significant increased risk of tic disorders (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.95; absolute risk 0.3%). In contrast, children born after ovulation induction with or without insemination had low but significantly increased risks of any mental disorder (1.20, 1.11 to 1.31; absolute risk 4.1%), autism spectrum disorders (1.20, 1.05 to 1.37; 1.5%), hyperkinetic disorders (1.23, 1.08 to 1.40; 1.7%), conduct, emotional, or social disorder (1.21, 1.02 to 1.45; 0.8%), and tic disorders (1.51, 1.16 to 1.96; 0.4%). There was no risk systematically related to any specific type of hormone drug treatment. Conclusions There was a small increase in the incidence of mental disorders in children born after ovulation induction/intrauterine insemination. Children born after in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were

  10. Collective Legitimacy and Organizational Attachment: A Longitudinal Case Study of School Personnel Absences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver; Lafornara, Paul

    This speech contains an analysis of school personnel absence, that seeks to develop a formula useful for understanding more clearly the nature of absence behavior. Since absence is an important aspect of productivity, it is important to understand better the dynamics of absence. Absence could be conceptualized as contractual relationships within a…

  11. Sickness absence due to musculoskeletal diagnoses and risk of diagnosis-specific disability pension: a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Catarina; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2013-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders constitute major public health problems. Few studies have, however, examined risk of disability pension among persons sickness absent due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Thus, we constructed a prospective nationwide population-based cohort study based on Swedish registers, consisting of all 4,687,756 individuals living in Sweden December 31, 2004/2005, aged 20-64 years, who were not on disability or old-age pension. Those individuals who were sickness absent in 2005 due to musculoskeletal diagnoses were compared to those sickness absent due to non-musculoskeletal diagnoses and those with no sickness absence. Musculoskeletal diagnoses were categorized as follows: 1) artropathies/systemic connective tissue disorders, 2) dorsopathies, and 3) soft tissue disorders/osteopathies/chondropathies/other musculoskeletal disorders. All-cause and diagnosis-specific incident disability pension were followed from 2006 to 2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. In models adjusted for socio-demographic factors and morbidity, sickness absence due to all categories of musculoskeletal diagnoses was associated with 12- to 18-fold increased risks of all-cause disability pension (adjusted model, category 2 diagnoses, IRR = 18.57, 95% CI = 18.18-18.97). Similar associations were observed among both women and men sickness absent due to all 3 musculoskeletal diagnostic categories. Moreover, increased risks of disability pension because of cancer, mental, circulatory and musculoskeletal diagnoses were observed among individuals sickness absent because of any musculoskeletal diagnostic category (disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, adjusted model, category 2 diagnoses, IRR = 50.66, 95% CI = 49.06-52.32). In conclusion, this nationwide cohort study reveals strongly increased risks of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension among those sickness absent due to

  12. Kinetic study for copper adsorption onto soil minerals in the absence and presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Komy, Zanaty R; Shaker, Ali M; Heggy, Said E M; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A

    2014-03-01

    Equilibrium and kinetics of Cu(2+) adsorption onto soil minerals (kaolinite and hematite) in the absence and presence of humic acid have been investigated under various conditions. The influences of ionic strength, pH and solution cations on the rate of the adsorption have been studied. The rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu(2+) onto soil minerals in the absence or the presence of humic acid increased with decreasing ionic strength, increasing pH and in the presence of the background electrolyte K(+) rather than Ca(2+). Humic acid enhanced the rate and the amount of adsorbed Cu(2+) onto soil minerals. The adsorption equilibrium data showed that adsorption behavior of Cu(2+) could be described more reasonably by Langmiur adsorption isotherm than Freundlich isotherm in the absence or presence of humic acid. Pseudo first and pseudo second order models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the rate constants. The results indicated that the adsorption of Cu(2+) onto hematite and kaolinite in the absence and presence of humic acid is more conforming to pseudo second order kinetics.

  13. Absence seizure

    MedlinePlus

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  14. A Prospective Study of Ventilation Rates and Illness Absence in California Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Spears, Michael; Chan, Wanyu R.; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2014-10-07

    Background – This study investigated the associations of ventilation rates (VRs), estimated from indoor CO2 concentrations, in offices with the amount of respiratory infections, illness absences, and building-related health symptoms in occupants. Methods – Office buildings were recruited from three California climate zones. In one or more study spaces within each building, real-time logging sensors measured carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity for one year. Ventilation rates were estimated using daily peak CO2 levels, and also using an alternative metric. Data on occupants and health outcomes were collected through web-based surveys every three months. Multivariate models were used to assess relationships between metrics of ventilation rate or CO2 and occupant outcomes. For all outcomes, negative associations were hypothesized with VR metrics, and positive associations with CO2 metrics. Results – Difficulty recruiting buildings and low survey response limited sample size and study power. In 16 studied spaces within 9 office buildings, VRs were uniformly high over the year, from twice to over nine times the California office VR standard (7 L/s or 15 cfm per person). VR and CO2 metrics had no statistically significant relationships with occupant outcomes, except for a small significantly positive association of the alternative VR metric with respiratory illness-related absence, contrary to hypotheses. Conclusions– The very high time-averaged VRs in the California office buildings studied presumably resulted from “economizer cycles” bringing in large volumes of outdoor air; however, in almost all buildings even the estimated minimum VRs supplied (without the economizer) substantially exceeded the minimum required VR. These high VRs may explain the absence of hypothesized relationships with occupant outcomes. Among uniformly high VRs, little variation in contaminant concentration and occupant effects would be expected. These findings may

  15. Outcomes in Localized Prostate Cancer: National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Erik; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Holmberg, Lars; Adolfsson, Jan; Hugosson, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment for localized prostate cancer remains controversial. To our knowledge, there are no outcome studies from contemporary population-based cohorts that include data on stage, Gleason score, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Methods In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden Follow-up Study, a nationwide cohort, we identified 6849 patients aged 70 years or younger. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis with local clinical stage T1–2 prostate cancer from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2002, a Gleason score of 7 or less, a serum PSA level of less than 20 ng/mL, and treatment with surveillance (including active surveillance and watchful waiting, n = 2021) or curative intent (including radical prostatectomy, n = 3399, and radiation therapy, n = 1429). Among the 6849 patients, 2686 had low-risk prostate cancer (ie, clinical stage T1, Gleason score 2-6, and serum PSA level of <10 ng/mL). The study cohort was linked to the Cause of Death Register, and cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer and competing causes was calculated. Results For the combination of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, calculated cumulative 10-year prostate cancer–specific mortality was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7% to 4.8%) in the surveillance group and 2.7% (95% CI = 2.1% to 3.45) in the curative intent group. For those with low-risk disease, the corresponding values were 2.4% (95% CI = 1.2% to 4.1%) among the 1085 patients in the surveillance group and 0.7% (95% CI = 0.3% to 1.4%) among the 1601 patients in the curative intent group. The 10-year risk of dying from competing causes was 19.2% (95% CI = 17.2% to 21.3%) in the surveillance group and 10.2% (95% CI = 9.0% to 11.4%) in the curative intent group. Conclusion A 10-year prostate cancer–specific mortality of 2.4% among patients with low-risk prostate cancer in the surveillance group indicates that surveillance may be a suitable treatment option for many

  16. Childhood leukemia and parental occupation: a register-based case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Steensel-Moll, H.A.; Valkenburg, H.A.; Van Zanen, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    To explore possible etiologic factors of childhood leukemia, a case-control study was performed in the Netherlands. Cases were selected from a complete nationwide register of cases of childhood leukemia which were diagnosed between 1973 and 1980. Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex, and place of residence at the time of diagnosis. Information about possible exposure was collected by a postal questionnaire addressed to the parents. This report concerns the results of the analysis of parental occupations and occupational exposures for 519 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 507 controls. During pregnancy, more mothers of patients were working in ''hydrocarbon-related'' occupations; relative risk (RR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7 - 9.4). Likewise, greater occupational exposure to chemicals (paint, petroleum products, and unspecified chemicals) during pregnancy was found for mothers of patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2 - 4.6). The kind of work being performed by the mothers one year before diagnosis did not differ between cases and controls. For the fathers, no relationship was found between a hydrocarbon-related occupation or occupational exposure to chemicals and leukemia in the offspring. Adjustment for birth order, social class, and degree of urbanization did not materially change the relative risks. 16 references, 5 tables.

  17. Measuring the crowd within again: a pre-registered replication study.

    PubMed

    Steegen, Sara; Dewitte, Laura; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    According to the crowd within effect, the average of two estimates from one person tends to be more accurate than a single estimate of that person. The effect implies that the well documented wisdom of the crowd effect-the crowd's average estimate tends to be more accurate than the individual estimates-can be obtained within a single individual. In this paper, we performed a high-powered, pre-registered replication study of the original experiment. Our replication results are evaluated with the traditional null hypothesis significance testing approach, as well as with effect sizes and their confidence intervals. We adopted a co-pilot approach, in the sense that all analyses were performed independently by two researchers using different analysis software. Moreover, we report Bayes factors for all tests. We successfully replicated the crowd within effect, both when the second guess was made immediately after the first guess, as well as when it was made 3 weeks later. The experimental protocol, the raw data, the post-processed data and the analysis code are available online.

  18. Childhood leukemia and parental occupation. A register-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    van Steensel-Moll, H A; Valkenburg, H A; van Zanen, G E

    1985-02-01

    To explore possible etiologic factors of childhood leukemia, a case-control study was performed in the Netherlands. Cases were selected from a complete nationwide register of cases of childhood leukemia which were diagnosed between 1973 and 1980. Controls were matched with cases for year of birth, sex, and place of residence at the time of diagnosis. Information about possible exposures was collected by a postal questionnaire addressed to the parents. This report concerns the results of the analysis of parental occupations and occupational exposures for 519 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and 507 controls. During pregnancy, more mothers of patients were working in "hydrocarbon-related" occupations; relative risk (RR) = 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-9.4). Likewise, greater occupational exposure to chemicals (paint, petroleum products, and unspecified chemicals) during pregnancy was found for mothers of patients (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2-4.6). The kind of work being performed by the mothers one year before diagnosis did not differ between cases and controls. For the fathers, no relationship was found between a hydro-carbon-related occupation or occupational exposure to chemicals and leukemia in the offspring. Adjustment for birth order, social class, and degree of urbanization did not materially change the relative risks.

  19. Inequity of access to ACE inhibitors in Swedish heart failure patients: a register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Bertil; Hanning, Marianne; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Several international studies suggest inequity in access to evidence-based heart failure (HF) care. Specifically, studies of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) point to reduced ACEI access related to female sex, old age and socioeconomic position. Thus far, most studies have either been rather small, lacking diagnostic data, or lacking the possibility to account for several individual-based sociodemographic factors. Our aim was to investigate differences, which could reflect inequity in access to ACEIs based on sex, age, socioeconomic status or immigration status in Swedish patients with HF. Methods Individually linked register data for all Swedish adults hospitalised for HF in 2005–2010 (n=93 258) were analysed by multivariate regression models to assess the independent risk of female sex, high age, low employment status, low income level, low educational level or foreign country of birth, associated with lack of an ACEI dispensation within 1 year of hospitalisation. Adjustment for possible confounding was made for age, comorbidity, Angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, period and follow-up time. Results Analysis revealed an adjusted OR for no ACEI dispensation for women of 1.31 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.35); for the oldest patients of 2.71 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.91); and for unemployed patients of 1.59 (95% CI 1.46 to 1.73). Conclusions Access to ACEI treatment was reduced in women, older patients and unemployed patients. We conclude that access to ACEIs is inequitable among Swedish patients with HF. Future studies should include clinical data, as well as mortality outcomes in different groups. PMID:26261264

  20. Changes in mortality inequalities over two decades: register based study of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Artnik, Barbara; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Clemens, Tom; Costa, Giuseppe; Dibben, Chris; Kalediene, Ramune; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Östergren, Olof; Prochorskas, Remigijus; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Looman, Caspar W N; de Gelder, Rianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether government efforts in reducing inequalities in health in European countries have actually made a difference to mortality inequalities by socioeconomic group. Design Register based study. Data source Mortality data by level of education and occupational class in the period 1990-2010, usually collected in a census linked longitudinal study design. We compared changes in mortality between the lowest and highest socioeconomic groups, and calculated their effect on absolute and relative inequalities in mortality (measured as rate differences and rate ratios, respectively). Setting All European countries for which data on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality were available for the approximate period between years 1990 and 2010. These included Finland, Norway, Sweden, Scotland, England and Wales (data applied to both together), France, Switzerland, Spain (Barcelona), Italy (Turin), Slovenia, and Lithuania. Results Substantial mortality declines occurred in lower socioeconomic groups in most European countries covered by this study. Relative inequalities in mortality widened almost universally, because percentage declines were usually smaller in lower socioeconomic groups. However, as absolute declines were often smaller in higher socioeconomic groups, absolute inequalities narrowed by up to 35%, particularly among men. Narrowing was partly driven by ischaemic heart disease, smoking related causes, and causes amenable to medical intervention. Progress in reducing absolute inequalities was greatest in Spain (Barcelona), Scotland, England and Wales, and Italy (Turin), and absent in Finland and Norway. More detailed studies preferably using individual level data are necessary to identify the causes of these variations. Conclusions Over the past two decades, trends in inequalities in mortality have been more favourable in most European countries than is commonly assumed. Absolute inequalities have decreased in several countries, probably

  1. Use and overuse of sumatriptan. Pharmacoepidemiological studies based on prescription register and interview data.

    PubMed

    Gaist, D

    1999-10-01

    from 6.4 to 9.6 per 1,000 inhabitants. The period prevalence of sumatriptan use in the county of Funen was highly comparable with that of the entire nation. Among the 43,389 sumatriptan users presenting prescriptions for sumatriptan in Denmark in 1994 and 1995, 507 (1.1%) and 1726 (4.0%) belonged to the high and intermediate-peak-use group, respectively. Patients belonging to these two groups were responsible for 38% of the total consumption of sumatriptan. For patients in the high-peak-use group the median span between first and last prescription was 693 days while the median quantity of sumatriptan purchased was 648 DDD. Highly comparable patterns of long-term intense sumatriptan use were found in the data from the regional registry, which covered the 27-month period after the introduction of the drug (February 1992). The register data were highly suggestive of overuse, but lacked essential information, e.g., the indication for use. A third study was therefore conducted using a combination of register and interview data. During a 14-day period, current users of sumatriptan were recruited through community pharmacies in the county of Funen. Respondents returned a signed consent form, including their unique personal identification number (CPR), allowing us to retrieve patient-specific data from the regional registry. For each respondent, all available relevant prescription data for the period 1992-96 were retrieved. Subjects were classified into high, intermediate, and low-peak-use groups according to register data from the 4-year period. The register data were used to evaluate representativity after anonymizing nonrespondent data. The response rates were 33% (7/21) in the high-peak-use group, 47% (30/64) in the intermediate-peak-use group, and 56% (196/350) in the low-peak-use group. Respondents and nonrespondents in the three groups were comparable with regard to age and use of other drugs. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  2. Increasing illness among people out of labor market - A Danish register-based study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ingelise; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Finn Kenneth; Diderichsen, Finn

    2016-05-01

    In spite of decades of very active labor market policies, 25% of Denmark's population in the working ages are still out-of-work. The aim of this study was to investigate whether that is due to consistent or even increasing prevalence of ill health. For the period of 2002-2011, we investigated if i) the prevalence of four chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and mental disorders) among those out-of-work had changed, ii) the occurrence of new cases of those diseases were higher among those who were already out-of-work, or iii) if non-health-related benefits were disproportionately given to individuals recently diagnosed with a disease compared to those without disease. The study was register-based and comprised all Danish residents aged 20-60. During the study period, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders increased among both employed and non-employed people. The increased prevalence for mental disorder was particularly high among people receiving means-tested benefits. Disease incidence was higher among people outside rather than inside the labor market, especially for mental disorders. Employed people with incident diseases had an unsurprisingly increased risk of leaving the labor market. However, a high proportion of people with incident mental disorders received low level means-tested benefits in the three years following this diagnosis, which is concerning. Men treated for mental disorders in 2006 had high excess probability of receiving a cash-benefit, OR = 4.83 (4.53-5.14) for the period 2007-2010. The estimates were similar for women.

  3. Housing wealth and mortality: A register linkage study of the Finnish population.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Martikainen, Pekka

    2009-09-01

    In many countries home ownership is the main form of property and covers a major part of people's possessions. Since overall wealth is difficult to measure, many health studies have used home ownership as an indicator of wealth and material resources. However, most studies have measured housing wealth with a simple dichotomous measure of home ownership. We examined the associations between three different measures of housing wealth and overall mortality, separating subsidized renters and private renters, and using floor area and the number of rooms as measures of dwelling size. We further examined whether other socioeconomic factors, level of urbanisation of the region of residence, and household composition account for the found associations. Finns aged 35-79 years at the end of 1999 were followed up until the end of 2004. Data were drawn from various registers combined by Statistics Finland and linked with death records. The age-adjusted hazard ratio for mortality among subsidized renters compared to owner-occupiers was 2.26 in men and 1.87 in women. However, also private renters had clearly higher mortality than owner-occupiers, with the excess mortality of 92% in men and 61% in women. Both measures of home size were also strongly associated with mortality, with the excess risk of 1.7-3.0 in the lowest home size quintile compared to the highest. Adjusting for socioeconomic factors and mutually for all housing wealth measures considerably attenuated the associations. Further adjustment for urbanisation had no effect whereas adjustment for household size, marital status and living arrangements attenuated the associations of the two home size measures and mortality. However, a clear association remained between all housing wealth measures and mortality after all adjustments. Housing wealth summarises one's material circumstances over a prolonged period of time. Measures of housing wealth may therefore provide useful social classifications for studies on poor health

  4. Perceived organizational justice as a predictor of long-term sickness absence due to diagnosed mental disorders: results from the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-08-01

    Organizational justice perceptions have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of mental health but the nature of the association is unknown due to reporting bias (measurement error related to response style and reversed causality). In this study, we used prospective design and long-term (>9 days) sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis as the outcome measure. Participants were 21,221 Finnish public sector employees (the participation rate at baseline in 2000-2002 68%), who responded to repeated surveys of procedural and interactional justice in 2000-2004 along with register data on sickness absence with a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorders (822 cases). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a one-unit increase in self-reported and work-unit level co-worker assessed interactional justice was associated with a 25-32% lower odds of sickness absence due to anxiety disorders. These associations were robust to adjustments for a variety of potential individual-level confounders including chronic disease (adjusted OR for self-reported interactional justice 0.77, 95% CI 0.65-0.91) and were replicated using co-worker assessed justice. Only weak evidence of reversed causality was found. The results suggest that low organizational justice is a risk factor for sickness absence due to anxiety disorders.

  5. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  6. Danish register-based study on the association between specific cardiovascular drugs and fragility fractures

    PubMed Central

    Torstensson, Maia; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Leth-Møller, Katja; Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Sahlberg, Marie; Andersson, Charlotte; Kristensen, Karl Emil; Ryg, Jesper; Weeke, Peter; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar; Holm, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether drugs used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD-drugs), including hypertension, increase the risk of fragility fractures in individuals above the age of 65 years. Design Retrospective nationwide cohort study. Setting Danish nationwide national registers. Participants All individuals in Denmark ≥65 years who used specified CVD-drugs in the study period between 1999 and 2012. Main outcomes measures Time-dependent exposure to CVD-drugs (nitrates, digoxin, thiazides, furosemide, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, β-blockers, calcium antagonists and statins) was determined by prescription claims from pharmacies. The association between use of specific CVD-drugs and fragility fractures was assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models, and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Results Overall, 1 586 554 persons were included, of these 16.1% experienced a fall-related fracture. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis showed positive associations between fracture and treatment with furosemide, thiazide and digoxin. IRRs during the first 14 days of treatment were for furosemide IRR 1.74 (95% CI 1.61 to 1.89) and for thiazides IRR 1.41 (1.28 to 1.55); IRR during the first 30 days of treatment with digoxin was 1.18 (1.02 to 1.37). Conclusions Use of furosemide, thiazides and digoxin was associated with elevated rates of fragility fractures among elderly individuals. This may warrant consideration when considering diuretic treatment of hypertension in elderly individuals. PMID:26715481

  7. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  8. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-<7 years displayed a larger effect (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01, 1.60 for 1 mSv increase in equivalent cumulative dose to red bone marrow). Suggestive difference in OR by genetic subtype was found. Our results provide further support to the notion that low doses of ionizing radiation increase the risk for childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation.

  9. Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nikkilä, Atte; Erme, Sini; Arvela, Hannu; Holmgren, Olli; Raitanen, Jani; Lohi, Olli; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-11-01

    High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N = 3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-<7 years displayed a larger effect (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01, 1.60 for 1 mSv increase in equivalent cumulative dose to red bone marrow). Suggestive difference in OR by genetic subtype was found. Our results provide further support to the notion that low doses of ionizing radiation increase the risk for childhood leukemia, particularly at age 2-<7 years. Our findings suggest a larger effect of radiation on leukemia with high hyperpdiploidy than other subgroups, but this result requires further confirmation. PMID:27405274

  10. [Up for Discussion: Using study registries for Oncology: StudyBox and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS)].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Christoph; Jena, Susanne; Kliemann, Denise; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Study registries serve various purposes. Primarily, they provide as complete an overview as possible on planned, ongoing and completed studies and are thus intended to contribute to transparency in research. As such, they are an instrument for identifying and reducing publication bias. Study registries can also help doctors and patients to identify suitable studies for them. The National Cancer Plan (NCP) calls for ensuring an efficient oncological treatment, which requires the knowledge derived from trials. Study registries can play an important role in their identification. This paper describes the purpose that study registries fulfil in oncology as well as their health policy rationale. It then discusses two registries relevant for oncology, i. e. StudyBox and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), against the backdrop of the National Cancer Plan and introduces the cooperation of the two registries.

  11. Perceptions of Registered Nurses after Completing a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Diane Yvette

    2010-01-01

    Background. The demands of the current health-care system support the need for more nurses to be prepared at the bachelor's level (American Association of the Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2007). However, only 28% of the registered nurse (RN) population in Florida holds a bachelor's degree in nursing (BSN), which may be the result of…

  12. Incidence of Incisional Hernia after Cesarean Delivery: A Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Aabakke, Anna J. M.; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen; Secher, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. Methods This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery between 1991 and 2000. The cohort was followed from their first until 10 years after their last cesarean delivery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, death, emigration, abdominal surgery, or cesarean delivery after the inclusion period. For women who had a hernia repair, hospital records regarding the surgery and previous cesarean deliveries were tracked and manually analyzed to validate the relationship between hernia repair and cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed with a competing risk analysis that included each cesarean delivery. Results We identified 57,564 women who had had 68,271 cesarean deliveries during the inclusion period. During follow-up, 134 of these women had a hernia requiring repair. Of these 68 (51% [95% CI 42–60%]) were in a midline incision although the transverse incision was the primary approach at cesarean delivery during the inclusion period. The cumulated incidence of a hernia repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 0.197% (95% CI 0.164–0.234%). The risk of a hernia repair was higher during the first 3 years after a cesarean delivery, with an incidence after 3 years of 0.157% (95% CI 0.127–0.187%). Conclusions The overall risk of an incisional hernia requiring surgical repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 2 per 1000 deliveries in a population in which the transverse incision was the primary approach at cesarean delivery. PMID:25268746

  13. Predictors of excellent response to lithium: results from a nationwide register-based study.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium in monotherapy was 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-9.9] at 5-year follow-up and 5.4% (95% CI: 4.4-6.3) at 10-year follow-up. The rate of nonresponse to lithium monotherapy was significantly increased for female patients [hazards ratio (HR)=1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21) and for patients with a depressive index episode compared with patients in remission or with a diagnosis of other or unspecified bipolar disorder before first lithium purchase (HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.03-1.25). The rate of nonresponse increased by 3% (95% CI: 2-5%) for every psychiatric hospitalization before first purchase of lithium. Patients with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric hospitalizations, a manic index episode before lithium and reduced somatic comorbidity.

  14. Gender Differences in Filicide Offense Characteristics--A Comprehensive Register-Based Study of Child Murder in Two European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putkonen, Hanna; Amon, Sabine; Eronen, Markku; Klier, Claudia M.; Almiron, Maria P.; Cederwall, Jenny Yourstone; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study searched for gender differences in filicidal offense characteristics and associated variables. Methods: In this binational register-based study all filicide perpetrators (75 mothers and 45 fathers) and their crimes in Austria and Finland 1995-2005 were examined for putative gender differences. The assessed variables were…

  15. Patterns of Contact with Hospital for Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Danish Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atladottir, Hjordis Osk; Schendel, Diana E.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Parner, Erik T.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study patterns of contact with hospital for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using Danish population based register data. We included all children born in Denmark from 1994 through 2002. We found that children diagnosed with ASD had an increased rate of contact with hospital, almost regardless of the cause…

  16. Multimorbidity and Its Patterns according to Immigrant Origin. A Nationwide Register-Based Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Esperanza; Poblador-Pou, Beatriz; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Kumar, Bernadette N.; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As the flows of immigrant populations increase worldwide, their heterogeneity becomes apparent with respect to the differences in the prevalence of chronic physical and mental disease. Multimorbidity provides a new framework in understanding chronic diseases holistically as the consequence of environmental, social, and personal risks that contribute to increased vulnerability to a wide variety of illnesses. There is a lack of studies on multimorbidity among immigrants compared to native-born populations. Methodology This nationwide multi-register study in Norway enabled us i) to study the associations between multimorbidity and immigrant origin, accounting for other known risk factors for multimorbidity such as gender, age and socioeconomic levels using logistic regression analyses, and ii) to identify patterns of multimorbidity in Norway for immigrants and Norwegian-born by means of exploratory factor analysis technique. Results Multimorbidity rates were lower for immigrants compared to Norwegian-born individuals, with unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals 0.38 (0.37–0.39) for Eastern Europe, 0.58 (0.57–0.59) for Asia, Africa and Latin America, and 0.67 (0.66–0.68) for Western Europe and North America. Results remained significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Similar multimorbidity disease patterns were observed among Norwegian-born and immigrants, in particular between Norwegian-born and those from Western European and North American countries. However, the complexity of patterns that emerged for the other immigrant groups was greater. Despite differences observed in the development of patterns with age, such as ischemic heart disease among immigrant women, we were unable to detect the systematic development of the multimorbidity patterns among immigrants at younger ages. Conclusions Our study confirms that migrants have lower multimorbidity levels compared to Norwegian-born. The greater complexity of

  17. Registered Nurses’ Perceptions about the Situation of Family Caregivers to Patients with Heart Failure - A Focus Group Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes. Aims The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses’ perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses’ interventions, in order to improve family caregivers’ situation. Methods The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine sub-categories emerged in the analysis process. The content area “Family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “To be unburdened” and “To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences”. The content area “Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “Individualized support and information” and “Bridging contact”. Conclusions Registered nurses perceive family caregivers' situation as burdensome, characterized by worry and uncertainty. In the PHCCs, the continuity and security of an RN as a permanent health care contact was considered an important and sustainable intervention to better care for family caregivers' worry and uncertainty. In the nurse-led heart failure clinics in hospitals, registered nurses can provide family caregivers with the opportunity of involvement in their relative's health care and address congruence and relationship quality within the family through the use of "Shared care

  18. Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders and the Risk of Subsequent Anorexia Nervosa: A Danish Population Register Study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa.

  19. Using Plant Clinic Registers to Assess the Quality of Diagnoses and Advice Given to Farmers: A Case Study from Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsen, Solveig; Boa, Eric; Mafabi, Moses; Mutebi, Emmanuel; Reeder, Robert; Kabeere, Flavia; Karyeija, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study developed a framework for quality assessment of diagnoses and advice given at plant clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Clinic registers from five plant clinics in Uganda (2006-2010) were used to develop quality assessment protocols for diagnoses and advice given by plant doctors. Assessment of quality of diagnoses was based…

  20. Social conditions for people with Down syndrome: a register-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hasle, Henrik; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Today, most persons with Down syndrome (DS) survive into middle age, but information on their social conditions as adults is limited. We addressed this knowledge gap using data from national registers in Denmark. We identified a national cohort of 1,998 persons with DS who were born between 1968 and 2007 (1,852 with standard trisomy 21, 80 with Robertsonian translocations and 66 with mosaicism) using the Danish Cytogenetic Register. We followed this cohort from 1980 to 2007. Information on social conditions (education, employment, source of income, marital status, etc.) was obtained by linkages to national registers, including the Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labor Market Research. For those aged 18 and older, more than 80% of persons with DS attended 10 years of primary school, with about 2% completing secondary or post-secondary education. About 4% obtained a full-time job, whereas the remaining mainly received public support from the government. Only a few (1-2%) of persons with DS were married or had a child. No significant differences in these social conditions were seen between males and females. More persons with mosaic DS attended secondary or post-secondary education, had a full-time job, were married, or had a child (18%, 28%, 15%, and 7%, respectively), compared with persons with standard DS (1%, 2%, 1%, and 1%, respectively). These data may provide families with better insight into social conditions and society with a better understanding of the social support needed for persons with DS. PMID:24273114

  1. A Study of Semiotic Registers in the Development of the Definite Integral of Functions of Two and Three Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Daniel Lee; Martinez-Planell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Tracing the path from a numerical Riemann sum approximating the area under a curve to a definite integral representing the precise area in various texts and online presentations, we found 3 semiotic registers that are used: the geometric register, the numerical register, and the symbolic register. The symbolic register had 3 representations: an…

  2. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Sweden - predominance in the elderly and in women - a register based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden is not well investigated. There is no Swedish immunization program to prevent varicella zoster virus infections. A vaccine against herpes zoster and its complications is now available. The aim of this study was to estimate the herpes zoster burden of disease and to establish a pre-vaccination baseline of the minimum incidence of herpes zoster. Methods Data were collected from the Swedish National Health Data Registers including the Patient Register, the Pharmacy Register, and the Cause of Death Register. The herpes zoster burden of disease in Sweden was estimated by analyzing the overall, and age and gender differences in the antiviral prescriptions, hospitalizations and complications during 2006-2010 and mortality during 2006-2009. Results Annually, 270 per 100,000 persons received antiviral treatment for herpes zoster, and the prescription rate increased with age. It was approximately 50% higher in females than in males in the age 50+ population (rate ratio 1.39; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.58). The overall hospitalization rate for herpes zoster was 6.9/100,000 with an approximately three-fold increase for patients over 80 years of age compared to the age 70-79 group. A gender difference in hospitalization rates was observed: 8.1/100,000 in females and 5.6/100,000 in males. Herpes zoster, with a registered complication, was found in about one third of the hospitalized patients and the most common complications involved the peripheral and central nervous systems. Death due to herpes zoster was a rare event. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the significant burden of herpes zoster disease in the pre-zoster vaccination era. A strong correlation with age in the herpes zoster- related incidence, hospitalization, complications, and mortality rates was found. In addition, the study provides further evidence of the female predominance in herpes zoster disease. PMID:24330510

  3. [Passport registers: their limits and possibilities for the study of emigration].

    PubMed

    Baganha, M I

    1996-08-01

    "There are two main nominal sources of data on Portuguese emigration during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: the Rois de Confessados or Rois de Desobriga and the Livros de Registos de Passaportes.... The major question regarding passport registers concerns the level of clandestine emigration. Thus a comparison with U.S. ship lists reveals two different pictures of Portuguese emigration [with regard to] sex ratio, occupations and age distribution. Data obtained point at a larger generalization: sources containing data on legal emigration only do not reflect ¿true' emigration in countries with important clandestine streams." (EXCERPT)

  4. Assessing vaccination coverage in infants, survey studies versus the Flemish immunisation register: achieving the best of both worlds.

    PubMed

    Braeckman, Tessa; Lernout, Tinne; Top, Geert; Paeps, Annick; Roelants, Mathieu; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Damme, Pierre; Theeten, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Infant immunisation coverage in Flanders, Belgium, is monitored through repeated coverage surveys. With the increased use of Vaccinnet, the web-based ordering system for vaccines in Flanders set up in 2004 and linked to an immunisation register, this database could become an alternative to quickly estimate vaccination coverage. To evaluate its current accuracy, coverage estimates generated from Vaccinnet alone were compared with estimates from the most recent survey (2012) that combined interview data with data from Vaccinnet and medical files. Coverage rates from registrations in Vaccinnet were systematically lower than the corresponding estimates obtained through the survey (mean difference 7.7%). This difference increased by dose number for vaccines that require multiple doses. Differences in administration date between the two sources were observed for 3.8-8.2% of registered doses. Underparticipation in Vaccinnet thus significantly impacts on the register-based immunisation coverage estimates, amplified by underregistration of administered doses among vaccinators using Vaccinnet. Therefore, survey studies, despite being labour-intensive and expensive, currently provide more complete and reliable results than register-based estimates alone in Flanders. However, further improvement of Vaccinnet's completeness will likely allow more accurate estimates in the nearby future.

  5. Subliminal semantic priming in near absence of attention: A cursor motion study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2015-12-15

    The role of attention in subliminal semantic priming remains controversial: some researchers argue that attention is necessary for subliminal semantic priming, while others suggest that subliminal semantic processing is free from the influence of attention. The present study employs a cursor motion method to measure priming and evaluate the influence of attention. Specifically, by employing a semantic priming task developed by Naccache, Blandin, and Dehaene (2002), we investigate the extent to which top-down attention influences semantic priming. Results indicate that, consistent with the Naccache et al. (2002) results, attention facilitates priming. However, inconsistent with their theory, significant priming is still observed even in near absence of attention. We suggest that top-down attention helps but is not necessary for subliminal semantic processing.

  6. Absence of amyloid-beta in lenses of Alzheimer patients: a confocal Raman microspectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Michael, Ralph; Otto, Cees; Lenferink, Aufried; Gelpi, Ellen; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Rosandić, Jurja; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M

    2014-02-01

    We have compared the protein profiles in plaques and tangles in the hippocampus of post-mortem Alzheimer brains and in opaque and clear regions in the deep cortex of eye lenses of the same donors. From the 7 Alzheimer donors studied, 1 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities, 1 moderate and 5 only minor or no cortical opacities. We focused on beta-sheet levels, a hallmarking property of amyloid-beta, the major protein of plaques and tau protein, the major protein of tangles in Alzheimer brains. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and imaging was used in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis. Plaques and tangles show high levels of beta-sheets with a beta-sheet to protein ratio of 1.67. This ratio is 1.12 in unaffected brain tissue surrounding the plaques and tangles. In the lenses this ratio is 1.17 independently of the presence or absence of opacities. This major difference in beta-sheet conformation between hippocampus and lens is supported by Congo red and immunostaining of amyloid-beta and tau which were positive for plaques and tangles in the hippocampus but fully negative for the lens irrespective of the presence or absence of opacities. In line with a previous study (Michael et al., 2013) we conclude that cortical lens opacities are not typical for Alzheimer patients and are not hallmarked by accumulation of amyloid-beta, and can thus not be considered as predictors or indicators of Alzheimer disease as claimed by Goldstein et al. (2003).

  7. Non-minor injuries among children sustained in an outdoor environment--a retrospective register study.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate non-minor injuries sustained during outdoor activities among 0-12 year old children and to explore self-reported circumstances surrounding these incidents. During 2007-2009, the Umeå University Hospital injury database (IDB) registered 795 children with moderate (n = 778) and serious (n = 17) injuries, such as fractures. The IDB includes data from a questionnaire completed in the emergency department by the injured child or a parent. The open-ended questions catch the injured child's description of what circumstances precede the injury incident. The most commonly reported activities contributing to injuries were play, sport, and transport. Surface impacts were also reported as contributing factors along with products such as trampolines, bicycles, and downhill skis. By achieving a deeper knowledge about the activities and circumstances that precede non-minor injury incidents, creating safer outdoor environments may be feasible. PMID:24024526

  8. Non-minor injuries among children sustained in an outdoor environment--a retrospective register study.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Lina; Rolfsman, Ewa; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate non-minor injuries sustained during outdoor activities among 0-12 year old children and to explore self-reported circumstances surrounding these incidents. During 2007-2009, the Umeå University Hospital injury database (IDB) registered 795 children with moderate (n = 778) and serious (n = 17) injuries, such as fractures. The IDB includes data from a questionnaire completed in the emergency department by the injured child or a parent. The open-ended questions catch the injured child's description of what circumstances precede the injury incident. The most commonly reported activities contributing to injuries were play, sport, and transport. Surface impacts were also reported as contributing factors along with products such as trampolines, bicycles, and downhill skis. By achieving a deeper knowledge about the activities and circumstances that precede non-minor injury incidents, creating safer outdoor environments may be feasible.

  9. An exploratory study of selected female registered nurses: meaning and expression of nurturance.

    PubMed

    Geissler, E M

    1990-05-01

    The words 'nurse' and 'nursing' originate in the word 'nurture' which dates back to the 14th century. 'Nurturance' appeared for the first time in the 1976 Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary and in a United States dictionary in 1983. Etymologically and semantically bound to nursing, little is known about the term nurturance. An exploratory design using phenomenological analysis was applied to understand the female registered nurses' experience of nurturing patients throughout the life-span and to uncover behaviours commonly believed nurturant. Interviews with 14 RNs practising in diverse settings revealed 39 nurturant behaviours that were intuited into four themes describing the subjects' perceived structure of nurturance as: (1) enabling maximum potential; (2) providing physical and emotional protection; (3) engaging in a supportive interaction; and (4) conveying shared humanity. Data were formulated into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon nurturance. Additionally, the results support Greenberg-Edelstein's theoretical model of the positive reciprocity of nurturance between nurse and patient. PMID:2358570

  10. An exploratory study of selected female registered nurses: meaning and expression of nurturance.

    PubMed

    Geissler, E M

    1990-05-01

    The words 'nurse' and 'nursing' originate in the word 'nurture' which dates back to the 14th century. 'Nurturance' appeared for the first time in the 1976 Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary and in a United States dictionary in 1983. Etymologically and semantically bound to nursing, little is known about the term nurturance. An exploratory design using phenomenological analysis was applied to understand the female registered nurses' experience of nurturing patients throughout the life-span and to uncover behaviours commonly believed nurturant. Interviews with 14 RNs practising in diverse settings revealed 39 nurturant behaviours that were intuited into four themes describing the subjects' perceived structure of nurturance as: (1) enabling maximum potential; (2) providing physical and emotional protection; (3) engaging in a supportive interaction; and (4) conveying shared humanity. Data were formulated into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon nurturance. Additionally, the results support Greenberg-Edelstein's theoretical model of the positive reciprocity of nurturance between nurse and patient.

  11. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

  12. Understanding eating in the absence of hunger among young children: A systematic review of existing studies

    PubMed Central

    Lansigan, Reina K.; Emond, Jennifer A.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH), or consuming highly palatable foods when satiated, is one behavioral pathway that may lead to childhood obesity. EAH is an objective, laboratory-based measure. A more comprehensive understanding of potential determinants of EAH could inform childhood obesity programs outside of a laboratory setting. Objective Systematic review of EAH experiments to identify individual, familial, and societal-level correlates of EAH among children 12 years of age or younger. Design 1,487 studies were retrieved from five electronic databases (Medline [PubMed], Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO). Eligible studies were those that measured EAH as initially operationalized in a laboratory setting enrolling children ≤12 years or reporting age-specific results for children ≤12 years. Only articles written in English were included. Results 12 cross-sectional, six prospective, and one behavioral-intervention studies were included in the review. EAH was observable among boys and girls; absolute levels of EAH increased with age; and maternal feeding styles were associated with EAH among girls. The most consistent evidence supported increased levels of EAH among overweight and obese versus normal weight children, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Two studies supported a genetic component to EAH. Conclusions Studies enrolling independent samples support a positive association between weight status and EAH among children; studies addressing causality are needed. Other various individual, genetic, and familiar characteristics were associated with EAH, yet studies among more heterogeneous sample populations are needed to confirm findings. Studies addressing societal-level factors related to EAH were absent. PMID:25450900

  13. High-pressure study of lithium amidoborane using Raman spectroscopy and insight into dihydrogen bonding absence.

    PubMed

    Najiba, Shah; Chen, Jiuhua

    2012-11-20

    One of the major obstacles to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the lack of proper hydrogen storage material. Lithium amidoborane has attracted significant attention as hydrogen storage material. It releases ∼10.9 wt% hydrogen, which is beyond the Department of Energy target, at remarkably low temperature (∼90 °C) without borazine emission. It is essential to study the bonding behavior of this potential material to improve its dehydrogenation behavior further and also to make rehydrogenation possible. We have studied the high-pressure behavior of lithium amidoborane in a diamond anvil cell using in situ Raman spectroscopy. We have discovered that there is no dihydrogen bonding in this material, as the N-H stretching modes do not show redshift with pressure. The absence of the dihydrogen bonding in this material is an interesting phenomenon, as the dihydrogen bonding is the dominant bonding feature in its parent compound ammonia borane. This observation may provide guidance to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of this potential material and to design new material for hydrogen storage application. Also two phase transitions were found at high pressure at 3.9 and 12.7 GPa, which are characterized by sequential changes of Raman modes. PMID:23115332

  14. Functional Study of NIPA2 Mutations Identified from the Patients with Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Han; Zhang, Yuehua; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Jingmin; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiru; Netoff, Theoden; Jiang, Yuwu

    2014-01-01

    Recently many genetic mutations that are associated with epilepsy have been identified. The protein NIPA2 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region protein 2) is a highly selective magnesium transporter encoded by the gene NIPA2 in which we have found three mutations (p.I178F, p.N244S and p.N334_E335insD) within a population of patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). In this study, immunofluorescence labeling, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), MTT metabolic rate detection and computational modeling were utilized to elucidate how these mutations result in CAE. We found in cultured neurons that NIPA2 (wild-type) proteins were localized to the cell periphery, whereas mutant proteins were not effectively trafficked to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found a decrease in intracellular magnesium concentration in the neurons transfected with mutant NIPA2, but no effect on the survival of neurons. To understand how low intracellular magnesium resulted in hyperexcitability, we built and analyzed a computational model to simulate the effects of mutations. The model suggested that lower intracellular magnesium concentration enhanced synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents. This study primarily reveals that a selective magnesium transporter NIPA2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE. PMID:25347071

  15. High-pressure study of lithium amidoborane using Raman spectroscopy and insight into dihydrogen bonding absence

    PubMed Central

    Najiba, Shah; Chen, Jiuhua

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the lack of proper hydrogen storage material. Lithium amidoborane has attracted significant attention as hydrogen storage material. It releases ∼10.9 wt% hydrogen, which is beyond the Department of Energy target, at remarkably low temperature (∼90 °C) without borazine emission. It is essential to study the bonding behavior of this potential material to improve its dehydrogenation behavior further and also to make rehydrogenation possible. We have studied the high-pressure behavior of lithium amidoborane in a diamond anvil cell using in situ Raman spectroscopy. We have discovered that there is no dihydrogen bonding in this material, as the N—H stretching modes do not show redshift with pressure. The absence of the dihydrogen bonding in this material is an interesting phenomenon, as the dihydrogen bonding is the dominant bonding feature in its parent compound ammonia borane. This observation may provide guidance to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of this potential material and to design new material for hydrogen storage application. Also two phase transitions were found at high pressure at 3.9 and 12.7 GPa, which are characterized by sequential changes of Raman modes. PMID:23115332

  16. Functional study of NIPA2 mutations identified from the patients with childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Han; Zhang, Yuehua; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Jingmin; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiru; Netoff, Theoden; Jiang, Yuwu

    2014-01-01

    Recently many genetic mutations that are associated with epilepsy have been identified. The protein NIPA2 (non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region protein 2) is a highly selective magnesium transporter encoded by the gene NIPA2 in which we have found three mutations (p.I178F, p.N244S and p.N334_E335insD) within a population of patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). In this study, immunofluorescence labeling, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), MTT metabolic rate detection and computational modeling were utilized to elucidate how these mutations result in CAE. We found in cultured neurons that NIPA2 (wild-type) proteins were localized to the cell periphery, whereas mutant proteins were not effectively trafficked to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found a decrease in intracellular magnesium concentration in the neurons transfected with mutant NIPA2, but no effect on the survival of neurons. To understand how low intracellular magnesium resulted in hyperexcitability, we built and analyzed a computational model to simulate the effects of mutations. The model suggested that lower intracellular magnesium concentration enhanced synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents. This study primarily reveals that a selective magnesium transporter NIPA2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of CAE. PMID:25347071

  17. The experience of registered nurses nursing in the general adult intensive care unit. A phenomenological qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Pope, E; Nel, E; Poggenpoel, M

    1998-06-01

    In this article a phenomenological qualitative research study is discussed. More attention will be given to the methodology of the research. The objectives of the study are two-fold: firstly to explore and describe the experience of registered nurses nursing in the adult intensive care unit (this is the first phase of the research) and to describe guidelines based on the information obtained in the first phase to support the nurses in the form of a support programme in the second phase. The units of research are the registered nurses in the intensive care unit. The characteristics of the unit of research led to the emergence of a qualitative phenomenological research design of an explorative, descriptive and contextual nature. In the discussion of research methodology attention will be given to phase one: data gathering (ethical considerations and informed consent; purposive selection, phenomenological interviews and field notes); data analysis (Tesch's method of data analysis, methods to ensure trustworthiness, organisation of raw data and integration of findings supported by literature. Five themes were identified through the data analysis: impaired communication with management; discrimination: white on black racism; lack of fair, competitive remuneration and disregard for professional worth; non-conducive physical environment, and stressful working environment. Phase two: Guidelines were described to support the registered nurses in the intensive care unit based on the information obtained in phase one of the research.

  18. Inferring the absence of a species -- a case study of snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.

    2002-01-01

    Though the presence of a species can be unequivocally confirmed, its absence can only be inferred with a degree of probability. I used a model to calculate the minimum number of unsuccessful visits to a site that are necessary to assume that a species is absent. The model requires the probability of detection of the species per visit to be known. This probability, may vary depending on habitat, year, season, the area surveyed, the population size of the species, and the observer. I studied 3 European snake species---asp viper (Vipera aspis), smooth snake (Coronella austriaca), and grass snake (Natrix natrix)--over a 5-yr (1994--1998) interval, and made 645 visits to 87 sites during their activity periods. I used a generalized logistic regression approach with random effects for years and sites to (1) estimate the probability of detection of these species from sites known to be occupied, (2) test factors affecting it, and (3) compute the minimum number of times that a site must be visited to infer the absence of the particular species. Probability of detection for all species was heavily influenced by an index of population size. For V. aspis, probability, of detection increased from 0.23 to 0.50 and 0.70 in small, medium, and large populations, respectively. Similarly, probability of detection increased from 0.09 to 0.45 and 0.56 in small, medium, and large populations of C. austriaca, respectively, and from 0.11 in small to 0.25 in medium and large populations of N. natrix. Probability of detection also varied across months for all 3 species, among habitat types ( C. austriaca only), and from year to year (N. natrix only). Sites with unknown occupancy status conservatively may be assumed to be occupied by small populations. I calculated that such sites need to be surveyed 12, 34, and 26 times for V. aspis, C. austriaca, and N. natrix, respectively, before assuming with 95% probability that the site is unoccupied. These results suggest that some species may be more

  19. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  20. Levetiracetam in Absence Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verrotti, Alberto; Cerminara, Caterina; Domizio, Sergio; Mohn, Angelika; Franzoni, Emilio; Coppola, Giangennaro; Zamponi, Nelia; Parisi, Pasquale; Iannetti, Paola; Curatolo, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of levetiracetam therapy in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Twenty-one participants (11 male, 10 female) with typical absence seizures were enrolled in this prospective study from seven centres in Italy. The mean age and age range at time of enrolment into…

  1. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    HEO, Yong-Seok; LEEM, Jong-Han; PARK, Shin-Goo; JUNG, Dal-Young; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of job stress on absence from work caused by illnesses and accidents through a prospective research design. A total of 2,349 manual workers were included in this analysis. In the first survey, job stress was determined using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. In the second survey, information on absence due to accidents or illnesses during the past one year was obtained through a questionnaire. The relationship was analyzed using a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. After adjusting for confounding variables for males, absence due to accidents was statistically associated with high job demand, insufficient job control, inadequate social support, and organizational injustice. In addition, high job demands and organizational injustice were related to increased absence due to illnesses in both genders. A lack of reward was associated with increased absence due to illnesses among female workers. We found that job stress was associated with a higher risk of absence caused by accidents or illnesses of manual workers. PMID:26212413

  2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING RESEARCH REGISTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Labour, London (England).

    IN THIS CLASSIFIED REGISTER OF CURRENT AND RECENTLY COMPLETED STUDIES OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAIN, INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS ARE ARRANGED BY THE ITEM NUMBER JUDGED MOST IMPORTANT, AND THE NUMBERS OF OTHER RELEVANT INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH PROJECTS ARE INSERTED AT THE END OF EACH SECTION TO PROVIDE CROSS REFERENCES. DESCRIPTIONS INCLUDE THE TITLE…

  3. Hospital contacts with infection and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study with linkage of Danish national registers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Philip R; Benros, Michael E; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-11-01

    Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence unrelated to maternal infection during pregnancy has not been studied to nearly the same extent and the results are far from conclusive. Data were drawn from 2 population-based registers, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. We used a historical population-based cohort design and selected all individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 1996 (n = 843 390). We identified all individuals with a first-time hospital contact with schizophrenia from 1991 through 2010. Out of the 3409 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, a total of 1549 individuals had had a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact. Bacterial infection was the type of infection that was associated with the highest risk of schizophrenia (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.47-1.82). Our study does not exclude that a certain type of infection may have a specific effect; yet, it does suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a wide range of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families.

  4. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID) and recurrence density (RD) of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of < 35 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years, and ≥ 55 years. Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression) does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders): 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women < 35 years and in women between 35 and 44 years of age. We observed no differences between age groups in men. Recurrences among employees with recurrent episodes occurred within 3 years in 90% of cases and the median time-to-onset of recurrence was 11 (10-13) months in men and 10 (9-12) months in women. Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women < 45 years the RD was higher than in women ≥ 45 years. In

  5. Sickness absence poses a threat to the Swedish Welfare State: a cross-sectional study of sickness absence and self-reported illness

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Jan; Al-Windi, Ahmad; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Background The increasing cost of public social sickness insurance poses a serious economic threat to the Swedish welfare state. In recent years, expenditures for social insurance in general, as well as social sickness insurance in particular, have risen steeply in Sweden. This cross-sectional study analyzed the association between sickness absence (SA) and self-reported reduced working capacity due to a longstanding illness (>3 months), as well between SA and a number of other health problems. Methods Self-reported data on longstanding illness and resultant reduced working capacity, socioeconomic factors, working environment, psychosomatic complaints, anxiety, and general health were obtained for 22,281 employed (paid) persons aged 25 to 64 years. These data were retrieved from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey for 1995 to 2002. National civic registration numbers, replaced with serial numbers to ensure anonymity, were used to link these data to individual-level SA records from the National Social Insurance Board. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of the main outcome variable for the three levels of the SA variable (0–28, 29–90, >90 days/year). Results There was an obvious increasing gradient in length of SA and increasing odds of reporting reduced working capacity. Odds ratios ranged from 3.5 to 19.0; i.e., those with more than ninety days of SA had 19.0 times higher odds of reporting reduced working capacity than those with 0–28 days of SA a year. This very strong association changed less than 10% after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and working environment characteristics. A total of 48.7% of persons on sick leave ≥ 29 days reported no longstanding illness and reduced working capacity. Of these persons, about 43% reported one or more other health problem. Conclusion We confirmed that longstanding illness that results in self-reported reduced working capacity is an important variable related to length of SA

  6. The ovarian hormones and absence epilepsy: a long-term EEG study and pharmacological effects in a genetic absence epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    van Luijtelaar, G; Budziszewska, B; Jaworska-Feil, L; Ellis, J; Coenen, A; Lasoń, W

    2001-09-01

    In the first experiment, the relationship between the phase of the estrous cycle and the number of spontaneously occurring spike-wave discharges was investigated in WAG/Rij rats, a model for generalized absence epilepsy. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was continuously recorded for 96 h in eight rats chronically equipped with cortical EEG electrodes. A circadian pattern emerged for the number of spike-wave discharges: a nadir during the first hours of the light period, and an acrophase during the first hours of the dark period. This daily maximum was increased at proestrus day compared with the other days of the cycle, when the plasma level of progesterone is enhanced specifically at these hours of this day. This suggests that progesterone enhances spike-wave discharges. There was no difference in the first few hours of the light period in the number of spike-wave discharges between proestrus and the three other days, suggesting that estradiol has no effect on spike-wave discharges. In the second study, the effects of the systemic administration of progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol on spike-wave discharges and spontaneous behavior were investigated. It was shown that progesterone (20 and 30 mg/kg) but not estradiol (0.17-1.5 mg/kg) increased the number and total duration of spike-wave discharges. On the other hand, injection of RU 38486 (10 and 30 mg/kg), an antagonist of intracellular progesterone receptors, had no effect on spike-wave discharges and did not block the stimulatory effect of progesterone. The antagonist of 17 beta-estradiol tamoxifen (1 and 3 mg/kg) did not evoke alterations in the number or duration of spike-wave discharges. Our results indicate that progesterone aggravates spike-wave discharges, but is not mediated through intracellular receptors. Since progesterone is rapidly metabolized in the brain to the positive modulator of GABA(A) receptor allopregnanolone, which increases spike-wave discharges in WAG/Rij rats, it is possible that the

  7. Young Registered Nurses' Intention to Leave the Profession and Professional Turnover in Early Career: A Qualitative Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Salanterä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    In a time of global nursing shortages an alarming number of young registered nurses have expressed a willingness to leave the profession. In this qualitative case study we investigate in depth why young nurses leave nursing profession and reeducate themselves for a new career. The study is based on longitudinal interviews of three young registered nurses in Finland. These nurses were first interviewed between December 2006 and May 2007, when they were 29–32 years old and having an intention to leave the profession. The second interview took place four years later, from January 2011 to March 2011 when all of them had made the transition to a new career. Data were analyzed in two stages. In the first stage, comprehensive career story narratives were formed on the basis of the interviews. In the second stage, emerging themes in these stories were compared, contrasted, and interpreted in the context of the overall career histories. Nursing as a second career choice and demanding work content as well as poor practice environment and the inability to identify with the stereotypical images of nurses were main themes that emerged from these career stories. The results of this interpretative qualitative study reflect a shift toward insights into understanding professional turnover as a complex and long-lasting process. PMID:24027640

  8. Lunasin in wheat: a chemical and molecular study on its presence or absence.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Simonetti, Emanuela; Trozzi, Caterina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Quinn, Robert; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-05-15

    Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide. PMID:24423565

  9. Experimental study bearing on the absence of carbonate in mantle-derived xenoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Canil, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Experimentation at high pressures in peridotite + CO{sub 2} systems has suggested that some CO{sub 2}-rich, Si-undersaturated magmas originate in mantle source regions consisting of carbonated peridotite. However, a caveat to the petrological application of such experiments has been the virtual absence of carbonate in mantle xenoliths. Decompression experiments were undertaken to resolve this problem and to test the hypothesis that carbonated peridotite exists in the upper mantle, but decomposes during ascent as xenoliths in its host magma. The author demonstrate that carbonate coexisting with silicates in mantle-derived xenoliths could not survive entrainment even in the fastest ascending magmas due to rapid decarbonation upon decompression. The author conclude that carbonate may indeed exist in the upper mantle, and that the paucity of this phase in mantle-derived xenoliths does not require its absence in the mantle source regions of many primary, alkalic magmas.

  10. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  11. Altered functional connectivity in default mode network in absence epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Li, Qifu; Lai, Yongxiu; Xia, Yang; Qin, Yun; Liao, Wei; Li, Shasha; Zhou, Dong; Yao, Dezhong; Gong, Qiyong

    2011-03-01

    Dysfunctional default mode network (DMN) has been observed in various mental disorders, including epilepsy (see review Broyd et al. [2009]: Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:279–296). Because interictal epileptic discharges may affect DMN, resting-state fMRI was used in this study to determine DMN functional connectivity in 14 healthy controls and 12 absence epilepsy patients. To avoid interictal epileptic discharge effects, testing was performed within interictal durations when there were no interictal epileptic discharges. Cross-correlation functional connectivity analysis with seed at posterior cingulate cortex, as well as region-wise calculation in DMN, revealed decreased integration within DMN in the absence epilepsy patients. Region-wise functional connectivity among the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe was significantly decreased in the patient group. Moreover, functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal lobe revealed a significant negative correlation with epilepsy duration. These findings indicated DMN abnormalities in patients with absence epilepsy, even during resting interictal durations without interictal epileptic discharges. Abnormal functional connectivity in absence epilepsy may reflect abnormal anatomo-functional architectural integration in DMN, as a result of cognitive mental impairment and unconsciousness during absence seizure. PMID:21319269

  12. Differences in sickness absence between self-employed and employed doctors: a cross-sectional study on national sample of Norwegian doctors in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors have a low prevalence of sickness absence. Employment status is a determinant in the multifactorial background of sickness absence. The effect of doctors’ employment status on sickness absence is unexplored. The study compares the number of sickness absence days during the last 12 months and the impact of employment status, psychosocial work stress, self-rated health and demographics on sickness absence between self-employed practitioners and employed hospital doctors in Norway. Methods The study population consisted of a representative sample of 521 employed interns and consultants and 313 self-employed GPs and private practice specialists in Norway, who received postal questionnaires in 2010. The questionnaires contained items on sickness absence days during the last 12 months, employment status, demographics, self-rated health, professional autonomy and psychosocial work stress. Results 84% (95% CI 80 to 88%) of self-employed and 60% (95% CI 55 to 64%) of employed doctors reported no absence at all last year. In three multivariate logistic regression models with sickness absence as response variable, employment category was a highly significant predictor for absence vs. no absence, 1 to 3 days of absence vs. no absence and 4 to 99 days of absence vs. no absence), while in a model with 100 or more days of absence vs. no absence, there was no difference between employment categories, suggesting that serious chronic disease or injury is less dependent on employment category. Average or poor self-rated health and low professional autonomy, were also significant predictors of sickness absence, while psychosocial work stress, age and gender were not. Conclusion Self-employed GPs and private practice specialist reported lower sickness absence than employed hospital doctors. Differences in sickness compensation, and organisational and individual factors may to a certain extent explain this finding. PMID:24885230

  13. Use of biguanides and the risk of colorectal cancer: a register-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Knapen, Lotte M; Dittrich, Suzanne T A M; de Vries, Frank; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Vestergaard, Peter; Henry, Ronald M A; Stolk, Leo M L; Neef, Cees; Bazelier, Marloes T

    2013-11-01

    Observational studies have shown conflicting results on the potential protecting effect of biguanide use with the risk of colorectal neoplasms. In addition, the cellular mechanism can either support or oppose biguanides influence on colorectal carcinoma. Our objective was to evaluate the association between biguanide use and colorectal carcinoma. A population-based cohort study using healthcare data from the Danish National database (1996-2007), was conducted. Oral antidiabetic drug users (n = 177,281) were matched 1:3 with a population-based reference group. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of colorectal carcinoma. Stratification was performed to analyse the risk of colorectal cancer in current biguanide users. Two sub-analyses were performed, to investigate the risk of colorectal cancer associated with discontinuous and prolonged use of biguanides. Instead of a protective effect, we found that current biguanide users had a 1.2-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.30) as compared with the non-diabetes reference group. Prolonged use was not inversely associated with colorectal cancer either. When studying colorectal risk with biguanides, the underlying T2DM should be taken into account since a 1.3-1.6-fold increased risk was found in oral antidiabetic drug users compared to controls unexposed to diabetic medication. This study could not detect a protective effect of biguanide use with colorectal cancer. Therefore, this study does not support a further investigation of the effectiveness of biguanides to prevent colorectal carcinoma in clinical studies.

  14. Survival of malignant pleural mesothelioma cases in the Tuscan Mesothelioma Register, 1988-2000: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gorini, G; De Gregorio, G; Silvestri, S; Chellini, E; Cupelli, V; Seniori Costantini, A

    2005-06-01

    This study analyses survival of Tuscan residents (Italy, 3.5 million population) diagnosed by histological examination with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the period 1988-2000, and recorded in the Tuscan Malignant Mesothelioma Register. The aim was to establish the prognostic role of demographic, diagnostic and asbestos exposure variables. During 1988-2000, 381 MPM cases were recorded (318 men; 63 women). Vital status was ascertained up to 31 December 2002. No cases were lost to follow-up. Median survival of certain MPM was 324 days (11 months; 95% CI 297-366); 45.7% (95% CI 40.6-50.6%) survived more than 1 year; 24.2% (95% CI 20.0-28.5%) more than 2 years. In univariate and multivariate analyses survival was associated with histological subtype (epithelioid subtype had the longest survival). Gender, age, period of diagnosis, hospital of diagnosis and asbestos exposure did not show significant effects. Therapeutic information was available for patients of the period 1997-2000. There was no significant difference in survival between treated versus untreated patients. In conclusion, no advance in prognosis at the population level in the most recent period can be suggested on the basis of the data available to the Tuscan Malignant Mesothelioma Register.

  15. Forensic Psychiatric Perspective on Criminality Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannynsalo, L.; Putkonen, H.; Lindberg, N.; Kotilainen, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Contrasting views exist over the association of intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending. This nationwide study attempts to shed further light to expand understanding to substantiate the relation between socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric co-morbidity and criminal behaviour among the Finnish forensic population…

  16. Perceptions of Writing Confidence, Critical Thinking, and Writing Competence among Registered Nurse-Learners Studying Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    Historically, nursing education has recognized that writing enhances critical thinking, the basis of the clinical reasoning process. The online learning recently adopted by Nursing involves considerable writing, which may enhance critical thinking more than face-to-face courses. In the study reported here, the critical thinking and writing…

  17. Upper Secondary French Students, Chemical Transformations and the "Register of Models": A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin; Dumon, Alain; Taber, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how upper secondary school French students (Grade 10-12) interpret chemical transformation with regards to the changes within molecules and atoms, and in terms of intramolecular and/or intermolecular bond breaking. In order to identify and describe the students' assimilated knowledge, four questions were…

  18. Enhancing Literacy in the Second Grade: Five Related Studies Using the Register Music/Reading Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Cassidy, Jane W.; Flowers, Patricia J.; Register, Dena; Sims, Wendy; Standley, Jayne M.; Menard, Elizabeth; Swedberg, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of these five related studies was to ascertain the effects of a music curriculum designed to enhance reading skills of second-grade students. The dependent variables were subtest scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test administered pre and post the music/reading intervention. Results showed that the total test gain scores of…

  19. Primary Care Use before Cancer Diagnosis in Adolescents and Young Adults – A Nationwide Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahrensberg, Jette Møller; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survival rates of cancer patients have generally improved in recent years. However, children and older adults seem to have experienced more significant clinical benefits than adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Previous studies suggest a prolonged diagnostic pathway in AYAs, but little is known about their pre-diagnostic healthcare use. This study investigates the use of primary care among AYAs during the two years preceding a cancer diagnosis. Methods The study is a retrospective population-based matched cohort study using Danish nationwide registry data. All persons diagnosed with cancer during 2002–2011 in the age group 15–39 years were included (N = 12,306); each participant was matched on gender, age and general practice with 10 randomly selected references (N = 123,060). The use of primary healthcare services (face-to-face contacts, blood tests and psychometric tests) was measured during the two years preceding the diagnosis (index date), and collected data were analysed in a negative binomial regression model. Results The cases generally increased their use of primary care already from 8 months before a cancer diagnosis, whereas a similar trend was not found for controls. The increase was observed for all cancer types, but it started at different times: 17 months before a diagnosis of CNS tumour, 12 months before a diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, 9 months before a diagnosis of lymphoma, 5–6 months before a diagnosis of leukaemia, bone tumour or GCT, and 3 months before a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Conclusion The use of primary care among AYAs increase several months before a cancer diagnosis. The diagnostic intervals are generally short for malignant melanomas and long for brain tumours. A prolonged diagnostic pathway may indicate non-specific or vague symptomatology and low awareness of cancer among AYAs primary-care personnel. The findings suggest potential of faster cancer diagnosis in AYAs. PMID:27203083

  20. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  1. The association between immigrant subgroup and poor mental health: a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Bruce, Daniel; Burström, Bo; Ekblad, Solvig

    2013-08-01

    Ethnicity and immigrant subgroup (classified as refugee or nonrefugee) are associated with poor mental health among immigrants. The aim of this study was to assess whether national origin-based differences in poor mental health can be explained by immigrant subgroup and if its importance varies depending on origin. A cross-sectional, population-based study of Swedish residents was conducted in 2006. The outcome was poor mental health, measured with the proxy variable psychotropic drugs purchased. Explanatory variables included immigrant subgroup and origin. Potential confounders were age, marital status, education, time in Sweden, and children. Logistic regression was carried out. The total population was 5,507,262. Immigrants from countries outside the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) numbered 298,641. Immigrant subgroup partly explained the higher likelihood of poor mental health among non-OECD immigrants; when each country or area was analyzed separately, most refugees had a higher likelihood than nonrefugees did. Immigrant subgroup partly explained the origin-based differences in mental health, but this varied between different groups of origin. PMID:23896844

  2. Hospitalizations Due to Adverse Drug Events in the Elderly—A Retrospective Register Study

    PubMed Central

    Laatikainen, Outi; Sneck, Sami; Bloigu, Risto; Lahtinen, Minna; Lauri, Timo; Turpeinen, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital. A total number of 290 admissions were screened for ADEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by a multi-disciplinary research team. Customized Naranjo scale was used as a control method. All admissions were categorized into “probable,” “possible,” or “doubtful” by both assessment methods. In total, 23.1% of admissions were categorized as “probably” or “possibly” medication-related. Vertigo, falling, and fractures formed the largest group of ADEs. The most common ADEs were related to medicines from N class of the ATC-code system. Age, sex, residence, or specialty did not increase the risk for medication-related admission significantly (min p = 0.077). Polypharmacy was, however, found to increase the risk (OR 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–6.9; p = 0.01). In conclusion, screening patients for specific demographics or symptoms would not significantly improve the recognition of ADEs. In addition, as ADE detection today is largely based on voluntary reporting systems and retrospective manual tracking of errors, it is evident that more effective methods for ADE detection are needed in the future. PMID:27761112

  3. Comparative analysis of premature mortality among urban immigrants in Bremen, Germany: a retrospective register-based linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Nataliya; Brand, Tilman; Brünings-Kuppe, Claudia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Luttmann, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of this study was to explore differences in mortality patterns among two large immigrant groups in Germany: one from Turkey and the other from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To this end, we investigated indicators of premature mortality. Design This study was conducted as a retrospective population-based study based on mortality register linkage. Using mortality data for the period 2004–2010, we calculated age-standardised death rates (SDR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for premature deaths (study, we made use of the unique possibilities of register-based research in relation to migration and health. Analyses were performed in three population groups in the federal state of Bremen, Germany: immigrants from Turkey, those from the FSU and the general population. Results The SDRs for premature deaths of the two immigrant groups were lower compared to those of the general population. The SMRs remained under 1. Using the indicator of YPLL, we observed higher age-standardised YPLL rates among immigrant populations, particularly among males from the FSU compared to females and population groups 4238/100 000, 95% CI (4119 to 4358). Regarding main causes of premature death, we found larger contributions of infant mortality and diseases of the respiratory system among Turkish immigrants, and of injuries and poisonings, and mental and behavioural disorders among immigrants from the FSU. Conclusions While the overall trends favour the immigrant populations, the indicator of YPLL and cause-specific results indicate areas where the healthcare systems responsiveness may need to be improved, including preventive services. Further work with broader databases providing a similar level of differentiation is necessary to substantiate these findings. PMID:27000782

  4. Suicide risk in relation to air pollen counts: a study based on data from Danish registers

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ping; Waltoft, Berit L; Mortensen, Preben B; Postolache, Teodor T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Since the well-observed spring peak of suicide incidents coincides with the peak of seasonal aeroallergens as tree-pollen, we want to document an association between suicide and pollen exposure with empirical data from Denmark. Design Ecological time series study. Setting Data on suicide incidents, air pollen counts and meteorological status were retrieved from Danish registries. Participants 13 700 suicide incidents over 1304 consecutive weeks were obtained from two large areas covering 2.86 million residents. Primary and secondary outcome measures Risk of suicide associated with pollen concentration was assessed using a time series Poisson-generalised additive model. Results We noted a significant association between suicide risk and air pollen counts. A change of pollen counts levels from 0 to ‘10–<30’ grains/m3 air was associated with a relative risk of 1.064, that is, a 6.4% increase in weekly number of suicides in the population, and from 0 to ‘30–100’ grains, a relative risk of 1.132. The observed association remained significant after controlling for effects of region, calendar time, temperature, cloud cover and humidity. Meanwhile, we observed a significant sex difference that suicide risk in men started to rise when there was a small increase of air pollen, while the risk in women started to rise until pollen grains reached a certain level. High levels of pollen had slightly stronger effect on risk of suicide in individuals with mood disorder than those without the disorder. Conclusions The observed association between suicide risk and air pollen counts supports the hypothesis that aeroallergens, acting as immune triggers, may precipitate suicide. PMID:23793651

  5. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility: a register-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Lieberoth, Sofie; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-04-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage of asthmatics with a time to pregnancy >1 year was 27% versus 21.6% for non-asthmatics (OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1-1.6); p=0.009). The association remained significant after adjustment for age, age at menarche, body mass index and socioeconomic status (OR (95% CI) 1.25 (1.0-1.6); p=0.05), and was more pronounced in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve reproductive processes. PMID:24232708

  6. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility: a register-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Lieberoth, Sofie; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-04-01

    Coexistence of infertility and asthma has been observed clinically. Therefore, we investigated the association between asthma and delayed pregnancy in a nationwide population-based cohort of twins. A cohort of 15 250 twins living in Denmark (aged 12-41 years) participated in a questionnaire study including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage of asthmatics with a time to pregnancy >1 year was 27% versus 21.6% for non-asthmatics (OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1-1.6); p=0.009). The association remained significant after adjustment for age, age at menarche, body mass index and socioeconomic status (OR (95% CI) 1.25 (1.0-1.6); p=0.05), and was more pronounced in those >30 years of age (32.2% versus 24.9%, OR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.1-1.9); p=0.04). Untreated asthmatics had a significant increased risk of prolonged time to pregnancy compared to healthy individuals (OR (95% CI) 1.79 (1.20-2.66); p=0.004), while asthmatics receiving any kind of treatment for asthma tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve reproductive processes.

  7. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment) study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572) received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96%) or a neuroprotectant (72%), and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (42%). Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9%) patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS) clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p < 0.001). Continuation of antihypertensives in-hospital and at 3 and 12 months post-stroke was reported in 732/935 (78%), 775/935 (83%), and 752/935 (80%) living patients with hypertension, respectively. Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH. PMID:21276264

  8. Total ankle replacement: a population-based study of 515 cases from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Koivu, Helka; Eskelinen, Antti; Ikävalko, Mikko; Paavolainen, Pekka; Remes, Ville

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Although total ankle replacement (TAR) is a recognized procedure for treatment of the painful arthritic ankle, the best choice of implant and the long-term results are still unknown. We evaluated the survival of two TAR designs and factors associated with survival using data from the nationwide arthroplasty registry in Finland. Methods 573 primary TARs were performed during the period 1982–2006 because of rheumatic, arthritic, or posttraumatic ankle degeneration. We selected contemporary TAR designs that were each used in more than 40 operations, including the S.T.A.R. (n = 217) and AES (n = 298), to assess their respective survival rates. The mean age of the patients was 55 (17–86) years and 63% of operations were performed in women. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox regression model were used for survival analysis. The effects of age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume were also studied. Results The annual incidence of TAR was 1.5 per 105 inhabitants. The 5-year overall survivorship for the whole TAR cohort was 83% (95% CI: 81–86), which agrees with earlier reports. The most frequent reasons for revision were aseptic loosening of one or both of the prosthesis components (39%) and instability (39%). We found no difference in survival rate between the S.T.A.R. and AES designs. Furthermore, age, sex, diagnosis, and hospital volume (< 10 and > 100 replacements in each of 17 hospitals) did not affect the TAR survival. Interpretation Based on our findings, we cannot conclude that any prosthesis was superior to any other. A high number of technical errors in primary TARs suggests that this low-volume field of implant arthroplasty should be centralized to fewer units. PMID:20180720

  9. Occupational injuries for consecutive and cumulative shifts among hospital registered nurses and patient care associates: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hopcia, Karen; Dennerlein, Jack Tigh; Hashimoto, Dean; Orechia, Terry; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-10-01

    Nontraditional work shifts for hospital registered nurses and patient care associates and associated injuries were examined through a case-control study. Inpatient care requires that many staff work nontraditional shifts, including nights and 12-hour shifts, but some characteristics remain unexplored, especially consecutive shifts. A total of 502 cases (injured workers) were matched to single controls based on their hospital, unit type, job type, gender, and age (± 5 years). Conditional logistic regression was used for the analysis, controlling for weekly hours scheduled. For both, consecutive shifts of 2 or more days and some various cumulative shifts over a week and month period, especially night shifts, were associated with increased odds of injury. More investigations on the phenomenon of consecutive shifts are recommended. Additionally, the assessment of shift policy and subsequent injury outcomes is necessary before implementing intervention strategies.

  10. Early-Life Factors and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease: A Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bojing; Chen, Honglei; Fang, Fang; Tillander, Annika; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) may take decades to develop and early life exposures such as infection may be important. However, few epidemiological studies have evaluated early life risk factors in relation to PD risk. We therefore examined such associations in a prospective analysis of 3 545 612 individuals born in Sweden between 1932 and 1970 without PD on January 1, 2002. Incident PD cases were identified using the Swedish Patient Register during 2002–2010. Information on sibship size, number of older and younger siblings, multiple births, parental age, birth month and season was obtained from the Swedish Multi-Generation Register. Monthly data on national burden of influenza-like illness during 1932–1970 were obtained from the Swedish Public Health Agency. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During the follow-up, 8779 incident PD cases were identified. As expected, older age, male sex, parental occupation as farmers, and family history of PD were associated with higher PD risk. Overall, early life factors, including flu burden in the year of birth, were not associated with PD risk, although we did find a lower PD risk among participants with older siblings than those without (HR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.98). Our study therefore provided little support for important etiological contributions of early life factors to the PD risk late in life. The finding of a lower PD risk among individuals with older siblings will need confirmation and further investigation. PMID:27082111

  11. In vivo Studies of VEGFR2 Interactions in the Presence and Absence of VEGF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Christopher; Hristova, Kalina, , Dr.

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is critical for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Enhanced VEGFR2 signaling is often correlated with malignancy. Recently, it was shown that full-length VEGFR2 exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium in the absence of bound VEGF. Thus, the canonical model of RTK activation does not seem to adequately describe the behavior of VEGFR2 in the cell membrane. In order to understand the role that VEGFR2 extracellular domain plays in unliganded dimerization in live cells, we utilize Fully Quantified Spectral Imaging (FSI) to probe the interactions of VEGFR2 mutant constructs with rationally truncated EC domains. In addition, we investigate the stoichiometry of ligand binding to VEGFR2 EC domain as a function of VEGF concentration and total receptor expression. Supported by NSF MCB 1157687 and NIH GM068619 (to KH) and and NSF Graduate Research Fellowship DGE-1232825 (to CK).

  12. Insomnia symptoms and subsequent cardiovascular medication: a register-linked follow-up study among middle-aged employees.

    PubMed

    Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Hublin, Christer; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea

    2014-06-01

    Sleep disturbances have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes. The associations of insomnia with hypertension and dyslipidaemia, the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, are less studied. We especially lack understanding on the longitudinal effects of insomnia on dyslipidaemia. We aimed to examine the associations of insomnia symptoms with subsequent prescribed medication for hypertension and dyslipidaemia using objective register-based follow-up data. Baseline questionnaire surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, were conducted in 2000-2002 (n = 6477, response rate 67%, 78% women) and linked to a national register on prescribed reimbursed medication 5-7 years prior to and 5 years after baseline. Associations between the frequency of insomnia symptoms (difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep, non-restorative sleep) and hypertension and dyslipidaemia medication during the follow-up were analysed using logistic regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals). Analyses were adjusted for pre-baseline medication, sociodemographic and work-related factors, health behaviours, mental health, and diabetes. Frequent insomnia symptoms were reported by 20%. During the 5-year follow-up, 32% had hypertension medication and 15% dyslipidaemia medication. Adjusting for age, gender and pre-baseline medication, frequent insomnia symptoms were associated with hypertension medication (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.00) and dyslipidaemia medication (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.12). Occasional insomnia symptoms were also associated with cardiovascular medication, though less strongly. Further adjustments had negligible effects. To conclude, insomnia should be taken into account in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. PMID:24313664

  13. Differences between homicide and filicide offenders; results of a nationwide register-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Lindberg, Nina; Eronen, Markku; Häkkänen, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide, the killing of one's child, is an extraordinary form of homicide. It has commonly been associated with suicide and parental psychiatric illness. In the research on filicide, nationwide studies with comparison groups, specific perpetrator subgroups, and assessment of possible risk factors have been called for. The purpose of the current study was to provide all that. Methods In this nationwide register-based case-control study all filicide offenders who were in a forensic psychiatric examination in Finland 1995–2004 were examined and compared with an age- and gender matched control group of homicide offenders. The assessed variables were psychosocial history, index offence, and psychiatric variables as well as psychopathy using the PCL-R. Results Filicide offenders were not significantly more often diagnosed with psychotic disorders than the controls but they had attempted suicide at the crime scene significantly more often. Filicide offenders had alcohol abuse/dependence and antisocial personality less often than the controls. Filicide offenders scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the controls. Within the group of filicide offenders, the psychopathy items with relatively higher scores were lack of remorse or guilt, shallow affect, callous/lack of empathy, poor behavioral controls, and failure to accept responsibility. Conclusion Since filicide offenders did not seem significantly more mentally disordered than the other homicide offenders, psychiatry alone cannot be held responsible for the prevention of filicide. Extensive international studies are needed to replicate our findings and provide more specific knowledge in order to enhance prevention. PMID:19480648

  14. [Factors associated with development of tuberculosis among children and young adults: a study of newly registered cases].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, R; Kitai, A; Mori, T; Yamada, Y

    1990-03-01

    In order to elucidate the factors relevant to the management and prevention of tuberculosis among children and young adults, a total of 191 tuberculosis cases who were newly registered at Health Centers in Saitama Prefecture and were aged less than 30 years were interviewed, and case-finding processes, treatment course and risk factors for clinical development were studied. Analyses of the time course from the patients' becoming aware of the clinical symptoms through the establishment of the diagnosis showed that the bacteriologically positive patients and the patients with cavitary lesion took a longer time before initiating medical action and before being finally diagnosed as tuberculous. Follow-up observation of patients' course of treatment revealed that 13% of the patients took prescribed medication irregularly or were lost to treatment. A case-control study was performed to determine the relationship between life style and disease risk. The control group was selected to match the patients for age and sex and also roughly with occupation. The risk factors found to be associated with the development of tuberculosis in this study included; family members' present or past history of tuberculosis, working night shift every week, eating at home less than once a day, diet not well balanced, indifference to personal health, lack of knowledge about tuberculosis and not attending 'cram' school. Also, patients were more likely to be taller and slimmer than controls.

  15. Increased cause-specific mortality in patients with mild and severe psoriasis: a population-based Swedish register study.

    PubMed

    Svedbom, Axel; Dalén, Johan; Mamolo, Carla; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Mallbris, Lotus; Petersson, Ingemar F; Ståhle, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Several studies have shown excess risk for a number of comorbidities in patients with psoriasis compared with the general population, but data on cause-specific mortality in this patient population are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of psoriasis and 12 specific causes of death and all-cause mortality in patients with mild and severe psoriasis. The study was based on data from Swedish administrative registers and compared the risk of death in 39,074 patients with psoriasis with 154,775 sex-, age- and residency-matched referents using Cox proportional hazards models. In patients with mild and severe psoriasis, the strongest associations were observed for deaths due to kidney disease (hazard ratio [HR]=2.20, p < 0.01) and liver disease (HR = 4.26, p < 0.001), respectively. Whilst cardiovascular disease was the main driver of excess mortality in absolute terms, the risks for other causes of death were also substantially elevated in patients with psoriasis compared with matched referents.

  16. Toward Synthesizing Our Knowledge of Morphology: Using Ontologies and Machine Reasoning to Extract Presence/Absence Evolutionary Phenotypes across Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dececchi, T. Alexander; Balhoff, James P.; Lapp, Hilmar; Mabee, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    The reality of larger and larger molecular databases and the need to integrate data scalably have presented a major challenge for the use of phenotypic data. Morphology is currently primarily described in discrete publications, entrenched in noncomputer readable text, and requires enormous investments of time and resources to integrate across large numbers of taxa and studies. Here we present a new methodology, using ontology-based reasoning systems working with the Phenoscape Knowledgebase (KB; kb.phenoscape.org), to automatically integrate large amounts of evolutionary character state descriptions into a synthetic character matrix of neomorphic (presence/absence) data. Using the KB, which includes more than 55 studies of sarcopterygian taxa, we generated a synthetic supermatrix of 639 variable characters scored for 1051 taxa, resulting in over 145,000 populated cells. Of these characters, over 76% were made variable through the addition of inferred presence/absence states derived by machine reasoning over the formal semantics of the source ontologies. Inferred data reduced the missing data in the variable character-subset from 98.5% to 78.2%. Machine reasoning also enables the isolation of conflicts in the data, that is, cells where both presence and absence are indicated; reports regarding conflicting data provenance can be generated automatically. Further, reasoning enables quantification and new visualizations of the data, here for example, allowing identification of character space that has been undersampled across the fin-to-limb transition. The approach and methods demonstrated here to compute synthetic presence/absence supermatrices are applicable to any taxonomic and phenotypic slice across the tree of life, providing the data are semantically annotated. Because such data can also be linked to model organism genetics through computational scoring of phenotypic similarity, they open a rich set of future research questions into phenotype

  17. Pressure ulcer knowledge of registered nurses, assistant nurses and student nurses: a descriptive, comparative multicentre study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gunningberg, Lena; Mårtensson, Gunilla; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Florin, Jan; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Bååth, Carina

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs), assistant nurses (ANs) and student nurses (SNs) about preventing pressure ulcers (PUs). PU prevention behaviours in the clinical practice of RNs and ANs were also explored. A descriptive, comparative multicentre study was performed. Hospital wards and universities from four Swedish county councils participated. In total, 415 participants (RN, AN and SN) completed the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool. The mean knowledge score for the sample was 58·9%. The highest scores were found in the themes 'nutrition' (83·1%) and 'risk assessment' (75·7%). The lowest scores were found in the themes 'reduction in the amount of pressure and shear' (47·5%) and 'classification and observation' (55·5%). RNs and SNs had higher scores than ANs on 'aetiology and causes'. SNs had higher scores than RNs and ANs on 'nutrition'. It has been concluded that there is a knowledge deficit in PU prevention among nursing staff in Sweden. A major educational campaign needs to be undertaken both in hospital settings and in nursing education.

  18. Age, occupational class and sickness absence during pregnancy: a retrospective analysis study of the Norwegian population registry

    PubMed Central

    Ariansen, Anja M S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Western women increasingly delay having children to advance their career, and pregnancy is considered to be riskier among older women. In Norway, this development surprisingly coincides with increased sickness absence among young pregnant women, rather than their older counterparts. This paper tests the hypothesis that young pregnant women have a higher number of sick days because this age group includes a higher proportion of working class women, who are more prone to sickness absence. Design A zero-inflated Poisson regression was conducted on the Norwegian population registry. Participants All pregnant employees giving birth in 2004–2008 were included in the study. A total number of 216 541 pregnancies were observed among 180 483 women. Outcome measure Number of sick days. Results Although the association between age and number of sick days was U-shaped, pregnant women in their early 20s had a higher number of sick days than those in their mid-40s. This was particularly the case for pregnant women with previous births. In this group, 20-year-olds had 12.6 more sick days than 45-year-olds; this age difference was reduced to 6.3 after control for class. Among women undergoing their first pregnancy, 20-year-olds initially had 1.2 more sick days than 45-year-olds, but control for class altered this age difference. After control for class, 45-year-old first-time pregnant women had 2.9 more sick days than 20-year-olds with corresponding characteristics. Conclusions The negative association between age and sickness absence was partly due to younger age groups including more working class women, who were more prone to sickness absence. Young pregnant women's needs for job adjustments should not be underestimated. PMID:24793246

  19. Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence. PMID:9253268

  20. An exploratory study of the correlates of intent to quit among certified registered nurse anesthetists in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, E; Largent, R N; Eberhardt, B J

    1990-07-01

    Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) provide the majority of anesthesia services in rural hospitals. Some services provided by CRNAs are routine, while others are for emergency conditions. The effect of the current nurse shortage on the potential pool of nurse anesthetists becomes a critical concern when considering the nature of CRNA services in rural areas. This study investigated the potential factors that relate to the desire of CRNAs to continue practicing in rural hospitals of North Dakota. All CRNAs licensed in North Dakota (n = 125) were mailed survey questionnaires. Approximately five weeks later responses were received from 54 respondents for an overall return rate of 43 percent. Correlational analyses were used to examine responses of the subjects. A moderate degree of relationship was found among the work-related variables. The average interscale correlation, calculated using an r to z transformation, for the seven work-related variables was 0.47. Overall, pay and promotion satisfaction exhibited strong (r greater than 0.60) correlations with turnover intentions. Supervisory satisfaction was only moderately (r = -0.33) related to intention to quit. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the management of CRNAs in rural hospitals. Revised salary schedules, clinical ladders for promotions, supervisory training, and the identification of potential performance constraints are suggested as areas in which rural hospitals should focus attention in an attempt to manage turnover in CRNAs. PMID:10105942

  1. Does Moral Distress Differ Between California Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in Independent Versus Medically Supervised Practice: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Dumouchel, Michael; Boytim, Michael; Gorman, Nicholas; Weismuller, Penny

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, descriptive study was to determine if moral distress levels differed between certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) working in medically supervised versus independent practice in California. A 63-question survey was administered to 1,190 California CRNAs. Moral distress was measured by the included Ethics Stress Scale. The response rate was 14.7%, yielding demographic and Ethics Stress scores for 175 respondents. Sixty-five participants answered an open-ended question about moral distress yielding qualitative data. Medically supervised CRNAs had a lower mean moral distress scores (176.8) versus independent practice CRNAs (187.8) (p = .002). Lower scores on the ESS indicate higher moral distress. Qualitative data demonstrated that CRNAs experienced moral distress in the following situations: when pressured to give anesthesia to unoptimized patients, when differences of opinion regarding anesthetic plans occurred, in dealing with end-of-life issues, when working with incompetent providers, and during interprofessional struggles between CRNAs and anesthesiologists. In order to reduce moral distress among CRNAs, implications for practice include increased administrative support, increased communication and reciprocated collegial respect between anesthesiologists and CRNAs, and CRNA representation on ethics committees.

  2. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low

  3. Portable shift register

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M[sup 3]CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M[sup 3]CA; like the M[sup 3]CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel.

  4. Bleeding complications related to warfarin treatment: a descriptive register study from the anticoagulation clinic at Helsingborg Hospital.

    PubMed

    Navgren, Monica; Forsblad, Johan; Wieloch, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    The most common indication for treatment with warfarin is the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is an important tool to evaluate the quality of anticoagulation treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of treatment and the incidence of bleeding complications in patients on warfarin treatment treated by the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg. This is the first study that has specifically focused on the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications in a real-world population. A total of 4,400 patients with a total of 8,394 patient years were registered, in the database Journalia AVK, during the time period November 1, 2007 to November 1, 2010. The mean age was 72 years. TTR was 73.3 % for the whole population. 421 patients suffered from haemorrhagic events. The frequency of major and fatal bleedings and intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) were 1.6, 0.2 and 0.5% per patient-year, respectively. A correlation between age and severe bleeding (major, fatal and ICH) (p = 0.003) was seen, but no correlation between gender and severe bleeding (p = 0.27). In 60 out of 455 bleeding events the complication had been reported to the anticoagulation clinic. At the anticoagulation clinic in Helsingborg the quality of warfarin treatment is good compared to previous results described in the literature, with regards to bleeding complications and efficacy. However, in our study, we confirm that the spontaneous reporting of bleeding complications related to warfarin is inadequate, and that review of patient records is needed to assure proper follow-up.

  5. Systems, Ideologies and History: A Three-Dimensional Absence in the Study of Assessment Reform Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez Petour, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes the case for the need to study assessment reform processes from a broader and more complex perspective that takes the historical, ideological and systemic aspects of assessment policies into account. It draws on a larger study to demonstrate how the understanding of Assessment for Learning (AfL) reforms is enriched by such a…

  6. Alternation between Work and Education. A Study of Educational Leave of Absence at Enterprise Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The study reported here involves six countries (Germany, Italy, Yugoslavia, United Kingdom, United States, and Sweden) and focuses on the ways in which those who are actively employed have access to opportunities to alternate education and training with their employment. The first chapter discusses the study structure and defines the field covered…

  7. Phase II study of capecitabine (Xeloda (registered) ) and concomitant boost radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Sunil; Janjan, Nora A.; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Wolff, Robert A.; Das, Prajnan; Delclos, Marc E.; Chang, George J.; Hoff, Paulo M.; Eng, Cathy; Brown, Thomas D.; Crane, Christopher H.; Feig, Barry W.; Morris, Jeffrey; Vadhan-Raj, Saroj; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Lin, Edward H. . E-mail: elin@u.washington.edu

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of capecitabine (Xeloda (registered) ), an oral fluoropyrimidine, as a radiosensitizer in the neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: We conducted a phase II study of capecitabine (825 mg/m{sup 2} orally, twice daily continuous) with radiotherapy (52.5 Gy/30 fractions to the primary tumor and perirectal nodes) in 54 patients with LARC (node-negative {>=}T3 or any node-positive tumor) staged by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). The primary endpoint was pathologic response rate; secondary endpoints included toxicity profiles and survival parameters. Results: Of the 54 patients (median age, 56.7 years; range, 21.3-78.7 years; male:female ratio, 1.7; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1: 100%), 51 patients (94%) had T3N0 or T3N1 disease by EUS. Surgery was not performed in 3 patients; 2 of these patients had metastatic disease, and the third patient refused after a complete clinical response. Of the 51 patients evaluable for pathologic response, 9 patients (18%) achieved complete response, and 12 patients (24%) had microscopic residual disease (<10% viable cells). In addition, 26 patients of all 54 patients (51%) achieved T-downstaging, and 15 patients of 29 patients (52%) achieved N-downstaging. Grade 3/4 toxicities were radiation dermatitis (9%) and diarrhea (2%). Sphincter preservation rate for tumor {<=}5 cm from the anal verge was 67% (18/27). Conclusion: This regimen of radiotherapy plus capecitabine is well tolerated and is more convenient than protracted venous infusion of 5-FU. The pathologic response rate is comparable to our previous experience using protracted venous infusion 5-FU for LARC.

  8. Factors associated with evidence-based practice among registered nurses in Sweden: a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) is emphasized to increase the quality of care and patient safety. EBP is often described as a process consisting of distinct activities including, formulating questions, searching for information, compiling the appraised information, implementing evidence, and evaluating the resulting practice. To increase registered nurses’ (RNs’) practice of EBP, variables associated with such activities need to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine individual and organizational factors associated with EBP activities among RNs 2 years post graduation. Methods A cross-sectional design based on a national sample of RNs was used. Data were collected in 2007 from a cohort of RNs, included in the Swedish Longitudinal Analyses of Nursing Education/Employment study. The sample consisted of 1256 RNs (response rate 76%). Of these 987 RNs worked in healthcare at the time of the data collection. Data was self-reported and collected through annual postal surveys. EBP activities were measured using six single items along with instruments measuring individual and work-related variables. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Results Associated factors were identified for all six EBP activities. Capability beliefs regarding EBP was a significant factor for all six activities (OR = 2.6 - 7.3). Working in the care of older people was associated with a high extent of practicing four activities (OR = 1.7 - 2.2). Supportive leadership and high collective efficacy were associated with practicing three activities (OR = 1.4 - 2.0). Conclusions To be successful in enhancing EBP among newly graduated RNs, strategies need to incorporate both individually and organizationally directed factors. PMID:23642173

  9. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden--epidemiological studies of register data.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-06-27

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15-1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01-2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02-3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  10. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring.

  11. The Association Between Self-Assessed Future Work Ability and Long-Term Sickness Absence, Disability Pension and Unemployment in a General Working Population: A 7-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A; Kjellberg, K; Leijon, O; Punnett, L; Hemmingsson, T

    2016-06-01

    Purpose Work ability is commonly measured with self-assessments, in the form of indices or single items. The validity of these assessments lies in their predictive ability. Prospective studies have reported associations between work ability and sickness absence and disability pension, but few examined why these associations exist. Several correlates of work ability have been reported, but their mechanistic role is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate to what extent individual's own prognosis of work ability predicts labor market participation and whether this was due to individual characteristics and/or working conditions. Methods Self-assessed prognosis of work ability, 2 years from "now," in the Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire (2002-2003) was linked to national registers on sickness absence, disability pension and unemployment up to year 2010. Effects were studied with Cox regression models. Results Of a total of 12,064 individuals 1466 reported poor work ability. There were 299 cases of disability pension, 1466 long-term sickness absence cases and 765 long-term unemployed during follow-up. Poor work ability increased the risk of long-term sickness absence (HR 2.25, CI 95 % 1.97-2.56), disability pension (HR 5.19, CI 95 % 4.07-6.62), and long-term unemployment (HR 2.18, CI 95 % 1.83-2.60). These associations were partially explained by baseline health conditions, physical and (less strongly) psychosocial aspects of working conditions. Conclusions Self-assessed poor ability predicted future long-term sickness absence, disability pension and long-term unemployment. Self-assessed poor work ability seems to be an indicator of future labor market exclusion of different kinds, and can be used in public health monitoring. PMID:26319413

  12. What If? Conditionals in Educational Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louwerse, Max M.; Crossley, Scott A.; Jeuniaux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many corpus linguistic studies have investigated classification of texts into genres and registers, but relatively few of these studies have looked at linguistic features in educational registers. From a pedagogical perspective it is important to determine whether certain linguistic features behave differently across registers within particular…

  13. Fractures in Individuals with and without a History of Infantile Autism. A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Discharge Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2012-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4…

  14. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  15. Association of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination with rates of ventilation tube insertion in Denmark: population-based register study

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Christina; Thomsen, Reimar W; Ovesen, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine if the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in Denmark was associated with a decrease in the rate of ventilation tube (VT) insertions performed by office-based practising ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists. Design Population-based register study based on prospectively collected data. Setting Central Denmark Region. Data on VT insertions performed by any office-based practising ENT specialist in the region were collected from the National Health Service Registry. Participants All children below the age of 2 years with a first-time VT insertion from 2001 through 2011. Main outcome measures Age-stratified and gender-stratified standardised incidence rates of first-time VT insertion, and incidence rate ratio for PCV period 2008–2011 compared with pre-PCV period 2001–2007. Results The annual incidence rate of first-time VT insertion in small children increased steadily from 64/1000 person-years in 2001 to 100/1000 person-years in 2011. The incidence rate ratio was 1.27 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.30) in the PCV period compared with the pre-PCV period. Conclusions The introduction of PCV into the Danish childhood immunisation programme in 2007 was not associated with a subsequent decrease in the rate of VT insertions among children below the age of 2 years. Instead, the rate continued to rise, as before the introduction of PCV. Trial registration number Danish Data Protection Agency: 2007-58-0010. PMID:26048205

  16. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Pia; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Clemmensen, Lars; Munkholm, Anja; Rimvall, Martin Kristian; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; van Os, Jim; Petersen, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2015-09-01

    Psychotic experiences (PE) in individuals of the general population are hypothesized to mark the early expression of the pathology underlying psychosis. This notion of PE as an intermediate phenotype is based on the premise that PE share genetic liability with psychosis. We examined whether PE in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.82-5.93). The risk increased for combined hallucinations and delusions (adjusted RR = 5.90, 95% CI: 2.64-13.16). A history of nonpsychotic mental disorders in first-degree relatives did not contribute to the risk of PE in offspring nor did any mental disorder among second-degree relatives. Our findings support the notion of PE as a vulnerability marker of transdiagnostic psychosis. The effect of psychosis in first-degree relatives may operate through shared genetic and environmental factors.

  17. An ecological study of lactococci isolated from raw milk in the camembert cheese registered designation of origin area.

    PubMed

    Corroler, D; Mangin, I; Desmasures, N; Gueguen, M

    1998-12-01

    The genetic diversity of lactococci isolated from raw milk in the Camembert cheese Registered Designation of Origin area was studied. Two seasonal samples (winter and summer) of raw milk were obtained from six farms in two areas (Bessin and Bocage Falaisien) of Normandy. All of the strains analyzed had a Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis phenotype, whereas the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique genotypically identified the strains as members of L. lactis subsp. lactis or L. lactis subsp. cremoris. The genotypes were confirmed by performing standard PCR with primers corresponding to a region of the histidine biosynthesis operon. The geographic distribution of each subspecies of L. lactis was determined; 80% of the Bocage Falaisien strains were members of L. lactis subsp. lactis, and 30.5% of the Bessin strains were members of L. lactis subsp. lactis. A dendrogram was produced from a computer analysis of the RAPD profiles in order to evaluate the diversity of the lactococci below the subspecies level. The coefficient of similarity for 117 of the 139 strains identified as members of L. lactis subsp. cremoris was as high as 66%. The L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were more heterogeneous and formed 10 separate clusters (the level of similarity among the clusters was 18%). Reference strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis fell into 2 of these 10 clusters, demonstrating that lactococcal isolates are clearly different. As determined by the RAPD profiles, some L. lactis subsp. lactis strains were specific to the farms from which they originated and were recovered throughout the year (in both summer and winter). Therefore, the typicality of L. lactis subsp. lactis strains was linked to the farm of origin rather than the area. These findings emphasize the significance of designation of origin and the specificity of "Camembert de Normandie" cheese.

  18. Aspartame exacerbates EEG spike-wave discharge in children with generalized absence epilepsy: a double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Camfield, P R; Camfield, C S; Dooley, J M; Gordon, K; Jollymore, S; Weaver, D F

    1992-05-01

    There are anecdotal reports of increased seizures in humans after ingestion of aspartame. We studied 10 children with newly diagnosed but untreated generalized absence seizures. Ambulatory cassette recording of EEG allowed quantification of numbers and length of spike-wave discharges in a double-blind study on two consecutive days. On one day the children received 40 mg/kg aspartame and on the other day, a sucrose-sweetened drink. Baseline EEG was the same before aspartame and sucrose. Following aspartame compared with sucrose, the number of spike-wave discharges per hour and mean length of spike-wave discharges increased but not to a statistically significant degree. However, the total duration of spike-wave discharge per hour was significantly increased after aspartame (p = 0.028), with a 40% +/- 17% (SEM) increase in the number of seconds per hour of EEG recording that the children spent in spike-wave discharge. Aspartame appears to exacerbate the amount of EEG spike wave in children with absence seizures. Further studies are needed to establish if this effect occurs at lower doses and in other seizure types.

  19. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  20. Absence of lymphatic vessels in human dental pulp: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Renato; Secciani, Ilaria; Sozio, Francesca; Rossi, Antonella; Weber, Elisabetta; Lorenzini, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Few and controversial data are available in the literature regarding the presence of lymphatic vessels in the human dental pulp. The present study was designed to examine morphologically the existence of a lymph drainage system in human dental pulp. Human dental pulp and skin sections were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies for lymphatic endothelium (D2-40, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3], and Prox-1), with the pan-endothelial markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and with the blood-specific marker CD34. Several blood vessels were identified in human pulps and skin. Lymphatic vessels were found in all human skin samples but in none of the pulps examined. Western blotting performed on human dermis and on pulps treated with collagenase (to remove odontoblasts) confirmed these results. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that vessels which, by light microscopy, appeared to be initial lymphatic vessels had no anchoring filaments or discontinuous basement membrane, both of which are typical ultrastructural characteristics of lymphatic vessels. These results suggest that under normal conditions human dental pulp does not contain true lymphatic vessels. The various theories about dental pulp interstitial fluid circulation should be revised accordingly.

  1. Fluid stimulation elicits hearing in the absence of air and bone conduction--An animal study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ronen; Adelman, Cahtia; Sohmer, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Cochlea can be directly excited by fluid (soft-tissue) stimulation. Objective To determine whether there is no difference in auditory-nerve-brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to fluid stimulation between normal and animal models of post radical-mastoidectomy, as seen in a previous human study. Background It has been shown in humans that hearing can be elicited with stimulation to fluid in the external auditory meatus (EAM), and radical-mastoidectomy cavity. These groups differed in age, initial hearing, and drilling exposure. To overcome this difference, experiments were conducted in sand-rats, first intact, and after inducing a radical-mastoidectomy. Methods The EAM of five sand-rats was filled with 0.3 ml saline. ABR thresholds were determined in response to vibratory stimulation by a clinical bone-vibrator with a plastic rod, applied to the saline in the EAM. Then the tympanic membrane was removed, and malleus dislocated (radical-mastoidectomy model). The cavity was filled with 0.45 ml saline and the ABR threshold was determined in response to vibratory stimulation to the cavity fluid. Results There was no difference in ABR fluid thresholds to EAM and mastoidectomy cavity stimulation. Air-conduction stimulation from the bone-vibrator was not involved (conductive loss due to fluid). Bone-conduction stimulation was not involved (large difference in acoustic impedance between fluid and bone).

  2. Fracture Risk Is Decreased in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Register-Based and Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Glintborg, Dorte; Nybo, Mads; Andersen, Marianne; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Hyperandrogenism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia may protect against osteoporosis, whereas amenorrhea, increased cortisol, and low growth hormone may be associated with higher fracture risk in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to investigate fracture risk in PCOS. In the PCOS Denmark study, women with PCOS and/or hirsutism were identified in the Danish National Patient Register (1995-2012). Each patient was assigned three age-matched controls on the index date of PCOS diagnosis. Individuals with a previous endocrine diagnosis were excluded. Within PCOS Denmark, we embedded a well-characterized subcohort of patients, PCOS OUH, diagnosed with PCOS at Odense University Hospital (n = 1217). We identified incident fractures by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes and used conditional Cox regression analyses to compare fracture risk. In the PCOS Denmark study, there were 19,199 women with PCOS and 57,483 controls were included, mean age 30.6 years (range, 12-60 years). Fracture rates were decreased in PCOS Denmark (10.3/1000 patient years) versus controls (13.6/1000 patient years). The adjusted ORs were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.80) for all fractures, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.92) for major osteoporotic fractures, and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.70) for fractures of head and face. The risk reduction was more pronounced below the age of 30 years at diagnosis. Women with PCOS had significant more hospital contacts due to strains and sprains. In the PCOS OUH subcohort, the risk reduction of fractures did not differ between PCOS women with elevated versus normal testosterone levels and the risk reduction was nominally smaller in overweight versus normal weight PCOS women. Women with PCOS had reduced risk of fractures, in particular of the appendicular skeleton. The risk reduction was greater in women with younger age at diagnosis suggesting that the skeletal effects of PCOS may be greater in women who have not yet

  3. Association between registered nurse staffing and management outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes within primary care: a cross-sectional linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Lukewich, Julia; Edge, Dana S.; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Williamson, Tyler; Tranmer, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the organization of primary care continues to evolve toward more interdisciplinary team structures, demonstrating effectiveness of care delivery is becoming important, particularly for nonphysician providers. Nurses are the most common nonphysician provider within primary care. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between primary care delivery models that incorporate registered nurses and clinical outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Patient data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network were matched with survey data from 15 Family Health Team practices in southeastern Ontario. Included patients were adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had at least 1 primary care encounter at a Family Health Team practice that completed the organizational survey between Apr. 1, 2013, and Mar. 31, 2014. The clinical outcomes explored included hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and urine albumin:creatinine ratio. Results: Of the 15 practices, 13 (86.7%) had at least 1 registered nurse. The presence of 1 or more registered nurses in the practice was associated with increased odds of patients' having their hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values meet recommended targets. Practices with the lowest ratios of patients with diabetes to registered nurse had a significantly greater proportion of patients with hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose values on target than did practices with the highest ratios of patients to registered nurse (p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Interpretation: The findings suggest that registered nurse staffing within primary care practice teams contributes to better diabetic care, as measured by diabetes management indicators. This study sets the groundwork for further exploration of nursing and organizational contributions to patient care in the primary care setting

  4. On Vocal Registers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollien, Harry

    A vocal register is a series or range of consecutive frequencies that can be produced with nearly identical voice quality. On the basis of research three fundamental registers can be defined and described: pulse, a low range of phonation; modal, a middle or "normal" range; and loft, a high range, described by some as falsetto. These three…

  5. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  6. Usage of a self-adhesive mesh in TAPP hernia repair: A prospective study based on Herniamed Register

    PubMed Central

    Klobusicky, Pavol; Feyerherd, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide in general surgery. The transabdominal laparoscopic (TAPP) approach in the therapy of inguinal hernia seems to be a suitable alternative to classical open inguinal hernia repair mainly in the hands of an experienced surgeon. TAPP repair offers the possibility of gentle dissection with implantation of the mesh and the possibility of non-invasive fixation of the implanted mesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data analysis encompassed all patients who underwent inguinal hernia surgery at our Surgical Department within the period from July 1, 2012 to September 30, 2014 and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The standard surgical technique was used. Data were entered and subsequently analysed on the Herniamed platform. Herniamed is an Internet-based register in German and English, and includes all data of outpatient and hospitalised patients who underwent surgery for some type of hernia. All relevant patient data are collected via Internet. RESULTS: There were 241 patients enrolled in the group and there were 396 inguinal hernias repaired in total. Standard long-term follow-up after 12 months was evaluated in 205 patients (85.06%), and in the rest of the patients during the closing of the study, but at least 6 months after operation. The mean follow-up was at 19.69 months. At the 1-year assessment, mild discomfort was reported in the groin in 10 patients (4.88%) [1-3 on the visual analogue scale (VAS)]. Post-operative pain lasting over 12 months in the groin of moderate degree (4-6 VAS) was reported in two cases (0.97%). There was no recurrence and no chronic post-operative pain of severe degree reported. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using the TAPP technique with the implantation of a self-fixation mesh is fast, effective, reliable and economically advantageous method in experienced hands and, according to our results

  7. Does the socioeconomic context explain both mortality and income inequality? Prospective register-based study of Norwegian regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies from various countries have observed worse population health in geographical areas with more income inequality. The psychosocial interpretation of this association is that large income disparities are harmful to health because they generate relative deprivation and undermine social cohesion. An alternative explanation contends that the association between income inequality and ill health arises because the underlying social and economic structures will influence both the level of illness and disease and the size of income differences. This paper examines whether the observed association between mortality and income inequality in Norwegian regions can be accounted for by the socioeconomic characteristics of the regions. Methods Norwegian register data covering the entire population were utilised. An extensive set of contextual and individual predictors were included in multilevel Poisson regression analyses of mortality 1994-2003 among 1.6 millions individuals born 1929-63, distributed across 35 residential regions. Results Mean income, composition of economic branches, and percentage highly educated in the regions were clearly connected to the level of income inequality. These social and economic characteristics of the regions were also markedly related to regional mortality levels, after adjustment for population composition, i.e., the individual-level variables. Moreover, regional mortality was significantly higher in regions with larger income disparities. The regions' social and economic structure did not, however, account for the association between regional income inequality and mortality. A distinct independent effect of income inequality on mortality remained after adjustment for regional-level social and economic characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that the broader socioeconomic context in Norwegian regions has a substantial impact both on mortality and on the level of income disparities. However, the results also suggest

  8. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Kasch, Helge; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Background 10–22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision. Methods and Findings 719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 3.8 (2.1;7.1)) and future neck pain (OR (95%CI) = 3.3 (1.8;6.3)), controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2) = 36.7, p < 0.001) and unemployment (χ2(2) = 12.5, p = 0.002)) pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI) = 3.1 (2.3;4.4)) compared with controls. Conclusions Sick leave before the

  9. Practice Leadership at the Front Line in Supporting People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: A Qualitative Study of Registered Managers of Community-Based, Staffed Group Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: The front-line management role in services for people with intellectual disabilities remains rather under-researched. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of registered managers in services for adults with intellectual disability who exhibit challenging behaviour. Method: Interviews, primarily focussed upon staff…

  10. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…

  11. Permeation Characteristics of Hypericin across Caco-2 Monolayers in the Absence or Presence of Quercitrin - A Mass Balance Study.

    PubMed

    Verjee, Sheela; Brügger, Daniela; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-08-01

    Hypericin is a natural polycyclic quinone found in Hypericum perforatum. Although hypericin reportedly has numerous pharmacological activities, only a limited number of studies have been performed on the absorption and transport characteristics of this compound, presumably because hypericin is a highly lipophilic compound that is poorly soluble in a physiological medium. The major aim of this study was to get a detailed understanding of the exposure and fate of hypericin in the Caco-2 cell system under different experimental conditions. The permeation characteristics of hypericin (5 µM) in the absence or presence of the model flavonoid quercitrin (20 µM) were studied in the absorptive direction, without or with the addition of 10 % FBS to the transport buffer apically. Following the application of hypericin to the apical side of the monolayer, only negligible amounts of the compound were found in the basolateral compartment when the experiment was performed with a transport buffer. The amount of hypericin in the basolateral compartment increased in the presence of quercitrin (from 0 to 4 %). The majority of hypericin was found after cell extraction (44 % in the absence and 64 % in the presence of quercitrin). When 10 % FBS was added to the transport buffer in the apical compartment to improve the solubility of hypericin in the aqueous solution, around 68 % of hypericin was bound to the serum proteins. Under these experimental conditions, the amount of hypericin in the cells/cell membrane was only 13 % in the absence and 18 % in the presence of quercitrin. The low recovery and significant amounts of hypericin found after cell extraction and bound to the surface of the culture dish made a correct estimation of permeability constants impossible. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging analysis revealed that hypericin is mainly accumulated in the cell membrane. The precise mechanism through which hypericin might overcome the hydrophobic barrier of

  12. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  13. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  14. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study

    PubMed Central

    Lurquin, John H.; Michaelson, Laura E.; Barker, Jane E.; Gustavson, Daniel E.; von Bastian, Claudia C.; Carruth, Nicholas P.; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection. PMID:26863227

  15. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    PubMed

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection. PMID:26863227

  16. No Evidence of the Ego-Depletion Effect across Task Characteristics and Individual Differences: A Pre-Registered Study.

    PubMed

    Lurquin, John H; Michaelson, Laura E; Barker, Jane E; Gustavson, Daniel E; von Bastian, Claudia C; Carruth, Nicholas P; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Ego-depletion, a psychological phenomenon in which participants are less able to engage in self-control after prior exertion of self-control, has become widely popular in the scientific community as well as in the media. However, considerable debate exists among researchers as to the nature of the ego-depletion effect, and growing evidence suggests the effect may not be as strong or robust as the extant literature suggests. We examined the robustness of the ego-depletion effect and aimed to maximize the likelihood of detecting the effect by using one of the most widely used depletion tasks (video-viewing attention control task) and by considering task characteristics and individual differences that potentially moderate the effect. We also sought to make our research plan transparent by pre-registering our hypotheses, procedure, and planned analyses prior to data collection. Contrary to the ego-depletion hypothesis, participants in the depletion condition did not perform worse than control participants on the subsequent self-control task, even after considering moderator variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting ego-depletion is not a reliable phenomenon, though more research is needed that uses large sample sizes, considers moderator variables, and pre-registers prior to data collection.

  17. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident <3 years had higher risk for early preterm and postterm birth compared to residents >10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries. PMID:25687167

  18. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident <3 years had higher risk for early preterm and postterm birth compared to residents >10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries.

  19. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature.

  20. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature. PMID:17952303

  1. Do psychosocial work factors and social relations exert independent effects on sickness absence? A six year prospective study of the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, M; Niedhammer, I; Berkman, L; Goldberg, M

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether psychosocial work characteristics and social relations exert independent effects on the incidence of sickness absence in a population of middle aged French employees over six years of follow up. Design: This study included 9631 men and 3595 women participating in the French GAZEL cohort. Social relations (social networks, personal social support, and social relations satisfaction) were measured in 1994 by self report. Psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, psychological demands, and social support at work) were ascertained in 1995. Sickness absence data were collected independently. The authors studied the incidence of short (>7 days), intermediate (7–21 days), and long (>21 days) spells of absence from 1995 to 31 December 2001. Rate ratios associated with psychosocial exposures, adjusted on sociodemographic characteristics, and health behaviours, were calculated by means of log-linear Poisson regression. Setting: A cohort of 20000 employees of France's national gas and electricity company (the GAZEL study). Main results: Among men and women, levels of decision latitude and personal social support below the median predicted 17% to 24% increases in absence rates. Low satisfaction with social relations and low social support at work lead to a 10% to 26% excess in sick leaves among men. No interactive effects were found between the variables under study. Conclusions: The quality of the work environment and of social relations affect sickness absence over an extended period of follow up. This study supports the hypothesis of independent, not interactive effects. PMID:12646546

  2. Hello! Are You Registered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Organizational procedures and appropriate forms for high school students to conduct a community survey of non-registered voters are provided. Duties for student coordinator, field staff, and clerical staff are described and a flow chart depicts the relationship of personnel to one another and to the community. Students are instructed to notify…

  3. Distribution of lymphomas in Poland according to World Health Organization classification: analysis of 11718 cases from National Histopathological Lymphoma Register project - the Polish Lymphoma Research Group study

    PubMed Central

    Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anan; Gałązka, K; Szpor, J; Rymkiewicz, G; Jesionek-Kupnicka, D; Gruchała, A; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, B; Poniatowska-Broniek, G; Demczuk, S; Prochorec-Sobieszek, M

    2014-01-01

    Most national lymphoma registers rely on broad classifications which include Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), multiple myeloma and leukaemia. In Poland the National Histopathological Lymphoma Register project (NHLR) was implemented by hematopathologists in accordance with the 2008 WHO classification into haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. We present the NHLR data and compare lymphoma distribution in Poland, Europe, as well as in North Central and South America. Records of 11718 patients diagnosed in 24 pathology departments from all over the country were retrieved and reclassified into indolent and aggressive lymphomas according to the 2008 revised WHO classification system. DLBCL (32.9%; 2587), CLL/SLL (31.84%; 2504) and MCL (9.04%; 711) were the three most frequent NHL. The ratio of indolent to aggressive NHL was 1.72; 63.25% (4809) to 36.25% (2794) of cases respectively. Multiple myeloma was less frequent as compared to the data from population-based national cancer register (13.32% vs. 28.94%). Major differences between NHLR and European and American data on NHL subtypes concered: higher incidence of aggressive B-cell lymphomas including DLBCL, lower FL and MALT incidence rate. The percentage of unclassified lymphomas in the study was minimal due to participation of hematopathologists. PMID:25031749

  4. Factors Associated with Long-Term Sickness Absence Due to Mental Disorders: A Cohort Study of 7.112 Patients during the Spanish Economic Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Real, Eva; Jover, Lluís; Verdaguer, Ricard; Griera, Antoni; Segalàs, Cinto; Alonso, Pino; Contreras, Fernando; Arteman, Antoni; Menchón, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are very common and often lead to prolonged sickness absence, having serious economic repercussions for most European countries. Periods of economic crisis are important social phenomena that are assumed to increase sickness absence due to mental disorders, although research on this topic remains scarce. The aim of this study was to gather data on long-term sickness absence (and relapse) due to mental disorders in Spain during a period of considerable socio-economic crisis. Methods Relationships were analyzed (using chi-squared tests and multivariate modelling via binary logistic regression) between clinical, social/employment-related and demographic factors associated and long-term sickness absence (>60 consecutive days) due to mental disorders in a cohort of 7112 Spanish patients during the period 2008–2012. Results Older age, severe mental disorders, being self-employed, having a non-permanent contract, and working in the real estate and construction sector were associated with an increased probability of long-term sickness absence (gender had a mediating role with respect to some of these variables). Relapses were associated with short-term sick leave (return to work due to ‘improvement’) and with working in the transport sector and public administration. Conclusions Aside from medical factors, other social/employment-related and demographic factors have a significant influence on the duration of sickness absence due to mental disorders. PMID:26730603

  5. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  6. Register file soft error recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  7. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources.

  8. Household economic resources, labour-market advantage and health problems - a study on causal relationships using prospective register data.

    PubMed

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to find out whether the associations between health and both individual and household economic position reflected a causal effect on health of household affluence and consumption potential. We attempted to separate this effect from health-selection effects, in other words the potential effect of health on economic position, and from various effects related to occupational position and prestige that might correlate with the economic indicators. We made a distinction between individual labour-market advantage and household economic resources in order to reflect these theoretical definitions. Our aim was to test and compare two hypotheses: 1) low household economic resources lead to an increase in health problems later on, and 2) health problems are disadvantageous on the labour market, and consequently decrease the level of economic resources. We used prospective register data obtained from the databases of Statistics Finland and constituting an 11-per-cent random sample of the Finnish population in 1993-2006. Health problems were measured in terms of sickness allowance paid by the Finnish Social Insurance Institution, household economic resources in terms of household-equivalent disposable income and taxable wealth, and labour-market advantage in terms of individual taxable income and months of unemployment. We used structural equation models (n = 211,639) to examine the hypothesised causal pathways. Low household economic resources predicted future health problems, and health problems predicted future deterioration in labour-market advantage. The effect of economic resources on health problems was somewhat stronger. These results suggest that accumulated exposure to low economic resources leads to increasing health problems, and that this causal mechanism is a more significant source of persistent health inequalities than health problems that bring about a permanent decrease in economic resources. PMID:22727652

  9. Absence of adverse events in healthy individuals using probiotics--analysis of six randomised studies by one study group.

    PubMed

    Tapiovaara, L; Lehtoranta, L; Poussa, T; Mäkivuokko, H; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of live bacteria as probiotic supplements is increasing. There is, however, a lack of information on the safety of ingested probiotics. The main objective of this study was to investigate the adverse events (AEs) of specific probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) alone or LGG in combination with L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS, Bifidobacterium lactis BB12, or Bifidobacterium breve 99) studied in six of our study groups' clinical trials, by analysing individual participant data. A secondary objective was to study AEs associated with the consumed probiotic species and mixtures in three specific categories; 'gastrointestinal disorders', 'respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders' and 'infections and infestations'. Six randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies by our study group were included in this AE analysis (study population n=1,909). All AE data were classified according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v4.0. From the 26 CTCAE System Organ Classes, we identified AEs in 20 classes among 1,909 subjects. Probiotic ingestion did not result in statistically significant differences in AEs in different groups, when compared to placebo. A subgroup analysis of gastrointestinal, respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders, infections and infestations, found no differences between the intervention groups or for different probiotic combinations (risk ratio (RR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.02, P=0.30; RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, P=0.35; RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06, P=0.62, respectively). As a conclusion, ingestion of probiotic supplementations containing LGG alone, or LGG in combination with L. rhamnosus Lc705, P. freudenreichii JS, B. breve 99, or B. lactis BB12 did not seem to cause AEs in young and elderly subjects in this analysis. PMID:26689224

  10. Development and Validation of a Web-Based Survey on the Use of Personal Communication Devices by Hospital Registered Nurses: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    LeVasseur, Sandra A; Li, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of personal communication devices (such as basic cell phones, enhanced cell phones or smartphones, and tablet computers) in hospital units has risen dramatically in recent years. The use of these devices for personal and professional activities can be beneficial, but also has the potential to negatively affect patient care, as clinicians may become distracted by these devices. Objective No validated questionnaire examining the impact of the use of these devices on patient care exists; thus, we aim to develop and validate an online questionnaire for surveying the views of registered nurses with experience of working in hospitals regarding the impact of the use of personal communication devices on hospital units. Methods A 50-item, four-domain questionnaire on the views of registered nursing staff regarding the impact of personal communication devices on hospital units was developed based on a literature review and interviews with such nurses. A repeated measures pilot study was conducted to examine the psychometrics of a survey questionnaire and the feasibility of conducting a larger study. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire included examining internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability in a sample of 50 registered nurses. Results The response rate for the repeated measures was 30%. Cronbach coefficient alpha was used to examine the internal consistency and reliability, and in three of the four question groups (utilization, impact, and opinions), the correlation was observed to be very high. This suggests that the questions were measuring a single underlying theme. The Cronbach alpha value for the questions in the performance group, describing the use of personal communication devices while working, was lower than those for the other question groups. These values may be an indication that the assumptions underlying the Cronbach alpha calculation may have been violated for this group of questions. A Spearman rho correlation

  11. Registered Nurse Persistence in Baccalaureate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krov, Kathleen Nadler

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to increase the number of baccalaureate prepared registered nurses to safely meet the complex healthcare needs of citizens of the United States. Since there is no research on the characteristics of registered nurse students persisting in baccalaureate education, this quantitative descriptive case study was designed to identify the…

  12. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  13. Development in Children's Comprehension of Linguistic Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Greene-Havas, Maia; Gillespie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    For socially appropriate communication, speakers must command a variety of linguistic styles, or "registers", that vary according to social context and social relationships. This study examined preschool children's ability to use a speaker's register choice to infer the identity of their addressee. Four-year-olds could draw correct inferences…

  14. Young People's Risk of Suicide Attempts in Relation to Parental Death: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10-22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case-control design. The full study population was obtained…

  15. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. PMID:22337584

  16. The language of absence.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2008-06-01

    This paper will focus on the concept of 'absence', which describes a continuum of non-responsiveness and misattunement of the environment in the stage of absolute dependence; it refers to concepts like lack, failure, non-recognition, impingement, neglect, tantalizing, ranging to mental, physical and sexual abuse. An extreme external absence causes shock and fear. The automatic survival response is an inner absence, an intrapsychic absence, a dissociation of parts of the self. The external and the inner absence are the negative image of each other. The concept of absence points to the synchronicity of outer and inner reality and portrays the non-responded-to needs of the self. This point of view of the development of psychopathology of the self on the basis of massive dissociation is inherently an intersubjective-field-theory. As the inner absence is created as a reaction to an absence of the other, in analysis - the analyst has an active role in reviving it. This paper will explore the language of absence, that is, the derivatives and consequences of these situations in the inner realm, and in the relations with the analyst. It is the author's contention that understanding and speaking this language has important clinical and technical implications. Understanding the language of absence enables the analyst to recognize its intersubjective and its intrapsychic presence, to provide an environment that allows for its revival, and to facilitate and regulate the annihilation anxiety that awakens when dissociated self-states are experienced. When the absence is present, i.e. when the traumatic experience and the dissociated reactions to it are experienced in an attuned relationship, it is rendered with meaning, symbolization, and validation, and enables the survival mode of dissociation to be relinquished.

  17. NMR Studies Demonstrate a Unique AAB Composition and Chain Register for a Heterotrimeric Type IV Collagen Model Peptide Containing a Natural Interruption Site*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianxi; Sun, Xiuxia; Madhan, Balaraman; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    All non-fibrillar collagens contain interruptions in the (Gly-X-Y)n repeating sequence, such as the more than 20 interruptions found in chains of basement membrane type IV collagen. Two selectively doubly labeled peptides are designed to model a site in type IV collagen with a GVG interruption in the α1(IV) and a corresponding GISLK sequence within the α2(IV) chain. CD and NMR studies on a 2:1 mixture of these two peptides support the formation of a single-component heterotrimer that maintains the one-residue staggering in the triple-helix, has a unique chain register, and contains hydrogen bonds at the interruption site. Formation of hydrogen bonds at interruption sites may provide a driving force for self-assembly and chain register in type IV and other non-fibrillar collagens. This study illustrates the potential role of interruptions in the structure, dynamics, and folding of natural collagen heterotrimers and forms a basis for understanding their biological role. PMID:26209635

  18. Does Sickness Absence Due to Psychiatric Disorder Predict Cause-specific Mortality? A 16-Year Follow-up of the GAZEL Occupational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Maria; Ferrie, Jane E.; Alexanderson, Kristina; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Head, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Mental disorders are a frequent cause of morbidity and sickness absence in working populations; however, the status of psychiatric sickness absence as a predictor of mortality is not established. The authors tested the hypothesis that psychiatric sickness absence predicts mortality from leading medical causes. Data were derived from the French GAZEL cohort study (n = 19,962). Physician-certified sickness absence records were extracted from administrative files (1990–1992) and were linked to mortality data from France's national registry of mortality (1993–2008, mean follow-up: 15.5 years). Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression models. Compared with workers with no sickness absence, those absent due to psychiatric disorder were at increased risk of cause-specific mortality (hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, gender, occupational grade, other sickness absence—suicide: 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.07, 11.75; cardiovascular disease: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.08; and smoking-related cancer: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.53). After full adjustment, the excess risk of suicide remained significant (HR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.60, 10.13) but failed to reach statistical significance for fatal cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95, 2.66) and smoking-related cancer (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.03). Psychiatric sickness absence records could help identify individuals at risk of premature mortality and serve to monitor workers’ health. PMID:20732935

  19. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, V; Wallace, S J

    1994-04-01

    The cases are described of eight children, five of them girls, who had epilepsy with myoclonic absences. The mean age of onset was 4.9 years. Brief episodes of loss of awareness with bilateral clonic jerking of the upper limbs were associated with rhythmic 3 cycles/second spike-wave discharges on electroencephalogram. Generalised tonic-clonic or astatic seizures, or both, also occurred in seven patients. All now have learning difficulties, and seven have behavioural problems. Conventional treatment for absences was effective in only two children. Of six patients treated with lamotrigine, five have improved substantially, but only one is in sustained complete remission. One recently diagnosed patient continues to have frequent myoclonic absences. As the response to treatment and long term outcome are much poorer, it is important to differentiate myoclonic absences from typical childhood absence epilepsy.

  20. Australian rural remote registered nurses' experiences of learning to provide antenatal services in general practice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Francis, Karen; Miles, Maureen; Jones, Jan

    2010-08-01

    This article reports on a pilot vocational study programme for provision of antenatal services in the general practice environment. The concurrent evaluation study assessed practice nurses' experiences of undertaking the pilot programme, the level and applicability of the content, and the mode of delivery. General practitioners' understanding of the role of the nurse in providing antenatal services, and the actual and potential impact of this new role on models of service delivery and care were also investigated. Women receiving care from practice nurses within this new model of service delivery and care were also of interest in this study. Findings showed that the current role of the general practice nurse in caring for pregnant women is restricted to assisting the general practitioner to complete their assessment of clients. Organizing clinical placement with a midwife was a major barrier to completing the pilot programme.

  1. Factors influencing morbidity after paediatric tonsillectomy: a study of 18,712 patients in the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elinder, Karolina; Söderman, Anne-Charlotte Hessén; Stalfors, Joacim; Knutsson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors affecting morbidity after tonsillectomy in children. Data from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden on 18,712 patients who underwent tonsillectomy with or without simultaneous adenoidectomy between 1 and 18 years of age were analysed. This register includes data on sex, gender, surgical indication, and the surgical and haemostasis techniques used for each patient, as well as patient-reported outcomes for haemorrhage, analgesic use and antibiotic use. Comparison of patients who underwent surgery for infection versus upper airway obstruction revealed a significant increase in haemorrhage complications in the infection group. However, no significant difference remained after the adjustments for confounders in multivariable regression analysis. Instead, the increased risk among patients who underwent surgery for infection was mainly attributable to the use of bipolar diathermy and increased patient age. Patients who received surgery for infection reported more days of analgesic use, as well as more unplanned contacts with a health care service provider due to pain, compared with those who underwent surgery for upper airway obstruction. These results remained significant in multivariate analysis. The use of bipolar diathermy for haemostasis resulted in an increased risk, while the use of cold steel surgical instruments, a younger patient age and female sex led to a decreased risk. The surgical and haemostasis techniques used are the most important factors that affect morbidity after tonsillectomy in the paediatric age group. The choice of surgical techniques is of utmost importance for decreasing morbidity in these patients.

  2. Linkage between Vocationally Trained Participants and Industry Registered Apprenticeship Programs: A Study of Barriers and Facilitators. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    The study described in this report was conducted to identify the barriers and facilitators to establishing a system of linkages between vocational education and apprenticeship programs. Following an extensive review of literature that showed various barriers to linkages and described some facilitating steps, data were collected through an initial…

  3. Use and Distribution of Rehabilitation Services: A Register Linkage Study in One Hospital District Area in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkki, Jutta Maarit; Rissanen, Pekka; Raitanen, Jani A.; Viitanen, Elina A.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on a large set of rehabilitation services used between 2004 and 2005 in one hospital district area in Finland. The rehabilitation system consists of several subsystems. This complex system is suggested to produce arbitrary rehabilitation services. Despite the criticisms against the system during decades, no attempts have been…

  4. Characteristics of patients frequently subjected to pharmacological and mechanical restraint--a register study in three Norwegian acute psychiatric wards.

    PubMed

    Knutzen, Maria; Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Steinar; Mjøsund, Nina Helen; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Sandvik, Leiv; Friis, Svein

    2014-01-30

    This retrospective study from three catchment-area-based acute psychiatric wards showed that of all the pharmacologically and mechanically restrained patients (n=373) 34 (9.1%) had been frequently restrained (6 or more times). These patients accounted for 39.2% of all restraint episodes during the two-year study period. Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds for being frequently restrained were 91% lower among patients above 50 years compared to those aged 18-29 years; a threefold increase (OR=3.1) for those admitted 3 times or more compared to patients with only one stay; and, finally, a threefold increase (OR=3.1) if the length of stay was 16 days or more compared to those admitted for 0-4 days. Among frequently restrained patients, males (n=15) had significantly longer stays than women (n=19), and 8 of the females had a diagnosis of personality disorder, compared to none among males. Our study showed that being frequently restrained was associated with long inpatient stay, many admissions and young age. Teasing out patient characteristics associated with the risk of being frequently restraint may contribute to reduce use of restraint by developing alternative interventions for these patients.

  5. National Esophageal Atresia Register.

    PubMed

    Sfeir, Rony; Michaud, Laurent; Sharma, Duyti; Richard, Florence; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    National Esophageal Atresia was created in 2008 by the National Reference Center for Esophageal Congenital Abnormalities created in 2006. Primary goal was estimation of live birth prevalence in France. A national network of surgeons and pediatricians was initiated and entire teams dealing with esophageal atresia accepted to participate in an exhaustive national register. A questionnaire was validated by a national committee and data were centralized in our center. Scientific exploitation showed that such database is useful for health authorities as for medical professionals. Live birth prevalence in France is at 1.9/10,000 births. Prenatal diagnosis is more common but its effect on prevalence is not yet fully understood. Associated congenital abnormalities are frequent and major malformations with termination of pregnancy can influence prevalence. PMID:26642387

  6. Regional trends in avoidable hospitalisations due to complications among population with diabetes in Finland in 1996−2011: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Manderbacka, Kristiina; Arffman, Martti; Lumme, Sonja; Lehikoinen, Markku; Winell, Klas; Keskimäki, Ilmo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes requires continuous medical care including prevention of acute complications and risk reduction for long-term complications. Diabetic complications impose a substantial burden on public health and care delivery. We examined trends in regional differences in hospitalisations due to diabetes-related complications among the total diabetes population in Finland. Research design A longitudinal register-based cohort study 1996−2011 among a total population with diabetes in Finland. Participants All persons with diabetes identified from several administrative registers in Finland in 1964−2011 and alive on 1 January 1996. Outcome measures We examined hospitalisations due to diabetes-related short-term and long-term complications, uncomplicated diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke, lower extremity amputation and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We calculated annual age-adjusted rates per 10 000 person years and the systematic component of variation. Multilevel models were used for studying time trends in regional variation. Results There was a steep decline in complication-related hospitalisation rates during the study period. The decline was relatively small in ESRD (30%), whereas rates of hospitalisations for short-term and long-term complications as well as uncomplicated diabetes diminished by about 80%. The overall correlation between hospital district intercepts and slopes in time was −0.72 (p<0.001) among men and −0.99 (p<0.001) among women indicating diminishing variation. Diminishing variation was found in each of the complications studied. The variation was mainly distributed at the health centre level. Conclusions Our study suggests that the prevention of complications among persons with diabetes has improved in Finland between 1996 and 2011. The results further suggest that the prevention of complications has become more uniform throughout the country. PMID:27550651

  7. Do parental education and income matter? A nationwide register-based study on HPV vaccine uptake in the school-based immunisation programme in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Berit; Laake, Ida; Molden, Tor; Cappelen, Inger; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Stålcrantz, Jeanette; Trogstad, Lill

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been offered free of charge to all 12-year-old girls in Norway since 2009. Nevertheless, the uptake of HPV vaccine is lower than for other childhood vaccines. The aim of this study was to examine whether parental education and income are associated with initiation and completion of HPV vaccination. Design Nationwide register-based study. Setting Publicly funded childhood immunisation programme in Norway. Participants 91 405 girls born between 1997 and 1999 and registered in the Norwegian Central Population Registry were offered HPV vaccine during the first 3 programme years. Of these, 84 139 had complete information on all variables and were included in the study. Measurements Information on HPV-vaccination status was obtained from the Norwegian Immunisation Registry. Data on socioeconomic factors were extracted from Statistics Norway. Risk differences (RDs) and CIs were estimated with Poisson regression. Results In the study sample, 78.3% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine and 73.6% received all three doses. High maternal education was significantly associated with lower probability of initiating HPV vaccination (multivariable RD=−5.5% (95% CI −7.0% to −4.0%) for highest compared with lowest education level). In contrast, high maternal income was significantly associated with higher probability of initiating vaccination (multivariable RD=10.1% (95% CI 9.0% to 11.3%) for highest compared with lowest quintile). Paternal education and income showed similar, but weaker, associations. The negative association between education and initiation was only seen for incomes below the median value. Conclusions In spite of the presumably equal access to HPV vaccine in Norway, we found socioeconomic disparities in vaccine uptake. More studies are needed to explain the underlying factors responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences. Insight into these factors is necessary to target information and

  8. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. While Part 1 outlined the study background, context and methodology along with the overarching, multi-dimensional category of 'familiarity/knowing the person', the current article critically discusses the themes and subthemes encapsulated in this category. Each theme is considered in the light of current policies, strategies and philosophies shaping the provision of services to people with an intellectual disability in Ireland. The results suggest that the RNID is ideally located and key to supporting the implementation of these policies and strategies due to their highly developed and proficient skill set as well as experience of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. PMID:22433478

  9. Sick Leave and Work Participation Among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to parents who did not have a child with ASD and these results remained after adjusting for familial socioeconomic factors and parental psychiatric care. Sick leave among parents was associated with having a child with ASD without intellectual disability (ID) but not ASD with ID. Although Sweden has policies helping families with children with ASD this study suggests that there exist unmet needs among these parents. PMID:25697737

  10. Long-term adverse effects after curative radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy: population-based nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Jón Ö.; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Nilsson, Per; Robinson, David; Franck-Lissbrant, Ingela; Ehdaie, Behfar; Eastham, James A.; Widmark, Anders; Karlsson, Camilla T.; Stattin, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of serious adverse effects after radiotherapy (RT) with curative intention and radical prostatectomy (RP). Materials and methods: Men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1997 and 2012 and underwent curative treatment were selected from the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden. For each included man, five prostate cancer-free controls, matched for birth year and county of residency, were randomly selected. In total, 12,534 men underwent RT, 24,886 underwent RP and 186,624 were controls. Adverse effects were defined according to surgical and diagnostic codes in the National Patient Registry. The relative risk (RR) of adverse effects up to 12 years after treatment was compared to controls and the risk was subsequently compared between RT and RP in multivariable analyses. Results: Men with intermediate- and localized high-risk cancer who underwent curative treatment had an increased risk of adverse effects during the full study period compared to controls: the RR of undergoing a procedures after RT was 2.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.56–2.73] and after RP 2.05 (95% CI 2.00–2.10). The risk remained elevated 10–12 years after treatment. For all risk categories of prostate cancer, the risk of surgical procedures for urinary incontinence was higher after RP (RR 23.64, 95% CI 11.71–47.74), whereas risk of other procedures on the lower urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract or abdominal wall was higher after RT (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.44–1.94, and RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.70–2.02, respectively). Conclusion: The risk of serious adverse effects after curative treatment for prostate cancer remained significantly elevated up to 12 years after treatment. PMID:27333148

  11. Gender-Specific Differences in Low-Dose Haloperidol Response for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Prüll, Kathrin; Weninger, Ernst; Mansmann, Ulrich; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jovanovic, Alexander; Pollwein, Bernhard; Chappell, Daniel; Zwissler, Bernhard; von Dossow, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and distressing complications after general anesthesia and surgery, with young non-smoking females receiving postoperative opioids being high-risk patients. This register-based study aims to evaluate the effect of low-dose haloperidol (0.5 mg intravenously) directly after induction of general anesthesia to reduce the incidence of PONV in the postoperative anesthesiological care unit (PACU). Methods Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between low-dose haloperidol and the occurrence of PONV using a patient registry containing 2,617 surgical procedures carried out at an university hospital. Results Haloperidol 0.5 mg is associated with a reduced risk of PONV in the total collective (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: [0.56, 0.99], p = 0.05). The results indicate that there is a reduced risk in male patients (adjusted odds ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval: [0.28, 0.73], p = 0.001) if a dose of 0.5 mg haloperidol was administered while there seems to be no effect in females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: [0.71, 1.46], p = 0.93). Currently known risk factors for PONV such as female gender, duration of anesthesia and the use of opioids were confirmed in our analysis. Conclusion This study suggests that low-dose haloperidol has an antiemetic effect in male patients but has no effect in female patients. A confirmation of the gender-specific effects we have observed in this register-based cohort study might have major implications on clinical daily routine. PMID:26751066

  12. Presence-absence surveys of prey and their use in predicting leopard (Panthera pardus) densities: a case study from Armenia.

    PubMed

    Khorozyan, Igor G; Malkhasyan, Alexander G; Abramov, Alexei V

    2008-12-01

    It is important to predict how many individuals of a predator species can survive in a given area on the basis of prey sufficiency and to compare predictive estimates with actual numbers to understand whether or not key threats are related to prey availability. Rugged terrain and low detection probabilities do not allow for the use of traditional prey count techniques in mountain areas. We used presence-absence occupancy modeling and camera-trapping to estimate the abundance and densities of prey species and regression analysis to predict leopard (Panthera pardus) densities from estimated prey biomass in the mountains of the Nuvadi area, Meghri Ridge, southern Armenia. The prey densities were 12.94 ± 2.18 individuals km(-2) for the bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), 6.88 ± 1.56 for the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and 0.44 ± 0.20 for the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The detection probability of the prey was a strong function of the activity patterns, and was highest in diurnal bezoar goats (0.59 ± 0.09). Based on robust regression, the estimated total ungulate prey biomass (720.37 ± 142.72 kg km(-2) ) can support a leopard density of 7. 18 ± 3.06 individuals 100 km(-2) . The actual leopard density is only 0.34 individuals 100 km(-2) (i.e. one subadult male recorded over the 296.9 km(2) ), estimated from tracking and camera-trapping. The most plausible explanation for this discrepancy between predicted and actual leopard density is that poaching and disturbance caused by livestock breeding, plant gathering, deforestation and human-induced wild fires are affecting the leopard population in Armenia. PMID:21396082

  13. Presence-absence surveys of prey and their use in predicting leopard (Panthera pardus) densities: a case study from Armenia.

    PubMed

    Khorozyan, Igor G; Malkhasyan, Alexander G; Abramov, Alexei V

    2008-12-01

    It is important to predict how many individuals of a predator species can survive in a given area on the basis of prey sufficiency and to compare predictive estimates with actual numbers to understand whether or not key threats are related to prey availability. Rugged terrain and low detection probabilities do not allow for the use of traditional prey count techniques in mountain areas. We used presence-absence occupancy modeling and camera-trapping to estimate the abundance and densities of prey species and regression analysis to predict leopard (Panthera pardus) densities from estimated prey biomass in the mountains of the Nuvadi area, Meghri Ridge, southern Armenia. The prey densities were 12.94 ± 2.18 individuals km(-2) for the bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), 6.88 ± 1.56 for the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and 0.44 ± 0.20 for the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The detection probability of the prey was a strong function of the activity patterns, and was highest in diurnal bezoar goats (0.59 ± 0.09). Based on robust regression, the estimated total ungulate prey biomass (720.37 ± 142.72 kg km(-2) ) can support a leopard density of 7. 18 ± 3.06 individuals 100 km(-2) . The actual leopard density is only 0.34 individuals 100 km(-2) (i.e. one subadult male recorded over the 296.9 km(2) ), estimated from tracking and camera-trapping. The most plausible explanation for this discrepancy between predicted and actual leopard density is that poaching and disturbance caused by livestock breeding, plant gathering, deforestation and human-induced wild fires are affecting the leopard population in Armenia.

  14. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees.

  15. Sickness and sickness absence of remaining employees in a time of economic crisis: a study among employees of municipalities in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Sigursteinsdóttir, Hjördís; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on sickness and sickness absence among employees of 20 municipalities in Iceland who remained at work after the economic crisis in October 2008. The aim was to examine the impact of economic crisis on sickness and sickness absence of "survivors" working within the educational system (primary school teachers and kindergarten teachers) and the care services (elderly care and care of disabled people) operated by the municipalities. The study was based on mixed methods research comprising a balanced panel data set and focus groups. An online survey conducted three times among 2356 employees of 20 municipalities and seven focus group interviews in two municipalities (39 participants). The generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the quantitative data, and focused coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. The main finding showed that the economic crisis had negative health implications for the municipal employees. The negative effects grew stronger over time. Employee sickness and sickness absence increased substantially in both downsized and non-downsized workplaces. However, employees of downsized workplaces were more likely to be sick. Sickness and sickness absence were more common among younger than older employees, but no gender differences were observed. The study demonstrates the importance of protecting the health and well-being of all employees in the wake of an economic crisis, not only those who lose their jobs or work in downsized workplaces. This is important in the immediate aftermath of a crisis, but also for a significant time thereafter. This is of practical relevance for those responsible for occupational health and safety, as most Western countries periodically go through economic crises, resulting in strains on employees. PMID:25795993

  16. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide. PMID:19930581

  17. Absence, Deviance and Unattainable Ideals--Discourses on Vegetarianism in the Swedish School Subject Home and Consumer Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Ingela; Lindblom, Cecilia; Åbacka, Gun; Bengs, Carita; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe Discourses on vegetarian food in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Design: The study involved the observation of naturally occurring classroom talk, with audio recording and in some cases video-taping. Setting: The study was conducted during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in five…

  18. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Gebreslassie; Asmamaw, Getachew; Hussen, Muktar; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z.; Asegu, Demissie; Astatkie, Ayalew; Amsalu, Anteneh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic of Arsi Negele Health Center was reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of HIV status separately on default/failure and death in relation to those who were successfully treated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to check the presence and strength of association between TB treatment outcome and HIV status and other independent variables. Results Out of the 1649 TB patients, 94.7% (1562) have been tested for HIV of whom 156(10%) were HIV co-infected. The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 28.5(15.5) years. The majority were new TB cases (96.7%), male (53.7%), urban (54.7%), and had smear negative pulmonary TB (44.1%). Overall, the treatment success rate of TB patients with or without HIV was 87.3%. Using cure/completion as reference, patients without known HIV status had significantly higher odds of default /failure [aOR, 4.26; 95%CI, 1.684–10.775] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.92; 95%CI, 1.545–5.521] whereas those who tested positive for HIV had a significantly higher odds of death [aOR, 6.72; 95%CI, 3.704–12.202] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.02; 95%CI, 1.111–3.680]. Conclusion Overall, treatment outcome and HIV testing coverage for TB patients is promising to reach the WHO target in the study

  19. Epidemiology of absence epilepsy. III. Clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Olsson, I; Hagberg, G

    1991-11-01

    Absence epilepsy was studied in a Swedish population, aged 0-15 years, in 1978-1982. Cases were selected by electroencephalographic criteria. In the 134 children with 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges, 97 (72.4%) had absences alone or in combination with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal): 56 had absences alone, 31 absences followed by grand mal, and 10 started with initial grand mal. Two distinct groups could be discerned: 1) childhood absence epilepsy: onset before the age of 12, with a quick response to therapy, little or no risk of grand mal, and a high remission rate; 2) juvenile absence epilepsy: onset at the age of 12 or later, a very high risk of grand mal, and usually a good response to therapy, but a high risk of relapses at withdrawal. This classification of absence epilepsy into subgroups may be useful for prognostic guidelines.

  20. Use of Fall-Risk Inducing Drugs in Patients Using Anti-Parkinson Drugs (APD): A Swedish Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Haasum, Ylva; Fastbom, Johan; Johnell, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many drugs increase the risk of falls in old age. Although persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are at increased risk of experiencing falls and fractures, the use of fall-risk inducing drugs (FRIDs) in this population has not previously been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the burden of use of FRIDs in older persons treated with anti-Parkinson drugs (APD; used as a proxy for PD), compared to persons without APD. Methods We analyzed individual data on age, sex, type of housing and drug use in 1 346 709 persons aged ≥ 65 years in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register on the date of 30 September 2008. Main outcome measure was the use of FRIDs. Results FRIDs were used by 79% of persons with APD and 75% of persons without APD. Persons with APD were more likely to use ≥ 1 FRIDs compared to persons without APD (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.06-1-12). The association was stronger for concomitant use of ≥ 5 FRIDS (adjusted OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.44–1.55). Conclusions The high use of FRIDs among persons with APD indicates that these patients may be at increased risk of drug-induced falls. Further studies are needed to investigate how these drugs affect the risk of falling in persons with PD. PMID:27537366

  1. Water and tissue equivalence of a new PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} formulation for 3D proton beam dosimetry: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Gorjiara, Tina; Kuncic, Zdenka; Doran, Simon; Adamovics, John; Baldock, Clive

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the water and tissue equivalence of a new PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} 3D dosimeter for proton therapy. Methods: The GEANT4 software toolkit was used to calculate and compare total dose delivered by a proton beam with mean energy 62 MeV in a PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeter, water, and soft tissue. The dose delivered by primary protons and secondary particles was calculated. Depth-dose profiles and isodose contours of deposited energy were compared for the materials of interest. Results: The proton beam range was found to be Almost-Equal-To 27 mm for PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, 29.9 mm for soft tissue, and 30.5 mm for water. This can be attributed to the lower collisional stopping power of water compared to soft tissue and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }. The difference between total dose delivered in PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} and total dose delivered in water or tissue is less than 2% across the entire water/tissue equivalent range of the proton beam. The largest difference between total dose in PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} and total dose in water is 1.4%, while for soft tissue it is 1.8%. In both cases, this occurs at the distal end of the beam. Nevertheless, the authors find that PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} dosimeter is overall more tissue-equivalent than water-equivalent before the Bragg peak. After the Bragg peak, the differences in the depth doses are found to be due to differences in primary proton energy deposition; PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} and soft tissue stop protons more rapidly than water. The dose delivered by secondary electrons in the PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} differs by less than 1% from that in soft tissue and water. The contribution of secondary particles to the total dose is less than 4% for electrons and Almost-Equal-To 1% for protons in all the materials of interest. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the new PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} formula may be considered both a tissue- and water

  2. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Salut Programme: a universal health promotion intervention for parents and children—protocol of a register-based retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Inna; Eurenius, Eva; Häggström, Jenny; Sampaio, Filipa; Lindkvist, Marie; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is inadequate evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Salut Programme aims to reach all parents and children in the Västerbotten County of Sweden with a combination of health promotion interventions initiated during pregnancy and continued over the childhood period. This study protocol describes an effectiveness study and an economic evaluation study, where the ongoing Salut Programme is compared to care-as-usual over the periods of pregnancy, delivery and the child's first 2 years of life. Methods A register-based retrospective observational study design will be used with existing data sources with respect to exposures and outcomes. Outcomes of interest are clustered at 3 points: around the child's birth, 1 month after the child's birth and 2 years after the child's birth. We will simulate an experiment by retrospectively identifying and comparing children and their parents in the geographical areas where the Salut Programme was implemented since 2006 and onwards, and the areas where the Programme was not implemented before 2009. Outcomes will be analysed and compared for the premeasure period, and the postmeasure period for both groups. Our analysis combines difference-in-difference estimation with matching. A complementary analysis will be carried out on the longitudinal subsample of mothers who gave birth at least once during each of the time periods. The economic evaluation aims to capture the wider societal costs and benefits of the Salut Programme for the first 2 years of the children's lives. Incremental costs will be compared with incremental health gains and the results will be presented as a cost-consequence analysis. Ethics and dissemination The Regional Ethical Review Board in Umeå has given clearance for the Salut Programme research (2010-63-31M). No individual's identity will be revealed when presenting results. This study will provide information that can guide

  3. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Written by OCLC Research Program Officer Karen Smith-Yoshimura and the 13 members of the Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group comprised of specialists from the US, UK, and the Netherlands, this report summarizes their research into approaches to providing authoritative researcher identifiers. Registering researchers in some type…

  4. Bacterial Findings in Infected Hip Joint Replacements in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis: A Study of 318 Revisions for Infection Reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Schrama, J. C.; Lutro, O.; Langvatn, H.; Hallan, G.; Espehaug, B.; Sjursen, H.; Engesaeter, L. B.; Fevang, B.-T.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of Staphylococcus aureus are reported in prosthetic joint infection (PJI) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients are considered to have a high risk of infection with bacteria of potentially oral or dental origin. One thousand four hundred forty-three revisions for infection were reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR) from 1987 to 2007. For this study 269 infection episodes in 255 OA patients served as control group. In the NAR we identified 49 infection episodes in 37 RA patients from 1987 to 2009. The RA patients were, on average, 10 years younger than the OA patients and there were more females (70% versus 54%). We found no differences in the bacterial findings in RA and OA. A tendency towards a higher frequency of Staphylococcus aureus (18% versus 11%) causing PJI was found in the RA patients compared to OA. There were no bacteria of potential odontogenic origin found in the RA patients, while we found 4% in OA. The bacteria identified in revisions for infection in THRs in patients with RA did not significantly differ from those in OA. Bacteria of oral or dental origin were not found in infected hip joint replacements in RA. PMID:24977078

  5. National Trends in Main Causes of Hospitalization: A Multi-Cohort Register Study of the Finnish Working-Age Population, 1976–2010

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Koskinen, Aki; Varje, Pekka; Kokkinen, Lauri; De Vogli, Roberto; Väänänen, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Background The health transition theory argues that societal changes produce proportional changes in causes of disability and death. The aim of this study was to identify long-term changes in main causes of hospitalization in working-age population within a nation that has experienced considerable societal change. Methodology National trends in all-cause hospitalization and hospitalizations for the five main diagnostic categories were investigated in the data obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seven-cohort sample covered the period from 1976 to 2010 and consisted of 3,769,356 randomly selected Finnish residents, each cohort representing 25% sample of population aged 18 to 64 years. Principal Findings Over the period of 35 years, the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases decreased. Hospitalization for musculoskeletal diseases increased whereas mental and behavioral hospitalizations slightly decreased. The risk of cancer hospitalization decreased marginally in men, whereas in women an upward trend was observed. Conclusions/Significance A considerable health transition related to hospitalizations and a shift in the utilization of health care services of working-age men and women took place in Finland between 1976 and 2010. PMID:25379723

  6. We Won't Get Fooled Again: On the Absence of Angry Responses to Plagiarism in Composition Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robillard, Amy E.

    2007-01-01

    This is an article about the complex relationship between anger and plagiarism in composition studies. Here, the author brings into dialogue two strands of inquiry that have shaped recent disciplinary conversations in composition studies but that have yet to publicly influence each other. Because emotions and authorship have both been perceived…

  7. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  8. A Study of Undercooling Behavior Of Immiscible Metal Alloys in the Absence of Crucible-Induced Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Michael B.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Li, Delin; Workman, Gary

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the question: Would eliminating the crucible eliminate the wall-induced nucleation of one of the liquid phases in an immiscible alloy and result in undercooling of the liquid into the metastable region thereby producing significant differences in the separation process and the microstructure upon solidification. Another primary objective of this research is to study systems with a metastable miscibility gap and to directly determine the metastable liquid miscibility gap by undercooling experiments. Nucleation and growth of droplets in these undercooled metallic liquid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Results of this investigation indicate that containerless processing of immiscibles may not promote the undercooling of the single-phase liquid into the metastable region. Although no recalescence event was observed for this liquid-liquid transition, undercooling did occur across the miscibility gap for the solidification of the Ti phase that eventually separated.

  9. A Study of Children's Conceptions of School Rules by Investigating Their Judgements of Transgressions in the Absence of Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated 202 elementary school children's judgements and reasoning about transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, moral transgressions were judged as more wrong and less accepted than structuring, protecting and etiquette transgressions. In…

  10. Absence of association between the INSIG2 gene polymorphism (rs7566605) and obesity in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS).

    PubMed

    Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Franks, Paul W; Brage, Soren; Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-07-01

    The first genome-wide association study for BMI identified a polymorphism, rs7566605, 10 kb upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) transcription start site, as the most significantly associated variant in children and adults. Subsequent studies, however, showed inconsistent association of this polymorphism with obesity traits. This polymorphism has been hypothesized to alter INSIG2 expression leading to inhibition of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Hence, we investigated the association of the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism with obesity- and lipid-related traits in Danish and Estonian children (930 boys and 1,073 girls) from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS), a school-based, cross-sectional study of pre- and early pubertal children. The association between the polymorphism and obesity traits was tested using additive and recessive models adjusted for age, age-group, gender, maturity and country. Interactions were tested by including the interaction terms in the model. Despite having sufficient power (98%) to detect the previously reported effect size for association with BMI, we did not find significant effects of rs7566605 on BMI (additive, P = 0.68; recessive, P = 0.24). Accordingly, the polymorphism was not associated with overweight (P = 0.87) or obesity (P = 0.34). We also did not find association with waist circumference (WC), sum of four skinfolds, or with total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. There were no gender-specific (P = 0.55), age-group-specific (P = 0.63) or country-specific (P = 0.56) effects. There was also no evidence of interaction between genotype and physical activity (P = 0.95). Despite an adequately powered study, our findings suggest that rs7566605 is not associated with obesity-related traits and lipids in the EYHS. PMID:19197262

  11. An analysis of sickness absence in chronically ill patients receiving Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A longterm prospective intermittent study

    PubMed Central

    Moebus, Susanne; Lehmann, Nils; Bödeker, Wolfgang; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Background The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has led to a growing amount of research in this area. All the same little is known about the effects of these special treatments in every-day practice of primary care, delivered by general practitioners within the health insurance system. From 1994 to 2000 more than 20 German Company health insurances initiated the first model project on CAM according to the German social law. Aim of this contribution is to investigate the effectiveness of multi-modal CAM on chronic diseases within primary health care. Methods A long-term prospective intermittent study was conducted including 44 CAM practitioners and 1221 self-selected chronically ill patients (64% women) of whom 441 were employed. Main outcome measure is sick-leave, controlled for secular trends and regression-to-the mean and self-perceived health status. Results Sick-leave per year of 441 patients at work increased from 22 (SD ± 45.2) to 31 (± 61.0) days within three years prior to intervention, and decreased to 24 (± 55.6) in the second year of treatment, sustaining at this level in the following two years. Detailed statistical analysis show that this development exceeds secular trends and the regression-toward-the-mean effect. Sick-leave reduction was corroborated by data on self-reported improvement of patients' health status. Conclusion Results of this longterm observational study show a reduction of sick leave in chronically ill patients after a complex multimodal CAM intervention. However, as this is an uncontrolled observational study efficacy of any specific CAM treatment can not be proven. The results might indicate an general effectiveness of CAM in primary care, worthwhile further investigations. Future studies should identify the most suitable patients for CAM practices, the most appropriate and safe treatments, provide information on the magnitude of the effects to facilitate subsequent definitive randomised controlled

  12. Death of a Close Relative and the Risk of Suicide in Sweden—A Large Scale Register-Based Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Hanna; Möller, Jette; Hultin, Hanna; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2016-01-01

    Background Bereavement is thought to be a risk factor for suicide but the association has not been thoroughly investigated according to specific sensitive time periods and risk groups using a self-matched design. We aimed to 1) determine the risk of suicide within the first year after death of a close relative, 2) investigate if and how the risk changes within this time window and 3) determine if sex, age, and type of relationship, affect this association. Methods A self-matched, case-crossover study was performed by linking Swedish registers. In total, 31 059 individuals with suicide between 1990 and 2011 were included. Different periods within the year prior to the suicide were compared with corresponding periods one year earlier in the same individual’s life. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for suicide after death of a close relative. Results Increased ORs of suicide were seen during the first month, OR 1·77 (95% CI 1·35–2·34), and the first half-year, 1·27 (1·13–1·43). An even higher OR was found within the first week, 3·43 (1·89–6·22). Patterns were similar for women and men and across age groups. Death of a partner or child but not death of a sibling or parent was associated with a significantly increased suicide risk. The strongest association was seen after death of a partner in individuals aged 45 and older. Discussion These findings provide knowledge of sensitive time periods and at-risk groups in the early period of bereavement. Due to the use of a self-matched study design, methodological challenges of unmeasured residual confounding could be overcome. PMID:27727324

  13. Variations in male-female infant ratios among births to Canadian- and Indian-born mothers, 1990-2011: a population-based register study

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Moineddin, Rahim; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed variations in the male-female infant ratios among births to Canadian-born and Indian-born mothers according to year of birth, province and country of birth of each parent. Methods: In this population-based register study, we analyzed birth certificates of 5 853 970 singleton live births to Canadian-born and 177 990 singleton live births to Indian-born mothers giving birth in Canada from 1990 to 2011. Male-female ratios were stratified by live birth order and plotted by year of birth. Logistic regression was used to assess whether ratios varied between Canadian provinces and according to the birthplace of each parent. The deficit in the number of girls was estimated using bootstrap methods. Results: Among Canadian-born mothers, male-female ratios were about 1.05, with negligible fluctuations by birth order, year and province. Among Indian-born mothers, the overall male-female ratio at the third birth was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.41) and was 1.66 (95% CI 1.56-1.76) at the fourth or higher-order births. There was little variability in the ratios between provinces. Couples involving at least 1 Indian-born parent had higher than expected male-female ratios at the second and higher-order births, particularly when the father was Indian-born. The deficit in the expected number of girls among Indian immigrants to Canada in the study period was estimated to be 4472 (95% CI 3211-5921). Interpretation: Fewer than expected girls at the third and higher-order births have been born to Indian immigrants across Canada since 1990. This trend was also seen among couples of mixed nativity, including those involving a Canadian-born mother and an Indian-born father. Fathers should be considered when investigating sex ratios at birth. PMID:27398354

  14. ER stress responses in the absence of apoptosome: a comparative study in CASP9 proficient vs deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Gupta, Sanjeev; MacDonald, David C; Samali, Afshin

    2014-08-29

    Cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and cell death. In this study we utilized casp9(+/+) and casp9(-/-) MEFs to determine the effect of inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway on ER stress-induced-cell death, UPR and autophagy. We observed prolonged activation of UPR and autophagy in casp9(-/-) cells as compared with casp9(+/+) MEFs, which displayed transient activation of both pathways. Furthermore we showed that while casp9(-/-) MEFs were resistant to ER stress, prolonged exposure led to the activation of a non-canonical, caspase-mediated mode of cell death.

  15. ER stress responses in the absence of apoptosome: a comparative study in CASP9 proficient vs deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Shane; Saveljeva, Svetlana; Gupta, Sanjeev; MacDonald, David C; Samali, Afshin

    2014-08-29

    Cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through the unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and cell death. In this study we utilized casp9(+/+) and casp9(-/-) MEFs to determine the effect of inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway on ER stress-induced-cell death, UPR and autophagy. We observed prolonged activation of UPR and autophagy in casp9(-/-) cells as compared with casp9(+/+) MEFs, which displayed transient activation of both pathways. Furthermore we showed that while casp9(-/-) MEFs were resistant to ER stress, prolonged exposure led to the activation of a non-canonical, caspase-mediated mode of cell death. PMID:25086361

  16. Can Microfiltered Seminal Plasma Preserve the Morphofunctional Characteristics of Porcine Spermatozoa in the Absence of Antibiotics? A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Barone, F; Ventrella, D; Zannoni, A; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2016-08-01

    Artificial insemination is extensively performed in pig farms in Europe, the United States and Canada. Antibiotics are typically added to the inseminating dose to limit bacterial growth during liquid phase storage at 16°C, as bacterial contamination is unavoidable. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) take action to control and reduce antibiotic use in animals as more bacteria are becoming resistant to antimicrobials. To avoid the use of antibiotics, we prepared inseminating doses using microfiltered seminal plasma (SP). Microfiltration is a common technology used to reduce bacterial contamination but may retain seminal substances, influencing sperm quality during storage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphofunctional parameters of spermatozoa during storage at 16°C in doses prepared with or without microfiltered SP, with or without the addition of antibiotics, in a Latin square design. Artificial insemination doses with microfiltered SP and without antibiotic addition preserved spermatozoa viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, acrosome integrity and objective motility, with absolute values equal or even better than those observed in conventional doses. In conclusion, although the results could be considered preliminary due to the small sample size, this study suggests that microfiltration of SP can be a simple method, feasible on farms, to replace antibiotic use in extended doses stored in the liquid phase at 16°C for up to 7 days. PMID:27174664

  17. Absence of nonresponse bias in a study of sport-caught Great Lakes fish consumption and conception failure

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.D.; Tay, E.; Courval, J.M.

    1999-04-01

    The authors have reported that men`s lifetime sport-caught Great Lakes fish consumption was associated with lifetime prevalence of conception delay or failure. Those cross-sectional data were based on responses to a postal questionnaire. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether nonresponse bias could explain the cross-sectional findings. The authors conducted telephone interviews with 230 men and 38 women who did not respond to the original responders with respect to key demographic, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics. Nonresponders were approximately 1.5 years older at interview, were more likely to be Caucasian, and reported higher incomes than responders. Among men, nonresponders had fished fewer days in the past year. Almost one half of nonresponders reported no fish consumption in the past year, compared to one quarter of responders. Nonresponders were more likely than responders to have ever conceived a live-born child, had more children, and were less likely to intend to have additional children in the next 5 years. Among both responders and nonresponders there was an increased prevalence of a period of conception failure among men who reported consuming greater quantities of sport-caught Great Lakes fish. The study provides support for the cross-sectional analyses presented previously, insofar as nonresponse bias is unlikely to have a major role in the observed association.

  18. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    PubMed Central

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. Methods In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. Results A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Conclusions Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence. PMID:27213963

  19. Impact of the Provision of Safe Drinking Water on School Absence Rates in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Paul R.; Risebro, Helen; Yen, Marie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Lo, Chay; Hartemann, Philippe; Longuet, Christophe; Jaquenoud, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Education is one of the most important drivers behind helping people in developing countries lift themselves out of poverty. However, even when schooling is available absenteeism rates can be high. Recently interest has focussed on whether or not WASH interventions can help reduce absenteeism in developing countries. However, none has focused exclusively on the role of drinking water provision. We report a study of the association between absenteeism and provision of treated water in containers into schools. Methods and Findings We undertook a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of absenteeism rates in 8 schools, 4 of which received one 20 L container of treated drinking water per day. The water had been treated by filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Weekly absenteeism rates were compared across all schools using negative binomial model in generalized estimating equations. There was a strong association with provision of free water and reduced absenteeism (Incidence rate ratio = 0.39 (95% Confidence Intervals 0.27–0.56)). However there was also a strong association with season (wet versus dry) and a significant interaction between receiving free water and season. In one of the intervention schools it was discovered that the water supplier was not fulfilling his contract and was not delivering sufficient water each week. In this school we showed a significant association between the number of water containers delivered each week and absenteeism (IRR = 0.98 95%CI 0.96–1.00). Conclusion There appears to be a strong association between providing free safe drinking water and reduced absenteeism, though only in the dry season. The mechanism for this association is not clear but may in part be due to improved hydration leading to improved school experience for the children. PMID:24632573

  20. Randomized, Controlled, Thorough QT/QTc Study Shows Absence of QT Prolongation with Luseogliflozin in Healthy Japanese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuji; Hasunuma, Tomoko; Sakai, Soichi; Ochiai, Hidekazu; Samukawa, Yoshishige

    2015-01-01

    Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. To evaluate the cardiac safety of luseogliflozin, a thorough QT/QTc study was conducted in healthy Japanese subjects. The effects of moxifloxacin on QT prolongation in Japanese subjects were also evaluated. In this double-blind, placebo- and open-label positive-controlled, 4-way crossover study, 28 male and 28 female subjects received a single dose of luseogliflozin 5 mg (therapeutic dose), luseogliflozin 20 mg (supratherapeutic dose), placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. Serial triplicate digital 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded before and after dosing, and results were analyzed using the Fridericia correction (QTcF) method. Serial blood sampling was performed for pharmacokinetic analyses of luseogliflozin and moxifloxacin to analyze the relationship between QTcF interval and plasma concentration. The upper limits of the two-sided 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF intervals (ΔΔQTcF) in the 5 mg and 20 mg luseogliflozin groups were less than 10 ms at all time points. No correlation between plasma luseogliflozin concentrations and ΔΔQTcF was observed. In the moxifloxacin group, the lower limits of the two-sided 90% CIs for ΔΔQTcF were greater than 5 ms at all time points. A positive relationship was observed between plasma moxifloxacin concentration and change in ΔΔQTcF. Luseogliflozin was well tolerated at both dose levels. The majority of adverse events were mild in severity, and no serious or life-threatening adverse events occurred. Neither therapeutic (5 mg) nor supratherapeutic (20 mg) doses of luseogliflozin affected QT prolongation in healthy Japanese subjects. PMID:26444986

  1. Burnout Subtypes and Absence of Self-Compassion in Primary Healthcare Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Zubiaga, Fernando; Cereceda, Maria; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Trenc, Patricia; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare professionals report high levels of distress and burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to differentiate three clinical subtypes: ‘frenetic’, ‘underchallenged’ and ‘worn-out’. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and reliability of the burnout subtype model in Spanish primary healthcare professionals, and to assess the explanatory power of the self-compassion construct as a possible protective factor. Method The study employed a cross-sectional design. A sample of n = 440 Spanish primary healthcare professionals (214 general practitioners, 184 nurses, 42 medical residents) completed the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36), the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The factor structure of the BCSQ-36 was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by the unweighted least squares method from polychoric correlations. Internal consistency (R) was assessed by squaring the correlation between the latent true variable and the observed variables. The relationships between the BCSQ-36 and the other constructs were analysed using Spearman’s r and multiple linear regression models. Results The structure of the BCSQ-36 fit the data well, with adequate CFA indices for all the burnout subtypes. Reliability was adequate for all the scales and sub-scales (R≥0.75). Self-judgement was the self-compassion factor that explained the frenetic subtype (Beta = 0.36; p<0.001); isolation explained the underchallenged (Beta = 0.16; p = 0.010); and over-identification the worn-out (Beta = 0.25; p = 0.001). Other significant associations were observed between the different burnout subtypes and the dimensions of the MBI-GS, UWES and PANAS. Conclusions The typological definition of burnout through the BCSQ-36 showed good structure and appropriate internal consistence

  2. Studies of leukotriene B4-specific binding and function in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes: absence of a chemotactic response.

    PubMed

    Kreisle, R A; Parker, C W; Griffin, G L; Senior, R M; Stenson, W F

    1985-05-01

    Rat PMN isolated from peripheral blood show a small amount of high-affinity (specific) binding of [3H]-LTB4 at nanomolar concentrations. This binding is reversible and has a stereospecificity similar to rat PMN aggregation in response to several LTB4 analogs. This population of binding sites shares many characteristics with a population of high-affinity binding sites in human PMN; however, human PMN bind a significantly greater amount of [3H]-LTB4 to a second population of specific binding sites that is not present in rat PMN. The aggregation responses of human and rat peripheral blood PMN to LTB4 are similar in magnitude and specificity, but unlike human PMN, LTB4 fails to elicit a chemotactic response in rat PMN at concentrations from 10(-10) M to 10(-6) M. Rat PMN also fail to metabolize exogenous LTB4 when compared with human PMN. These data suggest that different PMN functions, such as chemotaxis and aggregation, may involve different classes of specific receptors. The finding that rat PMN do not exhibit chemotaxis to LTB4 calls for a reevaluation of the relevance to inflammation in humans of studies of inflammation performed in rat models.

  3. A Case Study of Connecticut Community Colleges Nursing Programs to Describe Gerontological Content Inclusion in Associate Degree Registered Nursing Programs Using an Educational Curriculum Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The population of adults over age 65 must have competently prepared registered nurses to meet their current and future health care needs. There is a societal component in nursing to ensure that all nurses have the content, skills, and strategies, which includes a focus on basic gerontology preparation. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive…

  4. Suicides in Visually Impaired Persons: A Nation-Wide Register-Linked Study from Finland Based on Thirty Years of Data

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno; Hakko, Helinä; Ojamo, Matti; Uusitalo, Hannu; Timonen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on seasonality, gender, age, and suicide methods a Finnish nation-wide cohort-based study was carried out to compare suicide data between sighted, visually-impaired (WHO impairment level I-II, i.e., visual acuity >0.05, but <0.3) and blind (WHO impairment level III-V, i.e., visual acuity <0.05) victims. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) of age- and gender-matched populations from official 1982–2011 national registers were used. Group differences in categorical variables were assessed with Pearson's Chi-square or Fisher's Exact test and in continuous variables with Mann-Whitney U-test. Seasonality was assessed by Chi-square for multinomials; ratio of observed to expected number of suicides was calculated with 95% confidence level. Hanging, poisoning, drowning, but rarely shooting or jumping from high places, were preferred suicide methods of the blind. Mortality was significantly increased in the visually impaired (SMR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.07–1.61), but in gender-stratified analyses the increase only affected males (1.34; 95% CI = 1.06–1.70) and not females (1.24; 95% CI 0.82–1.88). Age-stratified analyses identified blind males of working age rather than older men (as in the general population) as a high risk group that requires particular attention. The statistically significant spring suicide peak in blind subjects mirrors that of sighted victims and its possible cause in the blind is discussed. PMID:26509899

  5. Differential Drug Survival of Biologic Therapies for the Treatment of Psoriasis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    PubMed

    Warren, Richard B; Smith, Catherine H; Yiu, Zenas Z N; Ashcroft, Darren M; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Burden, A David; Lunt, Mark; McElhone, Kathleen; Ormerod, Anthony D; Owen, Caroline M; Reynolds, Nick J; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2015-11-01

    Drug survival reflects a drug's effectiveness, safety, and tolerability. We assessed the drug survival of biologics used to treat psoriasis in a prospective national pharmacovigilance cohort (British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR)). The survival rates of the first course of biologics for 3,523 biologic-naive patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were compared using survival analysis techniques and predictors of discontinuation analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Data for patients on adalimumab (n=1,879), etanercept (n=1,098), infliximab (n=96), and ustekinumab (n=450) were available. The overall survival rate in the first year was 77%, falling to 53% in the third year. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (hazard ratio (HR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.37), being a current smoker (HR 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.38), and a higher baseline dermatology life quality index (HR 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02) were predictors of discontinuation. Presence of psoriatic arthritis (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96) was a predictor for drug survival. As compared with adalimumab, patients on etanercept (HR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.45-1.84) or infliximab (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09) were more likely to discontinue therapy, whereas patients on ustekinumab were more likely to persist (HR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.37-0.62). After accounting for relevant covariates, ustekinumab had the highest first-course drug survival. The results of this study will aid clinical decision making when choosing biologic therapy for psoriasis patients.

  6. Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967–1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26–1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967–1976. In conclusion, health problems—in particular mental problems—during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men

  7. Do antidepressants increase the risk of mania and bipolar disorder in people with depression? A retrospective electronic case register cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Peter; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between antidepressant therapy and the later onset of mania/bipolar disorder. Design Retrospective cohort study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 21 012 adults presenting to SLaM between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2013 with unipolar depression. Exposure Prior antidepressant therapy recorded in electronic health records. Main outcome measure Time to subsequent diagnosis of mania or bipolar disorder from date of diagnosis of unipolar depression, censored at 31 March 2014. Methods Multivariable Cox regression analysis with age and gender as covariates. Results The overall incidence rate of mania/bipolar disorder was 10.9 per 1000 person-years. The peak incidence of mania/bipolar disorder incidence was seen in patients aged between 26 and 35 years (12.3 per 1000 person-years). Prior antidepressant treatment was associated with an increased incidence of mania/bipolar disorder ranging from 13.1 to 19.1 per 1000 person-years. Multivariable analysis indicated a significant association with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.52) and venlafaxine (1.35, 1.07 to 1.70). Conclusions In people with unipolar depression, antidepressant treatment is associated with an increased risk of subsequent mania/bipolar disorder. These findings highlight the importance of considering risk factors for mania when treating people with depression. PMID:26667012

  8. Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967-1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26-1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967-1976. In conclusion, health problems-in particular mental problems-during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men, where

  9. The dynamic process of cognitive mapping in the absence of visual cues: human data compared with animal studies.

    PubMed

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2009-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the behavior involved in constructing spatial representation in humans. For this, blindfolded adult human subjects were introduced into an unfamiliar environment, where they were requested to move incessantly for 10 min. Analysis of the locomotor activity of the participants revealed the following exploratory behaviors: (1) ;looping'; (2) ;wall-following'; (3) ;step-counting'; (4) ;cross-cutting'; and (5) ;free traveling'. Looping is a typical exploratory mode of sightless explorers, based on returning to a recently traveled place. Wall-following is common in enclosed spaces, whereby explorers follow the perimeter of the environment. Both looping and wall-following are based on an egocentric frame of reference by which explorers obtain information about the shape, size and landmarks in the environment. Blindfolded explorers displayed step-counting in order to scale the environment and the relationships in it. Altogether, exploration by looping, wall-following and step-counting resulted in an allocentric spatial representation. The acquisition of spatial representation was manifested by cross-cutting and free travel, with subjects walking in a relatively fast and decisive manner. In light of the above modes of activity, we suggest that exploration of an unfamiliar environment is a synergetic self-organized process (synergetic inter-representation networks, SIRN model); an interplay between external and internal representations. According to this model, the interplay gives rise to an order parameter, such as the environment's dimensions or geometry, enabling progression to a subsequent exploratory behavior. This dynamic and sequential interplay reaches a steady state when a spatial representation (i.e. ;cognitive map') is established.

  10. The dynamic process of cognitive mapping in the absence of visual cues: human data compared with animal studies.

    PubMed

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2009-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the behavior involved in constructing spatial representation in humans. For this, blindfolded adult human subjects were introduced into an unfamiliar environment, where they were requested to move incessantly for 10 min. Analysis of the locomotor activity of the participants revealed the following exploratory behaviors: (1) ;looping'; (2) ;wall-following'; (3) ;step-counting'; (4) ;cross-cutting'; and (5) ;free traveling'. Looping is a typical exploratory mode of sightless explorers, based on returning to a recently traveled place. Wall-following is common in enclosed spaces, whereby explorers follow the perimeter of the environment. Both looping and wall-following are based on an egocentric frame of reference by which explorers obtain information about the shape, size and landmarks in the environment. Blindfolded explorers displayed step-counting in order to scale the environment and the relationships in it. Altogether, exploration by looping, wall-following and step-counting resulted in an allocentric spatial representation. The acquisition of spatial representation was manifested by cross-cutting and free travel, with subjects walking in a relatively fast and decisive manner. In light of the above modes of activity, we suggest that exploration of an unfamiliar environment is a synergetic self-organized process (synergetic inter-representation networks, SIRN model); an interplay between external and internal representations. According to this model, the interplay gives rise to an order parameter, such as the environment's dimensions or geometry, enabling progression to a subsequent exploratory behavior. This dynamic and sequential interplay reaches a steady state when a spatial representation (i.e. ;cognitive map') is established. PMID:19648407

  11. Steatohepatitic variant of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of metabolic syndrome or background steatosis: a clinical, pathological, and genetic study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Matthew M; Liu, Yajuan; Torbenson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Association between the steatohepatitic hepatocellular carcinoma (SH-HCC) and metabolic syndrome has been suggested. Most SH-HCC morphology appears to result from a typical HCC that retains the ability to respond to the metabolic syndrome and develops features of steatohepatitis. We aim to ask if this is true for all SH-HCC cases, or does the SH-HCC morphology in some cases reflect genetic changes inherent to the HCC itself, as opposed to wide tissue response in liver to the metabolic syndrome. Twelve SH-HCC cases occurring in individuals without metabolic syndrome were identified and examined pathologically. Genomic microarray analysis was performed in a subset. The SH-HCC in all cases showed diffuse moderate to marked fatty change, abundant balloon cells often containing Mallory-Denk bodies, and pericellular fibrosis. The background livers showed no significant fatty change in any cases. The background livers showed cirrhosis in seven cases and had no fibrosis in five cases. The underlying liver diseases were hepatitis C (n = 4) and no known (n = 8). The clinical and pathological characteristics of these cases did not differ significantly from the cases with the classical HCC morphology. Loss of 9q12-q31.1 was observed in a subset of cases, a finding that has not been previously reported in HCC. Our results indicate HCC can also develop steatohepatitic morphology outside the setting of fatty liver disease or metabolic syndrome. This SH-HCC is more likely to result from genetic changes to shared genes or metabolic pathways within the tumor and is an ideal subtype for future genetic studies. In this regard, potential genetic alterations include loss of 9q12-q31.1.

  12. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  13. Evidence of Absence software

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  14. Generic Detection of Register Realignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ďurfina, Lukáš; Kolář, Dušan

    2011-09-01

    The register realignment is a method of binary obfuscation and it is used by malware writers. The paper introduces the method how register realignment can be recognized by analysis based on the scattered context grammars. Such an analysis includes exploration of bytes affected by realignment, finding new valid values for them, building the scattered context grammar and parse an obfuscated code by this grammar. The created grammar has LL property--an ability for parsing by this type of grammar.

  15. Generic Detection of Register Realignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfina, Lukáš; Kolář, Dušan

    2011-09-01

    The register realignment is a method of binary obfuscation and it is used by malware writers. The paper introduces the method how register realignment can be recognized by analysis based on the scattered context grammars. Such an analysis includes exploration of bytes affected by realignment, finding new valid values for them, building the scattered context grammar and parse an obfuscated code by this grammar. The created grammar has LL property—an ability for parsing by this type of grammar.

  16. Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramanian, Chandrika

    2009-01-01

    This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each other in the Indian corpus; (2) compares…

  17. The Norwegian immunisation register--SYSVAK.

    PubMed

    Trogstad, L; Ung, G; Hagerup-Jenssen, M; Cappelen, I; Haugen, I L; Feiring, B

    2012-04-19

    The Norwegian immunisation register, SYSVAK, is a national electronic immunisation register. It became nationwide in 1995. The major aim was to register all vaccinations in the Childhood Immunisation Programme to ensure that all children are offered adequate vaccination according to schedule in the programme, and to secure high vaccination coverage. Notification to SYSVAK is mandatory, based on personal identification numbers. This allows follow up of individual vaccination schedules and linkage of SYSVAK data to other national health registers for information on outcome diagnoses, such as the surveillance system for communicable diseases. Information from SYSVAK is used to determine vaccine coverage in a timely manner. Coverage can be broken down to regional/local levels and used for active surveillance of vaccination coverage and decisions about interventions. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, an adaptation of SYSVAK enabled daily surveillance of vaccination coverage on national and regional levels. Currently, data from SYSVAK are used, among others, in studies on adverse events related to pandemic vaccination. Future challenges include maximising usage of collected data in surveillance and research, and continued improvement of data quality. Immunisation registers are rich sources for high quality surveillance of vaccination coverage, effectiveness, vaccine failure and adverse events, and gold mines for research.

  18. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1). The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3) %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at

  19. The effects of marriage and separation on the psychotropic medication use of non-married cohabiters: a register-based longitudinal study among adult Finns.

    PubMed

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-11-01

    Non-marital cohabitation has become increasingly common and is suggested to offer similar mental-health benefits as marriage does. We studied levels and changes in cohabiters' mental health five years before and five years after entering into marriage or separating, and compared long-term non-married and married cohabiters. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to non-marital transition and gender, using register data on 189,394 Finns aged 25 to 64. Similar levels of psychotropic-medication use were found among individuals in long unions that continued throughout the follow-up and were non-marital, marital, or changed from non-marital to marital. Among men and women who separated from longer cohabiting unions of more than five years, however, an increase in medication prevalence was observed immediately before separation, followed by a similar decline after separation. At the time of separation the level of medication use was 9.9 per cent (95% CI = 8.7 - 11.3) among men and 15.7 per cent (95% CI = 14.2 - 17.4) among women compared to 4.3 per cent (95% CI = 3.7 - 5.0) and 8.0 per cent (95% CI = 7.2 - 9.0), respectively, among those who cohabited continuously. No changes in medication use were observed before or after separation among those leaving shorter cohabiting unions of less than five years. Among those marrying following shorter cohabiting unions a positive effect of approaching marriage was observed only among women. Compared to continuous cohabiters, the level of medication use was higher among men and women separating from both short-term and long-term cohabiting unions five years before separation. This selective effect suggests that cohabiters with mental-health problems might benefit from relationship counselling. In a long-term stable union it seems to matter little for mental health whether the union is marital or non

  20. Sickness absence patterns and trends in the health care sector: 5-year monitoring of female municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. Methods Data from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway, and Aarhus, Denmark, for 3,181 and 8,545 female employees, respectively. Age-specific comparative statistics on sickness absence rates (number of calendar days of sickness absence/possible working days) and number of sick leave episodes were calculated for each year of the study period. Results There was an overall increasing trend in sickness absence rates in Denmark (P = 0.002), where rates were highest in the 20–29- (P = 0.01) and 50–59-year-old age groups (P = 0.03). Sickness absence rates in Norway were stable, except for an increase in the 20–29-year-old age group (P = 0.004). In both Norway and Denmark, the mean number of sick leave episodes increased (P <0.0001 and P <0.0001, respectively) in all age groups except for the 30–39- and 60–67-year-old age groups. The proportion of employees without sickness absence was higher in Norway than in Denmark. Both short-term and long-term absence increased in Denmark (P = 0.003 and P <0.0001, respectively), while in Norway, only short-term absence increased (P = 0.09). Conclusions We found an overall increase in sickness absence rates in Denmark, while the largest overall increase in sick leave episodes was found in Norway. In both countries, the largest increases were observed among young employees. The results indicate that the two countries are converging in regard to sickness absence measured as rates and episodes. PMID:25005027

  1. Registered Nurse Education and the Registered Nurse Job Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Howard Allan

    This effort compares the graduates of the three types of Registered Nurse (RN) education programs (three-year Diploma in Nursing, two-year Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN), and four-year Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing). The basic objective is to determine whether they are perfect substitutes, especially whether ADN graduates can adequately…

  2. Plasma aldosterone levels are elevated in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in the absence of left ventricular heart failure: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Opotowsky, Alexander R.; Landzberg, Michael J.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Waxman, Aaron B.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Elevated levels of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone are recognized as a modifiable contributor to the pathophysiology of select cardiovascular diseases due to left heart failure. In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary vascular remodelling induces right ventricular dysfunction and heart failure in the absence of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Hyperaldosteronism has emerged as a promoter of pulmonary vascular disease in experimental animal models of PAH; however, the extent to which hyperaldosteronism is associated with PAH in patients is unknown. Thus, the central aim of the current study is to determine if hyperaldosteronism is an unrecognized component of the PAH clinical syndrome. Methods and results Plasma aldosterone levels and invasive cardiopulmonary haemodynamic measurements were obtained for 25 patients referred for evaluation of unexplained dyspnoea or pulmonary hypertension. Compared with controls (n = 5), patients with PAH (n = 18) demonstrated significantly increased plasma aldosterone levels (1200.4 ± 423.9 vs. 5959.1 ± 2817.9 pg/mL, P < 0.02), mean pulmonary artery pressure (21.4 ± 5.0 vs. 45.5 ± 10.4 mmHg, P < 0.002), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (1.41 ± 0.6 vs. 7.3 ± 3.8 Wood units, P < 0.003) without differences in LV ejection fraction or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure between groups. Among patients not prescribed PAH-specific pharmacotherapy prior to cardiac catheterization, a subgroup of the cohort with severe pulmonary hypertension, aldosterone levels correlated positively with PVR (r = 0.72, P < 0.02) and transpulmonary gradient (r = 0.69, P < 0.02), but correlated inversely with cardiac output (r = –0.79, P < 0.005). Conclusions These data demonstrate a novel cardiopulmonary haemodynamic profile associated with hyperaldosteronism in patients: diminished cardiac output due to pulmonary vascular disease in the absence of LV heart failure. PMID:23111998

  3. Direct gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite residues in the absence and presence of water vapor: a feasibility study for carbon dioxide sequestration.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Sanoopkumar Puthiya; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Kentish, Sandra; Mercier, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Mineral carbonation of serpentinite mining residue offers an environmentally secure and permanent storage of carbon dioxide. The strategy of using readily available mining residue for the direct treatment of flue gas could improve the energy demand and economics of CO2 sequestration by avoiding the mineral extraction and separate CO2 capture steps. The present is a laboratory scale study to assess the possibility of CO2 fixation in serpentinite mining residues via direct gas-solid reaction. The degree of carbonation is measured both in the absence and presence of water vapor in a batch reactor. The gas used is a simulated gas mixture reproducing an average cement flue gas CO2 composition of 18 vol.% CO2. The reaction parameters considered are temperature, total gas pressure, time, and concentration of water vapor. In the absence of water vapor, the gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite mining residues is negligible, but the residues removed CO2 from the feed gas possibly due to reversible adsorption. The presence of small amount of water vapor enhances the gas-solid carbonation, but the measured rates are too low for practical application. The maximum CO2 fixation obtained is 0.07 g CO2 when reacting 1 g of residue at 200 °C and 25 barg (pCO2 ≈ 4.7) in a gas mixture containing 18 vol.% CO2 and 10 vol.% water vapor in 1 h. The fixation is likely surface limited and restricted due to poor gas-solid interaction. It was identified that both the relative humidity and carbon dioxide-water vapor ratio have a role in CO2 fixation regardless of the percentage of water vapor.

  4. Direct gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite residues in the absence and presence of water vapor: a feasibility study for carbon dioxide sequestration.

    PubMed

    Veetil, Sanoopkumar Puthiya; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Kentish, Sandra; Mercier, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Mineral carbonation of serpentinite mining residue offers an environmentally secure and permanent storage of carbon dioxide. The strategy of using readily available mining residue for the direct treatment of flue gas could improve the energy demand and economics of CO2 sequestration by avoiding the mineral extraction and separate CO2 capture steps. The present is a laboratory scale study to assess the possibility of CO2 fixation in serpentinite mining residues via direct gas-solid reaction. The degree of carbonation is measured both in the absence and presence of water vapor in a batch reactor. The gas used is a simulated gas mixture reproducing an average cement flue gas CO2 composition of 18 vol.% CO2. The reaction parameters considered are temperature, total gas pressure, time, and concentration of water vapor. In the absence of water vapor, the gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite mining residues is negligible, but the residues removed CO2 from the feed gas possibly due to reversible adsorption. The presence of small amount of water vapor enhances the gas-solid carbonation, but the measured rates are too low for practical application. The maximum CO2 fixation obtained is 0.07 g CO2 when reacting 1 g of residue at 200 °C and 25 barg (pCO2 ≈ 4.7) in a gas mixture containing 18 vol.% CO2 and 10 vol.% water vapor in 1 h. The fixation is likely surface limited and restricted due to poor gas-solid interaction. It was identified that both the relative humidity and carbon dioxide-water vapor ratio have a role in CO2 fixation regardless of the percentage of water vapor. PMID:25940479

  5. Current and emerging treatments for absence seizures in young patients.

    PubMed

    Vrielynck, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we review the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of the different absence seizure types as recently recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy: typical absences, atypical absences, myoclonic absences, and eyelid myoclonia with absences. Overall, valproate and ethosuximide remain the principal anti-absence drugs. Typical absence seizures exhibit a specific electroclinical semiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacological response profile. A large-scale comparative study has recently confirmed the key role of ethosuximide in the treatment of childhood absence epilepsy, more than 50 years after its introduction. No new antiepileptic drug has proven major efficacy against typical absences. Of the medications under development, brivaracetam might be an efficacious anti-absence drug. Some experimental drugs also show efficacy in animal models of typical absence seizures. The treatment of other absence seizure types is not supported with a high level of evidence. Rufinamide appears to be the most promising new antiepileptic drug for atypical absences and possibly for myoclonic absences. The efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation should be further evaluated for atypical absences. Levetiracetam appears to display a particular efficacy in eyelid myoclonia with absences. Finally, it is important to remember that the majority of antiepileptic drugs, whether they be old or new, may aggravate typical and atypical absence seizures. PMID:23885176

  6. The return of dissociation as absence within absence.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2014-12-01

    My aim is to translate Ferenczi's central concepts of the intrapsychic impact and imprint of early developmental trauma into both revived and contemporary conceptualizations. The concept of dissociation was renounced by Freud, yet it is returning as a cornerstone of recent trauma theories. Ferenczi used the concept of "repression," but used it in the sense of an intrapsychic imprint of early external trauma that fragments consciousness, that is, as dissociation. Furthermore, early trauma is double: an absence of protection that threatens existence of the self, combined with an absence of attachment and of recognition of this threat and terror; thus it is an absence-within-absence. This contemporary conceptualization entails a widening of the intrapsychic realm to include an intersubjective one, and regards dissociation as a unique and complex intrapsychic absence, which is a negative of the external absence-within-absence in the early environment. PMID:25434884

  7. Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-11-01

    Closing registers in forced air heating systems and leaving some rooms in a house unconditioned has been suggested as a method of quickly saving energy for California consumers. This study combined laboratory measurements of the changes in duct leakage as registers are closed together with modeling techniques to estimate the changes in energy use attributed to closing registers. The results of this study showed that register closing led to increased energy use for a typical California house over a wide combination of climate, duct leakage and number of closed registers. The reduction in building thermal loads due to conditioning only a part of the house was offset by increased duct system losses; mostly due to increased duct leakage. Therefore, the register closing technique is not recommended as a viable energy saving strategy for California houses with ducts located outside conditioned space. The energy penalty associated with the register closing technique was found to be minimized if registers furthest from the air handler are closed first because this tends to only affect the pressures and air leakage for the closed off branch. Closing registers nearer the air handler tends to increase the pressures and air leakage for the whole system. Closing too many registers (more than 60%) is not recommended because the added flow resistance severely restricts the air flow though the system leading to safety concerns. For example, furnaces may operate on the high-limit switch and cooling systems may suffer from frozen coils.

  8. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications.

  9. Registered Replication Report: Hart & Albarracín (2011).

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Language can be viewed as a complex set of cues that shape people's mental representations of situations. For example, people think of behavior described using imperfective aspect (i.e., what a person was doing) as a dynamic, unfolding sequence of actions, whereas the same behavior described using perfective aspect (i.e., what a person did) is perceived as a completed whole. A recent study found that aspect can also influence how we think about a person's intentions (Hart & Albarracín, 2011). Participants judged actions described in imperfective as being more intentional (d between 0.67 and 0.77) and they imagined these actions in more detail (d = 0.73). The fact that this finding has implications for legal decision making, coupled with the absence of other direct replication attempts, motivated this registered replication report (RRR). Multiple laboratories carried out 12 direct replication studies, including one MTurk study. A meta-analysis of these studies provides a precise estimate of the size of this effect free from publication bias. This RRR did not find that grammatical aspect affects intentionality (d between 0 and -0.24) or imagery (d = -0.08). We discuss possible explanations for the discrepancy between these results and those of the original study. PMID:26817732

  10. Catalog of 199 register-based definitions of chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hvidberg, Michael F.; Johnsen, Søren P.; Glümer, Charlotte; Petersen, Karin D.; Olesen, Anne V.; Ehlers, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers. Materials and methods: The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant, prescription and other healthcare data were also used to define the chronic conditions. Results: We identified 199 chronic conditions and subgroups, which were divided into four groups according to a medical judgment of the expected duration of the conditions, as follows. Category I: Stationary to progressive conditions (maximum register inclusion time of diagnosis since the start of the register in 1994). Category II: Stationary to diminishing conditions (10 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category III: Diminishing conditions (5 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category IV: Borderline conditions (2 years of register inclusion time following diagnosis). The conditions were primarily defined using hospital discharge diagnoses; however, for 35 conditions, including common conditions such as diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease and allergy, more complex definitions were proposed based on record linkage between multiple registers, including registers of prescribed drugs and use of general practitioners’ services. Conclusions: This study provided a catalog of register-based definitions for chronic conditions for use in healthcare planning and research, which is, to the authors’ knowledge, the largest currently compiled in a single study. PMID:27098981

  11. Mission Registers as Anthropological Questionnaires: Understanding Limitations of the Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines common sources of error for scholars using mission registers to study California Indian history. Draws examples from mission register studies of the Chumash tribe to illustrate problems resulting from missing entries, name changes, linguistic errors, and cross-cultural confusion about naming taboos and kin relationships. Contains 34…

  12. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1...

  13. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1...

  14. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the daily... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1...

  15. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  16. 1 CFR 12.1 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register Index and LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) are included with each Federal Register... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 12.1 Section 12.1 General... PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.1 Federal Register. (a) Copies of the...

  17. Homophobia in Registered Nurses: Impact on LGB Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Christopher W.; Kiehl, Ermalynn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined registered nurses' overall attitudes and homophobia towards gays and lesbians in the workplace. Homophobia scores, represented by the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) Scale, was the dependent variable. Overall homophobia scores were assessed among a randomized stratified sample of registered nurses licensed in the…

  18. Acoustic and Perceptual Analysis of Modal and Falsetto Registers in Females with Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Nicole Y. K.; Yiu, Edwin M-L.

    2006-01-01

    Modal and falsetto registers are the basic vocal qualities used in female speaking voices. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency at which modal register changed to falsetto register and the frequency range of each modal and falsetto register produced under three loudness levels: soft, comfortable and loud phonations in normal and…

  19. How to Treat Compensated Absences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Raymond J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses compensated absences such as future vacation, sick leave, and other absences that must be recognized for accounting and financial reporting purposes. Explains Governmental Accounting Standards Board distinctions between governmental and proprietary fund models. School districts and municipalities must now account for compensated…

  20. Little evidence that hepatitis C virus leads to a higher risk of mortality in the absence of cirrhosis and excess alcohol intake: the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, L; Spicher, V M; Negro, F; Rickenbach, M; Zwahlen, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the all-cause mortality of participants in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort compared to the Swiss general population. Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection attending secondary and tertiary care centres in Switzerland. One thousand six hundred and forty-five patients with HCV infection were followed up for a mean of over 2 years. We calculated all-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using age, sex and calendar year-specific Swiss all-cause mortality rates. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to model the variability of SMR by cirrhotic status, HCV genotype, infection with hepatitis B virus or HIV, injection drug use and alcohol intake. Sixty-one deaths were recorded out of 1645 participants. The crude all-cause SMR was 4.5 (95% CI: 3.5-5.8). Patients co-infected with HIV had a crude SMR of 20 (95% CI: 11.1-36.1). The SMR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.63-2.03) for patients who were not cirrhotic, not infected with HBV or HIV, did not inject drugs, were not heavy alcohol consumers (absence of selected risk factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of providing appropriate preventive advice, such as counselling to avoid alcohol intake, in those infected with HCV. PMID:19243494

  1. A seasonal study of dissolved cobalt in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: micronutrient behavior, absence of scavenging, and relationships with Zn, Cd, and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Goepfert, T. J.; Noble, A. E.; Bertrand, E. M.; Sedwick, P. N.; Ditullio, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    We report the distribution of cobalt (Co) in the Ross Sea polynya during austral summer 2005-2006 and the following austral spring 2006. The vertical distribution of total dissolved Co (dCo) was similar to soluble reactive phosphate (PO43-), with dCo and PO43- showing a significant correlation throughout the water column (r2 = 0.87, 164 samples). A strong seasonal signal for dCo was observed, with most spring samples having concentrations ranging from ~45-85 pM, whereas summer dCo values were depleted below these levels by biological activity. Surface transect data from the summer cruise revealed concentrations at the low range of this seasonal variability (~30 pM dCo), with concentrations as low as 20 pM observed in some regions where PO43- was depleted to ~0.1 μM. Both complexed Co, defined as the fraction of dCo bound by strong organic ligands, and labile Co, defined as the fraction of dCo not bound by these ligands, were typically observed in significant concentrations throughout the water column. This contrasts the depletion of labile Co observed in the euphotic zone of other ocean regions, suggesting a much higher bioavailability for Co in the Ross Sea. An ecological stoichiometry of 37.6 μmol Co:mol-1 PO43- calculated from dissolved concentrations was similar to values observed in the subarctic Pacific, but approximately tenfold lower than values in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and Equatorial Atlantic. The ecological stoichiometries for dissolved Co and Zn suggest a greater overall use of Zn relative to Co in the shallow waters of the Ross Sea, with a Co:PO43-/Zn:PO43- ratio of 1:17. Comparison of these observed stoichiometries with values estimated in culture studies suggests that Zn is a key micronutrient that likely influences phytoplankton diversity in the Ross Sea. In contrast, the observed ecological stoichiometries for Co were below values necessary for the growth of eukaryotic phytoplankton in laboratory culture experiments conducted in the absence

  2. A seasonal study of dissolved cobalt in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: micronutrient behavior, absence of scavenging, and relationships with Zn, Cd, and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. A.; Goepfert, T. J.; Noble, A. E.; Bertrand, E. M.; Sedwick, P. N.; Ditullio, G. R.

    2010-08-01

    We report the distribution of cobalt (Co) in the Ross Sea polynya during austral summer 2005-2006 and the following austral spring 2006. The vertical distribution of total dissolved Co (dCo) was similar to soluble reactive phosphate (PO43-), with dCo and PO43- showing a significant correlation throughout the water column (r2=0.87). A strong seasonal signal for dCo was observed, with most spring samples having concentrations ranging from ~45-85 pM, whereas summer dCo values were depleted below these levels by biological activity. Surface transect data from the summer cruise revealed concentrations at the low range of this seasonal variability (~30 pM dCo), with concentrations as low as 20 pM observed in some regions where PO43- was depleted to ~0.1 μM. Both complexed Co, defined as the fraction of dCo bound by strong organic ligands, and labile Co, defined as the fraction of dCo not bound by these ligands, were typically observed in significant concentrations throughout the water column. This contrasts the depletion of labile Co observed in the euphotic zone of other ocean regions, suggesting a much higher bioavailability for Co in the Ross Sea. An ecological stoichiometry of 37.6 μmol Co:mol-1 PO43- calculated from dissolved concentrations was similar to values observed in the subarctic Pacific, but approximately tenfold lower than values in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and Equatorial Atlantic. The ecological stoichiometries for dissolved Co and Zn suggest a greater overall use of Zn relative to Co in the shallow waters of the Ross Sea, with a Co:PO43-/Zn:PO43- ratio of 1:17. Comparison of these observed stoichiometries with values estimated in culture studies suggests that Zn is a key micronutrient that likely influences phytoplankton diversity in the Ross Sea. In contrast, the observed ecological stoichiometries for Co were below values necessary for the growth of eukaryotic phytoplankton in laboratory culture experiments conducted in the absence of added zinc

  3. Divorce and changes in the prevalence of psychotropic medication use: a register-based longitudinal study among middle-aged Finns.

    PubMed

    Metsä-Simola, Niina; Martikainen, Pekka

    2013-10-01

    The annual prevalence of psychotropic medication use exceeds 10 percent in Europe and the United States, the prevalence being higher among the divorced than the married. We analysed changes in the three-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use (psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics excluding medication for dementia) by proximity to divorce, sex, medication type and socio-demographic characteristics, using register-data on 304,111 Finns between 25 and 64 years of age, of whom 23,956 divorced between 1995 and 2003 and 142,093 were continuously married from 1995 to 2004. Five years before divorce, men and women already displayed about one percentage point higher prevalence of psychotropic medication use than those who continued their marriage. The excess prevalence increased with approaching divorce and peaked six to nine months before divorce, reaching 7.3 percent (95% CI 6.8-8.0) among divorcing men and 8.1 percent (95% CI 7.5-8.8) among divorcing women. The peak was followed by an 18-month decline, after which the excess compared to the continuously married settled at nearly three percentage points. The excess was not due to being socio-economically disadvantaged, and socio-demographic factors also seemed to have few modifying effects. The changes in prevalence were largest for antidepressants and almost non-existent for antipsychotics. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use among the divorced results both from selective factors already present five years before divorce and the acute and long-term causal effects of becoming and being divorced. Counselling is needed for individuals in the process of divorce, rather than economic support for divorced individuals.

  4. Socio-occupational class, region of birth and maternal age: influence on time to detection of cryptorchidism (undescended testes): a Danish nationwide register study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is associated with poor male fertility, but can be alleviated and fertility preserved to some degree by early detection and treatment. Here we assess the influence of socio-occupational class, geographical region, maternal age and birth cohort on time to detection and correction of cryptorchidism. Methods All boys born in Denmark, 1981 to 1987 or 1988 to 1994, with a diagnosis of cryptorchidism were identified in nationwide registers. The boys were followed for a diagnosis until their 16th birthday. The age at first diagnosis was noted and used as proxy for time to detection of cryptorchidism. Parental employment in the calendar year preceding birth was grouped into one of five socio-occupational classes. Geographical region was defined by place of birth in one of 15 Danish counties. Detection rate ratios of cryptorchidism were analyzed as a function of parental socio-occupational group, county, maternal age and birth cohort by use of Poisson regression. Results Some 6,059 boys in the early and 5,947 boys in the late cohort received a diagnosis of cryptorchidism. Time to detection was independent of parental socio-occupational group and maternal age but differed slightly between geographical regions. A similar pattern was obtained for surgical correction after a diagnosis. Age at diagnosis decreased by 2.7 years from the early to the late cohort. Conclusions These results indicate that childhood socio-occupational inequality in detection and correction of cryptorchidism would play a negligible role in male infertility in a life course perspective. Geographical region may have exerted some influence, especially for the oldest cohort. PMID:24581337

  5. Illness Absences Among Beryllium Sensitized Workers

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Janice P.; Ellis, Elizabeth D.; Girardi, David J.; Cragle, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined absence rates among US Department of Energy workers who had beryllium sensitization (BeS) or were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) compared with those of other workers. Methods. We used the lymphocyte proliferation test to determine beryllium sensitivity. In addition, we applied multivariable logistic regression to compare absences from 2002 to 2011 between workers with BeS or CBD to those without, and survival analysis to compare time to first absence by beryllium sensitization status. Finally, we examined beryllium status by occupational group. Results. Fewer than 3% of the 19 305 workers were BeS, and workers with BeS or CBD had more total absences (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.46) and respiratory absences (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.24, 1.84) than did other workers. Time to first absence for all causes and for respiratory conditions occurred earlier for workers with BeS or CBD than for other workers. Line operators and crafts personnel were at increased risk for BeS or CBD. Conclusions. Although not considered “diseased,” workers with BeS have higher absenteeism compared with nonsensitized workers. PMID:25211750

  6. How healthy are our nurses? New and registered nurses compared.

    PubMed

    Malik, Sumaira; Blake, Holly; Batt, Mark

    This study examined the health behaviour of nursing staff, comparing registered and pre-registered nurses in terms of their self-reported health and lifestyle behaviour. In total, 325 pre-registered nurses and 551 registered nurses, based at the same university teaching hospital and located within an acute NHS trust, completed a self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaire survey. With the exception of smoking behaviour, registered nurses generally had a healthier lifestyle compared with pre-registered nurses. However, when examining the overall health profile of the sample, the study reveals that there is room for improvement in the health and lifestyle behaviour exhibited by both registered and pre-registered nurses. Almost half of the sample failed to meet public health recommendations for levels of physical activity, almost two-thirds did not consume five portions of fruit or vegetables daily and almost half ate foods that were high in fat and sugar content on a daily basis. These findings are alarming given the current government emphasis on the health of NHS staff and the important role that nurses play in influencing lifestyle choices among their patients. There is an urgent need to target education and support services to improve the diet and exercise habits of nursing professionals.

  7. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09-14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  8. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer. Methods 13,572 women (50 to 69 years) in the Copenhagen mammography screening program (1991 through 2001) with childhood anthropometric measurements in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register were followed for breast cancer until 2010. With logistic and Cox regression models, we investigated associations among birth weight, height, and BMI at ages 7 to 13 years with MD (mixed/dense or fatty) and breast cancer, respectively. Results 8,194 (60.4%) women had mixed/dense breasts, and 716 (5.3%) developed breast cancer. Childhood BMI was significantly inversely related to having mixed/dense breasts at all ages, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72) at age 7 to 0.56 (0.53 to 0.58) at age 13, per one-unit increase in z-score. No statistically significant associations were detected between birth weight and MD, height and MD, or birth weight and breast cancer risk. BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.91 (0.83 to 0.99) at age 7 and 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) at age 13, whereas height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (age 7, 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) and age 13, 1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)). After additional adjustment for MD, associations of BMI with breast cancer diminished (age 7, 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) and age 13, 1.01 (0.93 to 1.11)), but remained with height (age 7, 1.06 (0.99 to 1.15) and age 13, 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)). Conclusions Among women 50 years and older, childhood body fatness was inversely associated with the breast cancer risk, possibly via a mechanism mediated by MD, at least partially. Childhood tallness was

  9. DGTI Register of Rare Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hustinx, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Summary For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed ‘DGTI Register of Rare Donors’ and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

  10. Saving Tons at the Register

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Karl; Seigel, Jeff; Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

    1998-05-01

    Duct losses have a significant effect on the efficiency of delivering space cooling to U.S. homes. This effect is especially dramatic during peak demand periods where half of the cooling equipment's output can be wasted. Improving the efficiency of a duct system can save energy, but can also allow for downsizing of cooling equipment without sacrificing comfort conditions. Comfort, and hence occupant acceptability, is determined not only by steady-state temperatures, but by how long it takes to pull down the temperature during cooling start-up, such as when the occupants come home on a hot summer afternoon. Thus the delivered tons of cooling at the register during start-up conditions are critical to customer acceptance of equipment downsizing strategies. We have developed a simulation technique which takes into account such things as weather, heat-transfer (including hot attic conditions), airflow, duct tightness, duct location and insulation, and cooling equipment performance to determine the net tons of cooling delivered to occupied space. Capacity at the register has been developed as an improvement over equipment tonnage as a system sizing measure. We use this concept to demonstrate that improved ducts and better system installation is as important as equipment size, with analysis of pull-down capability as a proxy for comfort. The simulations indicate that an improved system installation including tight ducts can eliminate the need for almost a ton of rated equipment capacity in a typical new 2,000 square foot house in Sacramento, California. Our results have also shown that a good duct system can reduce capacity requirements and still provide equivalent cooling at start-up and at peak conditions.

  11. The Causal Effects of Father Absence

    PubMed Central

    McLanahan, Sara; Tach, Laura; Schneider, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. We review studies that have responded to this critique by employing a variety of innovative research designs to identify the causal effect of father absence, including studies using lagged dependent variable models, growth curve models, individual fixed effects models, sibling fixed effects models, natural experiments, and propensity score matching models. Our assessment is that studies using more rigorous designs continue to find negative effects of father absence on offspring well-being, although the magnitude of these effects is smaller than what is found using traditional cross-sectional designs. The evidence is strongest and most consistent for outcomes such as high school graduation, children’s social-emotional adjustment, and adult mental health. PMID:24489431

  12. 77 FR 3804 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste (RIN 3150-AG41) (Tentative) * The schedule for Commission meetings... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission,...

  13. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  14. The National Register of Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed

    2002-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and materials are: "The National Register of Historic Places Today" (C. D. Shull); "The (Economic) Value of National Register Listing" (D. D. Rypkema); "The National Register and Heritage Areas" (B. Barrett);…

  15. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  16. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  17. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  18. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  19. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  20. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  1. 5 CFR 351.404 - Retention register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.404 Retention register. (a) When a competing employee is to be released from a competitive level under this part, the agency shall establish a separate retention register for... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention register. 351.404 Section...

  2. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  3. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  4. Ten Years of Experience with the GORE EXCLUDER{sup Registered-Sign} Stent-Graft for the Treatment of Aortic and Iliac Aneurysms: Outcomes from a Single Center Study

    SciTech Connect

    Maleux, G. Claes, H.; Van Holsbeeck, A.; Janssen, R.; Laenen, A.; Heye, S.; Houthoofd, S.; Fourneau, I.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the long-term outcome of selected patients with aortic, aortoiliac, and isolated common iliac aneurysms treated with the GORE EXCLUDER{sup Registered-Sign} stent-graft. Methods: Between December 1998 and June 2010, 121 nonconsecutive patients underwent insertion of a GORE EXCLUDER{sup Registered-Sign} stent-graft to treat an aortic (n = 80; 66%), aortoiliac (n = 25; 21%), or isolated common iliac (n = 16; 13%) aneurysm. Procedural and follow-up data were collected prospectively. Primary endpoints are overall survival, intervention-free survival, and freedom from aneurysm rupture. Secondary endpoints are device- and procedure-related complications, including all types of endoleaks or endotension, and reintervention. Results: The mean follow-up is 4.98 years (standard deviation, 3.18; median follow-up, 4.05 years). The estimated percentage overall survival (with 95% confidence interval) after respectively 5 and 10 years of follow-up is 74.5% (65.8; 81.3) and 57.8% (47.7; 66.7). The estimated intervention-free survival after respectively 5 and 10 years is 90% (84.3; 96.1) and 77.7% (67; 88.4). There was no aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Early postoperative complications occurred in 16 patients (13%); none were fatal. Late reinterventions were performed in 18 patients (15%). Finally, throughout the follow-up period, endoleaks were identified: type I (n = 4; 3%); type II (n = 39; 32%); type III (n = 0; 0%); endotension was seen in 11 patients (9%). Conclusions: Aneurysm exclusion with use of the GORE EXCLUDER{sup Registered-Sign} stent-graft is durable through a mean follow-up of nearly 5 years. There was no postprocedural aneurysm rupture. Complications occurred throughout the follow-up period, requiring continued clinical and radiological surveillance.

  5. Proneness to social anxiety modulates neural complexity in the absence of exposure: A resting state fMRI study using Hurst exponent.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Claudio; Vanello, Nicola; Cristea, Ioana; David, Daniel; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-05-30

    To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. We also obtained the fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) of the BOLD signal as an independent control measure for HE data. BFNE scores correlated positively with HE in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, while LSAS scores correlated positively with HE in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal sulci and in the parahippocamus. Results from fALFF were highly consistent with those obtained using LSAS and BFNE to predict HE. Overall our data indicate that spontaneous brain activity is influenced by the degree of social anxiety, on a continuum and in the absence of social stimuli. These findings suggest that social anxiety is a trait characteristic that shapes brain activity and predisposes to different reactions in social contexts.

  6. The Impact of Physical, Intellectual and Social Impairments on Survival in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Population-Based Register Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, Freya; Smith, Lucy K.; McGrother, Catherine W.; Taub, Nicholas A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Research into factors associated with survival in adults with intellectual disability is limited and no studies have controlled for changes in these factors over time. Material and Methods: All adults aged greater than or equal to 20 years with moderate to profound intellectual disability (approximate IQ less than 50) using specialist…

  7. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Individuals Diagnosed as Children with Atypical Autism: A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified…

  8. Perinatal, Maternal, and Fetal Characteristics of Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Population-Based Study Utilizing the Swedish Medical Birth Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peik; Kallen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre- and perinatal factors on the risk of developing attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We investigated the medical history of 237 children (206 male; 31 female) from Malmo, Sweden born between 1986 and 1996 and in whom a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical…

  9. Generational differences in registered nurse turnover.

    PubMed

    LeVasseur, Sandra A; Wang, Chen-Yen; Mathews, Barbara; Boland, Mary

    2009-08-01

    The chronic nature of the nursing workforce shortage in the United States is a continuing concern. As the nationwide gap between supply and demand grows, it remains unknown what impact turnover will have on nursing, access to care, and efforts to improve quality and safety of health care. It also remains unclear whether the recent turnover trends among new graduate registered nurses differ from past generational cohorts of new nurses. The aims of this study were to identify the reasons why registered nurses turnover by generational cohort (Veterans, Baby Boomers, and GenXMs) and to compare the length of time nurses were employed in their first five nursing positions by generational cohort. The findings suggest the three generational cohorts displayed similar reasons for leaving nursing positions with relocation, career advancement, and personal/family reasons reported most frequently. Except for the first nursing position, significant generational effects were found in the length of time Veterans, Baby Boomer, and GenXMs stayed employed in their nursing positions. It remains unknown why the GenXMs displayed a significantly shorter length of employment time in their second, third, fourth, and fifth nursing positions. The decline in length of employment time displayed in both the Baby Boomers and GenXMs may be an issue of concern requiring future research. PMID:20026454

  10. Increased Risk of Mortality Due to Interpersonal Violence in Foreign-Born Women of Reproductive Age: A Swedish Register-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Essén, Birgitta; Esscher, Annika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    Violence against women is an increasing public health concern, with assault leading to death as the most extreme outcome. Previous findings indicate that foreign-born women living in Sweden are more exposed to interpersonal violence than Swedish-born women. The current study investigates mortality due to interpersonal violence in comparison with other external causes of death among women of reproductive age in Sweden, with focus on country of birth. Foreign-born women and especially those from countries with low and very low gender equity levels had increased risk of mortality due to interpersonal violence, thus implicating lack of empowerment as a contributing factor.

  11. The Western Australian Twin Register: a population-based register of adult and child multiples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jessica D Y; Palmer, Lyle J

    2006-12-01

    The Western Australian Twin Register (WATR) was established in 1997 to study the health of all child multiples born in Western Australia (WA). The Register has until recently consisted of all multiples born in WA between 1980 and 1997. Using unique record linkage capacities available through the WA data linkage system, we have subsequently been able to identify all multiple births born in WA since 1974. New affiliations with the Australian Twin Registry and the WA Institute for Medical Research are further enabled by the use of the WA Genetic Epidemiology Resource--a high-end bioinformatics infrastructure that allows efficient management of health datasets and facilitates collaborative research capabilities. In addition to this infrastructure, funding provided by these institutions has allowed the extension of the WATR to include a greater number of WA multiples, including those born between 1974 and 1979, and from 1998 onwards. These resources are in the process of being enabled for national and international access.

  12. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI) on oocyte quantity in IVF. Material and Methods A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999–2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. Results Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII) oocytes (p = 0.009) than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women. Conclusion Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone

  13. Antidementia drug use among community-dwelling individuals with Alzheimer’s disease in Finland: a nationwide register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Tanskanen, Antti; Koponen, Marjaana; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine use, duration of treatment, concomitant use of these drugs, and factors associated with the discontinuation of AChEI therapy during 2006–2009. We utilized data from a nationwide sample of community-dwelling individuals with a clinically verified Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed during the year 2005 (n=6858) as a part of the MEDALZ-2005 study. During the 4-year follow-up, 84% used AChEI and 47% used memantine. Altogether, 22% of the sample used both drugs concomitantly. The median duration of the first AChEI use period was 860 (interquartile range 295–1458) days and 1103 (interquartile range 489–1487) days for the total duration of AChEI use. Although 20% of the AChEI users discontinued the use during the first year, over half of them restarted later. The risk of discontinuation was higher for rivastigmine [hazard ratio 1.34 (confidence interval 1.22–1.48)] and galantamine users [hazard ratio 1.23 (confidence interval 1.15–1.37)] compared with donepezil users in the adjusted model. In conclusion, median time for AChEI use was over 3 years and every fifth Alzheimer’s disease patient used AChEI and memantine concomitantly during the follow-up. The low rate of discontinuation is consistent with the Finnish Care Guideline but in contrast to the results reported from many other countries. PMID:24608822

  14. Effect of Chronic Kidney Diseases on Mortality among Digoxin Users Treated for Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Nationwide Register-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mascolo, Annamaria; Andersen, Mikkel Porsborg; Rosano, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of chronic kidney disease on all-causes and cardiovascular mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with digoxin. Methods All patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and/or atrial flutter as hospitalization diagnosis from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012 were identified in Danish nationwide administrative registries. Cox proportional hazard model was used to compare the adjusted risk of all-causes and cardiovascular mortality among patients with and without chronic kidney disease and among patients with different chronic kidney disease stages within 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription. Results We identified 37,981 patients receiving digoxin; 1884 patients had the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Cox regression analysis showed no statistically significant differences in all-causes (Hazard Ratio, HR 0.89; 95% confident interval, CI 0.78–1.03) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.88; 95%CI 0.74–1.05) among patients with and without chronic kidney disease within 180 days of follow-up period. No statistically significant differences was found using a 2 years follow-up period neither for all causes mortality (HR 0.90; 95%CI 0.79–1.03), nor for cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.74–1.02). No statistically significant differences was found comparing patients with and without estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate <30ml/min/1.73m2 and patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease, for all-causes and cardiovascular mortality within 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription. Conclusions This study suggest no direct effect of chronic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease stages on all-causes and cardiovascular mortality within both 180 days and 2 years from the first digoxin prescription in patients treatment-naïve with digoxin for non-valvular atrial fibrillation. PMID:27467520

  15. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  16. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words “body”, “posture”, “blind” and “absence of vision”. References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  17. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  18. Pilot study of a cluster randomised trial of a guided e-learning health promotion intervention for managers based on management standards for the improvement of employee well-being and reduction of sickness absence: GEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen A; Kerry, Sally; Chandola, Tarani; Russell, Jill; Berney, Lee; Hounsome, Natalia; Lanz, Doris; Costelloe, Céire; Smuk, Melanie; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of recruitment, adherence and likely effectiveness of an e-learning intervention for managers to improve employees’ well-being and reduce sickness absence. Methods The GEM Study (guided e-learning for managers) was a mixed methods pilot cluster randomised trial. Employees were recruited from four mental health services prior to randomising three services to the intervention and one to no-intervention control. Intervention managers received a facilitated e-learning programme on work-related stress. Main outcomes were Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), 12-item GHQ and sickness absence <21 days from human resources. 35 in-depth interviews were undertaken with key informants, managers and employees, and additional observational data collected. Results 424 of 649 (65%) employees approached consented, of whom 350 provided WEMWBS at baseline and 284 at follow-up; 41 managers out of 49 were recruited from the three intervention clusters and 21 adhered to the intervention. WEMWBS scores fell from 50.4–49.0 in the control (n=59) and 51.0–49.9 in the intervention (n=225), giving an intervention effect of 0.5 (95% CI −3.2 to 4.2). 120/225 intervention employees had a manager who was adherent to the intervention. HR data on sickness absence (n=393) showed no evidence of effect. There were no effects on GHQ score or work characteristics. Online quiz knowledge scores increased across the study in adherent managers. Qualitative data provided a rich picture of the context within which the intervention took place and managers’ and employees’ experiences of it. Conclusions A small benefit from the intervention on well-being was explained by the mixed methods approach, implicating a low intervention uptake by managers and suggesting that education alone may be insufficient. A full trial of the guided e-learning intervention and economic evaluation is feasible. Future research should include more active

  19. Nordic Medical Birth Registers in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Gissler, M; Louhiala, P; Hemminki, E

    1997-02-01

    This review discusses the use of Nordic Medical Birth Registers (MBRs) in epidemiological studies, paying special attention to the topics that have been investigated and to other data sources that increase the usefulness of MBRs. We divided the reviewed studies into four groups according to the data sources on which they were based: (1) studies using MBR data only; (2) studies combining maternal or paternal background information, obtained from other data sources, with MBR data; (3) studies combining MBR data with subsequent outcome information on newborns; and (4) studies using information about consecutive pregnancies and generations. Our review shows that MBRs are good sources for studying the following topics: maternal biological and obstetric background; interventions and health care during pregnancy and birth; newborns' short-term outcome; and the relations between these factors. In addition, the usefulness of MBRs increases when the data they contain are combined with data from other sources. We found that data from more than twenty different sources have been linked with MBR data in the Nordic counties. As time passes, national MBRs become a useful source of information for studies on consecutive pregnancies or generations. In addition, the associations between pregnancy, delivery, perinatal health and long-term outcome can be studied by using an MBR as the basic data source.

  20. 75 FR 18907 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., 2010--Tentative Thursday, April 29, 2010 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Fuel Cycle Oversight Process... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  1. 75 FR 17452 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... Thursday, April 29, 2010 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Fuel Cycle Oversight Process Revisions (Public Meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  2. 75 FR 13800 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Thursday, April 29, 2010 9:30 a.m. Briefing on the Fuel Cycle Oversight Process Revisions (Public Meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  3. 76 FR 66095 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...--Tentative Tuesday, November 1, 2011 9 a.m. Briefing on the Fuel Cycle Oversight Program (Public Meeting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission,...

  4. 77 FR 27099 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC-2012- 0002]. DATE: Weeks of May 7, 14, 21, 28, June 4, 11, 2012. PLACE: Commissioners' Conference Room, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  5. A simplified, compact static shift register

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, R. L.; Smith, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    Shift register was developed which uses only one D type flip-flop and improves packaging density by approximately 25% over the usual arrangement. Circuit is compromise between full master-slave arrangement and dynamic shift register, with limitation only of length of time that clock can be held high during new data entry.

  6. Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1 (PC database for purchase)   NIST has produced a new document image database for evaluating document analysis and recognition technologies and information retrieval systems. NIST Special Database 25 contains page images from the 1994 Federal Register and much more.

  7. 77 FR 4839 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Nuclear Waste (RIN 3150-AG41) (Tentative). Week of February 6, 2012--Tentative Thursday, February 9, 2012... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice Agency Holding the Meetings: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  8. 78 FR 13099 - Sunshine Federal Register Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Sunshine Federal Register Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETINGS: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, [NRC... 2, 2013 9:30 a.m. Meeting With Organization of Agreement States (OAS) and Conference of...

  9. The National Engineers Register: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John D.

    This report summarizes the experience of Engineers Joint Council (EJC) in operating the National Engineers Register under contract with the National Science Foundation as part of the National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel. EJC has also included its recommendations for the most effective operation of a national roster of engineers…

  10. A comparative study of the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and samarium as catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of methane in the presence and absence of carbon tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Matsumura, Yasuyuki; Moffat, J.B. )

    1993-02-01

    The catalytic oxidative coupling of methane to ethane and ethene has been investigated on the rare earth oxides, i.e., La[sub 2]O[sub 3], CeO[sub 2], Pr[sub 6]O[sub 11], and Sm[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Addition of a small amount of tetrachloromethane (TCM) to the reactant stream improves the catalytic activity of these oxides. In particular, the praseodymium catalyst yields high selectivity to the C[sub 2] compounds comparable to La[sub 2]O[sub 3] or Sm[sub 2]O[sub 3] when TCM is present in the feedstream. The X-ray diffraction patterns for these catalysts after the reaction with TCM show the presence of the oxychlorides in the catalysts except for the cerium catalyst, for which the selectivity to C[sub 2] compounds is very low even in the presence of TCM. The oxychlorides can be generated on La[sub 2]O[sub 3], Sm[sub 2]O[sub 3], or Pr[sub 6]O[sub 11] by preheating under a stream including TCM. The product distribution of the reaction with these catalysts in the absence of TCM is similar to that with the oxides in the presence of TCM, while Pr[sub 6]O[sub 11] pretreated with TCM is unstable with no TCM in the feedstream. It appears that the improvement of the activity of the rare earth catalysts with TCM in the feedstream is primarily due to the formation of the oxychlorides during the reaction. 49 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa; Bellavista, Elena; Mishto, Michele; Santoro, Aurelia; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Capri, Miriam; Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca; Grigioni, Walter Franco; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  12. Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data.

    PubMed

    Aldén, Lina; Edlund, Lena; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mueller-Smith, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is a foot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994-2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage--a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples--children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  13. Establishing a twin register in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, A; Fernando, D J; Siribaddana, S H; Abeysingha, M R; Jayasekare, R W; Dissanayake, V H; De Silva, N

    2000-12-01

    Nearly all twin registers are based in developed countries and there is no twin register in the developing world. Our objectives were to initiate the process of establishing a nationwide twin register in Sri Lanka by starting a volunteer register first and working towards a population-based register. Regular newspaper advertisements, feature articles, radio talks, and television programmes were used to publicise a competition for twins, their parents/relatives and friends requesting them to participate by sending in details of twins. The competition ran from 28 March 1997 for a period of 3 months. It offered prizes for three winners selected by drawing lots. Advertisements highlighted the objective of the competition as establishing a twin register for future research and emphasised that informed consent would be obtained for individual research projects. Those who registered comprise 4602 twin pairs (same sex: male--1564, female--1885; different sex--1153), 80 sets of triplets (same sex: male--17, female--31; different sex--42) and two sets of quadruplets (different sex). The oldest twins, triplets, quadruplets are 85, 46, and 5 years old, respectively; 88.0% of twins are less than 30 years old. Although others have previously used media publicity to enrol twins in twin registers, we believe this to be the first time that twins have been enrolled through competition. We have more young twins, and our gender and zygosity proportions after applying Weinburg's rule do not match the proportions expected from a volunteer twin sample. Establishing a twin register for research purposes has proved possible in a developing country. PMID:11463139

  14. The orientation period: essential for new registered nurses' adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Kathleen S

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore adaptation in new registered nurses using the Roy adaptation model as the guiding conceptual framework. This quantitative study employed a random sampling of new nurses in the state of North Carolina. Personal attributes of the new registered nurses and characteristics of their work setting were modeled with four measures considered suitable proxies for adaptation. Being in a formal orientation period significantly supported the new nurses' overall adaptation. This may represent the benefit of social support, including education, which seems to facilitate adaptation.

  15. Motivational Factors in Registered Nurses Completing a Baccalaureate Completion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to investigate what motivates associate degree (AND) and diploma prepared registered nurses (RN) to pursue a baccalaureate degree (BSN) through an RN-to-BSN program. Studies have shown that the educational level of nurses has direct impact on the safety and quality of care provided to patients.…

  16. Involvement in University Classroom Discourse: Register Variation and Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Research on the linguistic characteristics of university classroom discourse highlights the salience, in this register, of non-informational and subjective aspects of discourse. This dimension of classroom discourse, however, has not been studied systematically. Taking a corpus-based approach, this study investigates the non-informational…

  17. Father-Absence and Boys' School Performance in Barbados

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    In a study in rural Barbados that controls for race, social class, and cultural attitudes toward birth status, test and school data do not support the "classic" prediction of a direct, negative relationship between father-absence and boys' school performance. In this community, paternal absence during the first 2 years of life seems beneficial to…

  18. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bültmann, Ute; Roelen, Corné A. M.; Hoedeman, Rob; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. Methods A cohort of 9,904 employees with a sickness absence due to CMDs, working in the Dutch Post or Telecommunication company, was studied over a 7-year period. Recurrence was defined as the start of at least one new episode of sickness absence with CMDs after complete return to work for at least 28 days. The recurrence density (RD) of sickness absence with CMDs was calculated per 1,000 person-years. Results Of the 9,904 employees with a first absence due to CMDs 1,925 (19%) had a recurrence, 90% of recurrences occurred within 3 years. The RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was 84.5 employees per 1,000 person-years (95% CI = 80.7–88.3). The RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was similar in women and in men. In men, depressive symptoms were related to higher recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs than distress symptoms and adjustment disorders. In women, no difference by diagnostic category was found. Conclusions Employees with a previous episode of sickness absence with CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence with CMDs. Relapse prevention consultations are recommended for a period of 3 years after return to work. PMID:20449605

  19. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  20. Historical data indicates a wage premium for black registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Coomer, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    The average observed wage of Black registered nurses (RNs) is higher than that of White RNs in the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses over 2 decades from 1984 to 2004. In this study, wages of Black and White RNs were analyzed controlling for factors likely to affect wages in addition to race. Results indicate racial inequality in wages of RNs: Black RN wages exceeded White RNs wages over 2 decades from 1984-2004. This significant difference remained after controlling for factors likely to affect wages in addition to race such as experience, education, employer type, and specialty among other factors. PMID:24294652

  1. Historical data indicates a wage premium for black registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Coomer, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    The average observed wage of Black registered nurses (RNs) is higher than that of White RNs in the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses over 2 decades from 1984 to 2004. In this study, wages of Black and White RNs were analyzed controlling for factors likely to affect wages in addition to race. Results indicate racial inequality in wages of RNs: Black RN wages exceeded White RNs wages over 2 decades from 1984-2004. This significant difference remained after controlling for factors likely to affect wages in addition to race such as experience, education, employer type, and specialty among other factors.

  2. Absence of a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between atorvastatin and fenofibrate: a randomized, crossover, study of a fixed-dose formulation in healthy Mexican subjects

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Rodríguez, Omar; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Torres-Roque, Irma; Martínez-Delgado, Maricela; Mares-García, América Susana; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Covarrubias-Pinedo, Amador; Arzola-Paniagua, Angélica; Herrera-Torres, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin (ATO) and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing ATO 20 mg, or the combination of ATO 20 mg with fenofibrate (FNO) 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20–50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were measured for ATO as the reference and ATO and FNO as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals) for ATO and FNO combination versus ATO for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95, and 120,97%, respectively. These results suggest that ATO and FNO have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction. PMID:25688207

  3. High Incidence of Tuberculosis in the Absence of Isoniazid and Cotrimoxazole Preventive Therapy in Children Living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Andargie, Gashaw; Gebeye, Ejigu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the incidence of and predictors for tuberculosis in children living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia. Design Observational, retrospective follow-up study. Methods A total of 645 HIV-infected children were observed between September 2009 and September 2014. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors for developing TB. Results The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 4.2 per 100 child-years. Incidence of tuberculosis was higher for subjects who were not on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, were not on isoniazid preventive therapy, had delayed motor development, had a CD4 cell count below the threshold, had hemoglobin level less than 10 mg/dl and were assessed as World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III or IV. Conclusion Incidence of TB in children living with HIV was high. This study reaffirmed that isoniazid preventive therapy is one of the best strategy to reduce incidence of TB in children living with HIV. All children living with HIV should be screened for TB but for children with delayed motor development, advanced WHO clinical stage, anemia or immune suppression, intensified screening is highly recommended. PMID:27070435

  4. Absence of evidence for increase in risk for autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder following antidepressant exposure during pregnancy: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Castro, V M; Kong, S W; Clements, C C; Brady, R; Kaimal, A J; Doyle, A E; Robinson, E B; Churchill, S E; Kohane, I S; Perlis, R H

    2016-01-05

    Multiple studies have examined the risk of prenatal antidepressant exposure and risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with inconsistent results. Precisely estimating such risk, if any, is of great importance in light of the need to balance such risk with the benefit of depression and anxiety treatment. We developed a method to integrate data from multiple New England health systems, matching offspring and maternal health data in electronic health records to characterize diagnoses and medication exposure. Children with ASD or ADHD were matched 1:3 with children without neurodevelopmental disorders. Association between maternal antidepressant exposure and ASD or ADHD liability was examined using logistic regression, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and psychiatric confounding variables. In new cohorts of 1245 ASD cases and 1701 ADHD cases, along with age-, sex- and socioeconomic status matched controls, neither disorder was significantly associated with prenatal antidepressant exposure in crude or adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.50-1.54 for ASD; 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.69 for ADHD). Pre-pregnancy antidepressant exposure significantly increased risk for both disorders. These results suggest that prior reports of association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental disease are likely to represent a false-positive finding, which may arise in part through confounding by indication. They further demonstrate the potential to integrate data across electronic health records studies spanning multiple health systems to enable efficient pharmacovigilance investigation.

  5. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  6. Post-traumatic stress influences the brain even in the absence of symptoms: A systematic, quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Stark, E A; Parsons, C E; Van Hartevelt, T J; Charquero-Ballester, M; McManners, H; Ehlers, A; Stein, A; Kringelbach, M L

    2015-09-01

    Stress affects brain function, and may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considerable empirical data for the neurobiology of PTSD has been derived from neuroimaging studies, although findings have proven inconsistent. We used an activation likelihood estimation analysis to explore differences in brain activity between adults with and without PTSD in response to affective stimuli. We separated studies by type of control group: trauma-exposed and trauma-naïve. This revealed distinct patterns of differences in functional activity. Compared to trauma-exposed controls, regions of the basal ganglia were differentially active in PTSD; whereas the comparison with trauma-naïve controls revealed differential involvement in the right anterior insula, precuneus, cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices known to be involved in emotional regulation. Changes in activity in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex distinguished PTSD from both control groups. Results suggest that trauma has a measurable, enduring effect upon the functional dynamics of the brain, even in individuals who experience trauma but do not develop PTSD. These findings contribute to the understanding of whole-brain network activity following trauma, and its transition to clinical PTSD.

  7. Absence of adverse effects of sodium metabisulphite in manufactured biscuits: results of subacute (28-days) and subchronic (85-days) feeding studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Ribera, D; Jonker, D; Narbonne, J F; O'Brien, J; Antignac, E

    2001-02-01

    Sulphites are extensively used in the food and drinks industry. Their toxicity has been previously evaluated by addition to the diet or drinking water of laboratory animals. Because interactions between sulphites and food constituents occur, the present work was conducted to determine the subacute and subchronic toxicity of sulphite-bound compounds in a finished product: manufactured biscuits. The studies were performed on Sprague Dawley, rats for 28 and 85 days of dietary exposure. Diets were prepared from sulphited or untreated (controls) biscuits with the addition of sugar, protein, vitamins and minerals according to the nutritional requirements of the animals. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered diets containing sulphited biscuits at levels of 0, 10, 35 and 75%, corresponding to 10-15, 35-45, 150-170 and 310-340 mg SO2/kg diet. In both studies, no death or clinical abnormalities were reported. Growth rate, food consumption and food conversion efficiency were not affected by treatment. No dose-related changes were observed for haematology, clinical chemistry, ocular examination, renal-function, urinalysis, organ weights or gross and microscopic examinations. The liver concentrations of vitamins A, B1, C and E were not significantly changed except for an increase in vitamin E in high-dose males after 28 days' exposure. Based on these data, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of sulphites in baked biscuits was judged to be 310 mg SO2/kg diet or 25 mg/kg body weight/day.

  8. Absence of evidence for increase in risk for autism or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder following antidepressant exposure during pregnancy: a replication study

    PubMed Central

    Castro, V M; Kong, S W; Clements, C C; Brady, R; Kaimal, A J; Doyle, A E; Robinson, E B; Churchill, S E; Kohane, I S; Perlis, R H

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have examined the risk of prenatal antidepressant exposure and risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with inconsistent results. Precisely estimating such risk, if any, is of great importance in light of the need to balance such risk with the benefit of depression and anxiety treatment. We developed a method to integrate data from multiple New England health systems, matching offspring and maternal health data in electronic health records to characterize diagnoses and medication exposure. Children with ASD or ADHD were matched 1:3 with children without neurodevelopmental disorders. Association between maternal antidepressant exposure and ASD or ADHD liability was examined using logistic regression, adjusting for potential sociodemographic and psychiatric confounding variables. In new cohorts of 1245 ASD cases and 1701 ADHD cases, along with age-, sex- and socioeconomic status matched controls, neither disorder was significantly associated with prenatal antidepressant exposure in crude or adjusted models (adjusted odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.50−1.54 for ASD; 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.53−1.69 for ADHD). Pre-pregnancy antidepressant exposure significantly increased risk for both disorders. These results suggest that prior reports of association between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental disease are likely to represent a false-positive finding, which may arise in part through confounding by indication. They further demonstrate the potential to integrate data across electronic health records studies spanning multiple health systems to enable efficient pharmacovigilance investigation. PMID:26731445

  9. Post-traumatic stress influences the brain even in the absence of symptoms: A systematic, quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Stark, E A; Parsons, C E; Van Hartevelt, T J; Charquero-Ballester, M; McManners, H; Ehlers, A; Stein, A; Kringelbach, M L

    2015-09-01

    Stress affects brain function, and may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considerable empirical data for the neurobiology of PTSD has been derived from neuroimaging studies, although findings have proven inconsistent. We used an activation likelihood estimation analysis to explore differences in brain activity between adults with and without PTSD in response to affective stimuli. We separated studies by type of control group: trauma-exposed and trauma-naïve. This revealed distinct patterns of differences in functional activity. Compared to trauma-exposed controls, regions of the basal ganglia were differentially active in PTSD; whereas the comparison with trauma-naïve controls revealed differential involvement in the right anterior insula, precuneus, cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices known to be involved in emotional regulation. Changes in activity in the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex distinguished PTSD from both control groups. Results suggest that trauma has a measurable, enduring effect upon the functional dynamics of the brain, even in individuals who experience trauma but do not develop PTSD. These findings contribute to the understanding of whole-brain network activity following trauma, and its transition to clinical PTSD. PMID:26192104

  10. Optical and transient capacitance study of EL2 in the absence and presence of other midgap levels. [in gallium arsenide crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skowronski, M.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    A high-resolution optical study was carried out on GaAs crystals grown by horizontal Bridgman and liquid-encapsulated-Czochralski methods. An excellent correlation was found between the intensity of the 1.039-eV no-phonon line and the characteristic absorption of EL2, the major deep donor level in GaAs. A correlation was also found between the characteristic optical absorption of EL2 and its concentration as determined by junction capacitance measurements. The presence of EL0, another midgap level contained in heavily oxygen-doped crystals at concentration always less than those of EL2, had no effect on the optical spectra, but altered the capacitance measurements. Accordingly, an accurate calibration for the determination of EL2 by optical absorption was obtained from capacitance measurements on crystals containing only EL2; in this way the uncertainties introduced by other midgap levels were eliminated.

  11. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of Zn2Fe2 hybrid hemoglobins: absence of heme bond length changes in half-ligated species.

    PubMed

    Simolo, K; Korszun, Z R; Stucky, G; Moffat, K; McLendon, G; Bunker, G

    1986-07-01

    Metal hybrid hemoglobins, in which Zn(II) replaces Fe(II), have been structurally characterized by extended X-ray absorption structure (EXAFS) studies. Since Zn and Fe have very different K absorption edge energies, the structures of the ligated (Fe) and unligated (Zn) sites could be examined independently within a single molecule that mimics an intermediate ligation state. The observed EXAFS spectra and associated structural parameters are compared among the ligand free (alpha Zn)2(beta Zn)2, half-ligated (alpha FeCO)2(beta Zn)2 and (alpha Zn)2(beta FeCO)2, and fully ligated (alpha FeCO)2(beta FeCO)2 systems.

  12. Gait pattern alterations in older adults associated with type 2 diabetes in the absence of peripheral neuropathy--results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seung-uk; Stenholm, Sari; Chia, Chee W; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes may impact gait mechanics before onset of frank neuropathies and other associated threats to mobility. This study aims to characterize gait pattern alterations of type 2 diabetic adults without peripheral neuropathy during walking at maximum speed (fast-walking) as well as at self-selected speed (usual-walking). One-hundred and eighty-six participants aged 60-87 from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) able to walk unassisted and without peripheral neuropathy were classified as non-diabetic (N=160) or having type 2 diabetes (N=26). Gait parameters from the fast-walking and usual-walking tests were compared between participants with and without type 2 diabetes. Participants with diabetes had a shorter stride length for fast-walking (p=0.033) and a longer percentage of the gait cycle with the knee in 1st flexion for both fast- and usual-walking (p=0.033, and 0.040, respectively) than non-diabetic participants. Participants with diabetes exhibited a smaller hip range of motion in the sagittal plane during usual-walking compared to non-diabetics (p=0.049). During fast-walking, participants with diabetes used lower ankle generative mechanical work expenditure (MWE) and higher knee absorptive MWE compared to non-diabetic persons (p=0.021, and 0.018, respectively). These findings suggest that individuals with type 2 diabetes without overt peripheral neuropathy exhibit altered and less efficient gait patterns than non-diabetic persons. These alterations are more apparent during walking at a maximum speed indicating that maximum gait testing may be useful for identifying early threats to mobility limitations in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRFLOWS NEAR THE EXIT OF HVAC REGISTERS USING LASER DOPPLER VELOCIMETRY (LDV).

    SciTech Connect

    TUTU,N.K.; KRISHNA,C.R.; ANDREWS,J.W.; BUTCHER,T.A.

    2003-03-13

    A facility to characterize the airflow at the exit of HVAC registers was designed and fabricated. The objective of this work is to obtain velocity and turbulence data at the exit of registers, which can then be used as an input boundary condition in a modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code to predict the velocity and temperature distribution in an enclosure, and also the register performance parameters such as throw. During the course of this work, two commonly used registers were tested. Both registers were 8 inch x 4 inch sidewall registers. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure the axial and vertical components of the velocity vector at various locations across the face of the registers. For the two cases of registers studied here, the results suggest that the velocity field at the very exit of each of these registers scales with the flow rate through the registers. This means that, in the mode of operation in which the supply fan (of an HVAC system) has a ''High'' and ''Low'' setting, similar velocity scaling would result for the type of registers tested here.

  14. Registers in the Academic Writing of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrquin, Anna F.

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the development of the registers of academic writing by African American college-level students through style and grammar: indirection inherent in the oral culture of the African American community and the paratactic functions of "because." Discourse analysis of 74 samples of academic writing by 20 African American undergraduate…

  15. Evaluating Awareness of Registered Sex Offenders in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of sex offender registration is to protect residents from recidivistic sexual offenders by providing public information about local offenders. This study determines what percentage of residents living near registered sex offenders are aware of the offenders and the predictors of awareness. The investigational group includes randomly…

  16. Evidence for the absence of enzymatic reactions in the glassy state. A case study of xanthophyll cycle pigments in the desiccation-tolerant moss Syntrichia ruralis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Kranner, Ilse; San Sebastián, María; Artetxe, Unai; Laza, José Manuel; Vilas, José Luis; Pritchard, Hugh W; Nadajaran, Jayanthi; Míguez, Fátima; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2013-07-01

    Desiccation-tolerant plants are able to withstand dehydration and resume normal metabolic functions upon rehydration. These plants can be dehydrated until their cytoplasm enters a 'glassy state' in which molecular mobility is severely reduced. In desiccation-tolerant seeds, longevity can be enhanced by drying and lowering storage temperature. In these conditions, they still deteriorate slowly, but it is not known if deteriorative processes include enzyme activity. The storage stability of photosynthetic organisms is less studied, and no reports are available on the glassy state in photosynthetic tissues. Here, the desiccation-tolerant moss Syntrichia ruralis was dehydrated at either 75% or <5% relative humidity, resulting in slow (SD) or rapid desiccation (RD), respectively, and different residual water content of the desiccated tissues. The molecular mobility within dry mosses was assessed through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, showing that at room temperature only rapidly desiccated samples entered the glassy state, whereas slowly desiccated samples were in a 'rubbery' state. Violaxanthin cycle activity, accumulation of plastoglobules, and reorganization of thylakoids were observed upon SD, but not upon RD. Violaxanthin cycle activity critically depends on the activity of violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE). Hence, it is proposed that enzymatic activity occurred in the rubbery state (after SD), and that in the glassy state (after RD) no VDE activity was possible. Furthermore, evidence is provided that zeaxanthin has some role in recovery apparently independent of its role in non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence.

  17. Absence of p53 gene mutations in hepatocarcinomas from a Mediterranean area of Spain. A study of 129 archival tumour samples.

    PubMed

    Boix-Ferrero, J; Pellín, A; Blesa, R; Adrados, M; Llombart-Bosch, A

    1999-06-01

    The incidence of p53 gene abnormalities in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) varies in different geographical areas, being higher in regions where hepatitis virus infection and dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 are the most common aetiological agents. These mutations are less frequently encountered in Europe, although some studies have reported p53 protein overexpression in up to 45% of cases analysed. We have analysed 129 tumour samples of primary malignant hepatic neoplasms recovered from paraffin blocks processed in two pathology laboratories in a Mediterranean area of Spain (Valencia and Gerona). Among 14 cases in which p53 immunohistochemistry expression proved positive, 5 stained in more than 50% of the cell nuclei. By PCR-SSCP analysis we could detect the complete sequence from exon 5 through 8 in 70 cases and part of this region in the remaining cases, but no mutations were found. We found no relationship with the clinical stage, tumour stage or clinical outcome. We conclude that p53 gene alterations are not a major event in the malignant transformation of hepatic cells in this region of the Mediterranean. The variable incidence of p53 gene alterations in other geographical areas may reflect a different genetic background for the aetiology of HCC.

  18. Phylogenetic classification at generic level in the absence of distinct phylogenetic patterns of phenotypical variation: a case study in graphidaceae (ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new

  19. ‘Big needles, small bodies’—the absence of acupuncture treatment for infants in contemporary Shanghai: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Skjeie, Holgeir; Brekke, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore contemporary practices and clinical recommendations regarding the use of acupuncture for infants by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in Shanghai. Design A qualitative study consisting of four field visits between February 2014 and March 2015. Data was collected using participant observation, focus group interview, in-depth interview, textbook page analysis and informant validation. Participants 14 Shanghainese professionals, including interpreters and TCM practitioners, of which seven were acupuncturists. Setting The Longhua Hospital (paediatric, acupuncture and Tui na departments) in southern Shanghai and the campus of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Results The Longhua Hospital outpatient acupuncture clinic receives 400 consultations on average per day. Children, including patients from the paediatric department, are referred to this clinic. During 3 days of participant observations at this department, we saw two children. No infants. During 3 days at the paediatric department and 1 day at the Tui na department we saw no referrals. Formal interviews and informal conversations with acupuncturists and other TCM professionals revealed that acupuncture was neither routinely practiced nor recommended for infants and small children. Acupuncture was considered potentially painful for this young patient population. Alternative treatment options such as herbal treatments or medical massage were widely available and preferred. Western medical diagnostics and treatment were also used, recommended, and trusted. Conclusions Acupuncture for infants is not a preferred therapeutic method among TCM practitioners working in contemporary Shanghai. Acupuncture on broad indications in infants appears to be a Western practice with little basis in TCM modern-day practice. PMID:26553838

  20. An Asymmetry in the Automatic Detection of the Presence or Absence of a Frequency Modulation within a Tone: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Jana; Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Schröger, Erich

    2011-01-01

    The infrequent occurrence of a transient feature (deviance; e.g., frequency modulation, FM) in one of the regular occurring sinusoidal tones (standards) elicits the deviance related mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related brain potential. Based on a memory-based comparison, MMN reflects the mismatch between the representations of incoming and standard sounds. The present study investigated to what extent the infrequent exclusion of an FM is detected by the MMN system. For that purpose we measured MMN to deviances that either consisted of the exclusion or inclusion of an FM at an early or late position within the sound that was present or absent, respectively, in the standard. According to the information-content hypothesis, deviance detection relies on the difference in informational content of the deviant relative to that of the standard. As this difference between deviants with FM and standards without FM is the same as in the reversed case, comparable MMNs should be elicited to FM inclusions and exclusions. According to the feature-detector hypothesis, however, the deviance detection depends on the increased activation of feature detectors to additional sound features. Thus, rare exclusions of the FM should elicit no or smaller MMN than FM inclusions. In passive listening condition, MMN was obtained only for the early inclusion, but not for the exclusions nor for the late inclusion of an FM. This asymmetry in automatic deviance detection seems to partly reflect the contribution of feature detectors even though it cannot fully account for the missing MMN to late FM inclusions. Importantly, the behavioral deviance detection performance in the active listening condition did not reveal such an asymmetry, suggesting that the intentional detection of the deviants is based on the difference in informational content. On a more general level, the results partly support the “fresh-afferent” account or an extended memory-comparison based account of MMN

  1. Phylogenetic Classification at Generic Level in the Absence of Distinct Phylogenetic Patterns of Phenotypical Variation: A Case Study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new

  2. Absence of Effect of Menopause Status at Initiation of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Immunologic or Virologic Responses: A Cohort Study from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Velasque, Luciane; Luz, Paula Mendes; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Derrico, Monica; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismério; de Andrade, Angela Cristina Vasconcelos; Cytryn, Andrea; Pires, Elaine; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Friedman, Ruth Khalili

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods ART-naïve women initiating cART between January 2000/June 2010 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas Cohort were studied. Women were defined as postmenopausal after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea. CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) measurements were compared between pre- and postmenopausal at 6, 12 and 24 months after cART initiation. Women who modified/discontinued a drug class or died due to an AIDS defining illness were classified as ART-failures. Variables were compared using Wilcoxon test, χ2 or Fisher’s exact test. The odds of cART effectiveness (VL<400 copies/mL and/or no need to change cART) were compared using logistic regression. Linear model was used to access relationship between CD4 change and menopause. Results Among 383 women, 328 (85%) were premenopausal and 55 (15%) postmenopausal. Median pre cART CD4 counts were 231 and 208 cells/mm3 (p = 0.14) in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. No difference in the median pre cART VL was found (both 4.8 copies/mL). Median CD4 changes were similar at 6 and 12 months. At 24 months after cART initiation, CD4 changes among postmenopausal women were significantly lower among premenopausal women (p = 0.01). When the analysis was restricted to women with VL<400 copies/mL, no statistical difference was observed. Overall, 63.7% achieved cART effectiveness at 24 months without differences between groups at 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion Menopause status at the time of first-line cART initiation does not impact CD4 cell changes at 24 months among women with a virologic response. No relationship between menopause status and virologic response was observed. PMID:24586673

  3. Interrater reliability of a national acute myocardial infarction register

    PubMed Central

    Govatsmark, Ragna Elise Støre; Sneeggen, Sylvi; Karlsaune, Hanne; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Bønaa, Kaare Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease-specific registers may be used for measuring and improving healthcare and patient outcomes, and for disease surveillance and research, provided they contain valid and reliable data. The aim of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of all variables in a national myocardial infarction register. Methods We randomly selected 280 patients who had been enrolled from 14 hospitals to the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register during the year 2013. Experienced audit nurses, who were blinded to the data about the 280 patients already in the register, completed the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction paper forms for 240 patients by review of medical records. We then extracted all registered data on the same patients from the Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register. To compare the interrater reliability between the register and the audit nurses, we calculated intraclass correlations coefficient for continuous variables, Cohen’s kappa and Gwet’s first agreement coefficient (AC1) for nominal variables, and quadratic weighted Cohen’s kappa and Gwet’s second AC for ordinal variables. Results We found excellent (AC1 >0.80) or good (AC1 0.61–0.80) agreement for most variables, including date and time variables, medical history, investigations and treatments during hospitalization, medication at discharge, and ST-segment elevation or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, only moderate agreement (AC1 0.41–0.60) was found for family history of coronary heart disease, diagnostic electrocardiography, and complications during hospitalization, whereas fair agreement (AC1 0.21–0.40) was found for acute myocardial infarction location. A high percentage of missing data was found for symptom onset, family history, body mass index, infarction location, and new Q-wave. Conclusion Most variables in Norwegian Myocardial Infarction Register had excellent or good reliability. However, some important variables had lower

  4. Natural history of absence epilepsy in children.

    PubMed

    Wirrell, Elaine C

    2003-08-01

    Absence seizures may be seen in a variety of epileptic syndromes in childhood. Identification of the specific syndrome is important to determine medical prognosis. With childhood absence epilepsy, approximately two thirds of children can be expected to enter long-term remission, while in juvenile absence epilepsy, seizure control is often achieved, however, lifelong treatment is usually required. Other absence syndromes have a poorer prognosis, with lower rates of seizure control and remission. Psychosocial outcome is often poor, even in patients with more benign forms of absence epilepsy. Remission of epilepsy does not preclude psychosocial morbidity.

  5. What is important for you? A qualitative interview study of living with diabetes and experiences of diabetes care to establish a basis for a tailored Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for the Swedish National Diabetes Register

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Unn-Britt; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is a growing emphasis on the perspective of individuals living with diabetes and the need for a more person-centred diabetes care. At present, the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) lacks patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) based on the perspective of the patient. As a basis for a new PROM, the aim of this study was to describe important aspects in life for adult individuals with diabetes. Design Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using content analysis. Setting Hospital-based outpatient clinics and primary healthcare clinics in Sweden. Participants 29 adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=15) and type 2 DM (n=14). Inclusion criteria: Swedish adults (≥18 years) living with type 1 DM or type 2 DM (duration ≥5 years) able to describe their situation in Swedish. Purposive sampling generated heterogeneous characteristics. Results To live a good life with diabetes is demanding for the individual, but experienced barriers can be eased by support from others in the personal sphere, and by professional support from diabetes care. Diabetes care was a crucial resource to nurture the individual's ability and knowledge to manage diabetes, and to facilitate life with diabetes by supplying support, guidance, medical treatment and technical devices tailored to individual needs. The analysis resulted in the overarching theme ‘To live a good life with diabetes’ constituting the two main categories ‘How I feel and how things are going with my diabetes’ and ‘Support from diabetes care in managing diabetes’ including five different categories. Conclusions Common aspects were identified including the experience of living with diabetes and support from diabetes care. These will be used to establish a basis for a tailored PROM for the NDR. PMID:27013595

  6. Palliative care registers: infringement on human rights?

    PubMed

    Anthony-Pillai, Rosemarie

    2012-04-01

    A personal view made in light of the recent news article regarding a husband wanting to sue Addenbrooke's hospital over a Do Not Attempt Resuscitation decision. This article aims to highlight how the rolling out of cross boundary palliative care registers may be more at risk of infringing human rights.

  7. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  8. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In... shall so indicate and shall specify that the mark has been in use in commerce. (b) In an application to... statement of lawful use in commerce may be omitted. (c) An application under section 66(a) of the Act is...

  9. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In... shall so indicate and shall specify that the mark has been in use in commerce. (b) In an application to... statement of lawful use in commerce may be omitted. (c) An application under section 66(a) of the Act is...

  10. To Register, Talk to This Computer . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Brigham Young University has a talking-listening computer. Capable of limited conversation, it will be able to register students by telephone. Programs have also been developed for use of the computer in public schools as an aid to teachers. (Author/MLF)

  11. 7 CFR 959.103 - Registered handler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for grading and packing onions for market, and who customarily buys onions from producers for grading... to be adequate for grading and packing onions for market, and he assumes responsibility for... entitled to be registered with the committee, he shall be so informed by written notice stating the...

  12. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58 Section 3.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording §...

  13. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58 Section 3.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording §...

  14. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58 Section 3.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording §...

  15. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58 Section 3.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording §...

  16. 37 CFR 3.58 - Governmental registers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental registers. 3.58 Section 3.58 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Date and Effect of Recording §...

  17. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration.

    PubMed

    Roelen, C A M; Koopmans, P C; Groothoff, J W

    2009-01-01

    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping styles which are important in absenteeism. The Effort-Reward Imbalance model takes coping into account. Little is known about occupational rewards and their relationship with sickness absence. This study investigated the relations between occupational rewards and the frequency and duration of sickness absence among 366 workers. The data of 326 employees (89%) were suitable for statistical analysis. Rewards in terms of job esteem (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.47-0.87) and job perspectives (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.57-0.84) were negatively related to the absence frequency in men. Satisfaction with income (OR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35-0.81) was negatively related to the absence frequency in women. Occupational rewards were not associated with the mean duration of absence episodes. The associations we found warrant more attention for occupational rewards in sickness absence research.

  18. Is there an association between skeletal asymmetry and tooth absence?

    PubMed Central

    Thiesen, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão; Pereira, Keila Cristina Rausch; Freitas, Maria Perpetua Mota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Facial skeletal asymmetry is commonly found in humans and its main characteristic is menton deviation. The literature suggests that occlusal and masticatory problems arising from tooth absence could be related to the development of such asymmetries. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of mandibular skeletal asymmetries and to investigate its association with posterior tooth absences. Methods: Tomographic images of 952 individuals aged from 18 to 75 years old were used. Asymmetry was the analyzed outcome, and it was categorized into three groups according to gnathion displacement in relation to the midsagittal plane (relative symmetry, moderate asymmetry, and severe asymmetry). Patients were sorted by the presence of all posterior teeth, unilateral posterior tooth absence, or bilateral posterior tooth absence. Chi-square test with a significance level of 5% was used to verify the association between posterior tooth absence and asymmetry. Results: Results show relative symmetry present in 55.3% of the sample, as well as the prevalence of 27.3% for moderate mandibular asymmetry and 17.4% for severe asymmetry. Moderate and severe mandibular asymmetries occurred in a higher proportion in patients with unilateral posterior tooth absence. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.691). Conclusions: In this study, mandibular asymmetries did not present any association with the absence of teeth on the posterior area of the arch. PMID:27653267

  19. Police Work Absence: An Analysis of Stress and Resiliency

    PubMed Central

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Charles, Luenda; Tinney-Zara, Cathy A.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Police work is a high stress occupation and stress has been implicated in work absence. The present study examined (1) associations between specific types of police stress and work absences, (2) distinctions between “voluntary” (1-day) and “involuntary” (> 3-days) absences; and (3) the modifying effect of resiliency. Officers (n=337) from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study were included in the present study. The sample was 72% male, 77% Caucasian, 73% married, and 75% patrol officers. Mean age was 41 years (SD=6.4). Measures included: the Spielberger Police Stress Survey, 1-year payroll absence data, and the Dispositional Resilience Scale. The negative binomial regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) of 1-day and >3-days work absences for increasing stress scores. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, rank, smoking status, alcohol intake, and sleep duration. For one-unit increase in stress scores, the covariate adjusted RRs for one-day work absences were: total stress score (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.04–1.36); administrative stress (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.05–2.18); physical/psychological stress (RR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.14–2.07); and lack of support (RR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01–3.05). Results suggest that officers were more likely to take voluntary 1-day absences due to specific types of stress at work. When the entire sample was considered, there was no significant association between police specific stress and episodes of work absence lasting at least three consecutive days. Hardy individuals, including those with high scores on the challenge sub-score, may use 1-day absences as a positive coping strategy. PMID:26709384

  20. Low back pain predict sickness absence among power plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Murtezani, Ardiana; Hundozi, Hajrije; Orovcanec, Nikola; Berisha, Merita; Meka, Vjollca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) remains the predominant occupational health problem in most industrialized countries and low-income countries. Both work characteristics and individual factors have been identified as risk factors. More knowledge about the predictors of sickness absence from LBP in the industry will be valuable in determining strategies for prevention. Objectives: The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate whether individual, work-related physical risk factors were involved in the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Methods: A follow-up study was conducted among 489 workers, aged 18–65 years, at Kosovo Energetic Corporation in Kosovo. This cross-sectional study used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data on individual and work-related risk factors and the occurrence of LBP sickness absence. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between risk factors and the occurrence of sickness absence due to LBP. Results: Individual factors did not influence sickness absence, whereas work-related physical factors showed strong associations with sickness absence. The main risk factors for sickness absence due to LBP among production workers were extreme trunk flexion (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05–2.78) as well as very extreme trunk flexion (OR = 6.04, 95% CI = 1.12–32.49) and exposure to whole-body vibration (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.04–2.95). Conclusion: Reducing sickness absence from LBP among power plant workers requires focusing on the working conditions of blue-collar workers and risk factors for LBP. Increasing social support in the work environment may have effects in reducing sickness absence from LBP. PMID:21120081

  1. Generalized absence epilepsy and catalepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, G D; Petrova, E V; Coenen, A M; Van Luijtelaar, E L

    1996-10-01

    Adult WAG/Rij rats are considered adequate genetic models for human generalized absence epilepsy. Rats of this strain of 8, 12, and 18 weeks old and age-matched control Wistar rats were exposed to sound stimulation. After offset of stimulation, all WAG/Rij rats showed cataleptic or even cataplexic reactions, which could persist for up to 20 min. Age effects could be demonstrated. None of the Wistar rats showed cataleptic reactions. Electroencephalographic studies in WAG/Rij rats of 21 weeks showed that spike-wave discharges were abundantly present in the background electroencephalogram prior to sound stimulation. Age-matched Wistar rats had almost no spike-wave discharges. Spike-wave discharges in WAG/Rij rats disappeared during sound stimulation and were then increased compared to the prestimulation and stimulation periods. The electroencephalogram during the cataleptic state was also characterized by the presence of large amplitude 2 Hz waves, interspersed with spike-wave discharges. The data suggest that the cataleptic state can be elicited in genetically epilepsy-prone rats. The youngest WAG/Rij rats showed no spike-wave discharges during the cataleptic state. In all, the data suggest that epilepsy-prone animals are sensitive for catalepsy at an age at which the EEG signs of generalized absence epilepsy are not yet manifest. PMID:8884948

  2. Experience from a multicentre stroke register: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, S.

    1976-01-01

    In collaboration with 15 centres in 10 countries of Africa, Asia, and Europe, WHO started a pilot study of a community-based stroke register, with standardized methods. Preliminary data were obtained on 6395 new cases of stroke in defined study communities, from May 1971 to September 1974. Information on incidence rates, clinical profiles, diagnosis, management, and course and prognosis for these patients is given. PMID:1088404

  3. Mapping preictal networks preceding childhood absence seizures using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Jacobs-Brichford, Eliza; Horn, Paul S; Tenney, Jeffrey R

    2014-10-01

    The electrographic hallmark of childhood absence seizures is 3 Hz generalized spike and wave discharges; however, there is likely a focal thalamic or cortical onset that cannot be detected using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The purpose of this study was to study the earliest preictal changes in children with absence epilepsy. In this report, magnetoencephalography recordings of 44 absence seizures recorded from 12 children with drug-naïve childhood absence seizures were used to perform time frequency analysis and source localization prior to the onset of the seizures. Evidence of preictal magnetoencephalography frequency changes were detected a mean of 694 ms before the initial spike on the EEG. A consistent pattern of focal sources was present in the frontal cortex and thalamus during this preictal period, but source localization occurred synchronously so that independent activity between the 2 structures could not be distinguished.

  4. Bronchitis—Sickness Absence in London Transport

    PubMed Central

    Cornwall, C. J.; Raffle, P. A. B.

    1961-01-01

    This study is based on the records of sickness absence of four days or longer attributed to bronchitis among nearly 60,000 London Transport employees during the years 1952 to 1956. The figures support previous observations that there is a close association between the incidence of bronchitis and the occurrence of fog in any year. The bronchitis experience of employees living and working in the north-eastern sector of London is shown to be worse than in other areas of London. The experience of employees in the country belt round London, particularly in the southern sector, is better than in London itself. With the possible exception of conductors, the figures do not suggest that there are occupational factors in the transport industry causing bronchitis. PMID:13695613

  5. 46 CFR 401.510 - Operation without Registered Pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation without Registered Pilots. 401.510 Section 401... REGULATIONS Penalties; Operations Without Registered Pilots § 401.510 Operation without Registered Pilots. (a... Registered Pilot when the vessel or its cargo is in distress or jeopardy. (b) A vessel may be navigated...

  6. 46 CFR 401.510 - Operation without Registered Pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation without Registered Pilots. 401.510 Section 401... REGULATIONS Penalties; Operations Without Registered Pilots § 401.510 Operation without Registered Pilots. (a... Registered Pilot when the vessel or its cargo is in distress or jeopardy. (b) A vessel may be navigated...

  7. 49 CFR 592.6 - Duties of a registered importer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties of a registered importer. 592.6 Section 592... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) REGISTERED IMPORTERS OF VEHICLES NOT... registered importer. Each Registered Importer must: (a) With respect to each motor vehicle that it...

  8. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes...

  9. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes...

  10. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes...

  11. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes...

  12. 1 CFR 11.7 - Federal Register Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register Index. 11.7 Section 11.7... REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS § 11.7 Federal Register Index. The annual subscription price for the monthly Federal Register Index, purchased separately, in paper form, is $29. The price excludes...

  13. 17 CFR 31.27 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Registered futures association... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.27 Registered futures association membership. Each person registered or required... futures association which is registered under section 17 of the Act and which provides for the...

  14. 17 CFR 31.27 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Registered futures association... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.27 Registered futures association membership. Each person registered or required... futures association which is registered under section 17 of the Act and which provides for the...

  15. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,…

  16. Absence of Quantum Time Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Haruki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    In analogy with crystalline solids around us, Wilczek recently proposed the idea of "time crystals" as phases that spontaneously break the continuous time translation into a discrete subgroup. The proposal stimulated further studies and vigorous debates whether it can be realized in a physical system. However, a precise definition of the time crystal is needed to resolve the issue. Here we first present a definition of time crystals based on the time-dependent correlation functions of the order parameter. We then prove a no-go theorem that rules out the possibility of time crystals defined as such, in the ground state or in the canonical ensemble of a general Hamiltonian, which consists of not-too-long-range interactions.

  17. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  18. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity and... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with...

  19. In the Balance: Registered Nurse Supply and Demand, 1996. IES Report 315.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seccombe, I.; Smith, G.

    A survey of 6,000 registered nurses in membership in the Royal College of Nursing across the United Kingdom examined some key factors that determined the supply of nurses. A study of the UK nursing labor market indicated that the number of registered nurses has remained more or less static since the late 1980s. Rising demand appeared to be met by…

  20. Developing Fluency in the Mathematical Register through Conversation in a Tenth-Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Codruta; Doerr, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the interactional strategies that one teacher used in a discourse-rich tenth-grade classroom to develop her students' facility with the mathematical register. Viewing the mathematical register as multi-semiotic and having a specific grammatical patterning, we used discourse analysis (Sinclair & Coulthard,…

  1. Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists' Atittudes toward and Perceptions of Teamwork in the Operating Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Student registered nurse anesthetists are an important part of an operating room team, yet little research has investigated how they perceive teamwork or approach team related issues specific to the operating room. This mixed methods study evaluated junior and senior student registered nurse anesthetists' attitudes toward and perceptions of…

  2. Exploring Preferences of Mentoring Activities among Generational Groups of Registered Nurses in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey-Goodwin, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences in perceptions of mentoring activities from four generations of registered nurses in Florida, using the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaire ® (AMAQ ®). Statistical procedures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to explore differences among 65 registered nurses in Florida from…

  3. Brief Report: "The Autism Epidemic". The Registered Prevalence of Autism in a Swedish Urban Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher; Cederlund, Mats; Lamberg, Kerstin; Zeijlon, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a circumscribed geographical region. The total population born in 1977-1994, living in Goteborg Sweden in 2001, was screened for ASD in registers of the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic. The minimum registered rate of autistic disorder was 20.5 in…

  4. Ultrasonography in Diagnosis of Congenital Absence of the Vas Deferens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenital absence of the vas deferens is an important cause of obstructive azoospermia, and the lack of an imaging diagnostic test is a critical problem. The aim of this study is to discuss the use of ultrasonography in congenital absence of vas deferens, including dysplasia of the epididymis and the seminal vesical. Material/Methods Five fresh spermatic cord specimens were detected by ultrasonography (US) to evaluate the image of the spermatic cord segment of the vas deferens. Fifty normal males had scrotal US to confirm whether the normal spermatic cord segment of the vas deferens can be detected and to measure the internal and external diameter on the long axis view. Forty-six males clinically diagnosed as having congenital absence of vas deferens underwent scrotal US to evaluate the spermatic cord segment of the vas deferens and the epididymis. The seminal vesicals were detected with transrectal ultrasonography. We evaluated images of the vas deferens, epididymis, and seminal vesical. Results Scrotal ultrasonography can distinguish the vas deferens from the other cord-like structures in the spermatic cord, and the vas deferens has a characteristic image. Scrotal ultrasonography detected all 50 normal males and measured the diameter. No statistically significant difference was found between the left and right measurements. In the 46 patients, the following anomalies were observed: 1) 42 cases of congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens; 2) 2 cases of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens; and 3) 1 case of congenital segmental absence of the vas deferens. All 46 cases were accompanied with epididymis and seminal vesical anomalies. Conclusions The spermatic cord segment of the vas deferens can be detected by US, which is a valuable tool in diagnosis of congenital absence of the vas deferens. Seminal vesical and epididymis anomalies often associated with congenital absence of the vas deferens were revealed by ultrasonography. PMID

  5. Molecular implementation of molecular shift register memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beratan, David N. (Inventor); Onuchic, Jose N. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An electronic shift register memory (20) at the molecular level is described. The memory elements are based on a chain of electron transfer molecules (22) and the information is shifted by photoinduced (26) electron transfer reactions. Thus, multi-step sequences of charge transfer reactions are used to move charge with high efficiency down a molecular chain. The device integrates compositions of the invention onto a VLSI substrate (36), providing an example of a molecular electronic device which may be fabricated. Three energy level schemes, molecular implementation of these schemes, optical excitation strategies, charge amplification strategies, and error correction strategies are described.

  6. Towards a values-based person specification for recruitment of compassionate nursing and midwifery candidates: a study of registered and student nurses' and midwives' perceptions of prerequisite attributes and key skills.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Anne; Smith, Dave; Horsburgh, Dorothy; Gray, Morag

    2014-09-01

    Selection and retention of preregistration nursing and midwifery students are issues that exercise educators, universities and commissioning bodies both nationally and internationally. It has recently become an expectation that a values-based approach is used within recruitment and selection activities in the UK. The desirability of a person specification to support transparent recruitment and selection is well recognised. An online survey of registered and student nurses and midwives found consensus around the desirability of several personal attributes and key skills. There was consensus in the top seven ranked attributes which were honesty and trustworthiness, communication skills, being a good listener, patience and tactfulness, sensitivity and compassion, the ability to seek and act on guidance and being a good team worker; this was between registered and unregistered nurses and midwives and also between participants representing all fields of nursing and midwifery practice. Some of the responses from Practice Education Facilitators (PEFs) (n=5) and senior managers (n=15) differed from those of other registrants surveyed. The attribute 'Able to draw on knowledge and experience' was considered more important by PEFs and 'Observant and able to act on your own initiative within your level of responsibility' and 'Able to draw on knowledge and experience' were ranked more highly by senior managers.

  7. Optimizing Instruction Scheduling and Register Allocation for Register-File-Connected Clustered VLIW Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haijing; Wang, Siye; Zhang, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Clustering has become a common trend in very long instruction words (VLIW) architecture to solve the problem of area, energy consumption, and design complexity. Register-file-connected clustered (RFCC) VLIW architecture uses the mechanism of global register file to accomplish the inter-cluster data communications, thus eliminating the performance and energy consumption penalty caused by explicit inter-cluster data move operations in traditional bus-connected clustered (BCC) VLIW architecture. However, the limit number of access ports to the global register file has become an issue which must be well addressed; otherwise the performance and energy consumption would be harmed. In this paper, we presented compiler optimization techniques for an RFCC VLIW architecture called Lily, which is designed for encryption systems. These techniques aim at optimizing performance and energy consumption for Lily architecture, through appropriate manipulation of the code generation process to maintain a better management of the accesses to the global register file. All the techniques have been implemented and evaluated. The result shows that our techniques can significantly reduce the penalty of performance and energy consumption due to access port limitation of global register file. PMID:23970841

  8. Prediction of sickness absence: development of a screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Duijts, S F A; Kant, IJ; Landeweerd, J A; Swaen, G M H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To develop a concise screening instrument for early identification of employees at risk for sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints. Methods Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on “Fatigue at Work” were used to identify items to be associated with an increased risk of sickness absence. The analytical procedures univariate logistic regression, backward stepwise linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were successively applied. For both men and women, sum scores were calculated, and sensitivity and specificity rates of different cut‐off points on the screening instrument were defined. Results In women, results suggested that feeling depressed, having a burnout, being tired, being less interested in work, experiencing obligatory change in working days, and living alone, were strong predictors of sickness absence due to psychosocial health complaints. In men, statistically significant predictors were having a history of sickness absence, compulsive thinking, being mentally fatigued, finding it hard to relax, lack of supervisor support, and having no hobbies. A potential cut‐off point of 10 on the screening instrument resulted in a sensitivity score of 41.7% for women and 38.9% for men, and a specificity score of 91.3% for women and 90.6% for men. Conclusions This study shows that it is possible to identify predictive factors for sickness absence and to develop an instrument for early identification of employees at risk for sickness absence. The results of this study increase the possibility for both employers and policymakers to implement interventions directed at the prevention of sickness absence. PMID:16698807

  9. Vernalizing cold is registered digitally at FLC.

    PubMed

    Angel, Andrew; Song, Jie; Yang, Hongchun; Questa, Julia I; Dean, Caroline; Howard, Martin

    2015-03-31

    A fundamental property of many organisms is an ability to sense, evaluate, and respond to environmental signals. In some situations, generation of an appropriate response requires long-term information storage. A classic example is vernalization, where plants quantitatively sense long-term cold and epigenetically store this cold-exposure information to regulate flowering time. In Arabidopsis thaliana, stable epigenetic memory of cold is digital: following long-term cold exposure, cells respond autonomously in an all-or-nothing fashion, with the fraction of cells that stably silence the floral repressor flowering locus C (FLC) increasing with the cold exposure duration. However, during cold exposure itself it is unknown whether vernalizing cold is registered at FLC in individual cells in an all-or-nothing (digital) manner or is continuously varying (analog). Using mathematical modeling, we found that analog registration of cold temperature is problematic due to impaired analog-to-digital conversion into stable memory. This disadvantage is particularly acute when responding to short cold periods, but is absent when cold temperatures are registered digitally at FLC. We tested this prediction experimentally, exposing plants to short periods of cold interrupted with even shorter warm breaks. For FLC expression, we found that the system responds similarly to both interrupted and uninterrupted cold, arguing for a digital mechanism integrating long-term temperature exposure.

  10. Measurement of the lateral diffusion of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine adsorbed on silica beads in the absence and presence of melittin: a 31P two-dimensional exchange solid-state NMR study.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, F; Paquet, M J; Dufourc, E J; Auger, M

    1998-01-01

    31P two-dimensional exchange solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the lateral diffusion, D(L), in the fluid phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence and absence of melittin. The use of a spherical solid support with a radius of 320 +/- 20 nm, on which lipids and peptides are adsorbed together, and a novel way of analyzing the two-dimensional exchange patterns afforded a narrow distribution of D(L) centered at a value of (8.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(-8) cm2/s for the pure lipid system and a large distribution of D(L) spanning 1 x 10(-8) to 10 x 10(-8) cm2/s for the lipids in the presence of melittin. In addition, the determination of D(L) for nonsupported DPPC multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) suggests that the support does not slow down the lipid diffusion and that the radii of the bilayers vary from 300 to 800 nm. Finally, the DPPC-melittin complex is stabilized at the surface of the silica beads in the gel phase, opening the way to further study of the interaction between melittin and DPPC. PMID:9533697

  11. Academic Performance in the Context of a "Three Excused Absences" Psychiatry Clerkship Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schillerstrom, Jason E.; Lutz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to better manage medical student absences during the psychiatry clerkship, a policy allowing students to miss up to 3 days without penalty was developed. The purpose of this study was to describe absence patterns and compare academic performance between students with and without absences. Method: Authors reviewed the academic…

  12. 47 CFR 32.24 - Compensated absences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall record a liability and charge the appropriate expense accounts for compensated absences (vacations... corresponding entry to Account 1438, Deferred maintenance, retirements and other deferred charges. This deferred... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF...

  13. Hepatic hydrothorax in the absence of ascites

    PubMed Central

    Sukcharoen, Kittiya; Dixon, Steven; Mangat, Kamarjit; Stanton, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A previously well 66-year-old woman presented with a recurrent transudative right-sided pleural effusion. A nodular liver with coarse echotexture was demonstrated on ultrasound and subsequent MRI found hepatocellular carcinoma. In the absence of cardiopulmonary disease and significant protein uria, the recurrent pleural effusion was presumed to be hepatic hydrothorax despite the absence of ascites or other clinical features of chronic liver disease. The patient is currently awaiting liver transplantation. PMID:24027255

  14. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy.

    PubMed

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1988-05-28

    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  15. Comparisons of the educational preparation of registered and enrolled nurses in Australia: the educators' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Elisabeth R; McKenna, Lisa; D'Amore, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Similar to the U.S.A., New Zealand and Singapore, Australia registers two levels of nurse, the degree or postgraduate entry prepared registered nurse and diploma or certificate-prepared enrolled nurse. Over the past decade, significant changes have occurred in educational preparation of enrolled nurses. This has resulted in enrolled nurses undertaking many roles and responsibilities previously undertaken only by registered nurses. An exploratory qualitative research study using interviews with educators of both registered and enrolled nurses was undertaken to investigate differences in educational preparation of registered and enrolled nurses in Australia. This paper describes perceptions around how participants viewed educational approaches and different cohorts, types and levels of students. Similarities included topics covered and the majority skills taught, although high acuity skills remain a difference between the levels of nurse. Differences were also found in type of student, educational background and teaching methods.

  16. Father Absence, Menarche and Interest in Infants among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…

  17. 77 FR 11345 - Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered Investment Companies Required To Register...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Cong., 2d Sess. (1974), p. 20. \\7\\ 17 CFR 4.5. See 68 FR 47231 (Aug. 8, 2003). B. Reinstatement of... parties.\\10\\ \\8\\ 76 FR 7976 (Feb. 12, 2011). \\9\\ See Notice of CFTC Staff Roundtable Discussion on... disclosure and other requirements applicable to registered CPOs. \\11\\ 76 FR 28641 (May 18, 2011)....

  18. The Registered Nurse Population, March 2000. Findings from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratley, Ernell; Johnson, Ayah; Sochalski, Julie; Fritz, Marshall; Spencer, William

    The characteristics, education, employment patterns, salaries, job satisfaction, and other characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) across the United States were examined in a national survey. Of the initial sample of approximately 54,000 of the nation's more than 3,066,000 licensed RNs, 35,579 RNs (72%) submitted usable responses. From 1980 to…

  19. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  20. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  1. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  2. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  3. 16 CFR 301.26 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.26 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on fur...

  4. 21 CFR 1309.21 - Persons required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or import a List I chemical or a drug product containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... distribute any chemical for which not registered. Drug products containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine... issued; may not distribute any chemical for which not registered. Drug Products containing...

  5. 21 CFR 1309.21 - Persons required to register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or import a List I chemical or a drug product containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or... distribute any chemical for which not registered. Drug products containing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine... issued; may not distribute any chemical for which not registered. Drug Products containing...

  6. Universal Verification Methodology Based Register Test Automation Flow.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hun; Cho, Yong Kwan; Park, Sun Kyu

    2016-05-01

    In today's SoC design, the number of registers has been increased along with complexity of hardware blocks. Register validation is a time-consuming and error-pron task. Therefore, we need an efficient way to perform verification with less effort in shorter time. In this work, we suggest register test automation flow based UVM (Universal Verification Methodology). UVM provides a standard methodology, called a register model, to facilitate stimulus generation and functional checking of registers. However, it is not easy for designers to create register models for their functional blocks or integrate models in test-bench environment because it requires knowledge of SystemVerilog and UVM libraries. For the creation of register models, many commercial tools support a register model generation from register specification described in IP-XACT, but it is time-consuming to describe register specification in IP-XACT format. For easy creation of register model, we propose spreadsheet-based register template which is translated to IP-XACT description, from which register models can be easily generated using commercial tools. On the other hand, we also automate all the steps involved integrating test-bench and generating test-cases, so that designers may use register model without detailed knowledge of UVM or SystemVerilog. This automation flow involves generating and connecting test-bench components (e.g., driver, checker, bus adaptor, etc.) and writing test sequence for each type of register test-case. With the proposed flow, designers can save considerable amount of time to verify functionality of registers. PMID:27483924

  7. Dilution method study on the interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural parameters of W/O microemulsions stabilized by 1-pentanol and surfactants in absence and presence of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bidyut K; Nandy, Debdurlav

    2007-12-15

    The phase behaviors, interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural characteristics of water-in-oil microemulsions under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant (omega) at 303 K and also by varying temperatures at a fixed omega(=40) by mixing with 1-pentanol and decane or dodecane in absence and presence of sodium chloride have been studied by the method of dilution. The surfactants used were cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35). The compositions of 1-pentanol and the surfactant at the interfacial region, the distribution of 1-pentanol between the interfacial region and the continuous oil phase, and the effective packing parameter (P(eff)) at the threshold level of stability have been estimated. The thermodynamics of transfer of 1-pentanol from the continuous oil phase to the interface have been evaluated. The structural parameters viz. radii of the droplet (R(e)) and the waterpool (R(w)), effective thickness of the interfacial layer (d(I)), average aggregation numbers of surfactants (N (s)) and the cosurfactant (1-pentanol) (N (a)) and the number of droplets (N(d)) have also been estimated. The prospect of using these w/o microemulsions for the synthesis of nanoparticles with small size, have been discussed in the light of the radii of the droplet, and waterpool, the extent of variation of effective thickness of the droplet under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant and temperature. An attempt has been made to rationalize the results in a comprehensive manner.

  8. On-off intermittency in time series of spontaneous paroxysmal activity in rats with genetic absence epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hramov, Alexander; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Midzyanovskaya, I.S.; Sitnikova, E.; Rijn, C.M. van

    2006-12-15

    In the present paper we consider the on-off intermittency phenomena observed in time series of spontaneous paroxysmal activity in rats with genetic absence epilepsy. The method to register and analyze the electroencephalogram with the help of continuous wavelet transform is also suggested.

  9. Educational differences in sickness absence trends among young employees from 2002 to 2013 in Helsinki, Finland

    PubMed Central

    Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic differences in sickness absence (SA) are well established among older employees but poorly understood among the young. Our aim was to examine 12-year trends in educational differences in SA among young female and male employees, and to assess the magnitude of the differences. Design We examined annual SA spells. The data were obtained from the employer's registers and linked to Statistics Finland's register data on completed education and qualifications. Education was classified into four hierarchical groups. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify turning points in SA trends. The magnitude of the relative educational differences was estimated in accordance with the relative index of inequality for 2002, 2008 and 2013. Setting Employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, in 2002–2013. Participants The analyses covered female and male employees aged 25–34 years: employees aged 35–54 years were used as a reference group. Outcome SA spells. Results An educational gradient emerged among younger and older women and men. SA spells increased in the early 2000s, and downward turning points were located in 2007–2010 in all educational groups among women and in most groups among men. The magnitude of the differences remained broadly stable among younger women from 2002 to 2013, and decreased slightly among older women and more strongly among younger and older men. The educational differences were greater among men than women in the early 2000s, but similar among both at the end of the study period. Conclusions The changes in SA spells may reflect the economic downturn started in 2008 and resulting job insecurity. Early preventive measures aimed at reducing educational differences in SA should be focused at an early stage on those with low levels of education in particular. PMID:27154473

  10. Utilization of evidence-based practice by registered occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Karen Ann V; Ballantyne, Scott; Kulbitsky, Autumnrose; Margolis-Gal, Michelle; Daugherty, Timothy; Ludwig, Ferol

    2005-01-01

    Although the use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is presently on the rise, there have been limited studies examining its use by occupational therapists within the US. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of EBP among registered occupational therapists in the occupational therapy intervention planning process. This descriptive study surveyed 500 members of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA), of which 131 participants responded (26%). The results of the study supported the hypothesis that, within the sample studied, a minority of registered occupational therapists in the US utilize EBP in the intervention planning process. Other results included: (1) As level of academic education increased, the view of the importance of research to occupational therapy decreased. (2) As the years of practice increased, the use of research evidence in making clinical decisions decreased. As the occupational therapy profession moves towards utilization of EBP as a professional standard, it is imperative that the profession examines specific strategies to promote the adoption of such practice by its members, including the promotion of competency in evidence utilization, and the valuing of the established clinical reasoning skills of the practitioner while integrating research evidence into intervention planning to support professional practice. PMID:16398202

  11. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  12. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  13. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  14. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  15. 10 CFR 76.37 - Federal Register notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Register notice. 76.37 Section 76.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Application § 76.37 Federal Register notice. The Director may, at his or her discretion, publish in the Federal Register:...

  16. 32 CFR 1615.5 - Persons not to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1615.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.5 Persons not to be registered. No person who is not required by selective service law or the Proclamation of the President to register shall be registered....

  17. 32 CFR 1615.5 - Persons not to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1615.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.5 Persons not to be registered. No person who is not required by selective service law or the Proclamation of the President to register shall be registered....

  18. 32 CFR 1615.5 - Persons not to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1615.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.5 Persons not to be registered. No person who is not required by selective service law or the Proclamation of the President to register shall be registered....

  19. 32 CFR 1615.5 - Persons not to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1615.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.5 Persons not to be registered. No person who is not required by selective service law or the Proclamation of the President to register shall be registered....

  20. 32 CFR 1615.5 - Persons not to be registered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1615.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF REGISTRATION § 1615.5 Persons not to be registered. No person who is not required by selective service law or the Proclamation of the President to register shall be registered....

  1. 16 CFR 300.4 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specific Act for which it is used. (e) The form to apply for a registered identification number or to... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registered identification numbers. 300.4... identification numbers. (a) A registered identification number assigned by the Federal Trade Commission under...

  2. 76 FR 45666 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-18661 appearing on page 44776 in the Federal Register issue of... incorrect text published in the Federal Register of July 27, 2011, regarding Provisions Common to Registered... Sec. 40.6(a), the text ``other than a rule delisting or withdrawing the certification of a...

  3. 31 CFR 306.20 - Reissue of registered transferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reissue of registered transferable... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Transfers, Exchanges and Reissues § 306.20 Reissue of registered transferable securities. Assignments are not required for reissue of registered transferable securities in the name(s)...

  4. 31 CFR 306.20 - Reissue of registered transferable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reissue of registered transferable... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Transfers, Exchanges and Reissues § 306.20 Reissue of registered transferable securities. Assignments are not required for reissue of registered transferable securities in the name(s)...

  5. 16 CFR 303.20 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registered identification numbers. 303.20 Section 303.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.20 Registered identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers...

  6. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Cash Register Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course is on the fundamentals of operating a cash register. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Face of Cash Register, (2) Operating a Checkout Station, (3) Checker-Cashier Qualities, and (4) NCR 250 Electronic Cash Register. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  7. The Benefits and Challenges of Registered Apprenticeship: The Sponsors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert; Eyster, Lauren; Chambers, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) of the U.S. Department of Labor oversees the registered apprenticeship system by issuing standards, monitoring state agencies, and promoting registered apprenticeship. Registered apprenticeship program "sponsors" are individual employers or groups of employers (sometimes in collaboration with…

  8. 17 CFR 5.22 - Registered futures association membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Registered futures association...-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS § 5.22 Registered futures association membership. (a) Each person... association that is registered under section 17 of the Act and that provides for the membership therein...

  9. 16 CFR 303.20 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Registered identification numbers. 303.20... identification numbers. (a) Registered numbers for use as the required identification in lieu of the name on... the form set out in paragraph (d) of this section. (b)(1) Registered identification numbers shall...

  10. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (>7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. Methods: The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. Results: When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Conclusions: Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level. PMID:24176393

  11. Newly licensed registered nurse job turnover and turnover intent.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Lynn Y; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Through survey data, this study examines job leaving behaviors of newly licensed registered nurses and identifies educational and managerial issues that need to be addressed to retain them. Within 1.5-2.5 years of graduating, one third of all respondents had left their first job, most for work-related reasons. Predictors of job leaving or intentions to leave included not having had a good orientation, information issues, having difficulties doing a good job, not being rewarded fairly, and low job satisfaction. PMID:25237913

  12. Understanding new registered nurses' intent to stay at their jobs.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Greene, William; Fairchild, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Nursing turnover is costly for health care organizations. Newly licensed registered nurses work behavior is a complex process, influenced by their attitudes toward their work, personal characteristics, job opportunities, and workplace attributes. Several characteristics are significant in predicting satisfaction (ethnicity, gender) and organizational commitment (patient load, mandatory overtime, shift, and unit type) and intent to stay (income, age) over and above work attitudes. Among the most important implications are how the findings can inform management and policy. Findings from this study provide information that may be useful for those organizations that want to decrease their turnover rates. PMID:19492772

  13. Organisation turnover among registered nurses: an exploratory model.

    PubMed

    Bloom, J R; Alexander, J A; Flatt, S

    1988-11-01

    In light of current concerns over nursing shortages and productivity, turnover among hospital nurses has assumed renewed importance as a managerial issue. This study examines the thesis that organisation of hospital work is a determinant of voluntary turnover among registered nurses. This perspective differs from previous work in this area in that both turnover and its determinants are conceptualised at the organisational rather than individual level, thus opening the way for administrative intervention to reduce turnover. The conceptual model is tested using multiple regression techniques on a sample of 310 community hospitals. Results suggest the importance of administrative work structures and the professionalisation of the workforce as contributors to higher turnover.

  14. Congenital Absence of the Internal Carotid Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Florio, Francesco; Balzano, Silverio; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Mario; Bozzini, Vincenzo; Catapano, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    1999-01-15

    We report three cases of congenital absence of an internal carotid artery (ICA), diagnosed incidentally by digital subtraction angiography. The analysis of the cases is based on the classification of segmental ICA agenesis proposed by Lasjaunias and Berenstein. Usually the patients with this rare vascular anomaly are asymptomatic; some may have symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, compression by enlarged intracranial collateral vessels, or complications associated with cerebral aneurysms. Diagnosis of congenital absence of ICA is made by skull base computed tomography (CT) scan, CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional or digital subtraction angiography.

  15. Epilepsy: old drugs do the trick in childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Striano, Pasquale; Minetti, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    A randomized, double-blind clinical trial that compared three widely used anticonvulsants for childhood absence epilepsy established that ethosuximide was the most appropriate first-line therapy for this condition. The study provides guidance for the treatment of this common childhood epilepsy where evidence-based recommendations have previously been lacking.

  16. Effects of School Absences on GPAs for Disabled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christani, Elizabeth; Revetti, Laura; Young, Ashleigh; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic absences, suspensions, and expulsions can all be detrimental to students' GPAs. Students with disabilities have a disadvantage with learning and require additional services making it crucial that they are present in school. There are various reasons why students miss school and the study examined a few specific research questions. The…

  17. Novel registration technique to register neutral zone

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor; Singh, Saumyendra Vikram; Vero, Nugotsov; Alvi, Habib Ahmed; Chand, Pooran; Singh, Kamleshwar; Goel, Prachi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The three dimensional volume of complete dentures optimally occupies an edentulous space that is substantial, in the light of the progressive changes that accompany edentulism and functional dynamics. The paper discusses current knowledge of neutral zone registration and presents a novel technique for this registration. Material and methods Fabricate maxillary and mandibular occlusal rims over conventional record bases using high fusing impression compound. Register the maxillary and mandibular neutral zone separately by swallowing method and after try in of complete denture; remove the wax apical to the tooth surfaces and recording will be completed with putty and light body impression material. Results Complete dentures are a biomechanical device that must be designed in harmony with normal neuromuscular function to get stability and proper function. Improper teeth positioning and polished surface contour will result in compromised stability of denture. Conclusions This article describes a preview of facio-lingual positioning of denture teeth along with a novel approach of recording the neutral zone with an elastomeric impression material. PMID:25737865

  18. Encounters in Home-Based Nursing Care - Registered Nurses’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Wälivaara, Britt-Marie; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Axelsson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The encounter between registered nurses and persons in need of healthcare has been described as fundamental in nursing care. This encounter can take place face-to-face in physical meetings and through meetings via distance-spanning technology. A strong view expressed in the literature is that the face-to-face encounter is important and cannot entirely be replaced by remote encounters. The encounter has been studied in various healthcare contexts but there is a lack of studies with specific focus on the encounter in home-based nursing care. The aim of this study was to explore the encounter in home-based nursing care based on registered nurses’ experiences. Individual interviews were performed with 24 nurses working in home-based nursing care. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and six themes were identified: Follows special rules, Needs some doing, Provides unique information and understanding, Facilitates by being known, Brings energy and relieves anxiety, and Can reach a spirit of community. The encounter includes dimensions of being private, being personal and being professional. A good encounter contains dimensions of being personal and being professional and that there is a good balance between these. This is an encounter between two human beings, where the nurse faces the person with herself and the profession steadily and securely in the back. Being personal and professional at the same time could encourage nurses to focus on doing and being during the encounter in home-based nursing care. PMID:23847697

  19. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  20. First report from the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register (SNFPR).

    PubMed

    Degl' Innocenti, Alessio; Hassing, Linda B; Lindqvist, Ann-Sophie; Andersson, Hans; Eriksson, Lars; Hanson, Frances Hagelbäck; Möller, Nina; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the present register is the only nationwide forensic psychiatric patient register in the world. The aim of this article is to describe the content of the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register (SNFPR) for Swedish forensic patients for the year 2010. The subjects are individuals who, in connection with prosecution due to criminal acts, have been sentenced to compulsory forensic psychiatric treatment in Sweden. The results show that in 2010, 1476 Swedish forensic patients were assessed in the SNFPR; 1251 (85%) were males and 225 (15%) were females. Almost 60% of the patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, with a significantly higher frequency among males than females. As many as 70% of the patients had a previous history of outpatient psychiatric treatment before becoming a forensic psychiatric patient, with a mean age at first contact with psychiatric care of about 20 years old for both sexes. More than 63% of the patients had a history of addiction, with a higher proportion of males than females. Furthermore, as many as 38% of all patients committed crimes while under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs. This was more often the case for men than for women. Both male and female patients were primarily sentenced for crimes related to life and death (e.g., murder, assault). However, there were more females than males in treatment for general dangerous crimes (e.g., arson), whereas men were more often prosecuted for crimes related to sex. In 2010, as many as 70% of all forensic patients in Sweden had a prior sentence for a criminal act, and males were prosecuted significantly more often than females. The most commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals for both genders were antipsychotics, although more women than men were prescribed other pharmaceuticals, such as antidepressants, antiepileptics, and anxiolytics. The result from the present study might give clinicians an opportunity to reflect upon and challenge their

  1. Absence of neutral alkali atoms in rhodizite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnay, G.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Sioda, R.

    1966-01-01

    The formula CsB12Be4Al4O28 has been proposed by others for the mineral rhodizite. Electron-spin-resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements prove the absence of neutral cesium atoms. An ionic formula CsB11Be4Al4O 26(OH)2is proposed.

  2. The absence of the paternal penis.

    PubMed

    Elise, D

    1998-01-01

    Girls' experiences of object loss, in conjunction with female anatomical structure, may lend themselves to a particular genital anxiety regarding openness and emptiness. The relational void in giving up the mother as love object may lead to an internal self-representation of a "hole" to be filled, much as the mouth sucks the pacifier in the absence of the nipple. This image may then be extended to the genital representation. In turning to the father, a girl may find that she lacks a relationship with him in the relational space opened up by the loss of the mother; the penis is symbolically withheld from her in the father's relational distance. This lack of sexual and relational gratification, it is proposed, may be schematized by a female as her body being empty of something. The father's absence--the absence of the paternal penis--may lead to an absence of the mental representation of the vagina and to an inhibition of the role the vagina then plays for a woman in sexual desire. Vaginal repression may serve to disguise object hunger that might otherwise be experienced as vaginal longing. An abbreviated clinical vignette, revolving around a masturbatory fantasy, is offered in partial illustration of the thesis.

  3. Absence of the appendix discovered during childhood.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Michelle V; Doyle, Alex; Bernstein, Sean; Jackman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the appendix is rare. Isolated cases are usually discovered in adult patients or cadavers. We report the case of a 14 year old boy who was found to have no appendix on laparotomy for assumed acute appendicitis and use this opportunity to highlight the growing surgical uses of this vestigial structure.

  4. Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility Index (RPAD Index). A field study of an echocardiographic method to detect early development of pulmonary hypertension and its severity even in the absence of regurgitant jets for Doppler evaluation in heartworm-infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Venco, Luigi; Mihaylova, Liliya; Boon, June A

    2014-11-15

    Despite the term "heartworm disease" Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs should be considered a pulmonary arterial disease that might only involve the right heart structures in its late stage. Chronic infection by adult heartworms in dogs results in proliferative endoarteritis leading to progressively increasing pulmonary artery pressure due to reduced elasticity. Elasticity allows the pulmonary arteries to stretch in response to each pulse and helps maintain a relatively constant pressure in the arteries despite the pulsating nature of the blood flow. Pulmonary artery distensibility for both acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension has been investigated in humans using MRI and has been correlated with the severity of hypertension and its outcome and treatment response. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether echocardiographic measurement of the percentage change in diameter of the right pulmonary artery in systole and diastole (distensibility) may be of value in assessing the presence and severity of pulmonary hypertension in heartworm-infected dogs. The Right Pulmonary Artery Distensibility Index (RPAD Index) (which is calculated as the difference in diameter of the right pulmonary artery in systole and diastole) was calculated in healthy and naturally infected heartworm-positive dogs. The right pulmonary artery was chosen because it is usually affected earlier and to a greater degree. Data were obtained from healthy heartworm-free dogs without any clinical, radiographic, or echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension; naturally infected heartworm-positive dogs in different stages of the disease in which pulmonary pressure could be measured by Doppler echocardiography (using tricuspid and or pulmonary regurgitation velocity and pressure gradient); and naturally infected heartworm-positive dogs in different stages of the disease (with or without tricuspid and or pulmonary regurgitation) in which the pulmonary pressure was measured

  5. Transitioning from military medics to registered nurses

    PubMed Central

    Keita, Mohamed D; Diaz, Valerie J; Miller, Audrey P; Olenick, Maria; Simon, Sharon R

    2015-01-01

    The nursing shortage in the USA is expected to reach 260,000 registered nurses (RNs) by 2025. The most profound shortages are expected in California and Florida, translating into 109,779 and 128,364 RN jobs, respectively. Despite a foreseen growth in nursing career opportunities nationwide, the supply of nurses will be insufficient to meet the corresponding demand. Capitalizing on prior education, experience, and skills of military clinical personnel to fill these jobs could significantly reduce the projected nursing shortage. Florida International University’s Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences is circumventing barriers to recruit, retain, and graduate transitioning veteran medics and corpsmen as Bachelor of Science in Nursing prepared RNs who reintegrate into the civilian workforce. The Veteran Bachelor of Science in Nursing (VBSN) program is in the form of a cooperative agreement between Florida International University and the US Health Resources and Services Administration. The VBSN program’s main objective is to build upon the unique leadership skills, clinical education, and training of military medics and corpsmen to ensure successful completion of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing curriculum. VBSN students, as veterans themselves, have unique knowledge and exposure to the specific health issues and needs of the veteran population overall. They are poised and best prepared to effectively care for the US population, particularly the current 22 million US veterans and 1.6 million Florida veterans. Additionally, the VBSN program will alleviate the challenges, such as the lack of recognition of military skills, unemployment, the substandard income, and homelessness that many former service members face after separation from the military. PMID:26648733

  6. Transitioning from military medics to registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Keita, Mohamed D; Diaz, Valerie J; Miller, Audrey P; Olenick, Maria; Simon, Sharon R

    2015-01-01

    The nursing shortage in the USA is expected to reach 260,000 registered nurses (RNs) by 2025. The most profound shortages are expected in California and Florida, translating into 109,779 and 128,364 RN jobs, respectively. Despite a foreseen growth in nursing career opportunities nationwide, the supply of nurses will be insufficient to meet the corresponding demand. Capitalizing on prior education, experience, and skills of military clinical personnel to fill these jobs could significantly reduce the projected nursing shortage. Florida International University's Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing and Health Sciences is circumventing barriers to recruit, retain, and graduate transitioning veteran medics and corpsmen as Bachelor of Science in Nursing prepared RNs who reintegrate into the civilian workforce. The Veteran Bachelor of Science in Nursing (VBSN) program is in the form of a cooperative agreement between Florida International University and the US Health Resources and Services Administration. The VBSN program's main objective is to build upon the unique leadership skills, clinical education, and training of military medics and corpsmen to ensure successful completion of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing curriculum. VBSN students, as veterans themselves, have unique knowledge and exposure to the specific health issues and needs of the veteran population overall. They are poised and best prepared to effectively care for the US population, particularly the current 22 million US veterans and 1.6 million Florida veterans. Additionally, the VBSN program will alleviate the challenges, such as the lack of recognition of military skills, unemployment, the substandard income, and homelessness that many former service members face after separation from the military. PMID:26648733

  7. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the...

  8. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  9. The UK register of HIV seroconverters: methods and analytical issues. UK register of HIV seroconverters (UKRHS) Steering Committee.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    A Register of HIV-infected persons who have had a negative antibody test within 3 years of their first antibody positive test (seroconverters) is being set up in the UK to monitor the distribution of times from HIV seroconversion to AIDS (the incubation period) and to death. It will also provide a national resource for use by those designing studies in this group of individuals. Clinicians caring for HIV-positive persons in Genito-Urinary Medicine, Infectious Disease and other departments throughout the UK were asked to participate by providing information on eligible subjects. Most laboratories undertaking HIV antibody testing were also contacted and asked to provide the name of the attending clinician for all seroconverters identified through the HIV laboratory reporting systems of the PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC) and the Scottish Centre for Infection and Environmental Health (SCIEH) and for any other seroconverters known to them but not identified by CDSC or SCIEH. Data items sought for the Register include: sex, ethnic group, probable route of HIV transmission, annual CD4 counts, details of therapy and prophylaxis prescribed, AIDS-defining events and vital status. Follow up information is collected annually. Wherever possible, all seroconverters known to a clinic have been identified, whether currently alive or dead, either from clinic records or laboratory reporting or both. The objective is to establish and update a complete register of seroconverters on a long-term to basis to provide reliable estimates of the incubation period on which future projections of AIDS cases in the UK can be made. PMID:8870628

  10. Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2001-09-01

    Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large--on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue.

  11. Selective data segment monitoring system. [using shift registers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, M. N. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High speed data monitoring apparatus is described for displaying the bit pattern of a selected portion of a block of transmitted data comprising a shift register for receiving the transmitted data and for temporarily containing the consecutive data bits. A programmable sync detector for monitoring the contents of the shift register and for generating a sync signal when the shift register contains a predetermined sync code is included. A counter is described for counting the data bits input to the shift register after the sync signal is generated and for generating a count complete signal when a selected number of data bits have been input to the register. A data storage device is used for storing the contents of the shift register at the time the count complete signal is generated.

  12. [Sickness absence certification from the medical perspective].

    PubMed

    Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Mar-Obeso, Alvaro Julián; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Méndez-Bueno, Francisco Javier; Aguilar-Sánchez, Leticia; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Sickness absence certification is a medical task with important clinical, social, occupational and ethical implications, in addition to economic consequences for the worker, the employers and social security institutions. In 2007, IMSS affiliated workers received certifications for 65,384,690 days of absence, with cash benefits for 8.1 billion pesos. The duration of return to work depends on the efficiency of health care team as well as factors associated to the worker and the occupational environment. The correct management of sickness absence certification requires adequate disease diagnosis, regulatory knowledge and adequate communication with the patient. The purpose of control and auditing is to make sure that the certification is adequate in the indication and the optimal length, in order to warrant a responsible and sustainable management of this resource of social protection. If expenditure reduction is not possible, the objective is to avoid inefficient or irrational management. Treating physicians, with proper information, can contribute to optimize the provision of this benefit to those who need it.

  13. Brief report: "the autism epidemic". The registered prevalence of autism in a Swedish urban area.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, Christopher; Cederlund, Mats; Lamberg, Kerstin; Zeijlon, Lena

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a circumscribed geographical region. The total population born in 1977-1994, living in Göteborg Sweden in 2001, was screened for ASD in registers of the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic. The minimum registered rate of autistic disorder was 20.5 in 10,000. Other ASDs were 32.9 in 10,000, including 9.2 in 10,000 with Asperger syndrome. Males predominated. In the youngest group (7-12 years), 1.23% had a registered diagnosis of ASD. There was an increase in the rate of diagnosed registered ASD over time; the cause was not determined. The increase tended to level off in the younger age cohort, perhaps due to Asperger syndrome cases missed in screening.

  14. Australian immunisation registers: established foundations and opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Chin, L K; Crawford, N W; Rowles, G; Buttery, J P

    2012-01-01

    The National Immunisation Program Schedule in Australia is formulated and funded nationally under the population-wide Medicare system. The policy is implemented by the eight state and territory jurisdictions. The national immunisation registers consist of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), and, more recently, the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. Moreover, a variety of jurisdiction-based registers and primary care practice software systems exist, which interact with the national registers. General practitioners can obtain reports listing patients under seven years attending their practice and recorded as 'not fully immunised', and immunisation coverage rates for their practice linked to government incentives through Medicare. A 2011 report documents national coverage of 91.8% fully immunised at 12 months, and 92.6% at 24 months. The HPV register provides information on vaccination coverage with the potential to link with a register of cervical cancer screening results. Limitations of current national register include inability to easily access immunisation histories beyond seven years of age, and issues of underreporting and timeliness, which impact significantly the immunisation coverage estimates. The linkage of these registers with healthcare outcome data will further enhance public health outcomes by enabling rapid, population-level vaccine safety and effectiveness investigations in a nation with a track record as an 'early adopter' of new childhood vaccines. PMID:22551464

  15. Australian immunisation registers: established foundations and opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Chin, L K; Crawford, N W; Rowles, G; Buttery, J P

    2012-04-19

    The National Immunisation Program Schedule in Australia is formulated and funded nationally under the population-wide Medicare system. The policy is implemented by the eight state and territory jurisdictions. The national immunisation registers consist of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR), and, more recently, the National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register. Moreover, a variety of jurisdiction-based registers and primary care practice software systems exist, which interact with the national registers. General practitioners can obtain reports listing patients under seven years attending their practice and recorded as 'not fully immunised', and immunisation coverage rates for their practice linked to government incentives through Medicare. A 2011 report documents national coverage of 91.8% fully immunised at 12 months, and 92.6% at 24 months. The HPV register provides information on vaccination coverage with the potential to link with a register of cervical cancer screening results. Limitations of current national register include inability to easily access immunisation histories beyond seven years of age, and issues of underreporting and timeliness, which impact significantly the immunisation coverage estimates. The linkage of these registers with healthcare outcome data will further enhance public health outcomes by enabling rapid, population-level vaccine safety and effectiveness investigations in a nation with a track record as an 'early adopter' of new childhood vaccines.

  16. An improved approach of register allocation via graph coloring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Shi, Ce

    2005-03-01

    Register allocation is an important part of optimizing compiler. The algorithm of register allocation via graph coloring is implemented by Chaitin and his colleagues firstly and improved by Briggs and others. By abstracting register allocation to graph coloring, the allocation process is simplified. As the physical register number is limited, coloring of the interference graph can"t succeed for every node. The uncolored nodes must be spilled. There is an assumption that almost all the allocation method obeys: when a register is allocated to a variable v, it can"t be used by others before v quit even if v is not used for a long time. This may causes a waste of register resource. The authors relax this restriction under certain conditions and make some improvement. In this method, one register can be mapped to two or more interfered "living" live ranges at the same time if they satisfy some requirements. An operation named merge is defined which can arrange two interfered nodes occupy the same register with some cost. Thus, the resource of register can be used more effectively and the cost of memory access can be reduced greatly.

  17. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. Method We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n = 801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. Results After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10–2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. Conclusions This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. PMID:26740344

  18. The Tasmanian Insulin-treated Diabetes Register. Inception and progress in the first 12 months.

    PubMed

    King, H; Senator, G; Zimmet, P; Harris, A

    1986-04-14

    A Statewide register of insulin-treated diabetic patients has been established in Tasmania. The register is the first of its kind in Australasia. Insulin treatment was chosen as the criterion for admission to the register because it was a suitably "hard" end-point, and because the completeness of the register could be validated easily by insulin prescription statistics. Both subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (who happened to be treated with insulin as of the prevalence date, May l, 1984) are eligible for registration in the prevalent population. Furthermore, no age restrictions have been placed upon entry. It is to be hoped that this all-inclusive policy will assist in the development of an epidemiological definition of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Access to cases has been by hospital records, general practitioners, lay bodies and general publicity. Of over 600 diabetic subjects who were contacted during the first 12 months of the study (approximately one-half of the estimated prevalent population), only three declined to join the register. Once fully established and validated, the register will be used to test aetiological hypotheses in addition to providing descriptive cross-sectional information about diabetes in Tasmania. It is intended that a longitudinal study of insulin-treated diabetes will follow once the cross-sectional information is complete. PMID:3959970

  19. Gender-based wage differentials among registered dietitians.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Prudence; Taylor, Maxine; Daher, Noha

    2007-01-01

    The debate on compensation equity is broad-based, addressing many organizational, personal, and outcome factors. Central to compensation philosophy is the issue of gender equity. Health care, like many other industries, remains fraught with gender inequity in compensation. This inequity is partially explained by choice of practice area. However, much remains unexplained. Health care is a female-dominated industry with most of the women working in the allied health professions (eg, nurses, dietitians, etc). Registered dietitians (RD) may experience wage discrimination, similar to registered nurses, but prior to the present study, the assumption was not tested. Using data from the first comprehensive study of RD compensation, we examined gender equity in total cash compensation to RDs. Data were collected on total cash compensation, and questions focused on career progression and work outcomes. For purposes of our study, we analyzed data on 5,477 full-time RDs. Ninety-six percent were women, the median age was 43, and median total cash compensation for RDs employed in the position for at least 1 year was $45,500.00. Women earned $45,285.00 and men earned $50,250.00. A median wage gap of $4,965.00 between women and men was observed. Variability in total cash compensation to women was best explained by size of budget, years of experience, work setting, and educational level. Variability for men was explained by size of budget, years of experience, educational level, and employer status. Conclusions suggest that given the wage discrimination that female RDs experience, work organizations should evaluate their pay plans to monitor pay equity. Factors that women can manage to receive compensation that is equal to that of the men include size of budgets they manage, years of experience in the field, employer status, work setting, and educational level attained. Findings are useful for career advisers, human resource specialists, compensation specialists, supervisors, RDs

  20. Comparison of early socialization practices used for litters of small-scale registered dog breeders and nonregistered dog breeders.

    PubMed

    Korbelik, Juraj; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M

    2011-10-15

    OBJECTIVE-To compare early socialization practices between litters of breeders registered with the Canine Control Council (CCC) and litters of nonregistered breeders advertising puppies for sale in a local newspaper. DESIGN-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-80 litters of purebred and mixed-breed dogs from registered (n = 40) and non-registered (40) breeders. PROCEDURES-Registered breeders were randomly selected from the CCC website, and nonregistered breeders were randomly selected from a weekly advertising newspaper. The litter sold most recently by each breeder was then enrolled in the study. Information pertaining to socialization practices for each litter was obtained through a questionnaire administered over the telephone. RESULTS-Registered breeders generally had more breeding bitches and had more litters than did nonregistered breeders. Litters of registered breeders were more likely to have been socialized with adult dogs, people of different appearances, and various environmental stimuli, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. Litters from registered breeders were also much less likely to have been the result of an unplanned pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Among those breeders represented, litters of registered breeders received more socialization experience, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. People purchasing puppies from nonregistered breeders should focus on socializing their puppies between the time of purchase and 14 weeks of age. Additional research is required to determine whether puppies from nonregistered breeders are at increased risk of behavioral problems and are therefore more likely to be relinquished to animal shelters or euthanized, relative to puppies from registered breeders. PMID:21985351

  1. Comparison of early socialization practices used for litters of small-scale registered dog breeders and nonregistered dog breeders.

    PubMed

    Korbelik, Juraj; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M

    2011-10-15

    OBJECTIVE-To compare early socialization practices between litters of breeders registered with the Canine Control Council (CCC) and litters of nonregistered breeders advertising puppies for sale in a local newspaper. DESIGN-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-80 litters of purebred and mixed-breed dogs from registered (n = 40) and non-registered (40) breeders. PROCEDURES-Registered breeders were randomly selected from the CCC website, and nonregistered breeders were randomly selected from a weekly advertising newspaper. The litter sold most recently by each breeder was then enrolled in the study. Information pertaining to socialization practices for each litter was obtained through a questionnaire administered over the telephone. RESULTS-Registered breeders generally had more breeding bitches and had more litters than did nonregistered breeders. Litters of registered breeders were more likely to have been socialized with adult dogs, people of different appearances, and various environmental stimuli, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. Litters from registered breeders were also much less likely to have been the result of an unplanned pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Among those breeders represented, litters of registered breeders received more socialization experience, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. People purchasing puppies from nonregistered breeders should focus on socializing their puppies between the time of purchase and 14 weeks of age. Additional research is required to determine whether puppies from nonregistered breeders are at increased risk of behavioral problems and are therefore more likely to be relinquished to animal shelters or euthanized, relative to puppies from registered breeders.

  2. Ethical conflicts reported by certified registered rehabilitation nurses.

    PubMed

    Redman, B K; Fry, S T

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the types of ethical conflict reported by certified registered rehabilitation nurses (CRRNs) and their relationship to demographic, educational, and practice-setting variables. Ethical conflicts expressed by CRRNs in active practice in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia were analyzed according to four themes. Disagreements about medical or institutional practice, patients' rights, and payment issues were the most frequent practice contexts for ethical conflicts, reflecting these nurses' considerable underlying concerns about resource allocation in rehabilitation practice. Participants believed that 60% of the ethical conflicts were resolved, frequently through discussions with other team members and patients' family members. Ethics committees and consultants were used infrequently. There were no statistically significant relationships between the kinds of conflicts or their resolution and the participants' demographic, educational, and practice-setting variables. PMID:9832915

  3. Working postures and physical activity among registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard

    2016-05-01

    Nurses report a high prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort, particularly of the low back and neck/shoulder. This study characterized the full-shift upper arm and trunk postures and movement velocities of registered nurses using inertial measurement units (IMUs). Intensity of occupational physical activity (PA) was also ascertained using a waist-worn PA monitor and using the raw acceleration data from each IMU. Results indicated that nurses spent a relatively small proportion of their work time with the arms or trunk in extreme postures, but had few opportunities for rest and recovery in comparison to several other occupational groups. Comparisons between nurses in different PA groups suggested that using a combination of accelerometers secured to several body locations may provide more representative estimates of physical demands than a single, waist-worn PA monitor. The findings indicate a need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of maximally effective intervention strategies. PMID:26851483

  4. Making Decisions about Workforce Development in Registered Training Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Geof

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research activity is to understand further how large and small registered training organisations (RTOs) make decisions about the allocation of resources for developing their workforces. Six registered training organisations--four technical and further education (TAFE) institutes and two private providers--were selected for…

  5. 45 CFR 46.501 - What IRBs must be registered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What IRBs must be registered? 46.501 Section 46.501 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Registration of Institutional Review Boards § 46.501 What IRBs must be registered? Each IRB that is designated by an institution under...

  6. 16 CFR 300.4 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 300.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS... identification numbers. (a) A registered identification number assigned by the Federal Trade Commission under and... apply to the Federal Trade Commission for a registered identification number for use by the applicant...

  7. 16 CFR 300.4 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 300.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS... identification numbers. (a) A registered identification number assigned by the Federal Trade Commission under and... apply to the Federal Trade Commission for a registered identification number for use by the applicant...

  8. 16 CFR 300.4 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Registered identification numbers. 300.4 Section 300.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.4 Registered identification numbers. (a) A...

  9. 16 CFR 300.4 - Registered identification numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 300.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS... identification numbers. (a) A registered identification number assigned by the Federal Trade Commission under and... apply to the Federal Trade Commission for a registered identification number for use by the applicant...

  10. 5 CFR 315.301 - Tenure on appointment from register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Registers § 315.301... appointed from a register for other than temporary or term employment becomes a career-conditional employee... career employee when he is excepted from the service requirement for career tenure by § 315.201(c)....

  11. 5 CFR 315.301 - Tenure on appointment from register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Registers § 315.301... appointed from a register for other than temporary or term employment becomes a career-conditional employee... career employee when he is excepted from the service requirement for career tenure by § 315.201(c)....

  12. 5 CFR 315.301 - Tenure on appointment from register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Registers § 315.301... appointed from a register for other than temporary or term employment becomes a career-conditional employee... career employee when he is excepted from the service requirement for career tenure by § 315.201(c)....

  13. Social and Linguistic Cues Facilitate Children's Register Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Laura; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Van Horn, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Speakers must command different linguistic registers to index various social-discourse elements, including the identity of the addressee. Previous work found that English-learning children could link registers to appropriate addressees by 5 years. Two experiments found that better cues to the linguistic form or to the social meaning of register…

  14. Baccalaureate Education for Registered Nurses: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Coll., Providence. Dept. of Nursing.

    Rhode Island College's innovative program of baccalaureate education for registered nurses is described, and guidelines and materials used in the program are included. The federally funded project was designed to: identify the competencies the registered nurse (RN) applicant brings to the program and place the student accordingly; develop a…

  15. 78 FR 67985 - Membership in a Registered Futures Association

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 170 RIN 3038-AE09 Membership in a Registered Futures Association Correction In proposed rule document 13-26790 beginning on page 67078 in the issue of Friday, November 8, 2013, make...

  16. 78 FR 67078 - Membership in a Registered Futures Association

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...\\ Membership in Registered Futures Association, 72 FR 2614 (Jan. 22, 2007). \\9\\ NFA Bylaw 1101 is available at... a Registered Futures Association, 71 FR 64171 at n.7 (proposed Nov. 1, 2006). The Commission notes... Participants, 77 FR 2613 (Jan. 19, 2012). \\3\\ See 7 U.S.C. 21(e), which specifies that any person...

  17. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  18. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  19. 76 FR 44776 - Provisions Common to Registered Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... part 40 Provisions Common to Registered Entities, 75 FR 67282 (Nov. 2, 2010). The Commission's final... mandatory clearing; 75 FR 67277 (Nov. 2, 2010)). Paragraph (j)(2)(ii) refers to `` otional amounts, quantity... Registered Entities, 75 FR 57282 (Nov. 2, 2010). In this regard, the Commission continues to view its...

  20. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...