Science.gov

Sample records for absolute arrival times

  1. Combined Use of Absolute and Differential Seismic Arrival Time Data to Improve Absolute Event Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S.; Johannesson, G.

    2012-12-01

    Arrival time measurements based on waveform cross correlation are becoming more common as advanced signal processing methods are applied to seismic data archives and real-time data streams. Waveform correlation can precisely measure the time difference between the arrival of two phases, and differential time data can be used to constrain relative location of events. Absolute locations are needed for many applications, which generally requires the use of absolute time data. Current methods for measuring absolute time data are approximately two orders of magnitude less precise than differential time measurements. To exploit the strengths of both absolute and differential time data, we extend our multiple-event location method Bayesloc, which previously used absolute time data only, to include the use of differential time measurements that are based on waveform cross correlation. Fundamentally, Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability over all parameters comprising the multiple event location system. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method is used to sample from the joint probability distribution given arrival data sets. The differential time component of Bayesloc includes scaling a stochastic estimate of differential time measurement precision based the waveform correlation coefficient for each datum. For a regional-distance synthetic data set with absolute and differential time measurement error of 0.25 seconds and 0.01 second, respectively, epicenter location accuracy is improved from and average of 1.05 km when solely absolute time data are used to 0.28 km when absolute and differential time data are used jointly (73% improvement). The improvement in absolute location accuracy is the result of conditionally limiting absolute location probability regions based on the precise relative position with respect to neighboring events. Bayesloc estimates of data precision are found to be accurate for the synthetic test, with absolute and differential time measurement

  2. Quantum arrival time for open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.

    2010-07-15

    We extend previous work on the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, in the framework of decoherent histories, to the case of a particle coupled to an environment. The usual arrival time probabilities are related to the probability current, so we explore the properties of the current for general open systems that can be written in terms of a master equation of the Lindblad form. We specialize to the case of quantum Brownian motion, and show that after a time of order the localization time of the current becomes positive. We show that the arrival time probabilities can then be written in terms of a positive operator-valued measure (POVM), which we compute. We perform a decoherent histories analysis including the effects of the environment and show that time-of-arrival probabilities are decoherent for a generic state after a time much greater than the localization time, but that there is a fundamental limitation on the accuracy {delta}t, with which they can be specified which obeys E{delta}t>>({h_bar}/2{pi}). We confirm that the arrival time probabilities computed in this way agree with those computed via the current, provided there is decoherence. We thus find that the decoherent histories formulation of quantum mechanics provides a consistent explanation for the emergence of the probability current as the classical arrival time distribution, and a systematic rule for deciding when probabilities may be assigned.

  3. Time of arrival in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, N.; Rovelli, C.; Tate, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    We study the problem of computing the probability for the time of arrival of a quantum particle at a given spatial position. We consider a solution to this problem based on the spectral decomposition of the particle{close_quote}s (Heisenberg) state into the eigenstates of a suitable operator, which we denote as the {open_quote}{open_quote}time-of-arrival{close_quote}{close_quote} operator. We discuss the general properties of this operator. We construct the operator explicitly in the simple case of a free nonrelativistic particle and compare the probabilities it yields with the ones estimated indirectly in terms of the flux of the Schr{umlt o}dinger current. We derive a well-defined uncertainty relation between time of arrival and energy; this result shows that the well-known arguments against the existence of such a relation can be circumvented. Finally, we define a {open_quote}{open_quote}time representation{close_quote}{close_quote} of the quantum mechanics of a free particle, in which the time of arrival is diagonal. Our results suggest that, contrary to what is commonly assumed, quantum mechanics exhibits a hidden equivalence between independent (time) and dependent (position) variables, analogous to the one revealed by the parametrized formalism in classical mechanics. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. HELCATS Prediction of Planetary CME arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakes, Peter; Moestl, Christian; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard; Byrne, Jason; Barnes, David; Isavnin, Alexey; Kilpua, Emilia; Rollett, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    We present the first results of CME arrival time prediction at different planetary locations and their comparison to the in situ data within the HELCATS project. The EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis & Techniques Service) is a European effort to consolidate the exploitation of the maturing field of heliospheric imaging. HELCATS aims to catalogue solar wind transients, observed by the NASA STEREO Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments, and validate different methods for the determination of their kinematic properties. This validation includes comparison with arrivals at Earth, and elsewhere in the heliosphere, as well as onsets at the Sun (http://www.helcats-fp7.eu/). A preliminary catalogue of manually identified CMEs, with over 1000 separate events, has been created from observations made by the STEREO/HI instruments covering the years 2007-2013. Initial speeds and directions of each CME have been derived through fitting the time elongation profile to the state of the art Self-Similar Expansion Fitting (SSEF) geometric technique (Davies et al., 2012). The technique assumes that, in the plane corresponding to the position angle of interest, CMEs can be modelled as circles subtending a fixed angular width to Sun-center and propagating anti-sunward in a fixed direction at a constant speed (we use an angular width of 30 degrees in our initial results). The model has advantages over previous geometric models (e.g. harmonic mean or fixed phi) as it allows one to predict whether a CME will 'hit' a specific heliospheric location, as well as to what degree (e.g. direct assault or glancing blow). We use correction formulae (Möstl and Davies, 2013) to convert CME speeds, direction and launch time to speed and arrival time at any in situ location. From the preliminary CME dataset, we derive arrival times for over 400 Earth-directed CMEs, and for over 100 Mercury-, Venus-, Mars- and Saturn-directed CMEs predicted to impact each planet. We present statistics of

  5. Time arrival of slab avalanche masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClung, D. M.

    2003-10-01

    One of three criteria to demonstrate self-organized criticality (SOC) for a critical phenomenon is that time arrival of events displays a frequency dependence which is inversely proportional to frequency (f) to some power. That is, for SOC, the power spectrum in the frequency (f) domain is supposed to fall off as 1/fβ, where β is typically a number between 1 and 2. Avalanche phenomena have been used as prototypes for illustrating SOC, and therefore it is of interest as to whether snow avalanches follow the criterion. In this paper, time series analyses of mass arrivals from 20 years of records constituting ˜10,000 avalanches are presented for Bear Pass and Kootenay Pass, British Columbia. The results suggest that the autocorrelation functions and partial autocorrelation functions of the series fall off in an exponential manner so that the implied power spectra in the frequency domain, given by the Fourier transforms of the autocorrelation functions, decay with frequency in a manner which is not strictly consistent with SOC. In common with SOC, the power spectra are suggested to have most content in the low-frequency events and the spectra do not constitute white noise. However, given the limitations on the data sampling and recording, it cannot be definitively stated that the power spectra fall off with 1/f® as required for SOC.

  6. Confined quantum time of arrival for the vanishing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Galapon, Eric A.; Caballar, Roland F.; Bahague, Ricardo

    2005-12-15

    We give full account of our recent report in E. A. Galapon, R. Caballar, and R. Bahague, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180406 (2004), where it is shown that formulating the free quantum time of arrival problem in a segment of the real line suggests rephrasing the quantum time of arrival problem to finding a complete set of states that evolve to unitarily arrive at a given point at a definite time. For a spatially confined particle, here it is shown explicitly that the problem admits a solution in the form of an eigenvalue problem of a class of compact and self-adjoint time of arrival operators derived by a quantization of the classical time of arrival. The eigenfunctions of these operators are numerically demonstrated to unitarily arrive at the origin at their respective eigenvalues.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Runway Arrival Procedures: Time Based Arrival and Self-Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Vincent E.; Barmore, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a flight crew to deliver their aircraft to its arrival runway on time is important to the overall efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Over the past several years, the NAS has been stressed almost to its limits resulting in problems such as airport congestion, flight delay, and flight cancellation to reach levels that have never been seen before in the NAS. It is predicted that this situation will worsen by the year 2025, due to an anticipated increase in air traffic operations to one-and-a-half to three times its current level. Improved arrival efficiency, in terms of both capacity and environmental impact, is an important part of improving NAS operations. One way to improve the arrival performance of an aircraft is to enable the flight crew to precisely deliver their aircraft to a specified point at either a specified time or specified interval relative to another aircraft. This gives the flight crew more control to make the necessary adjustments to their aircraft s performance with less tactical control from the controller; it may also decrease the controller s workload. Two approaches to precise time navigation have been proposed: Time-Based Arrivals (e.g., required times of arrival) and Self-Spacing. Time-Based Arrivals make use of an aircraft s Flight Management System (FMS) to deliver the aircraft to the runway threshold at a given time. Self-Spacing enables the flight crew to achieve an ATC assigned spacing goals at the runway threshold relative to another aircraft. The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), a multi-agency initiative established to plan and coordinate the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), has asked for data for both of these concepts to facilitate future research and development. This paper provides a first look at the delivery performance of these two concepts under various initial and environmental conditions in an air traffic simulation environment.

  8. Clock time is absolute and universal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinhang

    2015-09-01

    A critical error is found in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR): mixing up the concepts of the STR abstract time of a reference frame and the displayed time of a physical clock, which leads to use the properties of the abstract time to predict time dilation on physical clocks and all other physical processes. Actually, a clock can never directly measure the abstract time, but can only record the result of a physical process during a period of the abstract time such as the number of cycles of oscillation which is the multiplication of the abstract time and the frequency of oscillation. After Lorentz Transformation, the abstract time of a reference frame expands by a factor gamma, but the frequency of a clock decreases by the same factor gamma, and the resulting multiplication i.e. the displayed time of a moving clock remains unchanged. That is, the displayed time of any physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation. The Lorentz invariance of the displayed times of clocks can further prove within the framework of STR our earth based standard physical time is absolute, universal and independent of inertial reference frames as confirmed by both the physical fact of the universal synchronization of clocks on the GPS satellites and clocks on the earth, and the theoretical existence of the absolute and universal Galilean time in STR which has proved that time dilation and space contraction are pure illusions of STR. The existence of the absolute and universal time in STR has directly denied that the reference frame dependent abstract time of STR is the physical time, and therefore, STR is wrong and all its predictions can never happen in the physical world.

  9. Shear wave arrival time estimates correlate with local speckle pattern.

    PubMed

    Mcaleavey, Stephen A; Osapoetra, Laurentius O; Langdon, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    We present simulation and phantom studies demonstrating a strong correlation between errors in shear wave arrival time estimates and the lateral position of the local speckle pattern in targets with fully developed speckle. We hypothesize that the observed arrival time variations are largely due to the underlying speckle pattern, and call the effect speckle bias. Arrival time estimation is a key step in quantitative shear wave elastography, performed by tracking tissue motion via cross-correlation of RF ultrasound echoes or similar methods. Variations in scatterer strength and interference of echoes from scatterers within the tracking beam result in an echo that does not necessarily describe the average motion within the beam, but one favoring areas of constructive interference and strong scattering. A swept-receive image, formed by fixing the transmit beam and sweeping the receive aperture over the region of interest, is used to estimate the local speckle pattern. Metrics for the lateral position of the speckle are found to correlate strongly (r > 0.7) with the estimated shear wave arrival times both in simulations and in phantoms. Lateral weighting of the swept-receive pattern improved the correlation between arrival time estimates and speckle position. The simulations indicate that high RF echo correlation does not equate to an accurate shear wave arrival time estimate-a high correlation coefficient indicates that motion is being tracked with high precision, but the location tracked is uncertain within the tracking beam width. The presence of a strong on-axis speckle is seen to imply high RF correlation and low bias. The converse does not appear to be true-highly correlated RF echoes can still produce biased arrival time estimates. The shear wave arrival time bias is relatively stable with variations in shear wave amplitude and sign (-20 μm to 20 μm simulated) compared with the variation with different speckle realizations obtained along a given tracking

  10. Prediction of the shock arrival time with SEP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2009-09-01

    Real-time prediction of the arrival times at Earth of shocks is very important for space weather research. Recently, various models for shock propagation are used to forecast the shock arriving times (SATs) with information of initial coronal shock and flare from near real-time radio and X-ray data. In this paper, we add the use of solar energetic particles (SEP) observation to improve the shock arrival time (SAT) prediction. High-energy SEPs originating from flares move to the Earth much faster than the shocks related to the same flares. We develop an SAT prediction model by combining a well-known shock propagation model, STOA, and the analysis of SEPs detected at Earth. We demonstrate that the SAT predictions are improved by the new model with the help of 38-53 keV electron SEP observations. In particular, the correct prediction to false alarm ratio is improved significantly.

  11. A new pulse arrival-time recording system

    SciTech Connect

    Arnone, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    We describe a new pulse arrival-time recording system that is being developed at Los Alamos. The new PATRM/PCI (Pulse Arrival-Time Recording Module/Peripheral Component Interconnect) has had several features added. These features enhance our time-correlation measurement capabilities. By applying the latest advances in electronics and computer technology we are able to increase capability over existing instrumentation while lowering the per channel cost. The modular design approach taken allows easy configuration of both small and large systems.

  12. LETTER: Arrival time statistics in global disease spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautreau, Aurélien; Barrat, Alain; Barthélemy, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Metapopulation models describing cities with different populations coupled by the travel of individuals are of great importance in the understanding of disease spread on a large scale. An important example is the Rvachev Longini model which is widely used in computational epidemiology. Few analytical results are, however, available and, in particular, little is known about paths followed by epidemics and disease arrival times. We study the arrival time of a disease in a city as a function of the starting seed of the epidemics. We propose an analytical ansatz, test it in the case of a spread on the worldwide air-transportation network, and show that it predicts accurately the arrival order of a disease in worldwide cities.

  13. A Comparison of CTAS and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hsu, Rose Y.

    1999-01-01

    A statistically-based comparison of aircraft times of arrival between Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) air traffic control scheduling and airline predictions is presented. CTAS is found to provide much improved values, forming the foundation for airline operational improvements, as observed during an airline field trial of a CTAS display.

  14. Arrival Time Distribution by the New Observation System at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Obara, Hitoshi; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakuyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed by using Ultra Fast Cherenkov detector (UFC) and oscilloscope at Taro observatory since 1995 (sea level 200m). The EAS array is arranged 169 sets of 0.25m2 scintillation detectors in the shape of a lattice at intervals of 1.5m and about 40 scintillation detectors which consists of 1m2 and 0.25m2 is arranged in the peripheral part. Then, it consists of 8 fast timing detectors. The UFC detector is installed in the palce of about 20m from the trigger center. The observation system of a UFC detector was changed from the autumn of 2000. The outline of a new observation system and EAS arrival time distribution are reported.

  15. The arrival time distribution of EAS at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Kuramochi, H.; Ono, S.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.

    The arrival time distribution of EAS has been observed since 1995 at Taro cosmicray laboratory (200m above sea level). The EAS arrays consist of 1m2 and 0.25m2 scintillation detectors, 0.25m2 fast timing counters and ultra fast Cherenkov detectors (UFC). 169 0.25m2 scintillation detectors are arranged in alattice configuration with a unit distance of 1.5m. UFC is placed at 20m from the center of lattice array. The arrival time distribution has been analyzed with distance from EAS core (r=10-60m). One of the results shows that the radius of corvature increases as shower size (Ne), near to the EAS core.

  16. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  17. Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, Mosalam

    Empirical estimation of the arrival time of ICME Shocks Mosalam Shaltout1 ,M.Youssef 1and R.Mawad2 1 National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG) ,Helwan -Cairo-Egypt Email: mosalamshaltout@hotmail.com 2 Faculty of Science-Monifiia University-Physics Department-Shiben Al-Koum -Monifiia-Egypt We are got the Data of the SSC events from Preliminary Reports of the ISGI (Institut de Physique du Globe, France) .Also we are selected the same CME interval 1996-2005 from SOHO/LASCO/C2.We have estimated the arrival time of ICME shocks during solar cycle 23rd (1996-2005), we take the Sudden storm commencement SSC as a indicator of the arrival of CMEs at the Earth's Magnetosphere (ICME).Under our model ,we selected 203 ICME shock-SSC associated events, we got an imperial relation between CME velocity and their travel time, from which we obtained high correlation between them, R=0.75.

  18. Time of arrival in quantum and Bohmian mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavens, C. R.

    1998-08-01

    In a recent paper Grot, Rovelli, and Tate (GRT) [Phys. Rev. A 54, 4676 (1996)] derived an expression for the probability distribution π(TX) of intrinsic arrival times T(X) at position x=X for a quantum particle with initial wave function ψ(x,t=0) freely evolving in one dimension. This was done by quantizing the classical expression for the time of arrival of a free particle at X, assuming a particular choice of operator ordering, and then regulating the resulting time of arrival operator. For the special case of a minimum-uncertainty-product wave packet at t=0 with average wave number and variance Δk they showed that their analytical expression for π(TX) agreed with the probability current density J(x=X,t=T) only to terms of order Δk/. They dismissed the probability current density as a viable candidate for the exact arrival time distribution on the grounds that it can sometimes be negative. This fact is not a problem within Bohmian mechanics where the arrival time distribution for a particle, either free or in the presence of a potential, is rigorously given by \\|J(X,T)\\| (suitably normalized) [W. R. McKinnon and C. R. Leavens, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2748 (1995); C. R. Leavens, Phys. Lett. A 178, 27 (1993); M. Daumer et al., in On Three Levels: The Mathematical Physics of Micro-, Meso-, and Macro-Approaches to Physics, edited by M. Fannes et al. (Plenum, New York, 1994); M. Daumer, in Bohmian Mechanics and Quantum Theory: An Appraisal, edited by J. T. Cushing et al. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1996)]. The two theories are compared in this paper and a case presented for which the results could not differ more: According to GRT's theory, every particle in the ensemble reaches a point x=X, where ψ(x,t) and J(x,t) are both zero for all t, while no particle ever reaches X according to the theory based on Bohmian mechanics. Some possible implications are discussed.

  19. Comment on ``Arrival time in quantum mechanics'' and ``Time of arrival in quantum mechanics''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowski, Jerzy

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to claims contained in papers by Grot, Rovelli, and Tate [Phys. Rev. A 54, 4676 1996)] and Delgado and Muga [Phys. Rev. A 56, 3425 (1997)], the ``time operator,'' which I have constructed [Rep. Math. Phys. 6, 361 (1974)] in an axiomatic way, is a self-adjoint operator existing in a usual Hilbert space of (nonrelativistic or relativistic) quantum mechanics.

  20. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T; Carlson, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia. PMID:27131647

  1. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T; Carlson, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  2. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  3. The Effects of Predator Arrival Timing on Adaptive Radiation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Knope, M. L.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Much of Earth’s biodiversity is thought to have arisen by adaptive radiation, the rapid diversification of a single ancestral species to fill a wide-variety of ecological niches. Both theory and empirical evidence have long supported competition for limited resources as a primary driver of adaptive radiation. While predation has also been postulated to be an important selective force during radiation, empirical evidence is surprisingly scant and its role remains controversial. However, two recent empirical studies suggest that predation can promote divergence during adaptive radiation. Using an experimental laboratory microcosm system, we examined how predator arrival timing affects the rate and extent of diversification during adaptive radiation. We varied the introduction timing of a protozoan predator (Tetrahymena thermophila) into populations of the bacteria Pseudomonas flourescens, which is known for its ability to undergo rapid adaptive radiation in aqueous microcosms. While our results show that predator arrival timing may have a significant impact on the rate, but not extent, of diversification, these results are tenuous and should be interpreted with caution, as the protozoan predators died early in the majority of our treatments, hampering our ability for comparison across treatments. Additionally, the abundance of newly derived bacterial genotypes was markedly lower in all treatments than observed in previous experiments utilizing this microbial experimental evolution system. To address these shortcomings, we will be repeating the experiment in the near future to further explore the impact of predator arrival timing on adaptive radiation. Smooth Morph and small-Wrinkly Spreader Pseudomonas flourescens diversification in the 96 hour treatment. Day 10, diluted to 1e-5.

  4. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  5. Semi-coherent time of arrival estimation using regression.

    PubMed

    Apartsin, Alexander; Cooper, Leon N; Intrator, Nathan

    2012-08-01

    Time of arrival (ToA) estimation is essential for many types of remote sensing applications including radar, sonar, and underground exploration. The standard method for ToA estimation employs a matched filter for computing the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for ToA. The accuracy of the MLE decreases rapidly whenever the amount of noise in a received signal rises above a certain threshold. This well-known threshold effect is unavoidable in several important applications due to various limitations on the power and the spectrum of a narrowband source pulse. A measurement performed in the presence of the threshold effect employs a receiver which operates in the semi-coherent state. Therefore, the conventional methods assuming a coherent state receiver should be adapted to the semi-coherent case. In this paper, a biosonar-inspired method for the semi-coherent ToA estimation is described. The method abandons the exploration of an echo signal by a single matched filter in favor of the analysis by multiple phase-shifted unmatched filters. Each phase-shifted unmatched filter gives rise to a biased ToA estimator. The described method uses regression for combining these estimators into a single unbiased ToA estimator that outperform the MLE in the presence of the threshold effect.

  6. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  7. A COMPARISON OF COLLAPSING AND PRECISE ARRIVAL-TIME MAPPING OF MICROSEISMICITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTLEDGE, JAMES T.; JONES, ROB H.

    2007-01-05

    In this paper they compare the improvements in microseismic location images obtained using precise arrival times with that obtained by the collapsing technique. They first collapse the initial locations for a hydraulic-fracture data set from the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, they then use the precise-arrival-time locations as measure for the effectiveness of the collapsing. Finally, they examine the changes when applying collapsing to the precise-arrival-time locations.

  8. The calculation of mean first arrival time for double mutants, crossing the fitness valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, David B.

    2015-05-01

    We calculated the mean first arrival time of the new double mutant in the Wright-Fisher and Moran models with selection where N is the population size, the mutation probability scales as 1/N and selection coefficient as 1/\\sqrt{N} . We mapped the mean first arrival time problem into Kummer equation. Our results have a O(1/\\sqrt{N}) relative accuracy. Our analytic result is rather universal, it describes the mean first arrival time in these models.

  9. Community assembly in experimental grasslands: suitable environment or timely arrival?

    PubMed

    Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Graae, Bente J

    2006-05-01

    It is hard to defend the view that biotic communities represent a simple and predictable response to the abiotic environment. Biota and the abiotic environment interact, and the environment of an individual certainly includes its neighbors and visitors in the community. The complexity of community assembly calls forth a quest for general principles, yet current results and theories on assembly rules differ widely. Using a grassland microcosm as a model system, we manipulated fertility, disturbance by defoliation, soil/microclimate, and arrival order of species belonging to two groups differing in functional attributes. We analyzed the outcome of community assembly dynamics in terms of species richness, invasibility, and species composition. The analyses revealed strong environmental control over species richness and invasibility. Species composition was mainly determined by the arrival order of species, indicating that historical contingency may change the outcome of community assembly. The probability for multiple equilibria appeared to increase with productivity and environmental stability. The importance of arrival order offers an explanation of the difficulties in predicting local occurrences of species in the field. In our experiment, variation in fertility and disturbance was controlling colonization with predictable effects on emergent community properties such as species richness. The key mechanism is suggested to be asymmetric competition, and our results show that this mechanism is relatively insensitive to the species through which it works. While our analyses indicate a positive and significant correlation between richness and invasibility, the significance disappears after accounting for the effect of the environment. The importance of arrival order (historical contingency) and environmental control supports the assumption of the unified neutral theory that different species within a trophic level can be considered functionally equivalent when it comes

  10. Community assembly in experimental grasslands: suitable environment or timely arrival?

    PubMed

    Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Graae, Bente J

    2006-05-01

    It is hard to defend the view that biotic communities represent a simple and predictable response to the abiotic environment. Biota and the abiotic environment interact, and the environment of an individual certainly includes its neighbors and visitors in the community. The complexity of community assembly calls forth a quest for general principles, yet current results and theories on assembly rules differ widely. Using a grassland microcosm as a model system, we manipulated fertility, disturbance by defoliation, soil/microclimate, and arrival order of species belonging to two groups differing in functional attributes. We analyzed the outcome of community assembly dynamics in terms of species richness, invasibility, and species composition. The analyses revealed strong environmental control over species richness and invasibility. Species composition was mainly determined by the arrival order of species, indicating that historical contingency may change the outcome of community assembly. The probability for multiple equilibria appeared to increase with productivity and environmental stability. The importance of arrival order offers an explanation of the difficulties in predicting local occurrences of species in the field. In our experiment, variation in fertility and disturbance was controlling colonization with predictable effects on emergent community properties such as species richness. The key mechanism is suggested to be asymmetric competition, and our results show that this mechanism is relatively insensitive to the species through which it works. While our analyses indicate a positive and significant correlation between richness and invasibility, the significance disappears after accounting for the effect of the environment. The importance of arrival order (historical contingency) and environmental control supports the assumption of the unified neutral theory that different species within a trophic level can be considered functionally equivalent when it comes

  11. A particle filtering approach for spatial arrival time tracking in ocean acoustics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rashi; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this work is on arrival time and amplitude estimation from acoustic signals recorded at spatially separated hydrophones in the ocean. A particle filtering approach is developed that treats arrival times as "targets" and tracks their "location" across receivers, also modeling arrival time gradient. The method is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations and is compared to a maximum likelihood estimator, which does not relate arrivals at neighboring receivers. The comparison demonstrates a significant advantage in using the particle filter. It is also shown that posterior probability density functions of times and amplitudes become readily available with particle filtering. PMID:21682358

  12. A particle filtering approach for spatial arrival time tracking in ocean acoustics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rashi; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this work is on arrival time and amplitude estimation from acoustic signals recorded at spatially separated hydrophones in the ocean. A particle filtering approach is developed that treats arrival times as "targets" and tracks their "location" across receivers, also modeling arrival time gradient. The method is evaluated via Monte Carlo simulations and is compared to a maximum likelihood estimator, which does not relate arrivals at neighboring receivers. The comparison demonstrates a significant advantage in using the particle filter. It is also shown that posterior probability density functions of times and amplitudes become readily available with particle filtering.

  13. Transition from discrete to continuous time-of-arrival distribution for a quantum particle

    SciTech Connect

    Galapon, Eric A.; Delgado, F.; Muga, J. Gonzalo; Egusquiza, Inigo

    2005-10-15

    We show that the Kijowski distribution for time of arrivals in the entire real line is the limiting distribution of the time-of-arrival distribution in a confining box as its length increases to infinity. The dynamics of the confined time-of-arrival eigenfunctions is also numerically investigated and demonstrated that the eigenfunctions evolve to have point supports at the arrival point at their respective eigenvalues in the limit of arbitrarily large confining lengths, giving insight into the ideal physical content of the Kijowsky distribution.

  14. Timing the Random and Anomalous Arrival of Particles in a Geiger Counter with GPS Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Riggi, F.; Riggi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the arrival time distribution of particles in a detector have been studied by the use of a small Geiger counter, with a GPS device to tag the event time. The experiment is intended to check the basic properties of the random arrival time distribution between successive events and to simulate the investigations carried out by…

  15. Least squares arrival time estimators for photons detected using a photomultiplier tube

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, N.; Hero, A.O. III; Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1992-08-01

    In many applications employing photodetectors, the determination of the arrival time of individual photons at the surface of the detector can be used to localize the photon source. For the case where the photon intensity is extremely low, the most common type of detector used is the photomultiplier tube. The optimal arrival time estimators for single and multiple photons arriving at the surface of a photomultiplier tube are developed in this paper. The optimal timing estimator considered is a weighted non-linear least squares estimate of the detection time for a high gain PMT with gaussian statistics. The lease squares estimator is constructed using the mean and covariance function of the photomultiplier output for different arrival times. The RMS error for the leant squares arrival time estimator was calculated and compared with the performance of other common timing estimators, including the first photoelectron timing estimators, using a Burle/RCE 8850 PMT.

  16. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  17. Carbon isotope turnover as a measure of arrival time in migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2009-01-01

    Arrival time on breeding or non-breeding areas is of interest in many ecological studies exploring fitness consequences of migratory schedules. However, in most field studies, it is difficult to precisely assess arrival time of individuals. Here, we use carbon isotope turnover in avian blood as a technique to estimate arrival time for birds switching from one habitat or environment to another. Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in blood assimilate to a new equilibrium following a diet switch according to an exponential decay function. This relationship can be used to determine the time a diet switch occurred if δ13C of both the old and new diet are known. We used published data of captive birds to validate that this approach provides reliable estimates of the time since a diet switch within 1–3 weeks after the diet switch. We then explored the utility of this technique for King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) arriving on terrestrial breeding grounds after wintering and migration at sea. We estimated arrival time on breeding grounds in northern Alaska (95% CI) from red blood cell δ13C turnover to be 4–9 June. This estimate overlapped with arrival time of birds from the same study site tracked with satellite transmitters (5–12 June). Therefore, we conclude that this method provides a simple yet reliable way to assess arrival time of birds moving between isotopically distinct environments.

  18. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  19. A note on some statistical properties of rise time parameters used in muon arrival time measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderwalt, D. J.; Devilliers, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most investigations of the muon arrival time distribution in EAS during the past decade made use of parameters which can collectively be called rise time parameters. The rise time parameter T sub A/B is defined as the time taken for the integrated pulse from a detector to rise from A% to B% of its full amplitude. The use of these parameters are usually restricted to the determination of the radial dependence thereof. This radial dependence of the rise time parameters are usually taken as a signature of the particle interaction characteristics in the shower. As these parameters have a stochastic nature, it seems reasonable that one should also take notice of this aspect of the rise time parameters. A statistical approach to rise time parameters is presented.

  20. The PDV Velocity History and Shock Arrival Time Analyzer

    2006-08-29

    This software allows the user to analyze heterodyne beat signals generated when a Doppler-shifted laser light interacts with un-shifted laser light. The software analyzes the data in a joint time frequency domain to extract instantaneous velocity.

  1. Arrival-time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity water waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Eickmeier, Justin; Song, Aijun

    2014-05-01

    Arrival time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity waves are examined. A two-dimensional ray model with an evolving rough sea surface is used to explain the mechanism and formation of the deterministic striation patterns due to the surface reflection. Arrival time predictions from the ray model match qualitatively well with the measurements from bidirectional acoustic transmissions in a water depth of 100 m. PMID:24815293

  2. Arrival-time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity water waves.

    PubMed

    Badiey, Mohsen; Eickmeier, Justin; Song, Aijun

    2014-05-01

    Arrival time fluctuations of coherent reflections from surface gravity waves are examined. A two-dimensional ray model with an evolving rough sea surface is used to explain the mechanism and formation of the deterministic striation patterns due to the surface reflection. Arrival time predictions from the ray model match qualitatively well with the measurements from bidirectional acoustic transmissions in a water depth of 100 m.

  3. A Fast-Time Study of Aircraft Reordering in Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Greg; Neuman, Frank; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In order to ensure that the safe capacity of the terminal area is not exceeded, Air Traffic Management ATM often places restrictions on arriving flights transitioning from en route airspace to terminal airspace. This restriction of arrival traffic is commonly referred to as arrival flow management, and includes techniques such as metering, vectoring, fix-load balancing, and the imposition of miles-in-trail separations. These restrictions are enacted without regard for the relative priority which airlines may be placing on individual flights based on factors such as crew criticality, passenger connectivity, critical turn times, gate availability, on-time performance, fuel status, or runway preference. The development of new arrival flow management techniques which take into consideration priorities expressed by air carriers will likely reduce the economic impact of ATM restrictions on the airlines and lead to increased airline economic efficiency by allowing airlines to have greater control over their individual arrival banks of aircraft. NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) have designed and developed a suite of software decision support tools (DSTs) collectively known as the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). One of these tools, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is currently being used at the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center to perform arrival flow management of traffic into the Dallas/Fort Worth airport (DFW). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that assists Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and En Route Air Traffic Controllers in efficiently balancing arrival demand with airport capacity. The primary algorithm in the TMA is a real-time scheduler which generates efficient landing sequences and landing times for arrivals within about 200 no a. from touchdown. This scheduler will sequence aircraft so that they arrive in a first- come - first-served (FCFS) order. While FCFS sequencing establishes a fair order based

  4. Does winter region affect spring arrival time and body mass of king eiders in northern Alaska?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Abby N.; Oppel, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Events during the non-breeding season may affect the body condition of migratory birds and influence performance during the following breeding season. Migratory birds nesting in the Arctic often rely on endogenous nutrients for reproductive efforts, and are thus potentially subject to such carry-over effects. We tested whether king eider (Somateria spectabilis) arrival time and body mass upon arrival at breeding grounds in northern Alaska were affected by their choice of a winter region in the Bering Sea. We captured birds shortly after arrival on breeding grounds in early June 2002–2006 at two sites in northern Alaska and determined the region in which individuals wintered using satellite telemetry or stable isotope ratios of head feathers. We used generalized linear models to assess whether winter region explained variation in arrival body mass among individuals by accounting for sex, site, annual variation, and the date a bird was captured. We found no support for our hypothesis that either arrival time or arrival body mass of king eiders differed among winter regions. We conclude that wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea is unlikely to have reproductive consequences for king eiders in our study areas.

  5. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  6. Determining tomographic arrival times based on matched filter processing: considering the impact of ocean waves.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James K

    2008-02-01

    Reflection of high-frequency acoustic signals from an air-sea interface with waves is considered in terms of determining travel times for acoustic tomography. Wave-induced, multi-path rays are investigated to determine how they influence the assumption that the time of the largest matched filter magnitude between the source and receiver signals is the best estimate of the arrival time of the flat-surface specular ray path. A simple reflection model is developed to consider the impact of in-plane, multi-path arrivals on the signal detected by a receiver. It is found that the number of multi-path rays between a source and receiver increases significantly with the number of times the ray paths strike the ocean surface. In test cases, there was always one of the multi-path rays that closely followed the flat-surface specular ray path. But all the multi-path rays arrive at the receiver almost simultaneously, resulting in interference with the signal from the flat-surface specular ray path. As a result, multi-path arrivals due to open ocean surface waves often distort the received signal such that maxima of matched filtering magnitudes will not always be a reliable indicator of the arrival time of flat-surface specular ray paths.

  7. Operator-normalized quantum arrival times in the presence of interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hegerfeldt, G.C.; Seidel, D.; Muga, J.G.; Navarro, B.

    2004-07-01

    We model ideal arrival-time measurements for free quantum particles and for particles subject to an external interaction by means of a narrow and weak absorbing potential. This approach is related to the operational approach of measuring the first photon emitted from a two-level atom illuminated by a laser. By operator normalizing the resulting time-of-arrival distribution, a distribution is obtained which for freely moving particles not only recovers the axiomatically derived distribution of Kijowski for states with purely positive momenta but is also applicable to general momentum components. For particles interacting with a square barrier the mean arrival time and corresponding 'tunneling time' obtained at the transmission side of the barrier become independent of the barrier width (Hartman effect) for arbitrarily wide barriers, i.e., without the transition to the ultraopaque, classical-like regime dominated by wave packet components above the barrier.

  8. Multi-Mode Lamb Wave Arrival Time Extraction for Improved Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hinders, Mark K.; Hou Jidong; Leonard, Kevin R.

    2005-04-09

    An ultrasonic signal processing technique is applied to multi-mode arrival time estimation from Lamb waveforms. The basic tool is a simplified time-scale projection called a dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) which enables direct observation of the variation of features of interest in non-stationary ultrasonic signals. The DWFP technique was used to automatically detect and evaluate each candidate through-transmitted Lamb mode. The area of the dynamic wavelet fingerprint was then used as a feature to distinguish false modes caused by noise and other interference from the true modes of interest. The set of estimated arrival times were then used as inputs for tomographic reconstruction. The Lamb wave tomography images generated with these estimated arrival times were able to indicate different defects in aluminum plates.

  9. Continuous measurement of the arrival times of x-ray photon sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Qiurong; Sheng Lizhi; Zhao Baosheng; Liu Yong'an

    2011-05-15

    In order to record x-ray pulse profile for x-ray pulsar-based navigation and timing, this paper presents a continuous, high-precision method for measuring arrival times of photon sequence with a common starting point. In this method, a high stability atomic clock is counted to measure the coarse time of arrival photon. A high resolution time-to-digital converter is used to measure the fine time of arrival photon. The coarse times and the fine times are recorded continuously and then transferred to computer memory by way of memory switch. The pulse profile is obtained by a special data processing method. A special circuit was developed and a low-level x-ray pulse profile measurement experiment system was setup. The arrival times of x-ray photon sequence can be consecutively recorded with a time resolution of 500 ps and the profile of x-ray pulse was constructed. The data also can be used for analysis by many other methods, such as statistical distribution of photon events per time interval, statistical distribution of time interval between two photon events, photon counting histogram, autocorrelation and higher order autocorrelation.

  10. Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Jahoda, Keith; Lyne, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 microseconds. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.01025 plus or minus 0.00120 period in phase, or 344 plus or minus 40 microseconds in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 microseconds, most likely constant, arising from uncertainties in the instrumental calibration of the radio data. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 microseconds. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001 plus or minus 0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses ma be constant in phase (i.e., rotational in nature) or constant in time (i.e., due to a pathlength difference). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

  11. Relation between first arrival time and permeability in self-affine fractures with areas in contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talon, L.; Auradou, H.; Hansen, A.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate that the first arrival times in dispersive processes in self-affine fractures are governed by the same length scale characterizing the fractures as that which controls their permeability. In one-dimensional channel flow this length scale is the aperture of the bottle neck, i.e., the region having the smallest aperture. In two dimensions, the concept of a bottle neck is generalized to that of a minimal path normal to the flow. The length scale is then the average aperture along this path. There is a linear relationship between the first arrival time and this length scale, even when there is strong overlap between the fracture surfaces creating areas with zero permeability. We express the first arrival time directly in terms of the permeability.

  12. Improvements of the shock arrival times at the Earth model STOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of the shocks' arrival times (SATs) at the Earthis very important for space weather forecast. There is a well-known SAT model,STOA, which is widely used in the space weather forecast. However, the shocktransit time from STOA model usually has a relative large error comparedto the real measurements. In addition, STOA tends to yield too much 'yes'prediction, which causes a large number of false alarms. Therefore, in thiswork, we work on the modification of STOA model. First, we give a new methodto calculate the shock transit time by modifying the way to use the solar windspeed in STOA model. Second, we develop new criteria for deciding whetherthe shock will arrive at the Earth with the help of the sunspot numbers andthe angle distances of the flare events. It is shown that our work can improvethe SATs prediction significantly, especially the prediction of flare events with-out shocks arriving at the Earth.

  13. Time-resolved Absolute Velocity Quantification with Projections

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Michael C.; Jain, Varsha; Magland, Jeremy F.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative information on time-resolved blood velocity along the femoral/popliteal artery can provide clinical information on peripheral arterial disease and complement MR angiography since not all stenoses are hemodynamically significant. The key disadvantages of the most widely used approach to time-resolve pulsatile blood flow by cardiac-gated velocity-encoded gradient-echo imaging are gating errors and long acquisition time. Here we demonstrate a rapid non-triggered method that quantifies absolute velocity on the basis of phase difference between successive velocity-encoded projections after selectively removing the background static tissue signal via a reference image. The tissue signal from the reference image’s center k-space line is isolated by masking out the vessels in the image domain. The performance of the technique, in terms of reproducibility and agreement with results obtained with conventional phase contrast (PC)-MRI was evaluated at 3T field strength with a variable-flow rate phantom and in vivo of the triphasic velocity waveforms at several segments along the femoral and popliteal arteries. Additionally, time-resolved flow velocity was quantified in five healthy subjects and compared against gated PC-MRI results. To illustrate clinical feasibility the proposed method was shown to be able to identify hemodynamic abnormalities and impaired reactivity in a diseased femoral artery. For both phantom and in vivo studies, velocity measurements were within 1.5 cm/s and the coefficient of variation was less than 5% in an in vivo reproducibility study. In five healthy subjects, the average differences in mean peak velocities and their temporal locations were within 1 cm/s and 10 ms compared to gated PC-MRI. In conclusion, the proposed method provides temporally-resolved arterial velocity with a temporal resolution of 20 ms with minimal post-processing. PMID:20677235

  14. Connecting speeds, directions and arrival times of 22 coronal mass ejections from the sun to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Peinhart, V.; Amla, K.; Hall, J. R.; Liewer, P. C.; De Jong, E. M.; Colaninno, R. C.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Liu, Y. D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Vršnak, B.

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting the in situ properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from remote images is expected to strongly enhance predictions of space weather and is of general interest for studying the interaction of CMEs with planetary environments. We study the feasibility of using a single heliospheric imager (HI) instrument, imaging the solar wind density from the Sun to 1 AU, for connecting remote images to in situ observations of CMEs. We compare the predictions of speed and arrival time for 22 CMEs (in 2008-2012) to the corresponding interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) parameters at in situ observatories (STEREO PLASTIC/IMPACT, Wind SWE/MFI). The list consists of front- and backsided, slow and fast CMEs (up to 2700 km s{sup –1}). We track the CMEs to 34.9 ± 7.1 deg elongation from the Sun with J maps constructed using the SATPLOT tool, resulting in prediction lead times of –26.4 ± 15.3 hr. The geometrical models we use assume different CME front shapes (fixed-Φ, harmonic mean, self-similar expansion) and constant CME speed and direction. We find no significant superiority in the predictive capability of any of the three methods. The absolute difference between predicted and observed ICME arrival times is 8.1 ± 6.3 hr (rms value of 10.9 hr). Speeds are consistent to within 284 ± 288 km s{sup –1}. Empirical corrections to the predictions enhance their performance for the arrival times to 6.1 ± 5.0 hr (rms value of 7.9 hr), and for the speeds to 53 ± 50 km s{sup –1}. These results are important for Solar Orbiter and a space weather mission positioned away from the Sun-Earth line.

  15. Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Heather; Yu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland’s East Coast Bird reports (1980–2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence

  16. Changes in the timing of departure and arrival of Irish migrant waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Alison; Geyer, Heather; Yu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    There have been many recent reports across Europe and North America of a change in the timing of arrival and departure of a range of migrant bird species to their breeding grounds. These studies have focused primarily on passerine birds and climate warming has been found to be one of the main drivers of earlier arrival and departure in spring. In Ireland, rising spring temperature has been shown to result in the earlier arrival of sub-Saharan passerine species and the early departure of the Whooper Swan. In order to investigate changes in spring arrival and departure dates of waterbirds to Ireland, we extracted latest dates as an indicator of the timing of departure of winter visitors (24 species) and earliest dates as an indicator of the timing of arrival of spring/summer migrants (2 species) from BirdWatch Ireland's East Coast Bird reports (1980-2003). Three of the winter visitors showed evidence of later departure and one of earlier departure whereas one of the spring/summer visitors showed evidence of earlier arrival. In order to determine any influence of local temperature on these trends, we analysed data from two synoptic weather stations within the study area and found that spring (average February, March and April) air temperature significantly (P < 0.05) increased at a rate of 0.03 °C per year, which was strongly correlated with changes in latest and earliest records. We also tested the sensitivity of bird departure/arrival to temperature and found that Northern Pintail would leave 10 days earlier in response to a 1 °C increase in spring temperature. In addition, we investigated the impact of a large-scale circulation pattern, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on the timing of arrival and departure which correlated with both advances and delays in departure and arrival. We conclude that the impact of climate change on earliest and latest records of these birds is, as expected, species specific and that local temperature had less of an influence than

  17. Improved Strategies and Optimization of Calibration Models for Real-time PCR Absolute Quantification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Real-time PCR absolute quantification applications rely on the use of standard curves to make estimates of DNA target concentrations in unknown samples. Traditional absolute quantification approaches dictate that a standard curve must accompany each experimental run. However, t...

  18. Maximum Likelihood Time-of-Arrival Estimation of Optical Pulses via Photon-Counting Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Many optical imaging, ranging, and communications systems rely on the estimation of the arrival time of an optical pulse. Recently, such systems have been increasingly employing photon-counting photodetector technology, which changes the statistics of the observed photocurrent. This requires time-of-arrival estimators to be developed and their performances characterized. The statistics of the output of an ideal photodetector, which are well modeled as a Poisson point process, were considered. An analytical model was developed for the mean-square error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, demonstrating two phenomena that cause deviations from the minimum achievable error at low signal power. An approximation was derived to the threshold at which the ML estimator essentially fails to provide better than a random guess of the pulse arrival time. Comparing the analytic model performance predictions to those obtained via simulations, it was verified that the model accurately predicts the ML performance over all regimes considered. There is little prior art that attempts to understand the fundamental limitations to time-of-arrival estimation from Poisson statistics. This work establishes both a simple mathematical description of the error behavior, and the associated physical processes that yield this behavior. Previous work on mean-square error characterization for ML estimators has predominantly focused on additive Gaussian noise. This work demonstrates that the discrete nature of the Poisson noise process leads to a distinctly different error behavior.

  19. Optimal Time Advance In Terminal Area Arrivals: Throughput vs. Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V .; Swenson, Harry N.; Haskell, William B.; Rakas, Jasenka

    2011-01-01

    The current operational practice in scheduling air traffic arriving at an airport is to adjust flight schedules by delay, i.e. a postponement of an aircrafts arrival at a scheduled location, to manage safely the FAA-mandated separation constraints between aircraft. To meet the observed and forecast growth in traffic demand, however, the practice of time advance (speeding up an aircraft toward a scheduled location) is envisioned for future operations as a practice additional to delay. Time advance has two potential advantages. The first is the capability to minimize, or at least reduce, the excess separation (the distances between pairs of aircraft immediately in-trail) and thereby to increase the throughput of the arriving traffic. The second is to reduce the total traffic delay when the traffic sample is below saturation density. A cost associated with time advance is the fuel expenditure required by an aircraft to speed up. We present an optimal control model of air traffic arriving in a terminal area and solve it using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. The admissible controls allow time advance, as well as delay, some of the way. The cost function reflects the trade-off between minimizing two competing objectives: excess separation (negatively correlated with throughput) and fuel burn. A number of instances are solved using three different methods, to demonstrate consistency of solutions.

  20. Improvements of the shock arrival times at the Earth model STOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Qin, G.

    2015-07-01

    Prediction of the shocks' arrival times (SATs) at the Earth is very important for space weather forecast. There is a well-known SAT model, Shock Time of Arrival (STOA), which is widely used in the space weather forecast. However, the shock transit time from STOA model usually has a relative large error compared to the real measurements. In addition, STOA tends to yield too much "yes" prediction, which causes a large number of false alarms. Therefore, in this work, we work on the modification of STOA model. First, we give a new method to calculate the shock transit time by modifying the way to use the solar wind speed in STOA model. Second, we develop new criteria for deciding whether the shock will arrive at the Earth with the help of the sunspot numbers and the angle distances of the flare events. It is shown that our work can improve the SATs prediction significantly, especially the prediction of flare events without shocks arriving at the Earth.

  1. Techniques for measuring arrival times of pulsar signals 1: DSN observations from 1968 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, G. S.; Reichley, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques used in the ground based observations of pulsars are described, many of them applicable in a navigation scheme. The arrival times of the pulses intercepting Earth are measured at time intervals from a few days to a few months. Low noise, wide band receivers, amplify signals intercepted by 26 m, 34, and 64 m antennas. Digital recordings of total received signal power versus time are cross correlated with the appropriate pulse template.

  2. High-speed quantum-random number generation by continuous measurement of arrival time of photons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Hua, Zhang; Liao, Qinghong; Yang, Hao

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate a novel high speed and multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring arrival time of photons with a common starting point. To obtain the unbiased and post-processing free random bits, the measured photon arrival time is converted into the sum of integral multiple of a fixed period and a phase time. Theoretical and experimental results show that the phase time is an independent and uniform random variable. A random bit extraction method by encoding the phase time is proposed. An experimental setup has been built and the unbiased random bit generation rate could reach 128 Mb/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 8 bits per detected photon. The random numbers passed all tests in the statistical test suite.

  3. A New Version of the Shock Propagation Model (SPM2) for Predicting the Arrival Time of Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    Forecasting the arrival time at the near Earth space of interplanetary (IP) shocks following the solar disturbances is one of the important ingredients of space weather prediction. Shock Propagation Model (SPM), based on the analytic solution of the blast wave theory, is one of the models to predict the shock arrival time (SAT). The input parameters of SPM include the initial shock speed, the duration time of the X-ray flare, and the background solar wind speed. Considering the fact that the measurement errors exist in the input parameters as well as the shortage of the theoretical model in real applications, a new version of SPM, called SPM2 is presented with the aim of overcome these shortages. Firstly, SPM is used to train the input data, and an empirical relationship is established to correct for the error in the initial shock speed (computed from the type II burst drafting speed). And the corrected shock speed is used is the SPM2 model. Secondly, a large number of data set during solar cycle 23 are adopted to train the model, and an additional acceleration/deceleration relation is added in SPM2. Thirdly, the propagating direction is introduced as one of the contributing factors to the shock's arrival at Earth, which overcomes the shortage of the isotropy of the blast wave theory in the practice of real prediction. Finally, SPM2 adopts an equivalent Mach number of the shock at 1 AU in order to judge whether or not the shock could reach the Earth. 584 flare-type II related shock events during Solar Cycle 23 are used to test the prediction capability of the SPM2 model. Several standard meteorological forecast skill scores of SPM2 are also computed. The corresponding success rates of SPM2 for both shock and non-shock events at Earth are above 60%, and the application of a x2 test demonstrates that the predictions of the model are statistically significant. As for the predicting accuracy in shock arrival time, the root-mean-square err of △T of SPM2 is less than

  4. A California statewide three-dimensional seismic velocity model from both absolute and differential times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, G.; Thurber, C.H.; Zhang, H.; Hauksson, E.; Shearer, P.M.; Waldhauser, F.; Brocher, T.M.; Hardebeck, J.

    2010-01-01

    We obtain a seismic velocity model of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin by using absolute arrival-time picks to solve for a coarse three-dimensional (3D) P velocity (VP) model with a uniform 30 km horizontal node spacing, which we then use as the starting model for a finer-scale inversion using double-difference tomography applied to absolute and differential pick times. For computational reasons, we split the state into 5 subregions with a grid spacing of 10 to 20 km and assemble our final statewide VP model by stitching together these local models. We also solve for a statewide S-wave model using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model based on the VP results and a VP=VS ratio of 1.732. Our new model has improved areal coverage compared with previous models, extending 570 km in the SW-NE directionand 1320 km in the NW-SE direction. It also extends to greater depth due to the inclusion of substantial data at large epicentral distances. Our VP model generally agrees with previous separate regional models for northern and southern California, but we also observe some new features, such as high-velocity anomalies at shallow depths in the Klamath Mountains and Mount Shasta area, somewhat slow velocities in the northern Coast Ranges, and slow anomalies beneath the Sierra Nevada at midcrustal and greater depths. This model can be applied to a variety of regional-scale studies in California, such as developing a unified statewide earthquake location catalog and performing regional waveform modeling.

  5. Monitoring molecular interactions using photon arrival-time interval distribution analysis

    DOEpatents

    Laurence, Ted A.; Weiss, Shimon

    2009-10-06

    A method for analyzing/monitoring the properties of species that are labeled with fluorophores. A detector is used to detect photons emitted from species that are labeled with one or more fluorophores and located in a confocal detection volume. The arrival time of each of the photons is determined. The interval of time between various photon pairs is then determined to provide photon pair intervals. The number of photons that have arrival times within the photon pair intervals is also determined. The photon pair intervals are then used in combination with the corresponding counts of intervening photons to analyze properties and interactions of the molecules including brightness, concentration, coincidence and transit time. The method can be used for analyzing single photon streams and multiple photon streams.

  6. A fast least-squares arrival time estimator for scintillation pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Petrick, N.; Hero, A.O. III; Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L. )

    1994-08-01

    The true weighted least-squares (WLS) arrival time estimator for scintillation pulse detection was previously found to out-perform conventional arrival time estimators such as leading-edge and constant-fraction timers, but has limited applications because of its complexity. A new diagonalized version of the weighted least-squares (DWLS) estimator has been developed which, like the true WLS, incorporates the statistical properties of the scintillation detector. The new DWLS reduces estimator complexity at the expense of fundamental timing resolution. The advantage of the DWLS implementation is that only scalar multiplications and additions are needed instead of the matrix operations used in the true WLS. It also preserves the true WLS's ability to effectively separate piled-up pulses. The DWLS estimator has been applied to pulses which approximate the response of BGO and NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The timing resolution obtained with the DWLS estimator is then compared to conventional analog timers along with the Cramer-Rao lower bound on achievable timing error. The DWLS out-performs the conventional arrival time estimators but does not provide optimal performance compared to the lower bound; however, it is more robust than the true WLS estimator.

  7. A Comparison of Center/TRACON Automation System and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Benefits from information sharing between an air traffic service provider and a major air carrier are evaluated. Aircraft arrival time schedules generated by the NASA/FAA Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) were provided to the American Airlines System Operations Control Center in Fort Worth, Texas, during a field trial of a specialized CTAS display. A statistical analysis indicates that the CTAS schedules, based on aircraft trajectories predicted from real-time radar and weather data, are substantially more accurate than the traditional airline arrival time estimates, constructed from flight plans and en route crew updates. The improvement offered by CTAS is especially advantageous during periods of heavy traffic and substantial terminal area delay, allowing the airline to avoid large predictive errors with serious impact on the efficiency and profitability of flight operations.

  8. High resolution time of arrival estimation for a cooperative sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morhart, C.; Biebl, E. M.

    2010-09-01

    Distance resolution of cooperative sensors is limited by the signal bandwidth. For the transmission mainly lower frequency bands are used which are more narrowband than classical radar frequencies. To compensate this resolution problem the combination of a pseudo-noise coded pulse compression system with superresolution time of arrival estimation is proposed. Coded pulsecompression allows secure and fast distance measurement in multi-user scenarios which can easily be adapted for data transmission purposes (Morhart and Biebl, 2009). Due to the lack of available signal bandwidth the measurement accuracy degrades especially in multipath scenarios. Superresolution time of arrival algorithms can improve this behaviour by estimating the channel impulse response out of a band-limited channel view. For the given test system the implementation of a MUSIC algorithm permitted a two times better distance resolution as the standard pulse compression.

  9. Two analytical solutions for a model of pulsed arterial spin labeling with randomized blood arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabe, J.; Lewis, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    A fairly general theoretical model for pulsed arterial spin labeling perfusion methods has been available for some time but analytical solutions were derived for only a small number of arterial blood input functions. These mostly assumed a sudden and simultaneous arrival of the tagged blood into the imaged region. More general cases had to be handled numerically. We present analytical solutions for two more realistic arterial input functions. They both allow the arrival times of the molecules of tagged arterial blood to be statistically distributed. We consider cases of (1) a uniform distribution on a finite time interval and (2) a normal distribution characterized by its mean and standard deviation. These models are physiologically meaningful because the statistical nature of the arrival times reflects the distribution of velocities and path lengths that the blood water molecules undertake from the tagging region to the imaged region. The model parameters can be estimated from the measured dependency of the perfusion signal on the tag inversion time.

  10. Particle filtering for arrival time tracking in space and source localization.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Jain, Rashi

    2012-11-01

    Locating and tracking a source in an ocean environment and estimating environmental parameters of a sound propagation medium are critical tasks in ocean acoustics. Many approaches for both are based on full field calculations which are computationally intensive and sensitive to assumptions on the structure of the environment. Alternative methods that use only select features of the acoustic field for localization and environmental parameter estimation have been proposed. The focus of this paper is the development of a method that extracts arrival times and amplitudes of distinct paths from measured acoustic time-series using sequential Bayesian filtering, namely, particle filtering. These quantities, along with complete posterior probability density functions, also extracted by filtering, are employed in source localization and bathymetry estimation. Aspects of the filtering methodology are presented and studied in terms of their impact on the uncertainty in the arrival time estimates. Using the posterior probability densities of arrival times, source localization and water depth estimation are performed for the Haro Strait Primer experiment; the results are compared to those of conventional methods. The comparison demonstrates a significant advantage in the proposed approach.

  11. UNCERTAINTY IN PHASE ARRIVAL TIME PICKS FOR REGIONAL SEISMIC EVENTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    A. VELASCO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The detection and timing of seismic arrivals play a critical role in the ability to locate seismic events, especially at low magnitude. Errors can occur with the determination of the timing of the arrivals, whether these errors are made by automated processing or by an analyst. One of the major obstacles encountered in properly estimating travel-time picking error is the lack of a clear and comprehensive discussion of all of the factors that influence phase picks. This report discusses possible factors that need to be modeled to properly study phase arrival time picking errors. We have developed a multivariate statistical model, experimental design, and analysis strategy that can be used in this study. We have embedded a general form of the International Data Center(IDC)/U.S. National Data Center (USNDC) phase pick measurement error model into our statistical model. We can use this statistical model to optimally calibrate a picking error model to regional data. A follow-on report will present the results of this analysis plan applied to an implementation of an experiment/data-gathering task.

  12. Observation of arrival times of EAS with energies or = 6 x 10 (14) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere is continually being bombarded by primary cosmic ray particles which are generally believed to be high-energy nuclei. The fact that the majority of cosmic ray primaries are charged particles and that space is permeated with random magnetic fields, means that the particles do not travel in straight lines. The arrival time distribution of EAS may also transfer some information about the primary particles. Actually, if the particles come to our Earth in a completely random process, the arrival time distribution of pairs of successive particles should fit an exponential law. The work reported here was arried out at Sydney University from May 1982 to January 1983. All the data are used to plot the arrival-time distribution of the events, that is, the distribution of time-separation between consecutive events on a 1 minute bin size. During this period more than 2300 showers were recorded. The results are discussed and compared with that of some other experiments.

  13. Toward an Accurate Prediction of the Arrival Time of Geomagnetic-Effective Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, T.; Wang, Y.; Wan, L.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. Here we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1-5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  14. Kilometer-wave type III burst - Harmonic emission revealed by direction and time of arrival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F. T.; Potter, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A type III solar burst was observed at seven frequencies between 3.5 MHz and 80 kHz by the Michigan experiment aboard the IMP-6 satellite. From the data burst direction of arrival as well as time of arrival can be determined. These quantities are predicted, using simple models whose parameters are varied to obtain a good fit to the observations. It is found that between 3.5 MHz and 230 kHz the observed radiation was emitted at the fundamental of the local plasma frequency, while below 230 kHz it was emitted at the second harmonic. The exciter particles that produced the burst onset and burst peak have velocities of 0.27 and 0.12, respectively, in units of the velocity of light.

  15. Optimal first-arrival times in Lévy flights with resetting.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    We consider the diffusive motion of a particle performing a random walk with Lévy distributed jump lengths and subject to a resetting mechanism, bringing the walker to an initial position at uniformly distributed times. In the limit of an infinite number of steps and for long times, the process converges to superdiffusive motion with replenishment. We derive a formula for the mean first arrival time (MFAT) to a predefined target position reached by a meandering particle and we analyze the efficiency of the proposed searching strategy by investigating criteria for an optimal (a shortest possible) MFAT. PMID:26651667

  16. Size speed bias or size arrival effect-How judgments of vehicles' approach speed and time to arrival are influenced by the vehicles' size.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    Crashes at railway level crossings are a key problem for railway operations. It has been suggested that a potential explanation for such crashes might lie in a so-called size speed bias, which describes the phenomenon that observers underestimate the speed of larger objects, such as aircraft or trains. While there is some evidence that this size speed bias indeed exists, it is somewhat at odds with another well researched phenomenon, the size arrival effect. When asked to judge the time it takes an approaching object to arrive at a predefined position (time to arrival, TTA), observers tend to provide lower estimates for larger objects. In that case, road users' crossing decisions when confronted with larger vehicles should be rather conservative, which has been confirmed in multiple studies on gap acceptance. The aim of the experiment reported in this paper was to clarify the relationship between size speed bias and size arrival effect. Employing a relative judgment task, both speed and TTA estimates were assessed for virtual depictions of a train and a truck, using a car as a reference to compare against. The results confirmed the size speed bias for the speed judgments, with both train and truck being perceived as travelling slower than the car. A comparable bias was also present in the TTA estimates for the truck. In contrast, no size arrival effect could be found for the train or the truck, neither in the speed nor the TTA judgments. This finding is inconsistent with the fact that crossing behaviour when confronted with larger vehicles appears to be consistently more conservative. This discrepancy might be interpreted as an indication that factors other than perceived speed or TTA play an important role for the differences in gap acceptance between different types of vehicles.

  17. Size speed bias or size arrival effect-How judgments of vehicles' approach speed and time to arrival are influenced by the vehicles' size.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    Crashes at railway level crossings are a key problem for railway operations. It has been suggested that a potential explanation for such crashes might lie in a so-called size speed bias, which describes the phenomenon that observers underestimate the speed of larger objects, such as aircraft or trains. While there is some evidence that this size speed bias indeed exists, it is somewhat at odds with another well researched phenomenon, the size arrival effect. When asked to judge the time it takes an approaching object to arrive at a predefined position (time to arrival, TTA), observers tend to provide lower estimates for larger objects. In that case, road users' crossing decisions when confronted with larger vehicles should be rather conservative, which has been confirmed in multiple studies on gap acceptance. The aim of the experiment reported in this paper was to clarify the relationship between size speed bias and size arrival effect. Employing a relative judgment task, both speed and TTA estimates were assessed for virtual depictions of a train and a truck, using a car as a reference to compare against. The results confirmed the size speed bias for the speed judgments, with both train and truck being perceived as travelling slower than the car. A comparable bias was also present in the TTA estimates for the truck. In contrast, no size arrival effect could be found for the train or the truck, neither in the speed nor the TTA judgments. This finding is inconsistent with the fact that crossing behaviour when confronted with larger vehicles appears to be consistently more conservative. This discrepancy might be interpreted as an indication that factors other than perceived speed or TTA play an important role for the differences in gap acceptance between different types of vehicles. PMID:27428866

  18. Fast-Time Evaluations of Airborne Merging and Spacing in Terminal Arrival Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Barmore, Bryan; Bussink, Frank; Weitz, Lesley; Dahlene, Laura

    2005-01-01

    NASA researchers are developing new airborne technologies and procedures to increase runway throughput at capacity-constrained airports by improving the precision of inter-arrival spacing at the runway threshold. In this new operational concept, pilots of equipped aircraft are cleared to adjust aircraft speed to achieve a designated spacing interval at the runway threshold, relative to a designated lead aircraft. A new airborne toolset, prototypes of which are being developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, assists pilots in achieving this objective. The current prototype allows precision spacing operations to commence even when the aircraft and its lead are not yet in-trail, but are on merging arrival routes to the runway. A series of fast-time evaluations of the new toolset were conducted at the Langley Research Center during the summer of 2004. The study assessed toolset performance in a mixed fleet of aircraft on three merging arrival streams under a range of operating conditions. The results of the study indicate that the prototype possesses a high degree of robustness to moderate variations in operating conditions.

  19. Time-dependent solution for the manufacturing line with unreliable machine and batched arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempa, W. M.; Paprocka, I.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.

    2015-11-01

    Time-dependent queue-size distribution in a finite-buffer manufacturing line with unreliable machine is investigated. Successive jobs arrive in batches (groups) with sizes being generally distributed random variables, and are being processed individually with exponential service times. Applying the approach based on the memory less property of exponential distribution and the total probability law, a system of integral equations for the transient queue- size distribution conditioned by the initial level of buffer saturation is derived. The solution of the corresponding system written for Laplace transforms is found via linear-algebraic approach.

  20. Predicting Ambulance Time of Arrival to the Emergency Department Using Global Positioning System and Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Ross J.; Lundquist, Mark; Jui, Jonathan; Newgard, Craig D.; Warden, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a model that accurately predicts ambulance arrival time that could be implemented as a Google Maps web application. Methods This was a retrospective study of all scene transports in Multnomah County, Oregon, from January 1 through December 31, 2008. Scene and destination hospital addresses were converted to coordinates. ArcGIS Network Analyst was used to estimate transport times based on street network speed limits. We then created a linear regression model to improve the accuracy of these street network estimates using weather, patient characteristics, use of lights and sirens, daylight, and rush-hour intervals. The model was derived from a 50% sample and validated on the remainder. Significance of the covariates was determined by p < 0.05 for a t-test of the model coefficients. Accuracy was quantified by the proportion of estimates that were within 5 minutes of the actual transport times recorded by computer-aided dispatch. We then built a Google Maps-based web application to demonstrate application in real-world EMS operations. Results There were 48,308 included transports. Street network estimates of transport time were accurate within 5 minutes of actual transport time less than 16% of the time. Actual transport times were longer during daylight and rush-hour intervals and shorter with use of lights and sirens. Age under 18 years, gender, wet weather, and trauma system entry were not significant predictors of transport time. Our model predicted arrival time within 5 minutes 73% of the time. For lights and sirens transports, accuracy was within 5 minutes 77% of the time. Accuracy was identical in the validation dataset. Lights and sirens saved an average of 3.1 minutes for transports under 8.8 minutes, and 5.3 minutes for longer transports. Conclusions An estimate of transport time based only on a street network significantly underestimated transport times. A simple model incorporating few variables can predict ambulance time of

  1. Processing advances for localization of beaked whales using time difference of arrival.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization of clicking Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) using an array of widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones. A set of signal and data processing advances are presented that together make reliable tracking a possibility. These advances include a species-specific detector, elimination of spurious time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) estimates, improved tracking of TDOA estimates, positive association of TDOA estimates using different hydrophone pairs, and joint localization of multiple whales. A key innovation in three of these advances is the principle of click-matching. The methods are demonstrated using real data.

  2. Comparison of time of arrival vs. multiple parameter based radar pulse train deinterleavers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Samuel; Thompson, Michael; Davezac, Stephen; Sciortino, John C., Jr.

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the two main techniques currently in use to solve the problem of radar pulse train deinterleaving. Pulse train deinterleaving separates radar pulse trains into the tracks or bins associated with the detected emitters. The two techniques are simple time of arrival (TOA) histogramming and multi-parametric analysis. TOA analysis uses only the time of arrival (TOA) parameter of each pulse to deinterleave radar pulse trains. Such algorithms include Cumulative difference (CDIF) histogramming and Sequential difference (SDIF) histogramming. Multiparametric analysis utilizes any combination of the following parameters: TOA, radio frequency (RF), pulse width (PW), and angle of arrival (AOA). These techniques use a variety of algorithms, such as Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy-ART), Fuzzy Min-Max Clustering (FMMC), Integrated Adaptive Fuzzy Clustering (IAFC) and Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory Map (Fuzzy-ARTMAP) to compare the pulses to determine if they are from the same emitter. Good deinterleaving is critical since inaccurate deinterleaving can lead to misidentification of emitters. The deinterleaving techniques evaluated in this paper are a sizeable and representative sample of both US and international efforts developed in the UK, Canada, Australia and Yugoslavia. Mardia [1989] and Milojevic and Popovich [1992] shows some of the early work in TOA-based deinterleaving. Ray [1997] demonstrates some of the more recent work in this area. Multi-parametric techniques are exemplified by Granger, et al [1998] and Thompson and Sciortino [2004]. This paper will provide an analysis of the algorithms and discuss the results obtained from the referenced articles. The algorithms will be evaluated for usefulness in deinterleaving pulse trains from agile radars.

  3. Marginal Bayesian nonparametric model for time to disease arrival of threatened amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiming; Hanson, Timothy; Knapp, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the extinction of hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. It has become increasingly important to be able to precisely predict time to Bd arrival in a population. The data analyzed herein present a unique challenge in terms of modeling because there is a strong spatial component to Bd arrival time and the traditional proportional hazards assumption is grossly violated. To address these concerns, we develop a novel marginal Bayesian nonparametric survival model for spatially correlated right-censored data. This class of models assumes that the logarithm of survival times marginally follow a mixture of normal densities with a linear-dependent Dirichlet process prior as the random mixing measure, and their joint distribution is induced by a Gaussian copula model with a spatial correlation structure. To invert high-dimensional spatial correlation matrices, we adopt a full-scale approximation that can capture both large- and small-scale spatial dependence. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with delayed rejection is proposed for posterior computation, and an R package spBayesSurv is provided to fit the model. This approach is first evaluated through simulations, then applied to threatened frog populations in Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Park. PMID:26148536

  4. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering.

  5. Comparative Study of Bunch Length And Arrival Time Measurements at FLASH

    SciTech Connect

    Schlarb, H.; Azima, A.; Dusterer, S.; Huning, M.; Knabbe, E.A.; Roehrs, M.; Rybnikov, V.; Schmidt, B.; Steffen, B.; Ross, M.C.; Schmueser, P.; Winter, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-04-16

    Diagnostic devices to precisely measure the longitudinal electron beam profile and the bunch arrival time require elaborate new instrumentation techniques. At FLASH, two entirely different methods are used. The bunch profile can be determined with high precision by a transverse deflecting RF structure, but the method is disruptive and does not allow to monitor multiple bunches in a macro-pulse train. It is therefore complemented by two non-disruptive electrooptical devices, called EO and TEO. The EO setup uses a dedicated diagnostic laser synchronized to the machine RF. The longitudinal electron beam profile is encoded in the intensity profile of a chirped laser pulse and analyzed by looking at the spectral composition of the pulse. The second setup, TEO, utilizes the TiSa-based laser system used for pump-probe experiments. Here, the temporal electron shape is encoded into the spatial dimension of the laser pulse by an intersection angle between the laser and the electron beam at the EO-crystal. In this paper, we present a comparative study of bunch length and arrival time measurements performed simultaneously with all three experimental techniques.

  6. Determination of differential arrival times by cross-correlating worldwide seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, M.; Nolet, G.; Zaroli, C.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-correlation delays are the preferred body wave observables in global tomography. Heterogeneity is the main factor influencing delay times found by cross-correlation. Not only the waveform, but also the arrival time itself is affected by differences in seismic velocity encountered along the way. An accurate method for estimating differential times of seismic arrivals across a regional array by cross-correlation was developed by VanDecar and Crosson [1990]. For the estimation of global travel time delays in different frequency bands, Sigloch and Nolet [2006] developed a method for the estimation of body wave delays using a matched filter, which requires the separate estimation of the source time function. Sigloch et al. [2008] found that waveforms often cluster in and opposite the direction of rupture propagation on the fault, confirming that the directivity effect is a major factor in shaping the waveform of large events. We propose a generalization of the VanDecar-Crosson method to which we add a correction for the directivity effect in the seismological data. The new method allows large events to be treated without the need to estimate the source time function for the computation of a matched synthetic waveform. The procedure consists in (1) the detection of the directivity effect in the data and the determination of a rupture model (unilateral or bilateral) explaining the differences in pulse duration among the stations, (2) the determination of an apparent fault rupture length explaining the pulse durations, (3) the removal of the delay due to the directivity effect in the pulse duration , by stretching or contracting the seismograms for directive and anti-directive stations respectively and (4) the application of a generalized VanDecar and Crosson method using only delays between pairs of stations that have an acceptable correlation coefficient. We validate our method by performing tests on synthetic data. Results show that the error between theoretical

  7. Simultaneous elastic parameter inversion in 2-D/3-D TTI medium combined later arrival times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-ying; Wang, Tao; Yang, Shang-bei; Li, Xing-wang; Huang, Guo-jiao

    2016-04-01

    Traditional traveltime inversion for anisotropic medium is, in general, based on a "weak" assumption in the anisotropic property, which simplifies both the forward part (ray tracing is performed once only) and the inversion part (a linear inversion solver is possible). But for some real applications, a general (both "weak" and "strong") anisotropic medium should be considered. In such cases, one has to develop a ray tracing algorithm to handle with the general (including "strong") anisotropic medium and also to design a non-linear inversion solver for later tomography. Meanwhile, it is constructive to investigate how much the tomographic resolution can be improved by introducing the later arrivals. For this motivation, we incorporated our newly developed ray tracing algorithm (multistage irregular shortest-path method) for general anisotropic media with a non-linear inversion solver (a damped minimum norm, constrained least squares problem with a conjugate gradient approach) to formulate a non-linear inversion solver for anisotropic medium. This anisotropic traveltime inversion procedure is able to combine the later (reflected) arrival times. Both 2-D/3-D synthetic inversion experiments and comparison tests show that (1) the proposed anisotropic traveltime inversion scheme is able to recover the high contrast anomalies and (2) it is possible to improve the tomographic resolution by introducing the later (reflected) arrivals, but not as expected in the isotropic medium, because the different velocity (qP, qSV and qSH) sensitivities (or derivatives) respective to the different elastic parameters are not the same but are also dependent on the inclination angle.

  8. Concept and Layout of the EAS muon arrival time distribution measurements on Mt. Aragats Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathes, Hermann Josef

    1999-08-01

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of the EAS development show specific features depending on the primary mass due to various particle interaction parameters influencing the development of the particle cascade in the atmosphere. The large muon detector of the ANI Cosmic Ray Observatory on Mt. Aragats gives a good opportunity to measure muon arrival times. In view of a possible extension of the muon underground installation EAS simulations have been performed. They consider various detector configurations with respect to the EAS core position. The observed muon time dispersion show specific trends with increasing radial distance and primary mass. Particularly, simulations based on the GEANT package had been done to study the faked detector signals due to secondaries generated in the surrounding material. A design for upgrading the muon detector array is presented which implies additional fast timing photomultipliers attached to the existing scintillation detectors.

  9. Multi-channel data acquisition system with absolute time synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Przemysław; Pustelny, Szymon; Budker, Dmitry; Lipiński, Marcin

    2014-11-01

    We present a low-cost, stand-alone global-time-synchronized data acquisition system. Our prototype allows recording up to four analog signals with a 16-bit resolution in variable ranges and a maximum sampling rate of 1000 S/s. The system simultaneously acquires readouts of external sensors e.g. magnetometer or thermometer. A complete data set, including a header containing timestamp, is stored on a Secure Digital (SD) card or transmitted to a computer using Universal Serial Bus (USB). The estimated time accuracy of the data acquisition is better than ±200 ns. The device is intended for use in a global network of optical magnetometers (the Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic physics - GNOME), which aims to search for signals heralding physics beyond the Standard Model, that can be generated by ordinary spin coupling to exotic particles or anomalous spin interactions.

  10. Absolute GPS Time Event Generation and Capture for Remote Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HIRES Collaboration

    The HiRes experiment operates fixed location and portable lasers at remote desert locations to generate calibration events. One physics goal of HiRes is to search for unusual showers. These may appear similar to upward or horizontally pointing laser tracks used for atmospheric calibration. It is therefore necessary to remove all of these calibration events from the HiRes detector data stream in a physics blind manner. A robust and convenient "tagging" method is to generate the calibration events at precisely known times. To facilitate this tagging method we have developed the GPSY (Global Positioning System YAG) module. It uses a GPS receiver, an embedded processor and additional timing logic to generate laser triggers at arbitrary programmed times and frequencies with better than 100nS accuracy. The GPSY module has two trigger outputs (one microsecond resolution) to trigger the laser flash-lamp and Q-switch and one event capture input (25nS resolution). The GPSY module can be programmed either by a front panel menu based interface or by a host computer via an RS232 serial interface. The latter also allows for computer logging of generated and captured event times. Details of the design and the implementation of these devices will be presented. 1 Motivation Air Showers represent a small fraction, much less than a percent, of the total High Resolution Fly's Eye data sample. The bulk of the sample is calibration data. Most of this calibration data is generated by two types of systems that use lasers. One type sends light directly to the detectors via optical fibers to monitor detector gains (Girard 2001). The other sends a beam of light into the sky and the scattered light that reaches the detectors is used to monitor atmospheric effects (Wiencke 1998). It is important that these calibration events be cleanly separated from the rest of the sample both to provide a complete set of monitoring information, and more

  11. Relaxing the closure assumption in single-season occupancy models: staggered arrival and departure times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Occupancy statistical models that account for imperfect detection have proved very useful in several areas of ecology, including species distribution and spatial dynamics, disease ecology, and ecological responses to climate change. These models are based on the collection of multiple samples at each of a number of sites within a given season, during which it is assumed the species is either absent or present and available for detection while each sample is taken. However, for some species, individuals are only present or available for detection seasonally. We present a statistical model that relaxes the closure assumption within a season by permitting staggered entry and exit times for the species of interest at each site. Based on simulation, our open model eliminates bias in occupancy estimators and in some cases increases precision. The power to detect the violation of closure is high if detection probability is reasonably high. In addition to providing more robust estimation of occupancy, this model permits comparison of phenology across sites, species, or years, by modeling variation in arrival or departure probabilities. In a comparison of four species of amphibians in Maryland we found that two toad species arrived at breeding sites later in the season than a salamander and frog species, and departed from sites earlier.

  12. Airborne Evaluation and Demonstration of a Time-Based Airborne Inter-Arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Howell, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed that allows an aircraft to obtain a precise inter-arrival time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) data to compute speed commands for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain this inter-arrival spacing behind another aircraft. The tool was evaluated in an operational environment at the Chicago O'Hare International Airport and in the surrounding terminal area with three participating aircraft flying fixed route area navigation (RNAV) paths and vector scenarios. Both manual and autothrottle speed management were included in the scenarios to demonstrate the ability to use ATAAS with either method of speed management. The results on the overall delivery precision of the tool, based on a target spacing of 90 seconds, were a mean of 90.8 seconds with a standard deviation of 7.7 seconds. The results for the RNAV and vector cases were, respectively, M=89.3, SD=4.9 and M=91.7, SD=9.0.

  13. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  14. Effects of territory competition and climate change on timing of arrival to breeding grounds: a game-theory approach.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jacob; Jonzén, Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Phenology is an important part of life history that is gaining increased attention because of recent climate change. We use game theory to model phenological adaptation in migratory birds that compete for territories at their breeding grounds. We investigate how the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for the timing of arrival is affected by changes in the onset of spring, the timing of the resource peak, and the season length. We compare the ESS mean arrival date with the environmental optimum, that is, the mean arrival date that maximizes fitness in the absence of competition. When competition is strong, the ESS mean arrival date responds less than the environmental optimum to shifts in the resource peak but more to changes in the onset of spring. Increased season length may not necessarily affect the environmental optimum but can still advance the ESS mean arrival date. Conversely, shifting a narrow resource distribution may change the environmental optimum without affecting the ESS mean arrival date. The ESS mean arrival date and the environmental optimum may even shift in different directions. Hence, treating phenology as an evolutionary game rather than an optimization problem fundamentally changes what we predict to be an adaptive response to environmental changes.

  15. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering. PMID:21125324

  16. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.; and others

    2014-08-15

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

  17. Presenting symptoms and onset-to-arrival time in patients with acute stroke and transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Gargano, Julia Warner; Wehner, Susan; Reeves, Mathew J

    2011-11-01

    Delayed arrival to the emergency department (ED) precludes most stroke patients from receiving thrombolytic treatment. Our objective in this study was to examine the association between presenting symptoms and onset-to-arrival time (ie, time between onset of symptoms to arrival at the ED) in a statewide stroke registry. Demographics, clinical data, and presenting symptoms were collected for patients with acute stroke or symptomatic transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted to 15 Michigan hospitals (n = 1922). Polytomous logistic regression models were developed to test the association between presenting symptoms and onset-to-arrival time (classified as <2 hours, 2-6 hours, or >6 hours/unknown). Onset-to-arrival time was <2 hours in 19% of the patients, 2-6 hours in 22%, and >6 hours/unknown in 59%. Unilateral symptoms (reported by 40%) and speech difficulties (reported by 22%) were associated with increased likelihood of arriving within 2 hours (unilateral: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.9; speech: aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2). Difficulty with walking, balance, or dizziness (12%), confusion (9%), loss of consciousness (6.7%) and falls (3.4%) were associated with lower likelihood of arriving within 2 hours (walking: aOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0; confusion: aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; consciousness: aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; falls: aOR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Presenting symptoms were strongly associated with time of arrival; patients with unilateral symptoms and speech difficulties were more likely to seek care early. Future studies should consider including more specific patient-level data to identify psychosocial and behavioral aspects of recognition and action to stroke symptoms. PMID:20719538

  18. Constrained Optimization of Average Arrival Time via a Probabilistic Approach to Transport Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Namazi-Rad, Mohammad-Reza; Dunbar, Michelle; Ghaderi, Hadi; Mokhtarian, Payam

    2015-01-01

    To achieve greater transit-time reduction and improvement in reliability of transport services, there is an increasing need to assist transport planners in understanding the value of punctuality; i.e. the potential improvements, not only to service quality and the consumer but also to the actual profitability of the service. In order for this to be achieved, it is important to understand the network-specific aspects that affect both the ability to decrease transit-time, and the associated cost-benefit of doing so. In this paper, we outline a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed changes to average transit-time, so as to determine the optimal choice of average arrival time subject to desired punctuality levels whilst simultaneously minimizing operational costs. We model the service transit-time variability using a truncated probability density function, and simultaneously compare the trade-off between potential gains and increased service costs, for several commonly employed cost-benefit functions of general form. We formulate this problem as a constrained optimization problem to determine the optimal choice of average transit time, so as to increase the level of service punctuality, whilst simultaneously ensuring a minimum level of cost-benefit to the service operator. PMID:25992902

  19. Measuring pulse times of arrival from broad-band pulsar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Desvignes, G.; Cognard, I.; Stappers, B. W.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Lee, K. J.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Karuppusamy, R.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, instrumentation enabling pulsar observations with unprecedentedly high fractional bandwidth has been under development which can be used to substantially improve the precision of pulsar timing experiments. The traditional template-matching method used to calculate pulse times of arrival (ToAs) may not function effectively on these broad-band data due to a variety of effects such as diffractive scintillation in the interstellar medium, profile variation as a function of frequency, dispersion measure (DM) evolution, and so forth. In this paper, we describe the channelized discrete Fourier transform method that can greatly mitigate the influence of the aforementioned effects when measuring ToAs from broad-band timing data. The method is tested on simulated data, and its potential in improving timing precision is shown. We further apply the method to PSR J1909-3744 data collected at the Nançay Radio Telescope with the Nançay Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument. We demonstrate removal of systematics due to the scintillation effect as well as improvement on ToA measurement uncertainties. Our method also determines temporal variations in DM, which are consistent with multichannel timing approaches used earlier.

  20. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.10 - Am I required to record departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... departure/arrival dates and times on my travel claim? 301-11.10 Section 301-11.10 Public Contracts and... dates and times on my travel claim? You must record the date of departure from, and arrival at, the... visited. You do not have to record departure/arrival times, but you must annotate your travel claim...

  5. Rapid estimation of earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noda, Shunta; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple approach to measure earthquake magnitude M using the time difference (Top) between the body‐wave onset and the arrival time of the peak high‐frequency amplitude in an accelerogram. Measured in this manner, we find that Mw is proportional to 2logTop for earthquakes 5≤Mw≤7, which is the theoretical proportionality if Top is proportional to source dimension and stress drop is scale invariant. Using high‐frequency (>2  Hz) data, the root mean square (rms) residual between Mw and MTop(M estimated from Top) is approximately 0.5 magnitude units. The rms residuals of the high‐frequency data in passbands between 2 and 16 Hz are uniformly smaller than those obtained from the lower‐frequency data. Top depends weakly on epicentral distance, and this dependence can be ignored for distances <200  km. Retrospective application of this algorithm to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake produces a final magnitude estimate of M 9.0 at 120 s after the origin time. We conclude that Top of high‐frequency (>2  Hz) accelerograms has value in the context of earthquake early warning for extremely large events.

  6. P-wave arrival times for the 1991 racha, Georgia earthquake sequence at stations of a test, sparse network

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S C; Schultz, C A; Ryall, F

    2000-02-02

    The following arrival information is a supplement to Myers and Schultz (2000). Myers and Schultz (2000) demonstrate the improvement in sparse-network location that can be achieved by using travel-time corrections determined with a Bayesian Kriging algorithm (Schultz et al., 1998). Precise, benchmark locations are provided by a local aftershock study of the 1991 Racha, Georgia earthquake sequence in the Caucasus Mountains (Fuenzalida et al., 1997). A test network is used to relocate the aftershocks with and without travel-time corrections. The test network is meant to represent a typical International Monitoring System configuration, with 6 stations at regional to near teleseismic distances (less then 30{sup o} from the epicenter). The following arrival-time data help to facilitate the reproduction of Myers and Schultz (2000). The arrival picks were obtained from the International Seismic Center (ISC) (openly available) and a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) analyst (Flori Ryan). Table 1 lists the arrivals in epic time (time since January 1, 1970). The author of the arrival pick is listed as either ''flori'' or ''-'', where ''-'' indicates ISC. Table 2 lists the hypocenter information determined in the local aftershock study of Fuenzalida et al. (1997), and Table 3 lists the station information for the Racha test network. Fields in all tables are described in the CSS3.O database schema.

  7. Ultra-Wideband Time-Difference-of-Arrival High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dekome, Kent; Dusl, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a research and development effort for a prototype ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system that is currently under development at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The system is being studied for use in tracking of lunar./Mars rovers and astronauts during early exploration missions when satellite navigation systems are not available. U IATB impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology is exploited in the design and implementation of the prototype location and tracking system. A three-dimensional (3D) proximity tracking prototype design using commercially available UWB products is proposed to implement the Time-Difference- Of-Arrival (TDOA) tracking methodology in this research effort. The TDOA tracking algorithm is utilized for location estimation in the prototype system, not only to exploit the precise time resolution possible with UWB signals, but also to eliminate the need for synchronization between the transmitter and the receiver. Simulations show that the TDOA algorithm can achieve the fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA estimates for close-in tracking. Field tests demonstrated that this prototype UWB TDOA High Resolution 3D Proximity Tracking System is feasible for providing positioning-awareness information in a 3D space to a robotic control system. This 3D tracking system is developed for a robotic control system in a facility called "Moonyard" at Honeywell Defense & System in Arizona under a Space Act Agreement.

  8. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  9. Estimating permeability from quasi-static deformation: Temporal variations and arrival time inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Transient pressure variations within a reservoir can be treated as a propagating front and analyzed using an asymptotic formulation. From this perspective one can define a pressure 'arrival time' and formulate solutions along trajectories, in the manner of ray theory. We combine this methodology and a technique for mapping overburden deformation into reservoir volume change as a means to estimate reservoir flow properties, such as permeability. Given the entire 'travel time' or phase field, obtained from the deformation data, we can construct the trajectories directly, there-by linearizing the inverse problem. A numerical study indicates that, using this approach, we can infer large-scale variations in flow properties. In an application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) observations associated with a CO{sub 2} injection at the Krechba field, Algeria, we image pressure propagation to the northwest. An inversion for flow properties indicates a linear trend of high permeability. The high permeability correlates with a northwest trending fault on the flank of the anticline which defines the field.

  10. Priority effects of time of arrival of plant functional groups override sowing interval or density effects: a grassland experiment.

    PubMed

    von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Rascher, Uwe; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Plückers, Christine; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Temperton, Vicky M

    2014-01-01

    Priority effects occur when species that arrive first in a habitat significantly affect the establishment, growth, or reproduction of species arriving later and thus affect functioning of communities. However, we know little about how the timing of arrival of functionally different species may alter structure and function during assembly. Even less is known about how plant density might interact with initial assembly. In a greenhouse experiment legumes, grasses or forbs were sown a number of weeks before the other two plant functional types were sown (PFT) in combination with a sowing density treatment. Legumes, grasses or non-legume forbs were sown first at three different density levels followed by sowing of the remaining PFTs after three or six-weeks. We found that the order of arrival of different plant functional types had a much stronger influence on aboveground productivity than sowing density or interval between the sowing events. The sowing of legumes before the other PFTs produced the highest aboveground biomass. The larger sowing interval led to higher asymmetric competition, with highest dominance of the PFT sown first. It seems that legumes were better able to get a head-start and be productive before the later groups arrived, but that their traits allowed for better subsequent establishment of non-legume PFTs. Our study indicates that the manipulation of the order of arrival can create priority effects which favour functional groups of plants differently and thus induce different assembly routes and affect community composition and functioning.

  11. Priority effects of time of arrival of plant functional groups override sowing interval or density effects: a grassland experiment.

    PubMed

    von Gillhaussen, Philipp; Rascher, Uwe; Jablonowski, Nicolai D; Plückers, Christine; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Temperton, Vicky M

    2014-01-01

    Priority effects occur when species that arrive first in a habitat significantly affect the establishment, growth, or reproduction of species arriving later and thus affect functioning of communities. However, we know little about how the timing of arrival of functionally different species may alter structure and function during assembly. Even less is known about how plant density might interact with initial assembly. In a greenhouse experiment legumes, grasses or forbs were sown a number of weeks before the other two plant functional types were sown (PFT) in combination with a sowing density treatment. Legumes, grasses or non-legume forbs were sown first at three different density levels followed by sowing of the remaining PFTs after three or six-weeks. We found that the order of arrival of different plant functional types had a much stronger influence on aboveground productivity than sowing density or interval between the sowing events. The sowing of legumes before the other PFTs produced the highest aboveground biomass. The larger sowing interval led to higher asymmetric competition, with highest dominance of the PFT sown first. It seems that legumes were better able to get a head-start and be productive before the later groups arrived, but that their traits allowed for better subsequent establishment of non-legume PFTs. Our study indicates that the manipulation of the order of arrival can create priority effects which favour functional groups of plants differently and thus induce different assembly routes and affect community composition and functioning. PMID:24497995

  12. Evaluation of Operational Procedures for Using a Time-Based Airborne Inter-arrival Spacing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Abbott, Terence S.; Eischeid, Todd M.

    2002-01-01

    An airborne tool has been developed based on the concept of an aircraft maintaining a time-based spacing interval from the preceding aircraft. The Advanced Terminal Area Approach Spacing (ATAAS) tool uses Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) aircraft state data to compute a speed command for the ATAAS-equipped aircraft to obtain a required time interval behind another aircraft. The tool and candidate operational procedures were tested in a high-fidelity, full mission simulator with active airline subject pilots flying an arrival scenario using three different modes for speed control. The objectives of this study were to validate the results of a prior Monte Carlo analysis of the ATAAS algorithm and to evaluate the concept from the standpoint of pilot acceptability and workload. Results showed that the aircraft was able to consistently achieve the target spacing interval within one second (the equivalent of approximately 220 ft at a final approach speed of 130 kt) when the ATAAS speed guidance was autothrottle-coupled, and a slightly greater (4-5 seconds), but consistent interval with the pilot-controlled speed modes. The subject pilots generally rated the workload level with the ATAAS procedure as similar to that with standard procedures, and also rated most aspects of the procedure high in terms of acceptability. Although pilots indicated that the head-down time was higher with ATAAS, the acceptability of head-down time was rated high. Oculometer data indicated slight changes in instrument scan patterns, but no significant change in the amount of time spent looking out the window between the ATAAS procedure versus standard procedures.

  13. Fault zone structure determined through the analysis of earthquake arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, A.

    1991-10-01

    This thesis develops and applies a technique for the simultaneous determination of P and S wave velocity models and hypocenters from a set of arrival times. The velocity models are parameterized in terms of cubic B-splines basis functions which permit the retrieval of smooth models that can be used directly for generation of synthetic seismograms using the ray method. In addition, this type of smoothing limits the rise of instabilities related to the poor resolving power of the data. V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios calculated from P and S models display generally instabilities related to the different ray-coverages of compressional and shear waves. However, V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratios are important for correct identification of rock types and this study introduces a new methodology based on adding some coupling (i.e., proportionality) between P and S models which stabilizes the V{sub P}/V{sub S} models around some average preset value determined from the data. Tests of the technique with synthetic data show that this additional coupling regularizes effectively the resulting models.

  14. Application of Continuous-Time Batch Markovian Arrival Processes and Particle Tracking Model to Probabilistic Sediment Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Christina; Hung, Serena

    2016-04-01

    To more precisely describe particle movement in surface water, both the random particle arrival process at the receiving water and the stochastic particle movement in the receiving water should be carefully considered in sediment transport modeling. In this study, a stochastic framework is developed for a probabilistic description of discrete particle transport through a probability density function of sediment concentrations and transport rates. In order to more realistically describe the particle arrivals into receiving waters at random times and with a probabilistic particle number in each arrival, the continuous-time batch Markovian arrival process is introduced. The particle tracking model (PTM) composed of physically based stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for particle trajectory is then used to depict the random movement of particles in the receiving water. Particle deposition and entrainment processes are considered in the model. It is expected that the particle concentrations in the receiving water and particle transport rates can be mathematically expressed as a stochastic process. Compared with deterministic modeling, the proposed approach has the advantage of capturing any randomly selected scenarios (or realizations) of flow and sediment properties. Availability of a more sophisticated stochastic process for random particle arrival processes can assist in quantifying the probabilistic characteristics of sediment transport rates and concentrations. In addition, for a given turbidity threshold, the risk of exceeding a pre-established water quality standard can be quantified as needed.

  15. Landscape-scale pest suppression is mediated by timing of predator arrival.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Alejandro C; Venables, William N; Schellhorn, Nancy A

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that biological control of agricultural pests is affected by the landscape context, although the mechanisms behind this pattern have received little attention. Ecological theory predicts that one key mechanism mediating successful pest suppression is early predator immigration to agricultural fields. However, the importance of this population process under different landscape contexts remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the relative importance of landscape context and timing of predator immigration on aphid suppression by manipulating exposure to predation in agroecosystems located across a gradient of landscape complexity in a subtropical horticultural region in Australia. Aphid suppression varied with landscape context, from populations escaping control to almost complete pest suppression. In general, we found higher aphid suppression when predators were allowed immediate and continuous access to aphids than when predators were delayed or excluded for a week, but responses varied in each landscape. Contrary to previous reports from temperate agricultural landscapes, aphid suppression was neutral or negatively associated with natural and seminatural vegetation, whereas aphid suppression was positively associated with landscapes with a higher proportion of alfalfa. When landscapes were classified according to their levels of complexity, we showed that early predation resulted in similar levels of pest suppression in simplified landscapes (i.e., with low proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity) as late predation in complex landscapes (i.e., with high proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity). Our data show that timing of predator arrival to agricultural fields is as important as landscape complexity for mediating pest control in agroecosystems. Furthermore, our results suggest that key distributions of suitable habitats that facilitate natural enemy movement can enhance biological control in simplified landscapes. PMID:26465046

  16. Landscape-scale pest suppression is mediated by timing of predator arrival.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Alejandro C; Venables, William N; Schellhorn, Nancy A

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that biological control of agricultural pests is affected by the landscape context, although the mechanisms behind this pattern have received little attention. Ecological theory predicts that one key mechanism mediating successful pest suppression is early predator immigration to agricultural fields. However, the importance of this population process under different landscape contexts remains unknown. Here, we elucidate the relative importance of landscape context and timing of predator immigration on aphid suppression by manipulating exposure to predation in agroecosystems located across a gradient of landscape complexity in a subtropical horticultural region in Australia. Aphid suppression varied with landscape context, from populations escaping control to almost complete pest suppression. In general, we found higher aphid suppression when predators were allowed immediate and continuous access to aphids than when predators were delayed or excluded for a week, but responses varied in each landscape. Contrary to previous reports from temperate agricultural landscapes, aphid suppression was neutral or negatively associated with natural and seminatural vegetation, whereas aphid suppression was positively associated with landscapes with a higher proportion of alfalfa. When landscapes were classified according to their levels of complexity, we showed that early predation resulted in similar levels of pest suppression in simplified landscapes (i.e., with low proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity) as late predation in complex landscapes (i.e., with high proportions of alfalfa and habitat diversity). Our data show that timing of predator arrival to agricultural fields is as important as landscape complexity for mediating pest control in agroecosystems. Furthermore, our results suggest that key distributions of suitable habitats that facilitate natural enemy movement can enhance biological control in simplified landscapes.

  17. Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

  18. Comparison of the CME-associated shock arrival times at the earth using the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2012-12-01

    We have made a comparison of CME-associated shock arrival times at the earth based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone models using 29 halo CMEs from 2001 to 2002. These halo CMEs have cone model parameters from Michalek et al. (2007) as well as their associated interplanetary (IP) shocks. For this study we consider three different cone models (an asymmetric cone model, an ice-cream cone model and an elliptical cone model) to determine CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width and source location), which are used for input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the arrival times for the elliptical cone model is 10 hours, which is about 2 hours smaller than those of the other models. However, this value is still larger than that (8.7 hours) of an empirical model by Kim et al. (2007). We are investigating several possibilities on relatively large errors of the WSA-ENLIL cone model, which may be caused by CME-CME interaction, background solar wind speed, and/or CME density enhancement.

  19. Arterial spin labelling reveals prolonged arterial arrival time in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bachari, Sarah; Parkes, Laura M.; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Hanby, Martha F.; Tharaken, Vivek; Leroi, Iracema; Emsley, Hedley C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, yet effective disease modifying treatments are still lacking. Neurodegeneration involves multiple interacting pathological pathways. The extent to which neurovascular mechanisms are involved is not well defined in IPD. We aimed to determine whether novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including arterial spin labelling (ASL) quantification of cerebral perfusion, can reveal altered neurovascular status (NVS) in IPD. Fourteen participants with IPD (mean ± SD age 65.1 ± 5.9 years) and 14 age and cardiovascular risk factor matched control participants (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 4.2 years) underwent a 3T MRI scan protocol. ASL images were collected before, during and after a 6 minute hypercapnic challenge. FLAIR images were used to determine white matter lesion score. Quantitative images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial arrival time (AAT) were calculated from the ASL data both at rest and during hypercapnia. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) images were calculated, depicting the change in CBF and AAT relative to the change in end-tidal CO2. A significant (p = 0.005) increase in whole brain averaged baseline AAT was observed in IPD participants (mean ± SD age 1532 ± 138 ms) compared to controls (mean ± SD age 1335 ± 165 ms). Voxel-wise analysis revealed this to be widespread across the brain. However, there were no statistically significant differences in white matter lesion score, CBF, or CVR between patients and controls. Regional CBF, but not AAT, in the IPD group was found to correlate positively with Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores. These findings provide further evidence of alterations in NVS in IPD. PMID:25379411

  20. `Inter-Arrival Time' Inspired Algorithm and its Application in Clustering and Molecular Phylogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolekar, Pandurang S.; Kale, Mohan M.; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila

    2010-10-01

    Bioinformatics, being multidisciplinary field, involves applications of various methods from allied areas of Science for data mining using computational approaches. Clustering and molecular phylogeny is one of the key areas in Bioinformatics, which help in study of classification and evolution of organisms. Molecular phylogeny algorithms can be divided into distance based and character based methods. But most of these methods are dependent on pre-alignment of sequences and become computationally intensive with increase in size of data and hence demand alternative efficient approaches. `Inter arrival time distribution' (IATD) is a popular concept in the theory of stochastic system modeling but its potential in molecular data analysis has not been fully explored. The present study reports application of IATD in Bioinformatics for clustering and molecular phylogeny. The proposed method provides IATDs of nucleotides in genomic sequences. The distance function based on statistical parameters of IATDs is proposed and distance matrix thus obtained is used for the purpose of clustering and molecular phylogeny. The method is applied on a dataset of 3' non-coding region sequences (NCR) of Dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3), subtype III, reported in 2008. The phylogram thus obtained revealed the geographical distribution of DENV-3 isolates. Sri Lankan DENV-3 isolates were further observed to be clustered in two sub-clades corresponding to pre and post Dengue hemorrhagic fever emergence groups. These results are consistent with those reported earlier, which are obtained using pre-aligned sequence data as an input. These findings encourage applications of the IATD based method in molecular phylogenetic analysis in particular and data mining in general.

  1. Effects of a Longer Detection Window in VHF Time-of-Arrival Lightning Detection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M.; Holle, R.; Demetriades, N.

    2003-12-01

    Lightning detection systems that operate by measuring the times of arrival (TOA) of short bursts of radiation at VHF can produce huge volumes of data. The first automated system of this kind, the NASA Kennedy Space Center LDAR network, is capable of producing one detection every 100 usec from each of seven sensors (Lennon and Maier, 1991), where each detection consists of the time and amplitude of the highest-amplitude peak observed within the 100 usec window. More modern systems have been shown to produce very detailed information with one detection every 10 usec (Rison et al., 2001). Operating such systems in real time, however, can become expensive because of the large data communications rates required. One solution to this problem is to use a longer detection window, say 500 usec. In principle, this has little or no effect on the flash detection efficiency because each flash typically produces a very large number of these VHF bursts (known as sources). By simply taking the largest-amplitude peak from every 500-usec interval instead of every 100-usec interval, we should detect the largest 20{%} of the sources that would have been detected using the 100-usec window. However, questions remain about the exact effect of a longer detection window on the source detection efficiency with distance from the network, its effects on how well flashes are represented in space, and how well the reduced information represents the parent thunderstorm. The latter issue is relevant for automated location and tracking of thunderstorm cells using data from VHF TOA lightning detection networks, as well as for understanding relationships between lightning and severe weather. References Lennon, C.L. and L.M. Maier, Lightning mapping system. Proceedings, Intl. Aerospace and Ground Conf. on Lightning and Static Elec., Cocoa Beach, Fla., NASA Conf. Pub. 3106, vol. II, pp. 89-1 - 89-10, 1991. Rison, W., P. Krehbiel, R. Thomas, T. Hamlin, J. Harlin, High time resolution lightning mapping

  2. The Development of a General Associative Learning Account of Skill Acquisition in a Relative Arrival-Time Judgment Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Neal, Andrew; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Current theory assumes that individuals only use information from the immediate environment to perform relative arrival-time judgment tasks. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the memory requirements of this task. The authors present an analysis of the inputs to the memory system and the processes that map those inputs onto outputs.…

  3. A simple approach to estimate earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) to be effective, the rapid determination of magnitude (M) is important. At present, there are no methods which can accurately determine M even for extremely large events (ELE) for EEW, although a number of the methods have been suggested. In order to solve the problem, we use a simple approach derived from the fact that the time difference (Top) from the onset of the body wave to the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude of the body wave scales with M. To test this approach, we use 15,172 accelerograms of regional earthquakes (most of them are M4-7 events) from the K-NET, as the first step. Top is defined by analyzing the S-wave in this step. The S-onsets are calculated by adding the theoretical S-P times to the P-onsets which are manually picked. As the result, it is confirmed that logTop has high correlation with Mw, especially for the higher frequency band (> 2Hz). The RMS of residuals between Mw and M estimated in this step is less than 0.5. In case of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, M is estimated to be 9.01 at 150 seconds after the initiation of the event.To increase the number of the ELE data, we add the teleseismic high frequency P-wave records to the analysis, as the second step. According to the result of various back-projection analyses, we consider the teleseismic P-waves to contain information on the entire rupture process. The BHZ channel data of the Global Seismographic Network for 24 events are used in this step. 2-4Hz data from the stations in the epicentral distance range of 30-85 degrees are used following the method of Hara [2007]. All P-onsets are manually picked. Top obtained from the teleseimic data show good correlation with Mw, complementing the one obtained from the regional data. We conclude that the proposed approach is quite useful for estimating reliable M for EEW, even for the ELE.

  4. Automated seismic event location by arrival time stacking: Applications to local and micro-seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Braun, T.; Philipp, J.; Dahm, T.

    2012-04-01

    Locating seismic events is one of the oldest problem in seismology. In microseismicity application, when the number of event is very large, it is not possible to locate earthquake manually and automated location procedures must be established. Automated seismic event location at different scales is very important in different application areas, including mining monitoring, reservoir geophysics and early warning systems. Location is needed to start rescue operations rapidly. Locating and mapping microearthquakes or acoustic emission sources in mining environments is important for monitoring of mines stability. Mapping fractures through microseimicity distribution inside hydrocarbon reservoirs is needed to find areas with an higher permeability and enhance oil production. In the last 20 years a large number of picking algorithm was developed in order to locate seismic events automatically. While P onsets can now be accurately picked using automatic routines, the automatic picking of later seismic phases (including S onset) is still problematic , thus limiting the location performance. In this work we present a picking free location method based on the use of the Short-Term-Average/Long-Term-Average (STA/LTA) traces at different stations as observed data. For different locations and origin times, observed STA/LTA are stacked along the travel time surface corresponding to the selected hypocentre. Iterating this procedure on a three-dimensional grid we retrieve a multidimensional matrix whose absolute maximum corresponds to the spatio-temporal coordinates of the seismic event. We tested our methodology on synthetic data, simulating different environments and network geometries. Finally, we apply our method to real datasets related to microseismic activity in mines and earthquake swarms in Italy. This work has been funded by the German BMBF "Geotechnologien" project MINE (BMBF03G0737A).

  5. Absolute frequency measurement at 10-16 level based on the international atomic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, H.; Fujieda, M.; Kumagai, M.; Ido, T.

    2016-06-01

    Referring to International Atomic Time (TAI), we measured the absolute frequency of the 87Sr lattice clock with its uncertainty of 1.1 x 10-15. Unless an optical clock is continuously operated for the five days of the TAI grid, it is required to evaluate dead time uncertainty in order to use the available five-day average of the local frequency reference. We homogeneously distributed intermittent measurements over the five-day grid of TAI, by which the dead time uncertainty was reduced to low 10-16 level. Three campaigns of the five (or four)-day consecutive measurements have resulted in the absolute frequency of the 87Sr clock transition of 429 228 004 229 872.85 (47) Hz, where the systematic uncertainty of the 87Sr optical frequency standard amounts to 8.6 x 10-17.

  6. YO{exclamation_point} - A Time-of-Arrival Receiver for Removal of Femtosecond Helicity-Correlated Beam Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Musson, J.; Allison, T.; Freyberger, A.; Kuhn, J.; Quinn, B.

    2004-11-10

    The G0 parity violation experiment at Jefferson Lab is based on time-of-flight measurements, and is sensitive to timing effects between the two electron helicity states of the beam. Photon counters triggered by time-of-arrival at the target mandate that timing must be independent of delays associated with different orbits taken by the two helicity states. In addition, the standard 499 MHz beam structure is altered such that 1 of every 16 microbunches are filled, resulting in an arrival frequency of 31.1875 (31) MHz, and an average current of 40 {mu}A. Helicity correction involves identifying and tracking the 31 MHz sub-harmonic, applying a fast/fine phase correction, and finally producing a clean 31 MHz trigger and a 499 MHz clock train. These signals are phase-matched to the beam arrival at the target on the order of femtoseconds. The 10 kHz output bandwidth is sufficiently greater than the 30 Hz helicity flip settling time (500 {mu}s). This permits the system to correct each helicity bin for any orbit-induced timing inequalities. A sampling phase detection scheme is used in order to eliminate the unavoidable 2n/n phase shifts associated with frequency dividers. Conventional receiver architecture and DSP techniques are combined for maximum sensitivity, bandwidth, and flexibility. Results of bench tests, commissioning and production data will be presented.

  7. YO!-A Time-of-Arrival Receiver for Removal of Femtosecond Helicity-Correlated Beam Effects

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson; Trent Allison; Arne Freyberger; Joachim Kuhn; Brian Quinn

    2004-05-02

    The G0 parity violation experiment at Jefferson Lab is based on time-of-flight measurements, and is sensitive to timing effects between the two electron helicity states of the beam. Photon counters triggered by time-of-arrival at the target mandate that timing must be independent of delays associated with different orbits taken by the two helicity states. In addition, the standard 499 MHz beam structure is altered such that 1 of every 16 microbunches are filled, resulting in an arrival frequency of 31.1875 (31) MHz, and an average current of 40 {micro}A. Helicity correction involves identifying and tracking the 31 MHz subharmonic, applying a fast/fine phase correction, and finally producing a clean 31 MHz trigger and a 499 MHz clock train. These signals are phase-matched to the beam arrival at the target on the order of femtoseconds. The 10 kHz output bandwidth is sufficiently greater than the 30 Hz helicity flip settling time (500 {micro}s). This permits the system to correct each helicity bin for any orbit-induced timing inequalities. A sampling phase detection scheme is used in order to eliminate the unavoidable 2n/n phase shifts associated with frequency dividers. Conventional receiver architecture and DSP techniques are combined for maximum sensitivity, bandwidth, and flexibility. Results of bench tests, commissioning and production data will be presented.

  8. Absolute value optimization to estimate phase properties of stochastic time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Most existing deconvolution techniques are incapable of determining phase properties of wavelets from time series data; to assure a unique solution, minimum phase is usually assumed. It is demonstrated, for moving average processes of order one, that deconvolution filtering using the absolute value norm provides an estimate of the wavelet shape that has the correct phase character when the random driving process is nonnormal. Numerical tests show that this result probably applies to more general processes.

  9. Search for Coincidences in Time and Arrival Direction of Auger Data with Astrophysical Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Anchordoqui, Luis; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-06-01

    The data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for coincidences between the arrival directions of high-energy cosmic rays and the positions in the sky of astrophysical transients. Special attention is directed towards gamma ray observations recorded by NASA's Swift mission, which have an angular resolution similar to that of the Auger surface detectors. In particular, we check our data for evidence of a signal associated with the giant flare that came from the soft gamma repeater 1806-20 on December 27, 2004.

  10. Incorporating fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times into seismic tomography: Application at Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, Ninfa L.; Thurber, Clifford; Peng, Zhigang; Zhang, Haijiang; Zhao, Peng

    2013-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) P wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHWs), and data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global- and local-minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of FZHWs and DWSAs results in as much as a 5% and a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast, respectively, for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to that of Thurber et al. [2006]. Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Following Ampuero and Ben-Zion (2008), the pattern of velocity contrasts is consistent with the observed bilateral rupture propagation for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Although the velocity contrasts also suggest bilateral rupture propagation for the 1966 Parkfield earthquake, the fault is creeping to the NW here, i.e., exhibiting velocity-strengthening behavior. Thus, it is not surprising that rupture propagated only SE during this event.

  11. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  12. Predicting the Arrival Time of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell and Drag Force Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tong; Wang, Yikang; Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Mingde; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. In this paper, we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun-Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1-5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  13. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM).

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission. PMID:26754955

  14. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM).

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  15. Predicting the Arrival Time of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell and Drag Force Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Tong; Wang, Yikang; Wan, Linfeng; Cheng, Xin; Ding, Mingde; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Accurately predicting the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to the Earth based on remote images is of critical significance for the study of space weather. In this paper, we make a statistical study of 21 Earth-directed CMEs, specifically exploring the relationship between CME initial speeds and transit times. The initial speed of a CME is obtained by fitting the CME with the Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and is thus free of projection effects. We then use the drag force model to fit results of the transit time versus the initial speed. By adopting different drag regimes, i.e., the viscous, aerodynamics, and hybrid regimes, we get similar results, with a least mean estimation error of the hybrid model of 12.9 hr. CMEs with a propagation angle (the angle between the propagation direction and the Sun–Earth line) larger than their half-angular widths arrive at the Earth with an angular deviation caused by factors other than the radial solar wind drag. The drag force model cannot be reliably applied to such events. If we exclude these events in the sample, the prediction accuracy can be improved, i.e., the estimation error reduces to 6.8 hr. This work suggests that it is viable to predict the arrival time of CMEs to the Earth based on the initial parameters with fairly good accuracy. Thus, it provides a method of forecasting space weather 1–5 days following the occurrence of CMEs.

  16. Locating single-point sources from arrival times containing large picking errors (LPEs): the virtual field optimization method (VFOM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi-Bing; Wang, Ze-Wei; Dong, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microseismic monitoring systems using local location techniques tend to be timely, automatic and stable. One basic requirement of these systems is the automatic picking of arrival times. However, arrival times generated by automated techniques always contain large picking errors (LPEs), which may make the location solution unreliable and cause the integrated system to be unstable. To overcome the LPE issue, we propose the virtual field optimization method (VFOM) for locating single-point sources. In contrast to existing approaches, the VFOM optimizes a continuous and virtually established objective function to search the space for the common intersection of the hyperboloids, which is determined by sensor pairs other than the least residual between the model-calculated and measured arrivals. The results of numerical examples and in-site blasts show that the VFOM can obtain more precise and stable solutions than traditional methods when the input data contain LPEs. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of LPEs on objective functions to determine the LPE-tolerant mechanism, velocity sensitivity and stopping criteria of the VFOM. The proposed method is also capable of locating acoustic sources using passive techniques such as passive sonar detection and acoustic emission.

  17. Using soft X-ray observations to help the prediction of flare related interplanetary shocks arrival times at the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Qin, G.

    2012-04-01

    It is very important to predict the shock arrival times (SATs) at Earth for space weather practice. In this paper we use the energy of soft X-ray during solar flare events to help predict the SATs at Earth. We combine the soft X-ray energy and SAT prediction models previously developed by researchers to obtain two new methods. By testing the methods with the total of 585 solar flare events following the generation of a metric type II radio burst during the Solar Cycle 23 from September 1997 to December 2006, we find that the predictions of SATs at Earth could be improved by significantly increasing PODn, the proportion of events without shock detection that were correctly forecast. PODn represents a method's ability in forecasting the solar flare events without shocks arriving at the Earth, which is important for operational predictions.

  18. THE NANOGRAV NINE-YEAR DATA SET: OBSERVATIONS, ARRIVAL TIME MEASUREMENTS, AND ANALYSIS OF 37 MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James M.; Dolch, Timothy; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Demorest, Paul B.; Chamberlin, Sydney; Christy, Brian; Cornish, Neil; Crowter, Kathryn; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Marjorie E.; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Garver-Daniels, Nathan; Jones, Megan L.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Jones, Glenn; Collaboration: NANOGrav Collaboration; and others

    2015-11-01

    We present high-precision timing observations spanning up to nine years for 37 millisecond pulsars monitored with the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We describe the observational and instrumental setups used to collect the data, and methodology applied for calculating pulse times of arrival; these include novel methods for measuring instrumental offsets and characterizing low signal-to-noise ratio timing results. The time of arrival data are fit to a physical timing model for each source, including terms that characterize time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-dependent pulse shape evolution. In conjunction with the timing model fit, we have performed a Bayesian analysis of a parameterized timing noise model for each source, and detect evidence for excess low-frequency, or “red,” timing noise in 10 of the pulsars. For 5 of these cases this is likely due to interstellar medium propagation effects rather than intrisic spin variations. Subsequent papers in this series will present further analysis of this data set aimed at detecting or limiting the presence of nanohertz-frequency gravitational wave signals.

  19. The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Observations, Arrival Time Measurements, and Analysis of 37 Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The NANOGrav Collaboration; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, James M.; Cornish, Neil; Crowter, Kathryn; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Ferdman, Robert D.; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Garver-Daniels, Nathan; Gonzalez, Marjorie E.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Jones, Glenn; Jones, Megan L.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Koop, Michael; Lam, Michael T.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Levin, Lina; Lommen, Andrea N.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Luo, Jing; Lynch, Ryan S.; Madison, Dustin; McLaughlin, Maura A.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Nice, David J.; Palliyaguru, Nipuni; Pennucci, Timothy T.; Ransom, Scott M.; Siemens, Xavier; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Stinebring, Daniel R.; Stovall, Kevin; Swiggum, Joseph K.; Vallisneri, Michele; van Haasteren, Rutger; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Weiwei

    2015-11-01

    We present high-precision timing observations spanning up to nine years for 37 millisecond pulsars monitored with the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes as part of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) project. We describe the observational and instrumental setups used to collect the data, and methodology applied for calculating pulse times of arrival; these include novel methods for measuring instrumental offsets and characterizing low signal-to-noise ratio timing results. The time of arrival data are fit to a physical timing model for each source, including terms that characterize time-variable dispersion measure and frequency-dependent pulse shape evolution. In conjunction with the timing model fit, we have performed a Bayesian analysis of a parameterized timing noise model for each source, and detect evidence for excess low-frequency, or “red,” timing noise in 10 of the pulsars. For 5 of these cases this is likely due to interstellar medium propagation effects rather than intrisic spin variations. Subsequent papers in this series will present further analysis of this data set aimed at detecting or limiting the presence of nanohertz-frequency gravitational wave signals.

  20. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

  1. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1987-03-10

    An apparatus is disclosed for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously. 3 figs.

  2. Optical pin apparatus for measuring the arrival time and velocity of shock waves and particles

    DOEpatents

    Benjamin, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for the detection of the arrival and for the determination of the velocity of disturbances such as shock-wave fronts and/or projectiles. Optical pins using fluid-filled microballoons as the light source and an optical fiber as a link to a photodetector have been used to investigate shock-waves and projectiles. A microballoon filled with a noble gas is affixed to one end of a fiber-optic cable, and the other end of the cable is attached to a high-speed streak camera. As the shock-front or projectile compresses the microballoon, the gas inside is heated and compressed producing a bright flash of light. The flash of light is transmitted via the optic cable to the streak camera where it is recorded. One image-converter streak camera is capable of recording information from more than 100 microballoon-cable combinations simultaneously.

  3. Comparison of different standards for real-time PCR-based absolute quantification.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, S; Doherty, T Mark; Kenneth, John

    2010-03-31

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool used for both research and diagnostic, which has the advantage, compared to relative quantification, of providing an absolute copy number for a particular target. However, reliable standards are essential for qPCR. In this study, we have compared four types of commonly-used standards--PCR products (with and without purification) and cloned target sequences (circular and linear plasmid) for their stability during storage (using percentage of variance in copy numbers, PCR efficiency and regression curve correlation coefficient (R(2))) using hydrolysis probe (TaqMan) chemistry. Results, expressed as copy numbers/microl, are presented from a sample human system in which absolute levels of HuPO (reference gene) and the cytokine gene IFN-gamma were measured. To ensure the suitability and stability of the four standards, the experiments were performed at 0, 7 and 14 day intervals and repeated 6 times. We have found that the copy numbers vary (due to degradation of standards) over the period of time during storage at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C, which affected PCR efficiency significantly. The cloned target sequences were noticeably more stable than the PCR product, which could lead to substantial variance in results using standards constructed by different routes. Standard quality and stability should be routinely tested for assays using qPCR.

  4. Evaluation of absolute quantitation by nonlinear regression in probe-based real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Rasmus; Olsen, Trine; Cui, Guanglin; Florholmen, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Background In real-time PCR data analysis, the cycle threshold (CT) method is currently the gold standard. This method is based on an assumption of equal PCR efficiency in all reactions, and precision may suffer if this condition is not met. Nonlinear regression analysis (NLR) or curve fitting has therefore been suggested as an alternative to the cycle threshold method for absolute quantitation. The advantages of NLR are that the individual sample efficiency is simulated by the model and that absolute quantitation is possible without a standard curve, releasing reaction wells for unknown samples. However, the calculation method has not been evaluated systematically and has not previously been applied to a TaqMan platform. Aim: To develop and evaluate an automated NLR algorithm capable of generating batch production regression analysis. Results Total RNA samples extracted from human gastric mucosa were reverse transcribed and analysed for TNFA, IL18 and ACTB by TaqMan real-time PCR. Fluorescence data were analysed by the regular CT method with a standard curve, and by NLR with a positive control for conversion of fluorescence intensity to copy number, and for this purpose an automated algorithm was written in SPSS syntax. Eleven separate regression models were tested, and the output data was subjected to Altman-Bland analysis. The Altman-Bland analysis showed that the best regression model yielded quantitative data with an intra-assay variation of 58% vs. 24% for the CT derived copy numbers, and with a mean inter-method deviation of × 0.8. Conclusion NLR can be automated for batch production analysis, but the CT method is more precise for absolute quantitation in the present setting. The observed inter-method deviation is an indication that assessment of the fluorescence conversion factor used in the regression method can be improved. However, the versatility depends on the level of precision required, and in some settings the increased cost effectiveness of NLR

  5. Incorporating fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times into seismic tomography: Application at Parkfield, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2011-12-01

    Large crustal faults such as the San Andreas fault (SAF) often juxtapose rocks of significantly different elastic properties, resulting in well-defined bimaterial interfaces. A sharp material contrast across the fault interface is expected to generate fault zone head waves (FZHW's) that spend a large portion of their propagation paths refracting along the bimaterial interface (Ben-Zion 1989, 1990; Ben-Zion & Aki 1990). Because of this FZHW's provide a high-resolution tool for imaging the velocity contrast across the fault. Recently, Zhao et al. (2010) systematically analyzed large data sets of near-fault waveforms recorded by several permanent and temporary seismic networks along the Parkfield section of the SAF. The local-scale tomography study of Zhang et al. (2009) for a roughly 10 km3 volume centered on SAFOD and the more regional-scale study of Thurber et al. (2006) for a 130 km x 120 km x 20 km volume centered on the 2004 Parkfield earthquake rupture provide what are probably the best 3D images of the seismic velocity structure of the area. The former shows a low velocity zone associated with the SAF extending to significant depth, and both image the well-known velocity contrast across the fault. Seismic tomography generally uses just first P and/or S arrivals because of the relative simplicity of phase picking and ray tracing. Adding secondary arrivals such as FZHW's, however, can enhance the resolution of structure and strengthen constraints on earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. We present a model of 3D velocity structure for the Parkfield region that utilizes a combination of arrival times for FZHW's and the associated direct-wave secondary arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. The resulting image provides a higher-resolution model of the SAF at depth than previously published models. In addition, we plan to measure polarizations of the direct P and S waves and FZHW's and incorporate the data into our updated velocity tomography

  6. Time dependent corrections to absolute gravity determinations in the establishment of modern gravity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykowski, Przemyslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The establishment of modern gravity control with the use of exclusively absolute method of gravity determination has significant advantages as compared to the one established mostly with relative gravity measurements (e.g. accuracy, time efficiency). The newly modernized gravity control in Poland consists of 28 fundamental stations (laboratory) and 168 base stations (PBOG14 - located in the field). Gravity at the fundamental stations was surveyed with the FG5-230 gravimeter of the Warsaw University of Technology, and at the base stations - with the A10-020 gravimeter of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. This work concerns absolute gravity determinations at the base stations. Although free of common relative measurement errors (e.g. instrumental drift) and effects of network adjustment, absolute gravity determinations for the establishment of gravity control require advanced corrections due to time dependent factors, i.e. tidal and ocean loading corrections, atmospheric corrections and hydrological corrections that were not taken into account when establishing the previous gravity control in Poland. Currently available services and software allow to determine high accuracy and high temporal resolution corrections for atmospheric (based on digital weather models, e.g. ECMWF) and hydrological (based on hydrological models, e.g. GLDAS/Noah) gravitational and loading effects. These corrections are mostly used for processing observations with Superconducting Gravimeters in the Global Geodynamics Project. For the area of Poland the atmospheric correction based on weather models can differ from standard atmospheric correction by even ±2 µGal. The hydrological model shows the annual variability of ±8 µGal. In addition the standard tidal correction may differ from the one obtained from the local tidal model (based on tidal observations). Such difference at Borowa Gora Observatory reaches the level of ±1.5 µGal. Overall the sum of atmospheric and

  7. Concept and layout of the EAS delayed particles arrival time distribution measurements at aragats cosmic ray observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghoyan, H. E.; Chilingarian, A. A.; Daryan, A. V.

    At the location of MAKET ANI EAS installation we construct special detector for investigation of delayed particles. New device partly used equipment of Solar Neutron Telescope operated at same location. Both installations use plastic scintillators over viewed by PM of same type for measuring arrival time and particle density. Surface of new, 60cm thick detector is 4m2 . and 60cm thickness. Planned anti-coincidence shielding for vetoing charged particles will help to detect predominantly neutrons, approaching yet poor understood problem of EAS neutron content. First results of measurements, along with investigations of afterpulsing of detector are presented.

  8. Time-series modeling and prediction of global monthly absolute temperature for environmental decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Liming; Yang, Guixia; Van Ranst, Eric; Tang, Huajun

    2013-03-01

    A generalized, structural, time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature, one of the most important environmental parameters, using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach. Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset, the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record. Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal, involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method, respectively, while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal, involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models. A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years. The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors, suggesting that DSC models, when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models, can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (˜10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  9. Calculation of Retention Time Tolerance Windows with Absolute Confidence from Shared Liquid Chromatographic Retention Data

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Paul G.; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user’s system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called “retention projection” was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. PMID:26292624

  10. Position surveillance using one active ranging satellite and time-of-arrival of a signal from an independent satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. E.; Frey, R. L.; Lewis, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Position surveillance using one active ranging/communication satellite and the time-of-arrival of signals from an independent satellite was shown to be feasible and practical. A towboat on the Mississippi River was equipped with a tone-code ranging transponder and a receiver tuned to the timing signals of the GOES satellite. A similar transponder was located at the office of the towing company. Tone-code ranging interrogations were transmitted from the General Electric Earth Station Laboratory through ATS-6 to the towboat and to the ground truth transponder office. Their automatic responses included digital transmissions of time-of-arrival measurements derived from the GOES signals. The Earth Station Laboratory determined ranges from the satellites to the towboat and computed position fixes. The ATS-6 lines-of-position were more precise than 0.1 NMi, 1 sigma, and the GOES lines-of-position were more precise than 1.6 NMi, 1 sigma. High quality voice communications were accomplished with the transponders using a nondirectional antenna on the towboat. The simple and effective surveillance technique merits further evaluation using operational maritime satellites.

  11. Time of arrival of gravid Culex pipiens fatigans at an oviposition site, the oviposition cycle and the relationship between time of feeding and time of oviposition.

    PubMed

    de Meillon, B; Sebastian, A; Khan, Z H

    1967-01-01

    One of the most important activities in a female mosquito's life is the flight to the breeding place and the subsequent deposition of eggs. During this phase, motivated by endogenous and exogenous stimuli, the female is particularly exposed and susceptible to attack. It is therefore important to investigate these episodes in the gravid female's life.The work reported in this paper shows that gravid Culex pipiens fatigans females are easily trapped over breeding-water; there are two peaks in the arrival at a breeding site, one just after sunset and the other at sunrise. The oviposition cycle is biphasic, the two peaks coinciding, in calm weather, with the two arrival peaks; wind and rain cause marked disturbances in the oviposition cycle.The mean duration of the gonotrophic cycle depends on the time of feeding; this finding is of practical importance since the length of the cycle is often used to calculate the daily survival rate of adult mosquitos. It appears that oviposition is stimulated by a change in light: from light to dark for mosquitos ovipositing in the evening and from dark to light for those ovipositing in the morning.Apart from revealing some hitherto unknown behaviour patterns, the techniques evolved could also be used in the assessment of mosquito populations and hence the effects of control measures. PMID:4227196

  12. The Question of Absolute Space and Time Directions in Relation to Molecular Chirality, Parity Violation, and Biomolecular Homochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Quack, Martin

    2001-03-21

    The questions of the absolute directions of space and time or the “observability” of absolute time direction as well as absolute handedness-left or right- are related to the fundamental symmetries of physics C, P, T as well as their combinations, in particular CPT, and their violations, such as parity violation. At the same time there is a relation to certain still open questions in chemistry concerning the fundamental physical- chemical principles of molecular chirality and in biochemistry concerning the selection of homochirality in evolution. In the lecture we shall introduce the concepts and then report new theoretical results from our work on parity violation in chiral molecules, showing order of magnitude increases with respect to previously accepted values. We discus as well our current experimental efforts. We shall briefly mention the construction of an absolute molecular clock.

  13. The Question of Absolute Space and Time Directions in Relation to Molecular Chirality, Parity Violation, and Biomolecular Homochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Quack, Martin

    2001-03-21

    The questions of the absolute directions of space and time or the 'observability' of absolute time direction as well as absolute handedness - left or right - are related to the fundamental symmetries of physics C, P, T as well as their combinations, in particular CPT, and their violations, such as parity violation. At the same time there is a relation to certain still open questions in chemistry concerning the fundamental physical-chemical principles of molecular chirality and in biochemistry concerning the selection of homochirality in evolution. In the lecture we shall introduce the concepts and then report new theoretical results from our work on parity violation in chiral molecules, showing order of magnitude increases with respect to previously accepted values. We discuss as well our current experimental efforts. We shall briefly mention the construction of an absolute molecular clock.

  14. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-02-05

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment.

  15. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Mars Observer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laros, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Hurley, K.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1992 October 4 and 1993 August 1, concurrent coverage by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), Mars Observer (MO), and Ulysses spacecraft was obtained for 78 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the MO and Ulysses thresholds, nine were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to approximately 2 deg accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). We computed arrival-time error boxes with larger dimensions ranging from a few arcminutes to the diameters of the BATSE-only boxes and with smaller dimensions in the arcminute range. Three events are of particular interest: GB 930704 (BATSE 2428) has been described as a possible repeater. The arrival-time information is consistent with that hypothesis, but only just so. The GB 930706 (2431) box, at approximately 1 min x 4 min, is the only one this small obtained since Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) entered the Venusian atmosphere in 1992 October. Sensitive radio and optical observations of this location were made within 8 and 9 days of the burst, but no counterpart candidates were identified. GB 930801 (2477) is the first GRB that had its localization improved by taking into account BATSE Earth occultation.

  16. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  17. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  18. Alignment between seafloor spreading directions and absolute plate motions through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Simon E.; Flament, Nicolas; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-02-01

    The history of seafloor spreading in the ocean basins provides a detailed record of relative motions between Earth's tectonic plates since Pangea breakup. Determining how tectonic plates have moved relative to the Earth's deep interior is more challenging. Recent studies of contemporary plate motions have demonstrated links between relative plate motion and absolute plate motion (APM), and with seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Here we explore the link between spreading directions and APM since the Early Cretaceous. We find a significant alignment between APM and spreading directions at mid-ocean ridges; however, the degree of alignment is influenced by geodynamic setting, and is strongest for mid-Atlantic spreading ridges between plates that are not directly influenced by time-varying slab pull. In the Pacific, significant mismatches between spreading and APM direction may relate to a major plate-mantle reorganization. We conclude that spreading fabric can be used to improve models of APM.

  19. Improved frequency and time of arrival estimation methods in search and rescue system based on MEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Mo; Li, Rui; Li, Jilin

    2007-11-01

    This paper deals with several key points including parameter estimation such as frequency of arrival (FOA), time of arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm and signal processing techniques in Medium-altitude Earth Orbit Local User Terminals (MEOLUT) based on Cospas-Sarsat Medium-altitude Earth Orbit Search and Rescue system (MEOSAR). Based on an analytical description of distress beacon, improved TOA and FOA estimation methods have been proposed. An improved FOA estimation method which integrates bi-FOA measurement, FFT method, Rife algorithm and Gaussian window is proposed to improve the accuracy of FOA estimation. In addition, TPD algorithm and signal correlation techniques are used to achieve a high performance of TOA estimation. Parameter estimation problems are solved by proposed FOA/TOA methods under quite poor Carrier-to-Noise (C/N0). A number of simulations are done to show the improvements. FOA and TOA estimation error are lower than 0.1Hz and 11μs respectively which is very high system requirement for MEOSAR system MEOLUT.

  20. Assessment of the performance of the inter-arrival time algorithm to identify ice shattering artifacts in cloud particle probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A.; Field, P. R.

    2015-02-01

    Shattering presents a serious obstacle to current airborne in situ methods of characterizing the microphysical properties of ice clouds. Small shattered fragments result from the impact of natural ice crystals with the forward parts of aircraft-mounted measurement probes. The presence of these shattered fragments may result in a significant overestimation of the measured concentration of small ice crystals, contaminating the measurement of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). One method of identifying shattered particles is to use an inter-arrival time algorithm. This method is based on the assumption that shattered fragments form spatial clusters that have short inter-arrival times between particles, relative to natural particles, when they pass through the sample volume of the probe. The inter-arrival time algorithm is a successful technique for the classification of shattering artifacts and natural particles. This study assesses the limitations and efficiency of the inter-arrival time algorithm. The analysis has been performed using simultaneous measurements of two-dimensional (2-D) optical array probes with the standard and antishattering "K-tips" collected during the Airborne Icing Instrumentation Experiment (AIIE). It is shown that the efficiency of the algorithm depends on ice particle size, concentration and habit. Additional numerical simulations indicate that the effectiveness of the inter-arrival time algorithm to eliminate shattering artifacts can be significantly restricted in some cases. Improvements to the inter-arrival time algorithm are discussed. It is demonstrated that blind application of the inter-arrival time algorithm cannot filter out all shattered aggregates. To mitigate against the effects of shattering, the inter-arrival time algorithm should be used together with other means, such as antishattering tips and specially designed algorithms for segregation of shattered artifacts and natural particles.

  1. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, V. Lance

    1990-01-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smolts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time. 10 figs, 15 tabs.

  2. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1989-10-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of smelts during the 1988 spring outmigration at two migrant traps; one each on the Snake and Clear-water rivers. Due to the low runoff year, chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was very low. Steelhead trout catch was higher than normal, probably due to trap modifications and because the trap was moved to the east side of the river. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout catch at the Clearwater River trap was similar to 1987. Total cumulative recovery of PIT tagged fish at the three dams, with PIT tag detection systems was: 55% for chinook salmon, 73% for hatchery steelhead trout, and 75% for wild steelhead trout. Travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged chinook salmon and steelhead trout, marked at the head of the reservoir, was affected by discharge. Statistical analysis showed that as discharge increased from 40 kcfs to 80 kcfs, chinook salmon travel time decreased three fold, and steelhead trout travel time decreased two fold. There was a statistical difference between estimates of travel time through Lower Granite Reservoir for PIT tagged and freeze branded steelhead trout, but not for chinook salmon. These differences may be related to the estimation techniques used for PIT tagged and freeze branded groups, rather than real differences in travel time.

  3. Practical and fast quantum random number generation based on photon arrival time relative to external reference

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, You-Qi; Zhang, Jun Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2014-02-03

    We present a practical high-speed quantum random number generator, where the timing of single-photon detection relative to an external time reference is measured as the raw data. The bias of the raw data can be substantially reduced compared with the previous realizations. The raw random bit rate of our generator can reach 109 Mbps. We develop a model for the generator and evaluate the min-entropy of the raw data. Toeplitz matrix hashing is applied for randomness extraction, after which the final random bits are able to pass the standard randomness tests.

  4. An Integrated Model of Choices and Response Times in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott D.; Marley, A. A. J.; Donkin, Christopher; Heathcote, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of absolute identification have stressed differences between relative and absolute processes, that is, whether stimulus magnitudes are judged relative to a shorter term context provided by recently presented stimuli or a longer term context provided by the entire set of stimuli. The authors developed a…

  5. Effect of method and timing of castration on newly arrived stocker cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of castration method and timing on the performance and health of newly received stocker cattle. Two hundred and seventy-one crossbred male calves (184 bulls, 87 steers; 210 ± 14.7 kg) were purchased at auction barns and shipped in three groups. ...

  6. ESTIMATING THE ARRIVAL TIME OF EARTH-DIRECTED CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AT IN SITU SPACECRAFT USING COR AND HI OBSERVATIONS FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Wageesh; Srivastava, Nandita

    2013-07-20

    Predicting the arrival time and transit speed of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Earth is critical to understanding the solar-terrestrial relationship. Even though STEREO observations now provide multiple views of CMEs in the heliosphere, the true speeds derived from stereoscopic reconstruction of SECCHI coronagraph data are not quite sufficient for accurate forecasting of the arrival time at Earth of a majority of CMEs. This uncertainty is due to many factors that change CME kinematics, such as the interaction of two or more CMEs or the interaction of CMEs with the pervading solar wind. In order to understand the propagation of CMEs, we have used the three-dimensional triangulation method on SECCHI coronagraph (COR2) images and geometric triangulation on the J-maps constructed from Heliospheric Imagers HI1 and HI2 data for eight Earth-directed CMEs observed during 2008-2010. Based on the reconstruction, and implementing the drag-based model for the distance where the CMEs could not be tracked unambiguously in the interplanetary (IP) medium, the arrival time of these CMEs have been estimated. These arrival times have also been compared with the actual arrival times as observed by in situ instruments. The analysis reveals the importance of heliospheric imaging for improved forecasting of the arrival time and direction of propagation of CMEs in the IP medium.

  7. GPS/Loran-C interoperability for time and frequency applications: A survey of the times of arrival of Loran-C transmissions via GPS common mode/common view satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrod, Bruce; Funderburk, Richard; Dana, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The results from this survey clearly indicate that the Global Positioning System (GPS) time transfer capability is superior to that of the Loran-C system for absolute timing accuracy, and that even with the most careful calibration of the Loran-C receiver delay and propagation path, inexplicable time of arrival (TOA) biases remain which are larger than the variations across all of the transmitters. Much more data covering years would be needed to show that these biases were stable enough to be removed with a one time site calibration. The synchronization of the transmissions is excellent, all showing low parts in 10(exp 13) offsets versus the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) master clock. With the exception of the Searchlight transmitter, all of the transmissions exhibit timing stabilities over the entire period of less than 300 ns RMS which is at the observed levels of GPS under selective availability (SA). The Loran-C phase instabilities take place over a much greater time interval than those being forced onto the GPS signals under SA, providing for better medium to short term frequency stability. Data show that all but the most distant transmitters offer better than three parts in 10(exp 11) stability at this averaging time. It is in the frequency control area where GPS/Loran-C interoperation will offer some synergistic advantages over GPS alone under SA.

  8. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.; Hutchinson, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  9. A relativistic one-particle Time of Arrival operator for a free spin- 1 / 2 particle in (1 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunao, Joseph; Galapon, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    As a follow-up to a recent study in the spin-0 case (Bunao and Galapon, 2015), we construct a one-particle Time of Arrival (TOA) operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian describing a free relativistic spin- 1 / 2 particle in one spatial dimension. Upon transformation in a representation where the Hamiltonian is diagonal, it turns out that the constructed operator consists of an operator term T ˆ whose action is the same as in the spin-0 case, and another operator term Tˆ0 which commutes with the Hamiltonian but breaks invariance under parity inversion. If we must impose this symmetry on our TOA operator, then we can throw away Tˆ0 so that the TOA operator is just T ˆ .

  10. An algorithm for the localization of multiple interfering sperm whales using multi-sensor time difference of arrival.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an algorithm is described for the localization of individual sperm whales in situations where several near-by animals are simultaneously vocalizing. The algorithm operates on time-difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements observed at sensor pairs and assumes no prior knowledge of the TDOA-whale associations. In other words, it solves the problem of associating TDOAs to whales. The algorithm is able to resolve association disputes where a given TDOA measurement may fit to more than one position estimate and can handle spurious TDOAs. The algorithm also provides estimates of Cramer-Rao lower bound for the position estimates. The algorithm was tested with real data using TDOA estimates obtained by cross-correlating click-trains. The click-trains were generated by a separate algorithm that operated independently on each sensor to produce click-trains corresponding to a given whale and to reject click-trains from reflected propagation paths.

  11. Smolt Condition and Timing of Arrival at Lower Granite Reservoir, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Richard J.; Buettner, Edwin W.

    1986-02-01

    Hatcheries released 9.3 million chinook salmon and 6.3 million steelhead smolts and presmolts upriver from Lower Granite Reservoir for migration in spring, 1984. Peak passage of yearling chinook salmon occurred the third week in April at both Whitebird and Snake River traps. Passage of steelhead was still increasing when high water stopped trapping in mid-May. Average migration rate between release sites and Snake River (the head of Lower Granite Reservoir) was 13.2 miles/day and from that point on through the reservoir to the dam, 1.9 miles/day. Salmon River discharge, when considered along with other environmental factors, had the greatest effect on migration rate of smolts branded both at hatcheries and at the Whitebird trap and migrating to the head of Lower Granite Reservoir. Migration rate for steelhead released from Dworshak Hatchery and recaptured at the Clearwater trap was 34 miles/day. Survival rates to the Snake River trap of branded chinook salmon smolts released at Hells Canyon Dam, Rapid River, South Fork Salmon and Decker Flat were 52%, 65%, 68% and 35%, respectively. Classical descaling, where at least 40% of the scales are missing from at least two of five areas on the side of a smolt, ranged from 0 to 5.3% at hatcheries for chinook salmon and was less than 1% for steelhead. Scattered descaling, where at least 10% of scales are missing from at least one side of a fish, was always more extensive than was classical descaling, ranging from 2.5 times greater for Clearwater hatchery steelhead to 6.8 times greater for Clearwater wild steelhead. Mean total length of chinook salmon yearlings was the same at all the traps, i.e., 128 mm (117 mm fork length) +- 1 mm.

  12. Arrival-time judgments on multiple-lane streets: The failure to ignore irrelevant traffic.

    PubMed

    Baurès, Robin; Oberfeld, Daniel; Tournier, Isabelle; Hecht, Heiko; Cavallo, Viola

    2014-04-01

    How do road users decide whether or not they have enough time to cross a multiple-lane street with multiple approaching vehicles? Temporal judgments have been investigated for single cars approaching an intersection; however, close to nothing is known about how street crossing decisions are being made when several vehicles are simultaneously approaching in two adjacent lanes. This task is relatively common in urban environments. We report two simulator experiments in which drivers had to judge whether it would be safe to initiate street crossing in such cases. Matching traffic gaps (i.e., the temporal separation between two consecutive vehicles) were presented either with cars approaching on a single lane or with cars approaching on two adjacent lanes, either from the same side (Experiment 1) or from the opposite sides (Experiment 2). The stimuli were designed such that only the shortest gap was decision-relevant. The results showed that when the two gaps were in sight simultaneously (Experiment 1), street-crossing decisions were also influenced by the decision-irrelevant longer gap. Observers were more willing to cross the street when they had access to information about the irrelevant gap. However, when the two gaps could not be seen simultaneously but only sequentially (Experiment 2), only the shorter and relevant gap influenced the street-crossing decisions. The results are discussed within the framework of perceptual averaging processes, and practical implications for road safety are presented.

  13. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  14. A non-parametric method for automatic determination of P-wave and S-wave arrival times: application to local micro earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawles, Christopher; Thurber, Clifford

    2015-08-01

    We present a simple, fast, and robust method for automatic detection of P- and S-wave arrivals using a nearest neighbours-based approach. The nearest neighbour algorithm is one of the most popular time-series classification methods in the data mining community and has been applied to time-series problems in many different domains. Specifically, our method is based on the non-parametric time-series classification method developed by Nikolov. Instead of building a model by estimating parameters from the data, the method uses the data itself to define the model. Potential phase arrivals are identified based on their similarity to a set of reference data consisting of positive and negative sets, where the positive set contains examples of analyst identified P- or S-wave onsets and the negative set contains examples that do not contain P waves or S waves. Similarity is defined as the square of the Euclidean distance between vectors representing the scaled absolute values of the amplitudes of the observed signal and a given reference example in time windows of the same length. For both P waves and S waves, a single pass is done through the bandpassed data, producing a score function defined as the ratio of the sum of similarity to positive examples over the sum of similarity to negative examples for each window. A phase arrival is chosen as the centre position of the window that maximizes the score function. The method is tested on two local earthquake data sets, consisting of 98 known events from the Parkfield region in central California and 32 known events from the Alpine Fault region on the South Island of New Zealand. For P-wave picks, using a reference set containing two picks from the Parkfield data set, 98 per cent of Parkfield and 94 per cent of Alpine Fault picks are determined within 0.1 s of the analyst pick. For S-wave picks, 94 per cent and 91 per cent of picks are determined within 0.2 s of the analyst picks for the Parkfield and Alpine Fault data set

  15. Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ross N; Kilian, Taylor M; Evans, David A D

    2012-02-08

    Traditional models of the supercontinent cycle predict that the next supercontinent--'Amasia'--will form either where Pangaea rifted (the 'introversion' model) or on the opposite side of the world (the 'extroversion' models). Here, by contrast, we develop an 'orthoversion' model whereby a succeeding supercontinent forms 90° away, within the great circle of subduction encircling its relict predecessor. A supercontinent aggregates over a mantle downwelling but then influences global-scale mantle convection to create an upwelling under the landmass. We calculate the minimum moment of inertia about which oscillatory true polar wander occurs owing to the prolate shape of the non-hydrostatic Earth. By fitting great circles to each supercontinent's true polar wander legacy, we determine that the arc distances between successive supercontinent centres (the axes of the respective minimum moments of inertia) are 88° for Nuna to Rodinia and 87° for Rodinia to Pangaea--as predicted by the orthoversion model. Supercontinent centres can be located back into Precambrian time, providing fixed points for the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude over billion-year timescales. Palaeogeographic reconstructions additionally constrained in palaeolongitude will provide increasingly accurate estimates of ancient plate motions and palaeobiogeographic affinities.

  16. Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ross N; Kilian, Taylor M; Evans, David A D

    2012-02-01

    Traditional models of the supercontinent cycle predict that the next supercontinent--'Amasia'--will form either where Pangaea rifted (the 'introversion' model) or on the opposite side of the world (the 'extroversion' models). Here, by contrast, we develop an 'orthoversion' model whereby a succeeding supercontinent forms 90° away, within the great circle of subduction encircling its relict predecessor. A supercontinent aggregates over a mantle downwelling but then influences global-scale mantle convection to create an upwelling under the landmass. We calculate the minimum moment of inertia about which oscillatory true polar wander occurs owing to the prolate shape of the non-hydrostatic Earth. By fitting great circles to each supercontinent's true polar wander legacy, we determine that the arc distances between successive supercontinent centres (the axes of the respective minimum moments of inertia) are 88° for Nuna to Rodinia and 87° for Rodinia to Pangaea--as predicted by the orthoversion model. Supercontinent centres can be located back into Precambrian time, providing fixed points for the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude over billion-year timescales. Palaeogeographic reconstructions additionally constrained in palaeolongitude will provide increasingly accurate estimates of ancient plate motions and palaeobiogeographic affinities. PMID:22318605

  17. Prediction system of the 1-AU arrival times of CME-associated interplanetary shocks using three-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den, Mitsue; Amo, Hiroyoshi; Sugihara, Kohta; Takei, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Tomoya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watari, Shinichi

    We describe prediction system of the 1-AU arrival times of interplanetary shock waves associated with coromal mass ejections (CMEs). The system is based on modeling of the shock propagation using a three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code. Once a CME is observed by LASCO/SOHO, firstly ambient solar wind is obtained by numerical simulation, which reproduces the solar wind parameters at that time observed by ACE spacecraft. Then we input the expansion speed and occurrence position data of that CME as initial condtions for an CME model, and 3D simulation of the CME and the shock propagation is perfomed until the shock wave passes the 1-AU. Input the parameters, execution of simulation and output of the result are available on Web, so a person who is not familiar with operation of computer or simulations or is not a researcher can use this system to predict the shock passage time. Simulated CME and shock evolution is visuallized at the same time with simulation and snap shots appear on the web automatically, so that user can follow the propagation. This system is expected to be useful for forecasters of space weather. We will describe the system and simulation model in detail.

  18. Landing together: How flocks arrive at a coherent action in time and space in the presence of perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdinandy, B.; Bhattacharya, K.; Ábel, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2012-02-01

    Collective motion is abundant in nature, producing a vast amount of phenomena which have been studied in recent years, including the landing of flocks of birds. We investigate the collective decision making scenario where a flock of birds decides the optimal time of landing in the absence of a global leader. We introduce a simple phenomenological model in the spirit of the statistical mechanics-based self-propelled particles (SPPs) approach to interpret this process. We expect that our model is applicable to a larger class of spatiotemporal decision making situations than just the landing of flocks (which process is used as a paradigmatic case). In the model birds are only influenced by observable variables, like position and velocity. Heterogeneity is introduced in the flock in terms of a depletion time after which a bird feels increasing bias to move towards the ground. Our model demonstrates a possible mechanism by which animals in a large group can arrive at an egalitarian decision about the time of switching from one activity to another in the absence of a leader. In particular, we show the existence of a paradoxical effect where noise enhances the coherence of the landing process.

  19. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  20. Joint inversion of gravity and arrival time data from Parkfield: New constraints on structure and hypocenter locations near the SAFOD drill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roecker, S.; Thurber, C.; McPhee, D.

    2004-01-01

    Taking advantage of large datasets of both gravity and elastic wave arrival time observations available for the Parkfield, California region, we generated an image consistent with both types of data. Among a variety of strategies, the best result was obtained from a simultaneous inversion with a stability requirement that encouraged the perturbed model to remain close to a starting model consisting of a best fit to the arrival time data. The preferred model looks essentially the same as the best-fit arrival time model in areas where ray coverage is dense, with differences being greatest at shallow depths and near the edges of the model where ray paths are few. Earthquake locations change by no more than about 100 m, the general effect being migration of the seismic zone to the northeast, closer to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  2. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  3. Automatic re-picking and re-weighting of first arrival times from the Italian Seismic Network waveforms database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stefano, R.; Amato, A.; Aldersons, F.; Kissling, E.

    2002-12-01

    The high resolution P-wave tomography of the Italian Peninsula and surrounding regions from crustal to upper mantle depths is the aim of a joint project between INGV (Roma) and ETH (Zurich). The project is subdivided into two steps, first of which is to establish a 3D P-wave velocity model for the crust, using both passive and active seismic sources. Getting a reliable high resolution model is of fundamental importance since the 3D crustal model will be used in the second step to correct teleseismic travel times following a method successfully applied in the last years to the Alps (Waldhauser et al. 2002). In the present work we focus on the passive sources dataset (local and regional events) to complement the CSS crustal information. Our keywords being "high-resolution" and "detailed model" we followed the idea, based on the experience of previous works in this area, that a large number of high quality pickings and a high level of consistency in the dataset represent the first goals. The Italian region (Western Mediterranean) is characterized by a high rate of seismicity including important seismic sequences. Since 1988, digital recordings for about 40,000 local and regional earthquakes are available, which INGV bulletin readings have been used in previous local earthquake tomography works. To increase the sampling power and to better locate some border events we will integrate Italian National Seismic Network data with recordings from other local and regional networks. Due to the large amount of data thus collected, a manual re-picking of all first arrivals would ask for a too long time while it would not prevent from human readings errors and inconsistencies. This would partially contrast the positive effect of a high-quality pickings. To meet the quality and consistency requests, we applied an advanced automatic re-picking procedure, the MannekenPick (MP), recently developed by F. Aldersons as a fast, reliable and "consistent" picker. We tested the whole

  4. Development of an Adaptive Multi-Method Algorithm for Automatic Picking of First Arrival Times: Application to Near Surface Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, A.; Camerlynck, C. M.; Schneider, A. C.; Florsch, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate picking of first arrival times plays an important role in many seismic studies, particularly in seismic tomography and reservoirs or aquifers monitoring. Many techniques have been developed for picking first arrivals automatically or semi-automatically, but most of them were developed for seismological purposes which does not attain the accuracy objectives due to the complexity of near surface structures, and to usual low signal-to-noise ratio. We propose a new adaptive algorithm for near surface data based on three picking methods, combining multi-nested windows (MNW), Higher Order Statistics (HOS), and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). They exploit the benefits of integrating many properties, which reveal the presence of first arrivals, to provide an efficient and robust first arrivals picking. This strategy mimics the human first-break picking, where at the beginning the global trend is defined. Then the exact first-breaks are searched in the vicinity of the now defined trend. In a multistage algorithm, three successive phases are launched, where each of them characterize a specific signal property. Within each phase, the potential picks and their error range are automatically estimated, and then used sequentially as leader in the following phase picking. The accuracy and robustness of the implemented algorithm are successfully validated on synthetic and real data which have special challenges for automatic pickers. The comparison of resulting P-wave arrival times with those picked manually, and other algorithms of automatic picking, demonstrated the reliable performance of the new scheme under different noisy conditions. All parameters of our multi-method algorithm are auto-adaptive thanks to the integration in series of each sub-algorithm results in the flow. Hence, it is nearly a parameter-free algorithm, which is straightforward to implement and demands low computational resources.

  5. Arrival time distributions of electrons in air showers with primary energies above 10 (18)eV observed at 900m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Detection of air showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19th power eV with sufficient statistics is extremely important in an astrophysical aspect related to the Greisen cut off and the origin of such high energy cosmic rays. Recently, a method is proposed to observe such giant air showers by measuring the arrival time distributions of air-shower particles at large core distances with a mini array. Experiments to measure the arrival time distributions of muons were started in 1981 and those of electrons in early 1983 in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm cm squared atmospheric depth, 900m above sea level). During the time of observation, the detection area of the Akeno array was expanded from 1 sq km to sq km in 1982 and to 20 sq km in 1984. Now the arrival time distribution of electrons and muons can be measured for showers with primary energies above 1019eV at large core distances.

  6. Evaluation of the cone-shaped pickup performance for low charge sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements at free electron laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Kuntzsch, Michael; Czwalinna, Marie Kristin; Penirschke, Andreas; Hansli, Matthias; Sydlo, Cezary; Arsov, Vladimir; Hunziker, Stephan; Schlarb, Holger; Gensch, Michael; Schlott, Volker; Weiland, Thomas; Jakoby, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation of the cone-shaped pickup performance as a part of the high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) for a low charge sub-10 fs arrival-time measurements is presented. Three sets of pickups are installed at the free electron laser FLASH at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, the quasi-cw SRF accelerator ELBE at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the SwissFEL injector test facility at Paul Scherrer Institute. Measurements and simulations are in good agreement and the pickups fulfill the design specifications. Utilizing the high bandwidth BAM with the cone-shaped pickups, an improvement of the signal slope by a factor of 10 is demonstrated at ELBE compared to the BAM with a low bandwidth.

  7. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 μm) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm2/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  8. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Mark D; Oliver, Bryan V; Droemer, Darryl W; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast (<1 ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such systems are inherently difficult to calibrate due to the lack of sufficiently intense, calibrated light sources. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories. On RITS, plasma light is collected through a small diameter (200 μm) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator. For this paper, a 300 W xenon short arc lamp (Oriel Model 6258) was used as the calibration source. Since the radiance of the xenon arc varies from cathode to anode, just the area around the tip of the cathode ("hotspot") was imaged onto the fiber, to produce the highest intensity output. To compensate for chromatic aberrations, the signal was optimized at each wavelength measured. Output power was measured using 10 nm bandpass interference filters and a calibrated photodetector. These measurements give power at discrete wavelengths across the spectrum, and when linearly interpolated, provide a calibration curve for the lamp. The shape of the spectrum is determined by the collective response of the optics, monochromator, and streak tube across the spectral region of interest. The ratio of the spectral curve to the measured bandpass filter curve at each wavelength produces a correction factor (Q) curve. This curve is then applied to the experimental data and the resultant spectra are given in absolute intensity units (photons/sec/cm(2)/steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +∕- 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement. PMID:22938275

  9. Computer program modifications of Open-file report 82-1065; a comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction and arrival-time data using interactive computer methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackermann, Hans D.; Pankratz, Leroy W.; Dansereau, Danny A.

    1983-01-01

    The computer programs published in Open-File Report 82-1065, A comprehensive system for interpreting seismic-refraction arrival-time data using interactive computer methods (Ackermann, Pankratz, and Dansereau, 1982), have been modified to run on a mini-computer. The new version uses approximately 1/10 of the memory of the initial version, is more efficient and gives the same results.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Neuronal network analysis based on arrival times of active-sleep specific inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in spinal cord motoneurons of the cat.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, J K; Chase, M H

    2001-07-20

    The neuronal network responsible for motoneuron inhibition and loss of muscle tone during active (REM) sleep can be activated by the injection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into a circumscribed region of the brainstem reticular formation. In the present report, we studied the arrival times of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) observed in intracellular recordings from cat spinal cord motoneurons. These recordings were obtained during episodes of motor inhibition induced by carbachol or during motor inhibition associated with naturally occurring active sleep. When the observed IPSP arrival times were analyzed as a superposition of renewal processes occurring in a pool of pre-motor inhibitory interneurons, it was possible to estimate the following parameters: (1) the number of independent sources of the IPSPs; (2) the rate at which each source was bombarded with excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs); and (3) the number of EPSPs required to bring each source to threshold. From the data based upon the preceding parameters and the unusually large amplitudes of the active sleep-specific IPSPs, we suggest that each source is a cluster of synchronously discharging pre-motor inhibitory interneurons. The analysis of IPSP arrival times as a superposition of renewal processes, therefore, provides quantitative information regarding neuronal activity that is as far as two synapses upstream from the site of the recording electrode. Consequently, we suggest that a study of the temporal evolution of these parameters could provide a basis for dynamic analyses of this neuronal network and, in the future, for other neuronal networks as well. PMID:11457433

  13. Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; Roberts, James H.

    1989-01-01

    A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

  14. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test. PMID:23265002

  15. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test.

  16. Absolute perfusion measurements and associated iodinated contrast agent time course in brain metastasis: a study for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Layal; Deman, Pierre; Tessier, Alexandre; Balosso, Jacques; Estève, François; Adam, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment that combines the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using medium energy X-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the absolute amount of iodine reached in the tumor and its time course. Quantitative, postinfusion iodine biodistribution and associated brain perfusion parameters were studied in human brain metastasis as key parameters for treatment feasibility and quality. Twelve patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent (CA) (40 mL, 4 mL/s), followed by a steady-state infusion (160 mL, 0.5 mL/s) to ensure stable intratumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations and quantitative perfusion maps were derived from 40 multislice dynamic computed tomography (CT) images of the brain. The postinfusion mean intratumoral iodine concentration (over 30 minutes) reached 1.94 ± 0.12 mg/mL. Reasonable correlations were obtained between these concentrations and the permeability surface area product and the cerebral blood volume. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study of CA biodistribution versus time in brain metastasis. The study shows that suitable and stable amounts of iodine can be reached for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy. Moreover, the associated perfusion measurements provide useful information for the patient recruitment and management processes.

  17. Stereoscopic study of the kinematic evolution of a coronal mass ejection and its driven shock from the sun to the earth and the prediction of their arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R {sub ☉} and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R {sub ☉} combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  18. Stereoscopic Study of the Kinematic Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection and Its Driven Shock from the Sun to the Earth and the Prediction of Their Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R ☉ and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R ☉ combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  19. Stereoscopic Study of the Kinematic Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection and Its Driven Shock from the Sun to the Earth and the Prediction of Their Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R ⊙ and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R ⊙ combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  20. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed. PMID:27587105

  1. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements.

    PubMed

    Sigaud, L; de Jesus, V L B; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E C

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell-to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact-is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  2. A novel double-focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer for absolute recoil ion cross sections measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigaud, L.; de Jesus, V. L. B.; Ferreira, Natalia; Montenegro, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the inclusion of an Einzel-like lens inside the time-of-flight drift tube of a standard mass spectrometer coupled to a gas cell—to study ionization of atoms and molecules by electron impact—is described. Both this lens and a conical collimator are responsible for further focalization of the ions and charged molecular fragments inside the spectrometer, allowing a much better resolution at the time-of-flight spectra, leading to a separation of a single mass-to-charge unit up to 100 a.m.u. The procedure to obtain the overall absolute efficiency of the spectrometer and micro-channel plate detector is also discussed.

  3. Influence of health-related quality of life on time from symptom onset to hospital arrival and the risk of readmission in patients with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Catrin; Larsson, Margareta; Herlitz, Johan; Karlsson, Jan-Erik; Wernroth, Lisa; Lindahl, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased awareness of the importance of early treatment in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival is still too long and rehospitalisations are frequent. Little is known about how health-related quality of life (HRQL) affects delay time and the frequency of readmissions. Method We used quality registers to investigate whether patients’ HRQL has any impact on delay time with a new AMI, and on the rate of readmissions during the first year. Patients with AMI <75 years, with HRQL assessed with EQ-5D at 1-year follow-up, and who thereafter had a new AMI registered, were evaluated for the correlation between HRQL and delay time (n=454). The association between HRQL and readmissions was evaluated among those who had an additional AMI and a new 1-year follow-up registration (n=216). Results Patients who reported poor total health status (EQ-VAS ≤50), compared to those who reported EQ-VAS 81–100, had tripled risk to delay ≥2 h from symptom onset to hospital arrival (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.43 to 6.34). Patients scoring EQ-VAS ≤50 had also a higher risk of readmissions in the univariate analysis (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.53). However, the correlation did not remain significant after adjustment (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 4.38). EQ-index was not independently associated with delay time or readmissions. Conclusions Aspects of total health status post-AMI were independently associated with delay time to hospital arrival in case of a new AMI. However, the influence of total health status on the risk of readmissions was less clear. PMID:25525504

  4. ABSOLUTE TIMING OF THE CRAB PULSAR WITH THE INTEGRAL/SPI TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Molkov, S.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the pulse shape evolution of the Crab pulsar emission in the hard X-ray domain of the electromagnetic spectrum. In particular, we have studied the alignment of the Crab pulsar phase profiles measured in the hard X-rays and in other wavebands. To obtain the hard X-ray pulse profiles, we have used six years (2003-2009, with a total exposure of about 4 Ms) of publicly available data of the SPI telescope on-board the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observatory, folded with the pulsar time solution derived from the Jodrell Bank Crab Pulsar Monthly Ephemeris. We found that the main pulse in the hard X-ray 20-100 keV energy band leads the radio one by 8.18 +- 0.46 milliperiods in phase, or 275 +- 15 mus in time. Quoted errors represent only statistical uncertainties. Our systematic error is estimated to be approx40 mus and is mainly caused by the radio measurement uncertainties. In hard X-rays, the average distance between the main pulse and interpulse on the phase plane is 0.3989 +- 0.0009. To compare our findings in hard X-rays with the soft 2-20 keV X-ray band, we have used data of quasi-simultaneous Crab observations with the proportional counter array monitor on-board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer mission. The time lag and the pulses separation values measured in the 3-20 keV band are 0.00933 +- 0.00016 (corresponding to 310 +- 6 mus) and 0.40016 +- 0.00028 parts of the cycle, respectively. While the pulse separation values measured in soft X-rays and hard X-rays agree, the time lags are statistically different. Additional analysis show that the delay between the radio and X-ray signals varies with energy in the 2-300 keV energy range. We explain such a behavior as due to the superposition of two independent components responsible for the Crab pulsed emission in this energy band.

  5. Environmental and lunar cues are predictive of the timing of river entry and spawning-site arrival in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, P S; Scribner, K T; Crossman, J A; Ragavendran, A; Baker, E A; Davis, C; Smith, K K

    2012-07-01

    The associations were quantified between daily and interannual variation in the timing of a closed population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens migration and arrival at spawning sites with stream environmental and lunar covariates. Spawning data were gathered from 1262 fish in Black Lake, Michigan 2001 to 2008 and by video monitoring 2000 to 2002. Sex-specific variation in responses to external cues was also tested. Results showed that a greater number of individuals initiated migration from lake to riverine habitats at dawn and dusk relative to other times of the day. Current and lagged effects of water temperature and river discharge, and periods in the lunar cycle were important variables in models quantifying movements into the river and timing of adult arrival at spawning sites. Different suites of covariates were predictive of A. fulverscens responses during different periods of the spawning season. The timing of initiation of migration and spawning, and the importance of covariates to the timing of these events, did not differ between sexes. Stream flow and temperature covaried with other variables including day length and the lunar cycle. Anthropogenic disruption of relationships among variables may mean that environmental cues may no longer reliably convey information for Acipenseriformes and other migratory fishes. PMID:22747803

  6. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  7. Sub-fs electron bunch generation with sub-10-fs bunch arrival-time jitter via bunch slicing in a magnetic chicane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Assmann, R. W.; Dohlus, M.; Dorda, U.; Marchetti, B.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of ultrashort electron bunches with ultrasmall bunch arrival-time jitter is of vital importance for laser-plasma wakefield acceleration with external injection. We study the production of 100-MeV electron bunches with bunch durations of subfemtosecond (fs) and bunch arrival-time jitters of less than 10 fs, in an S-band photoinjector by using a weak magnetic chicane with a slit collimator. The beam dynamics inside the chicane is simulated by using two codes with different self-force models. The first code separates the self-force into a three-dimensional (3D) quasistatic space-charge model and a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) model, while the other one starts from the first principle with a so-called 3D sub-bunch method. The simulations indicate that the CSR effect dominates the horizontal emittance growth and the 1D CSR model underestimates the final bunch duration and emittance because of the very large transverse-to-longitudinal aspect ratio of the sub-fs bunch. Particularly, the CSR effect is also strongly affected by the vertical bunch size. Due to the coupling between the horizontal and longitudinal phase spaces, the bunch duration at the entrance of the last dipole magnet of the chicane is still significantly longer than that at the exit of the chicane, which considerably mitigates the impact of space charge and CSR effects on the beam quality. Exploiting this effect, a bunch charge of up to 4.8 pC in a sub-fs bunch could be simulated. In addition, we analytically and numerically investigate the impact of different jitter sources on the bunch arrival-time jitter downstream of the chicane, and define the tolerance budgets assuming realistic values of the stability of the linac for different bunch charges and compression schemes.

  8. [Evaluation of Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Low α-Fetoprotein by Arrival Time Parametric Imaging Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid].

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Kazue; Watanabe, Manabu; Ikehara, Takashi; Matsukiyo, Yasushi; Kogame, Michio; Shinohara, Mie; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Masao; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine the usefulness of arrival time parametric imaging (AtPI) using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS)with Sonazoid in the evaluation of early response to sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirteen ad- vanced HCC patients with low a / -fetoprotein (AFP) level (≤35 ng/mL) who received sorafenib for at least 4 weeks were enrolled in this study. CEUS was performed before and after treatment (2 weeks), and the images of the target lesion in the arterial phase were analyzed by AtPI. In the color mapping images obtained by AtPI, the mean arrival time of the contrast agent in the target lesion from the starting point (mean time: MT) was calculated. In each patient, differences between MT before and MT 2 weeks after treatment were compared. MT (+) and MT(-) groups were designated as such if the difference was 0 or greater(blood flow velocity of the lesion was reduced)and less than 0 sec(blood flow velocity of the lesion was increased), respectively. The overall survival was evaluated between the 2 groups. In the MT (+) group (7 patients) and MT (-) group (6 patients), the median survival times were 307 and 208 days, respectively, which was statistically significant. We suggest AtPI is useful for evaluating early response to sorafenib in advanced HCC patients with low AFP level. PMID:27067685

  9. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  10. The effect of the Earth's oblate spheroid shape on the accuracy of a time-of-arrival lightning ground strike locating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Paul W.; Bent, Rodney B.

    1991-01-01

    The algorithm used in previous technology time-of-arrival lightning mapping systems was based on the assumption that the earth is a perfect spheroid. These systems yield highly-accurate lightning locations, which is their major strength. However, extensive analysis of tower strike data has revealed occasionally significant (one to two kilometer) systematic offset errors which are not explained by the usual error sources. It was determined that these systematic errors reduce dramatically (in some cases) when the oblate shape of the earth is taken into account. The oblate spheroid correction algorithm and a case example is presented.

  11. Absolute rate constant determinations for the deactivation of O/1D/ by time resolved decay of O/1D/ yields O/3P/ emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. A.; Sadowski, C. M.; Schiff, H. I.; Howard, C. J.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Jennings, D. A.; Streit, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the deactivation of O(1D) atoms by some atmospheric gases have been determined by observing the time-resolved emission of O(1D) at 630 nm. O(1D) atoms were produced by the dissociation of ozone via repetitive laser pulses at 266 nm. Absolute rate constants for the relaxation of O(1D) at 298 K are reported for N2, O2, CO2, O3, H2, D2, CH4, HCl, NH3, H2O, N2O, and Ne. The results obtained are compared with previous relative and absolute measurements reported in the literature.

  12. Estimation of time to peak contrast enhancement of the aorta and liver for dual-phase computed tomography on the basis of contrast medium arrival time, injection duration, and injection technique in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jennifer; Young, Alex C; Dhand, Navneet; Makara, Mariano A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the accuracy of estimating time to peak enhancement (TPE) of the aorta and liver parenchyma on the basis of contrast medium arrival time in the aorta, injection duration, and injection technique in dogs. ANIMALS 18 dogs of specific body weight categories (≥ 2 dogs/category) with no liver abnormalities detected via CT. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned within weight categories to receive contrast medium IV at a fixed injection rate (5 mL/s) or fixed injection duration (20 seconds). Time-contrast attenuation curves were generated from dynamic CT scans acquired at the hepatic hilus. Data collected for contrast medium arrival time and injection duration were used to estimate TPEs of the aorta and liver, and results were compared with the observed TPEs for the aorta and liver. RESULTS Contrast medium arrival time, injection duration, and injection technique were significantly associated with observed values for aortic TPE and explained 96.1% of variation in TPE. For the fixed rate technique, the regression equation for estimating aortic TPE was 0.8 × (injection duration + contrast medium arrival time) + 1.6. For the fixed duration technique, the regression equation changed by only the constant (-2.6). However, the hepatic TPE estimated from the 3 predictor variables was not significantly different from the mean of observed TPEs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Aortic TPE could be accurately estimated from contrast medium arrival time, injection duration, and injection technique in dogs with apparently healthy livers. The regression equations derived from this relationship can be used to improve the efficiency of dual-phase CT of the liver in dogs. PMID:27668580

  13. Leptin in whales: validation and measurement of mRNA expression by absolute quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ball, Hope C; Holmes, Robert K; Londraville, Richard L; Thewissen, Johannes G M; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: "relative" and "absolute". To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR "background" material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and that the use of

  14. Predicting interplanetary shock arrivals at Earth, Mars, and Venus: A real-time modeling experiment following the solar flares of 5-14 December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Dryer, M.; Fry, C. D.; Smith, Z. K.; Intriligator, D. S.; Courtney, W. R.; Deehr, C. S.; Sun, W.; Kecskemety, K.; Kudela, K.; Balaz, J.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.

    2008-06-01

    A 3-D, kinematic, solar wind model (Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2)) is used to predict interplanetary shock arrivals at Venus, Earth, and Mars during a sequence of significant solar events that occurred in the interval 5-14 December 2006. Mars and Venus were on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth during this period. The shocks from the first two east limb events (5 and 6 December) were predicted to interact to form a single disturbance before reaching Earth and Venus. A single shock was indeed recorded at Earth only about 3 h earlier than had been predicted. The composite shock was predicted by HAFv.2 to arrive at Venus on 8 December at ˜0500 UT. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) were detected in Venus Express Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms-4 data for some 3 d (from <0530 UT on 6 December), and an energetic storm particle (ESP) event signaled the arrival of a single shock wave at 0900 UT on 7 December. SEPs were correspondingly recorded at Mars. However, the eastern flank of the composite shock was predicted to decay to an MHD wave prior to reaching this location, and no shock signature was observed in the available data. The shocks generated in association with two flare events that occurred closer to the West Limb on 13 and 14 December were predicted by HAFv.2 to remain separate when they arrived at Earth but to combine thereafter before reaching Mars. Each was expected to decay to MHD waves before reaching Venus, which was at that time located behind the Sun. Separated shocks were observed to arrive at L1 (ACE) only 8 min earlier than and 5.3 h later than their predicted times. The western flank of the combined shocks was predicted to arrive at Mars early on 20 December 2006. An indication of the passage of this shock was provided by a signature of ion heating in Mars Express IMA (ion mass-resolving analyzer) data from <0424 UT on 20 December. The predictions of the HAFv.2 model for Earth were each well within the ±11 h. RMS error

  15. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  16. Assessment of performance of the inter-arrival time algorithm to identify ice shattering artifacts in cloud particle probes measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A.; Field, P. R.

    2014-10-01

    Shattering presents a serious obstacle to current airborne in-situ methods of characterizing the microphysical properties of ice clouds. Small shattered fragments result from the impact of natural ice crystals with the forward parts of aircraft-mounted measurement probes. The presence of these shattered fragments may result in a significant overestimation of the measured concentration of small ice crystals, contaminating the measurement of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). One method of identifying shattered particles is to use an interarrival time algorithm. This method is based on the assumption that shattered fragments form spatial clusters that have short interarrival times between particles, relative to natural particles, when they pass through the sample volume of the probe. The interarrival time algorithm is a successful technique for the classification of shattering artifacts and natural particles. This study assesses the limitations and efficiency of the interarrival time algorithm. The analysis has been performed using simultaneous measurements of 2-D optical array probes with the standard and antishattering "K-tips" collected during the Airborne Icing Instrumentation Experiment (AIIE). It is shown that the efficiency of the algorithm depends on ice particle size, concentration and habit. Additional numerical simulations indicate that the effectiveness of the interarrival time algorithm to eliminate shattering artifacts can be significantly restricted in some cases. Improvements to the interarrival time algorithm are discussed.

  17. Longitudinal development of muons in large air showers studies from the arrival time distributions measured at 900m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of muons with energies above 1.0GeV and 0.5GeV have been measured in the Akeno air-shower array to study the longitudinal development of muons in air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power ev. The average rise times of muons with energies above 1.0GeV at large core distances are consistent with those expected from very high multiplicity models and, on the contrary, with those expected from the low multiplicity models at small core distances. This implies that the longitudinal development at atmospheric depth smaller than 500 cm square is very fast and that at larger atmospheric depths is rather slow.

  18. Estimating the value of containment strategies in delaying the arrival time of an influenza pandemic: A case study of travel restriction and patient isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Tianyi; Li, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    With a simple phenomenological metapopulation model, which characterizes the invasion process of an influenza pandemic from a source to a subpopulation at risk, we compare the efficiency of inter- and intrapopulation interventions in delaying the arrival of an influenza pandemic. We take travel restriction and patient isolation as examples, since in reality they are typical control measures implemented at the inter- and intrapopulation levels, respectively. We find that the intrapopulation interventions, e.g., patient isolation, perform better than the interpopulation strategies such as travel restriction if the response time is small. However, intrapopulation strategies are sensitive to the increase of the response time, which might be inevitable due to socioeconomic reasons in practice and will largely discount the efficiency.

  19. Estimating the value of containment strategies in delaying the arrival time of an influenza pandemic: a case study of travel restriction and patient isolation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Tianyi; Li, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    With a simple phenomenological metapopulation model, which characterizes the invasion process of an influenza pandemic from a source to a subpopulation at risk, we compare the efficiency of inter- and intrapopulation interventions in delaying the arrival of an influenza pandemic. We take travel restriction and patient isolation as examples, since in reality they are typical control measures implemented at the inter- and intrapopulation levels, respectively. We find that the intrapopulation interventions, e.g., patient isolation, perform better than the interpopulation strategies such as travel restriction if the response time is small. However, intrapopulation strategies are sensitive to the increase of the response time, which might be inevitable due to socioeconomic reasons in practice and will largely discount the efficiency.

  20. Detection and absolute quantitation of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) by real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Vásquez, José Angel; Rubio, Luis; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Debreczeni, Diana Elvira; Font-San-Ambrosio, Isabel; Falk, Bryce W; Ferriol, Inmaculada

    2015-09-01

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) causes serious damage to the tomato industry and significant economic losses. A quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method using primers and a specific TaqMan(®) MGB probe for ToTV was developed for sensitive detection and quantitation of different ToTV isolates. A standard curve using RNA transcripts enabled absolute quantitation, with a dynamic range from 10(4) to 10(10) ToTV RNA copies/ng of total RNA. The specificity of the RT-qPCR was tested with twenty-three ToTV isolates from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) collected in Spain, Australia, Hungary and France, which covered the genetic variation range of this virus. This new RT-qPCR assay enables a reproducible, sensitive and specific detection and quantitation of ToTV, which can be a valuable tool in disease management programs and epidemiological studies.

  1. Model-based evaluation of microbial mass fractions: effect of absolute anaerobic reaction time on microbial mass fractions.

    PubMed

    Tunçal, Tolga

    2010-04-14

    Although enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes (EBPR) are popular methods for nutrient control, unstable treatment performances of full-scale systems are still not well understood. In this study, the interaction between electron acceptors present at the start of the anaerobic phase of an EBPR system and the amount of organic acids generated from simple substrate (rbsCOD) was investigated in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Quantification of microbial groups including phosphorus-accumulating microorganisms (PAOs), denitrifying PAOs (DPAOs), glycogen-accumulating microorganisms (GAOs) and ordinary heterotrophic microorganisms (OHOs) was based on a modified dynamic model. The intracellular phosphorus content of PAOs was also determined by the execution of mass balances for the biological stages of the plant. The EBPR activities observed in the plant and in batch tests (under idealized conditions) were compared with each other statistically as well. Modelling efforts indicated that the use of absolute anaerobic reaction (eta1) instead of nominal anaerobic reaction time (eta), to estimate the amount of available substrate for PAOs, significantly improved model accuracy. Another interesting result of the study was the differences in EBPR characteristics observed in idealized and real conditions. PMID:20480829

  2. Arrival time distributions of product ions reveal isomeric ratio of deprotonated molecules in ion mobility-mass spectrometry of hyaluronan-derived oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Hermannová, Martina; Iordache, Andreea-Maria; Slováková, Kristína; Havlíček, Vladimír; Pelantová, Helena; Lemr, Karel

    2015-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring linear polysaccharide with substantial medical potential. In this work, discrimination of tyramine-based hyaluronan derivatives was accessed by ion mobility-mass spectrometry of deprotonated molecules and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As the product ion mass spectra did not allow for direct isomer discrimination in mixture, the reductive labeling of oligosaccharides as well as stable isotope labeling was performed. The ion mobility separation of parent ions together with the characteristic fragmentation for reduced isomers providing unique product ions allowed us to identify isomers present in a mixture and determine their mutual isomeric ratio. The determination used simple recalculation of arrival time distribution areas of unique ions to areas of deprotonated molecules. Mass spectrometry data were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  3. Basement configuration of on-land Kutch basin from seismic refraction studies and modeling of first arrival travel time skips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, B. Rajendra; Venkateswarlu, N.; Prasad, A. S. S. S. R. S.; Murthy, A. S. N.; Sateesh, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Kutch basin is one of the three (Narmada, Cambay and Kutch) major marginal rift basins that are close to each other in mid-western part of the Indian subcontinent. The seismic refraction and wide-angle reflection data were acquired and a first order velocity structure of the Kutch sedimentary basin along Jakhau-Mandvi, Mandvi-Mundra, Mundra-Adesar and Hamirpur-Halvad profiles is derived. The travel time skip phenomenon has been noticed in the travel time plots and record sections indicating presence of low velocity sediments. Derived two-dimensional velocity-depth models revealed a Mesozoic sedimentary sequence sandwiched between Trap and Limestone layers, in some of the profiles. Two thick low velocity layers (that corresponds early to late Mesozoic era) have been identified. These are dipping towards Mandvi along Jakhau-Mandvi profile. The early Mesozoic layer that is thinning towards southeast is completely missing in Mandvi-Mundra profile. It is also noticed that the early Mesozoic Bhuj formation exists in the northern parts of the Mundra-Adesar and Hamirpur-Halvad profiles, where it directly overlies the granitic basement. The derived velocity-depth model suggests that the basement is about 3 km deep near Jakhau and reaches a depth of about 6 km near Mandvi. The layered structure may correspond to the Tertiary, Trap, Late Mesozoic sediments and Mesozoic limestone. The velocity-depth model obtained in Kutch is very similar to earlier derived model for Jamnagar and Dwarka sub-basins of northwestern Saurashtra peninsula suggesting probable continuity/linkage between southern on-land Kutch and, across the Gulf of Kutch to Saurashtra peninunsula. We also conclude that the evolution of Kutch basin, as a peri-cratonic rift basin, is essentially controlled by the four (F1-F4) faults inferred from obvious abrupt changes in layer thickness/velocity along the seismic refraction profiles.

  4. Acoustic Source Localization via Time Difference of Arrival Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks Using Tera-Scale Optical Core Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    For real-time acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot bemore » readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-core digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.« less

  5. Interference peak detection based on FPGA for real-time absolute distance ranging with dual-comb lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Kai; Dong, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Xinghui; Wu, Guanhao

    2015-08-01

    Absolute distance measurement using dual femtosecond comb lasers can achieve higher accuracy and faster measurement speed, which makes it more and more attractive. The data processing flow consists of four steps: interference peak detection, fast Fourier transform (FFT), phase fitting and compensation of index of refraction. A realtime data processing system based on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for dual-comb ranging has been newly developed. The design and implementation of the interference peak detection algorithm by FPGA and Verilog language is introduced in this paper, which is viewed as the most complicated part and an important guarantee for system precision and reliability. An adaptive sliding window for scanning is used to detect peaks. In the process of detection, the algorithm stores 16 sample data as a detection unit and calculates the average of each unit. The average result is used to determine the vertical center height of the sliding window. The algorithm estimates the noise intensity of each detection unit, and then calculates the average of the noise strength of successive 128 units. The noise average is used to calculate the signal to noise ratio of the current working environment, which is used to adjust the height of the sliding window. This adaptive sliding window helps to eliminate fake peaks caused by noise. The whole design is based on the way of pipeline, which can improves the real-time throughput of the overall peak detection module. Its execution speed is up to 140MHz in the FPGA, and the peak can be detected in 16 clock cycle when it appears.

  6. Leptin in Whales: Validation and Measurement of mRNA Expression by Absolute Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Hope C.; Holmes, Robert K.; Londraville, Richard L.; Thewissen, Johannes G. M.; Duff, Robert Joel

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is the primary hormone in mammals that regulates adipose stores. Arctic adapted cetaceans maintain enormous adipose depots, suggesting possible modifications of leptin or receptor function. Determining expression of these genes is the first step to understanding the extreme physiology of these animals, and the uniqueness of these animals presents special challenges in estimating and comparing expression levels of mRNA transcripts. Here, we compare expression of two model genes, leptin and leptin-receptor gene-related product (OB-RGRP), using two quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods: “relative” and “absolute”. To assess the expression of leptin and OB-RGRP in cetacean tissues, we first examined how relative expression of those genes might differ when normalized to four common endogenous control genes. We performed relative expression qPCR assays measuring the amplification of these two model target genes relative to amplification of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), ubiquitously expressed transcript (Uxt), ribosomal protein 9 (Rs9) and ribosomal protein 15 (Rs15) endogenous controls. Results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of both genes when different control genes were employed; emphasizing a limitation of relative qPCR assays, especially in studies where differences in physiology and/or a lack of knowledge regarding levels and patterns of expression of common control genes may possibly affect data interpretation. To validate the absolute quantitative qPCR methods, we evaluated the effects of plasmid structure, the purity of the plasmid standard preparation and the influence of type of qPCR “background” material on qPCR amplification efficiencies and copy number determination of both model genes, in multiple tissues from one male bowhead whale. Results indicate that linear plasmids are more reliable than circular plasmid standards, no significant differences in copy number estimation based upon background material used, and

  7. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions.

  8. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  9. The Impact of Strategy Instruction and Timing of Estimates on Low and High Working-Memory Capacity Readers' Absolute Monitoring Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linderholm, Tracy; Zhao, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Working-memory capacity, strategy instruction, and timing of estimates were investigated for their effects on absolute monitoring accuracy, which is the difference between estimated and actual reading comprehension test performance. Participants read two expository texts under one of two randomly assigned reading strategy instruction conditions…

  10. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  11. Measurement of the Absolute Magnitude and Time Courses of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Primary and Clonal Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerencser, Akos A.; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to simplify, improve and validate quantitative measurement of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) in pancreatic β-cells. This built on our previously introduced calculation of the absolute magnitude of ΔψM in intact cells, using time-lapse imaging of the non-quench mode fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and a bis-oxonol plasma membrane potential (ΔψP) indicator. ΔψM is a central mediator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. ΔψM is at the crossroads of cellular energy production and demand, therefore precise assay of its magnitude is a valuable tool to study how these processes interplay in insulin secretion. Dispersed islet cell cultures allowed cell type-specific, single-cell observations of cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ΔψM and ΔψP. Glucose addition caused hyperpolarization of ΔψM and depolarization of ΔψP. The hyperpolarization was a monophasic step increase, even in cells where the ΔψP depolarization was biphasic. The biphasic response of ΔψP was associated with a larger hyperpolarization of ΔψM than the monophasic response. Analysis of the relationships between ΔψP and ΔψM revealed that primary dispersed β-cells responded to glucose heterogeneously, driven by variable activation of energy metabolism. Sensitivity analysis of the calibration was consistent with β-cells having substantial cell-to-cell variations in amounts of mitochondria, and this was predicted not to impair the accuracy of determinations of relative changes in ΔψM and ΔψP. Finally, we demonstrate a significant problem with using an alternative ΔψM probe, rhodamine 123. In glucose-stimulated and oligomycin-inhibited β-cells the principles of the rhodamine 123 assay were breached, resulting in misleading conclusions. PMID:27404273

  12. Time lapse imaging of water content with geoelectrical methods: on the interest of working with absolute water content data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Robert, Tanguy; Hermans, Thomas; Garré, Sarah; Nguyen, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography is a suitable method to estimate the water content of a waste material and detect changes in water content. Various ERT profiles, both static data and time-lapse, where acquired on a landfill during the Minerve project. In the literature, the relative change of resistivity (Δρ/ρ) is generally computed. For saline or heat tracer tests in the saturated zone, the Δρ/ρ can be easily translated into pore water conductivity or underground temperature changes (provided that the initial salinity or temperature condition is homogeneous over the ERT panel extension). For water content changes in the vadose zone resulting of an infiltration event or injection experiment, many authors also work with the Δρ/ρ or relative changes of water content Δθ/θ (linked to the change of resistivity through one single parameter: the Archie's law exponent "m"). This parameter is not influenced by the underground temperature and pore fluid conductivity (ρ¬w) condition but is influenced by the initial water content distribution. Therefore, you never know if the loss of Δθ/θ signal is representative of the limit of the infiltration front or more humid initial condition. Another approach for the understanding of the infiltration process is the assessment of the absolute change of water content (Δθ). This requires the direct computation of the water content of the waste from the resistivity data. For that purpose, we used petrophysical laws calibrated with laboratory experiments and our knowledge of the in situ temperature and pore fluid conductivity parameters. Then, we investigated water content changes in the waste material after a rainfall event (Δθ= Δθ/θ* θ). This new observation is really representatives of the quantity of water infiltrated in the waste material. However, the uncertainty in the pore fluid conductivity value may influence the computed water changes (Δθ=k*m√(ρw) ; where "m" is the Archie's law exponent

  13. Absolutely calibrated, time-resolved measurements of soft x rays using transmission grating spectrometers at the Nike Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Feldman, U.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G.; Serlin, V.; Klapisch, M.; Columbant, D.; Mostovych, A.

    2001-12-01

    Accurate simulation of pellet implosions for direct drive inertial confinement fusion requires benchmarking the codes with experimental data. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has begun to measure the absolute intensity of radiation from laser irradiated targets to provide critical information for the radiatively preheated pellet designs developed by the Nike laser group. Two main diagnostics for this effort are two spectrometers incorporating three detection systems. While both spectrometers use 2500 lines/mm transmission gratings, one instrument is coupled to a soft x-ray streak camera and the other is coupled to both an absolutely calibrated Si photodiode array and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. Absolute calibration of spectrometer components has been undertaken at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratories. Currently, the system has been used to measure the spatially integrated soft x-ray flux as a function of target material, laser power, and laser spot size. A comparison between measured and calculated flux for Au and CH targets shows reasonable agreement to one-dimensional modeling for two laser power densities.

  14. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion for Three-Dimensional Seismic Structure Around SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica; Roux, Philippe; Thurber, Clifford

    2014-11-01

    We incorporate body-wave arrival time and surface-wave dispersion data into a joint inversion for three-dimensional P-wave and S-wave velocity structure of the crust surrounding the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the relative weighting of the respective equations. We find that the trade-off between fitting the two data types, controlled by the weighting, defines a clear optimal solution. Varying the weighting away from the optimal point leads to sharp increases in misfit for one data type with only modest reduction in misfit for the other data type. All the acceptable solutions yield structures with similar primary features, but the smaller-scale features change substantially. When there is a lower relative weight on the surface-wave data, it appears that the solution over-fits the body-wave data, leading to a relatively rough V s model, whereas for the optimal weighting, we obtain a relatively smooth model that is able to fit both the body-wave and surface-wave observations adequately.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): reticulate evolution and the probable time of creosote bush arrival to North America.

    PubMed

    Lia, V V; Confalonieri, V A; Comas, C I; Hunziker, J H

    2001-11-01

    Nucleotide sequences of Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA were obtained for the five species of Larrea and one species each of Bulnesia (ITS only) and Plectrocarpa (rbcL only). Parsimony analyses were conducted, including sequences from seven genera of Zygophyllaceae reported by other authors-Kallstroemia, Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia, Pintoa, Guaiacum, and Porlieria. The main conclusions of the present study are (1) the Argentine endemic Plectrocarpa tetracantha belongs to the subfamily Larreoideae (New World Clade); (2) all three phylogenies obtained from rbcL, ITS, and combined data sets show a close relationship between the tetraploid L. cuneifolia (sect. Bifolium) and the diploid multifoliolate pair L. nitida-L. ameghinoi (sect. Larrea), which could result from a possible intersectional hybrid origin of the tetraploid; (3) L. divaricata (sect. Bifolium) and L. tridentata (sect. Bifolium) form a highly supported monophyletic group, which agrees with previous cytogenetic and molecular evidence; and (4) the rate of nucleotide substitution of rbcL was estimated based on geological and fossil records. Under the molecular clock hypothesis, nucleotide sequence divergence between L. divaricata and L. tridentata suggests a Late Neogene (8.4 to 4.2 mybp) time of arrival of the diploid ancestors of L. tridentata to North American deserts. PMID:11697924

  16. Memory of the Lake Rotorua catchment - time lag of the water in the catchment and delayed arrival of contaminants from past land use activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.; Stewart, Michael K.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2013-04-01

    , most of the water inflows into the lake are not yet fully representing the nitrate loading in their sub-catchments from current land use practises. These water inflows are still 'diluted' by pristine old water, but over time, the full amount of nitrate load will arrive at the lake. With the age distribution parameters, it is possible to predict the increase in nitrate load to the lake via the groundwater discharges. All sub-catchments have different mean transit times. The mean transit times are not necessarily correlated with observable hydrogeologic properties like hydraulic conductivity and catchment size. Without such age tracer data, it is therefore difficult to predict mean transit times (lag times, memory) of water transfer through catchments. References: Stewart, M.K., Morgenstern, U., McDonnell, J.J., Pfister, L. (2012). The 'hidden streamflow' challenge in catchment hydrology: A call to action for streamwater transit time analysis. Hydrol. Process. 26,2061-2066, Invited commentary. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9262 Morgenstern, U., Stewart, M.K., and Stenger, R. (2010) Dating of streamwater using tritium in a post nuclear bomb pulse world: continuous variation of mean transit time with streamflow, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci, 14, 2289-2301

  17. Comparison of interplanetary CME arrival times and solar wind parameters based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Na, Hyeonock

    2014-09-01

    We have made a comparison between coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated shock propagations based on the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations. For this we use 28 full-halo CMEs, whose cone parameters are determined and their corresponding interplanetary shocks were observed at the Earth, from 2001 to 2002. We consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice cream cone model, and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error of the CME-associated shock travel times for the WSA-ENLIL model using the ice-cream cone model is 9.9 h, which is about 1 h smaller than those of the other models. We compare the peak values and profiles of solar wind parameters (speed and density) with in situ observations. We find that the root-mean-square errors of solar wind peak speed and density for the ice cream and asymmetric cone model are about 190 km/s and 24/cm3, respectively. We estimate the cross correlations between the models and observations within the time lag of ± 2 days from the shock travel time. The correlation coefficients between the solar wind speeds from the WSA-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations are approximately 0.7, which is larger than those of solar wind density (cc ˜0.6). Our preliminary investigations show that the ice cream cone model seems to be better than the other cone models in terms of the input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model.

  18. Association of hematological variables and castration status at the time of arrival at a research facility with the risk of bovine respiratory disease in beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between hematological parameters (CBC) and gender at stocker receiving facility arrival and the risk of subsequent clinical bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnosis, and (2) to determine and evaluate the accuracy of CBC parameter threshold...

  19. Standardization of Gene Expression Quantification by Absolute Real-Time qRT-PCR System Using a Single Standard for Marker and Reference Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Hong; Raj, Vinay R; Siegel, Eric; Yu, Liping

    2010-08-16

    In the last decade, genome-wide gene expression data has been collected from a large number of cancer specimens. In many studies utilizing either microarray-based or knowledge-based gene expression profiling, both the validation of candidate genes and the identification and inclusion of biomarkers in prognosis-modeling has employed real-time quantitative PCR on reverse transcribed mRNA (qRT-PCR) because of its inherent sensitivity and quantitative nature. In qRT-PCR data analysis, an internal reference gene is used to normalize the variation in input sample quantity. The relative quantification method used in current real-time qRT-PCR analysis fails to ensure data comparability pivotal in identification of prognostic biomarkers. By employing an absolute qRT-PCR system that uses a single standard for marker and reference genes (SSMR) to achieve absolute quantification, we showed that the normalized gene expression data is comparable and independent of variations in the quantities of sample as well as the standard used for generating standard curves. We compared two sets of normalized gene expression data with same histological diagnosis of brain tumor from two labs using relative and absolute real-time qRT-PCR. Base-10 logarithms of the gene expression ratio relative to ACTB were evaluated for statistical equivalence between tumors processed by two different labs. The results showed an approximate comparability for normalized gene expression quantified using a SSMR-based qRT-PCR. Incomparable results were seen for the gene expression data using relative real-time qRT-PCR, due to inequality in molar concentration of two standards for marker and reference genes. Overall results show that SSMR-based real-time qRT-PCR ensures comparability of gene expression data much needed in establishment of prognostic/predictive models for cancer patients-a process that requires large sample sizes by combining independent sets of data.

  20. Real-Time Determination of Absolute Frequency in Continuous-Wave Terahertz Radiation with a Photocarrier Terahertz Frequency Comb Induced by an Unstabilized Femtosecond Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Hayashi, Kenta; Mizuguchi, Tatsuya; Hsieh, Yi-Da; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    A practical method for the absolute frequency measurement of continuous-wave terahertz (CW-THz) radiation uses a photocarrier terahertz frequency comb (PC-THz comb) because of its ability to realize real-time, precise measurement without the need for cryogenic cooling. However, the requirement for precise stabilization of the repetition frequency ( f rep) and/or use of dual femtosecond lasers hinders its practical use. In this article, based on the fact that an equal interval between PC-THz comb modes is always maintained regardless of the fluctuation in f rep, the PC-THz comb induced by an unstabilized laser was used to determine the absolute frequency f THz of CW-THz radiation. Using an f rep-free-running PC-THz comb, the f THz of the frequency-fixed or frequency-fluctuated active frequency multiplier chain CW-THz source was determined at a measurement rate of 10 Hz with a relative accuracy of 8.2 × 10-13 and a relative precision of 8.8 × 10-12 to a rubidium frequency standard. Furthermore, f THz was correctly determined even when fluctuating over a range of 20 GHz. The proposed method enables the use of any commercial femtosecond laser for the absolute frequency measurement of CW-THz radiation.

  1. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  2. Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Arrival Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Data for Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Structure Around SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C. H.; Maceira, M.; Roux, P.

    2013-12-01

    The crust around the San Andreas Fault Observatory at depth (SAFOD) has been the subject of many geophysical studies aimed at characterizing in detail the fault zone structure and elucidating the lithologies and physical properties of the surrounding rocks. Seismic methods in particular have revealed the complex two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structure of the crustal volume around SAFOD and the strong velocity reduction in the fault damage zone. In this study we conduct a joint inversion using body-wave arrival times and surface-wave dispersion data to image the P-and S-wave velocity structure of the upper crust surrounding SAFOD. The two data types have complementary strengths - the body-wave data have good resolution at depth, albeit only where there are crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution and are not dependent on the earthquake source distribution because they are derived from ambient noise. The body-wave data are from local earthquakes and explosions, comprising the dataset analyzed by Zhang et al. (2009). The surface-wave data are for Love waves from ambient noise correlations, and are from Roux et al. (2011). The joint inversion code is based on the regional-scale version of the double-difference (DD) tomography algorithm tomoDD. The surface-wave inversion code that is integrated into the joint inversion algorithm is from Maceira and Ammon (2009). The propagator matrix solver in the algorithm DISPER80 (Saito, 1988) is used for the forward calculation of dispersion curves from layered velocity models. We examined how the structural models vary as we vary the relative weighting of the fit to the two data sets and in comparison to the previous separate inversion results. The joint inversion with the 'optimal' weighting shows more clearly the U-shaped local structure from the Buzzard Canyon Fault on the west side of SAF to the Gold Hill Fault on the east side.

  3. The influence of speed, cyclists' age, pedaling frequency, and observer age on observers' time to arrival judgments of approaching bicycles and e-bikes.

    PubMed

    Schleinitz, Katja; Petzoldt, Tibor; Krems, Josef F; Gehlert, Tina

    2016-07-01

    Given their potential to reach higher speed levels than conventional bicycles, the growing market share of e-bikes has been the reason for increased concerns regarding road safety. Previous studies have shown a clear relationship between object approach speed and an observers' judgment of when the object would reach a predefined position (i.e., time to arrival, TTA), with higher speed resulting in longer TTA estimates. Since TTA estimates have been linked to road users' decisions of whether or not to cross or turn in front of approaching vehicles, the higher potential speeds of e-bikes might result in an increased risk for traffic conflicts. The goal of the two experiments presented in this paper was to examine the influence of speed and a variety of other factors on TTA estimation for conventional bicycles and for e-bikes. In both experiments, participants from two age groups (20-45 years old and 65 years or older) watched video sequences of bicycles approaching at different speeds (15-25km/h) and were asked to judge the TTA at the moment the video was stopped. The results of both experiments showed that an increase in bicycle approach speed resulted in longer TTA estimates (measured as the proportion of estimated TTA relative to actual TTA) for both bicycle types (ηp(2)Exp.1=.489, ηp(2)Exp.2=.705). Compared to younger observers, older observers provided shorter estimates throughout (Exp. I: MDiff=0.35, CI [0.197, 0.509], ηp(2)=.332, Exp. II: MDiff=0.50, CI [.317, 0.682], ηp(2)=.420). In Experiment I, TTA estimates for the conventional bicycle were significantly shorter than for the e-bike (MDiff=0.03, CI [.007, 0.044], ηp(2)=.154), as were the estimates for the elder cyclist compared to the younger one (MDiff=0.05, CI [.025, 0.066], ηp(2)=.323). We hypothesized that the cause for this effect might lie in the seemingly reduced pedaling effort for the e-bike as a result of the motor assistance it provides. Experiment II was able to show that a high pedaling

  4. First in line or first in time? Effects of settlement order and arrival date on reproduction in a group-living beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Latty, Tanya M; Reid, Mary L

    2009-05-01

    1. In group-living organisms, individuals that initiate aggregations, termed pioneers, may suffer higher mortality costs than individuals that join established aggregations. Here we examine the hypothesis that aggregation initiators achieve higher reproductive success in the early phases of colonization, potentially through lower competition and increased access to the resource (finder's advantage), and that this benefit is sufficient to outweigh the costs of pioneering. 2. We also examine the role of arrival date (irrespective of order within the aggregation) on reproductive success, because individuals in seasonal environments may gain an advantage by arriving early. We test these hypotheses using mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), an obligately aggregating insect wherein pioneers suffer high mortality due to tree defences. We measured reproductive success at the start of winter when most components of final offspring number were likely to be determined. 3. Surviving pioneers that successfully recruited conspecifics had smaller broods than individuals that joined aggregations, refuting our hypothesis. The later that a beetle settled within an aggregation, the higher its reproductive success. However, beetles that settled early in the season produced more offspring than those that settled later in the season, and this effect was generally stronger than settlement order within an aggregation. Our study highlights the importance of examining the effects of both settlement order and arrival date on the costs and benefits of pioneering aggregations.

  5. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors.

    PubMed

    Waugh, C J; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2015-05-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule. PMID:26026524

  6. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J. Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  7. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition,more » comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.« less

  8. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, C. J.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-05-27

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  9. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  10. Sub-micron absolute distance measurements in sub-millisecond times with dual free-running femtosecond Er fiber-lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tze-An; Newbury, Nathan R; Coddington, Ian

    2011-09-12

    We demonstrate a simplified dual-comb LIDAR setup for precision absolute ranging that can achieve a ranging precision of 2 μm in 140 μs acquisition time. With averaging, the precision drops below 1 μm at 0.8 ms and below 200 nm at 20 ms. The system can measure the distance to multiple targets with negligible dead zones and a ranging ambiguity of 1 meter. The system is much simpler than a previous coherent dual-comb LIDAR because the two combs are replaced by free-running, saturable-absorber-based femtosecond Er fiber lasers, rather than tightly phase-locked combs, with the entire time base provided by a single 10-digit frequency counter. Despite the simpler design, the system provides a factor of three improved performance over the previous coherent dual comb LIDAR system.

  11. Sub-micron absolute distance measurements in sub-millisecond times with dual free-running femtosecond Er fiber-lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tze-An; Newbury, Nathan R; Coddington, Ian

    2011-09-12

    We demonstrate a simplified dual-comb LIDAR setup for precision absolute ranging that can achieve a ranging precision of 2 μm in 140 μs acquisition time. With averaging, the precision drops below 1 μm at 0.8 ms and below 200 nm at 20 ms. The system can measure the distance to multiple targets with negligible dead zones and a ranging ambiguity of 1 meter. The system is much simpler than a previous coherent dual-comb LIDAR because the two combs are replaced by free-running, saturable-absorber-based femtosecond Er fiber lasers, rather than tightly phase-locked combs, with the entire time base provided by a single 10-digit frequency counter. Despite the simpler design, the system provides a factor of three improved performance over the previous coherent dual comb LIDAR system. PMID:21935219

  12. Comprehensive panel of real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and absolute quantification of filoviruses, arenaviruses, and New World hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Trombley, Adrienne R; Wachter, Leslie; Garrison, Jeffrey; Buckley-Beason, Valerie A; Jahrling, Jordan; Hensley, Lisa E; Schoepp, Randal J; Norwood, David A; Goba, Augustine; Fair, Joseph N; Kulesh, David A

    2010-05-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever is caused by a diverse group of single-stranded, negative-sense or positive-sense RNA viruses belonging to the families Filoviridae (Ebola and Marburg), Arenaviridae (Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Guanarito), and Bunyaviridae (hantavirus). Disease characteristics in these families mark each with the potential to be used as a biological threat agent. Because other diseases have similar clinical symptoms, specific laboratory diagnostic tests are necessary to provide the differential diagnosis during outbreaks and for instituting acceptable quarantine procedures. We designed 48 TaqMan-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for specific and absolute quantitative detection of multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses. Forty-six assays were determined to be virus-specific, and two were designated as pan assays for Marburg virus. The limit of detection for the assays ranged from 10 to 0.001 plaque-forming units (PFU)/PCR. Although these real-time hemorrhagic fever virus assays are qualitative (presence of target), they are also quantitative (measure a single DNA/RNA target sequence in an unknown sample and express the final results as an absolute value (e.g., viral load, PFUs, or copies/mL) on the basis of concentration of standard samples and can be used in viral load, vaccine, and antiviral drug studies.

  13. Absolute concentrations of highly vibrationally excited OH(υ = 9 + 8) in the mesopause region derived from the TIMED/SABER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Jeffrey; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mertens, Christoper J.; Russell, James M.; Thompson, R. Earl; Gordley, Larry L.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> concentrations (cm-3) of highly vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH) are derived from measurements of the volume emission rate of the υ = 9 + 8 states of the OH radical made by the SABER instrument on the <span class="hlt">TIMED</span> satellite. SABER has exceptionally sensitive measurement precision that corresponds to an ability to detect changes in volume emission rate on the order of ~5 excited OH molecules per cm3. Peak zonal annual mean concentrations observed by SABER exceed 1000 cm-3 at night and 225 cm-3 during the day. Measurements since 2002 show an apparent altitude-dependent variation of the night OH(υ = 9 + 8) concentrations with the 11 year solar cycle, with concentrations decreasing below ~ 95 km from 2002 to 2008. These observations provide a global database for evaluating photochemical model computations of OH abundance, reaction kinetics, and rates and mechanisms responsible for maintaining vibrationally excited OH in the mesopause region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812195W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812195W"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous Gravity Monitoring in South America with Superconducting and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravimeters: More than 12 years <span class="hlt">time</span> series at station TIGO/Concepcion (Chile)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Hase, Hayo; Armin, Böer; Andreas, Güntner; Rongjiang, Wang</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As part of the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) of BKG, the superconducting gravimeter SG 038 was set up in December 2002 at station Concepcion / Chile to record temporal gravity variations with highest precision. Since May 2006 the <span class="hlt">time</span> series was supported by weekly observations with the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter FG5-227, proving the large seasonal variations of up to 30 μGal and establishing a gravity reference station in South America. With the move of the whole observatory to the new location near to La Plata / Argentina the series was terminated. Results of almost continuously monitoring gravity variations for more than 12 years are presented. Seasonal variations are interpreted with respect of global and local water storage changes and the impact of the 8.8 Maule Earthquake in February 2010 is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..503..233C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASPC..503..233C"><span id="translatedtitle">SkyProbe: Real-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Precision Monitoring in the Optical of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Atmospheric Absorption on the Telescope Science and Calibration Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cuillandre, J.-C.; Magnier, E.; Sabin, D.; Mahoney, B.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since at least 25% of the observable (i.e. open dome) nights are not photometric, an effect mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single channel SkyProbe mounted in parallel on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) has gathered one V-band exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera offering a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tycho catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). The measurement of the true atmospheric absorption is achieved within 2%, a key advantage over all-sky direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds and particulates affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO) representing today all of the telescope <span class="hlt">time</span>. Also, science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for a new observation at a later date at 1/10th of the original exposure <span class="hlt">time</span> in photometric conditions to ensure a proper final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> photometric calibration. Photometric standards are observed only when conditions are reported as being perfectly stable by SkyProbe. The more recent dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will offer a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinnest cirrus (absorption down to 0.01 mag., or 1%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26132165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26132165"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Novel <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the <span class="hlt">Timing</span> of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The <span class="hlt">timing</span> of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489498','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489498"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Novel <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the <span class="hlt">Timing</span> of Tooth Eruption in the Saber-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wysocki, M. Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S.; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite the superb fossil record of the saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The <span class="hlt">timing</span> of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-saber-toothed taxa, as long as the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation. PMID:26132165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27039281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27039281"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunch-<span class="hlt">time</span> food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-<span class="hlt">time</span> meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003649.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Eosinophil count - <span class="hlt">absolute</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Eosinophils; <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMSA41A1834M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMSA41A1834M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Populations of Highly Vibrationally Excited OH(υ=8 + υ=9) in the Night Mesopause Region Derived from the <span class="hlt">TIMED</span>/SABER Instrument from 2002 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Marshall, B. T.; Thompson, R. E.; Mertens, C. J.; Hunt, L. A.; Russell, J. M.; Gordley, L. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We present global distributions of v = 9 + v = 8 nighttime vibrationally excited hydroxyl concentrations as measured by the SABER instrument on board the <span class="hlt">TIMED</span> spacecraft. These states are formed directly by the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone in the terrestrial mesopause region. SABER measures the limb radiance from the delta-v = 2 transitions in a channel centered near 2.0 um, specifically the sum of the 9 -> 7 and 8 -> 6 transitions. The limb radiances are inverted to yield the volume emission rates from the sum of the v = 8 and 9 states of the hydroxyl molecule. The Einstein coefficients for spontaneous emission for these two transitions are essentially identical. Thus dividing the derived volume emission rate by the Einstein coefficient yields the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> populations of these states (molecules per cubic cm). Nine full years of data are presented in this paper. Over this <span class="hlt">time</span> the globally averaged OH(v = 8 + v = 9) populations have varied relative to the nine year mean by only a few percent. We conclude that despite substantial solar variability over this <span class="hlt">time</span> period, the apparently small variation of the highly vibrationally excited hydroxyl populations implies that atomic hydrogen, atomic oxygen, temperature, and density adjust in such a way so as to keep the product of the atomic hydrogen concentration, the ozone concentration, and the rate coefficient for their reaction essentially constant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130590','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130590"><span id="translatedtitle">Calibration of diffuse correlation spectroscopy with a <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved near-infrared technique to yield <span class="hlt">absolute</span> cerebral blood flow measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diop, Mamadou; Verdecchia, Kyle; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A primary focus of neurointensive care is the prevention of secondary brain injury, mainly caused by ischemia. A noninvasive bedside technique for continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) could improve patient management by detecting ischemia before brain injury occurs. A promising technique for this purpose is diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) since it can continuously monitor relative perfusion changes in deep tissue. In this study, DCS was combined with a <span class="hlt">time</span>-resolved near-infrared technique (TR-NIR) that can directly measure CBF using indocyanine green as a flow tracer. With this combination, the TR-NIR technique can be used to convert DCS data into <span class="hlt">absolute</span> CBF measurements. The agreement between the two techniques was assessed by concurrent measurements of CBF changes in piglets. A strong correlation between CBF changes measured by TR-NIR and changes in the scaled diffusion coefficient measured by DCS was observed (R2 = 0.93) with a slope of 1.05 ± 0.06 and an intercept of 6.4 ± 4.3% (mean ± standard error). PMID:21750781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSDD....1..491K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSDD....1..491K"><span id="translatedtitle">The Study of the Tether Motion with <span class="hlt">Time</span>-Varying Length Using the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Nodal Coordinate Formulation with Multiple Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Time</span> Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawaguti, Keisuke; Terumichi, Yoshiaki; Takehara, Shoichiro; Kaczmarczyk, Stefan; Sogabe, Kiyoshi</p> <p></p> <p>In this study, the modeling and formulation for tether motion with <span class="hlt">time</span>-varying length, large rotation, large displacement and large deformation are proposed. A tether or cable is an important element in lift systems, construction machines for transportation and often is used with a <span class="hlt">time</span>-varying length. In some cases, these systems are large and the tether has a long length, large deformation and large displacement. The dynamic behavior of a tether in extension and retraction using the proposed method is discussed in this paper. In the passage through resonance, significant tether motions with large rotation and large deformation result. In the analysis of this phenomenon, the transient fluctuations of the motion amplitudes are examined and compared with the corresponding steady state motions. The accuracy and the cost of the calculations are also verified by comparison with the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP52A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP52A..05D"><span id="translatedtitle">Placing <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">Timing</span> on Basin Incision Adjacent to the Colorado Front Range: Results from Meteoric and in Situ 10BE Dating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duehnforth, M.; Anderson, R. S.; Ward, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A sequence of six levels of gravel-capped surfaces, mapped as Pliocene to Holocene in age, are cut into Cretaceous shale in the northwestern part of the Denver Basin immediately adjacent to the Colorado Front Range (CFR). The existing relative age constraints and terrace correlations suggest that the incision of the Denver Basin occurred at a steady and uniform rate of 0.1 mm yr-1 since the Pliocene. As <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ages in this landscape are rare, they have the potential to test the reliability of the existing chronology, and to illuminate the detailed history of incision. We explore the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of basin incision and the variability of geomorphic process rates through <span class="hlt">time</span> by dating the three highest surfaces at the northwestern edge of the Denver Basin using both in situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations. As the tectonic conditions have not changed since the Pliocene, much of the variability of generation and abandonment of alluvial surfaces likely reflects the influence of glacial-interglacial climate variations. We selected Gunbarrel Hill (mapped as pre-Rocky Flats (Pliocene)), Table Mountain (mapped as Rocky Flats (early Pleistocene)), and the Pioneer surface (mapped as Verdos (Pleistocene, ~640 ka)) as sample locations. We took two amalgamated clast samples on the Gunbarrel Hill surface, and dated depth profiles using meteoric and in situ 10Be on the Table Mountain and Pioneer surfaces. In addition, we measured the in situ 10Be concentrations of 6 boulder samples from the Table Mountain surface. We find that all three surfaces are significantly younger than expected and that in situ and meteoric age measurements largely agree with each other. The samples from the pre-Rocky Flats site (Gunbarrel Hill) show ages of 250 and 310 ka, ignoring post-depositional surface erosion. The ages of the Table Mountain and Pioneer sites fall within the 120 to 150 ka window. These <span class="hlt">absolute</span> ages overlap with the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of the penultimate glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Metro..49..706S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Metro..49..706S"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-domain analysis of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svitlov, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is analysed as a linear <span class="hlt">time</span>-invariant system in the frequency domain. Frequency responses of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters are derived analytically based on the propagation of the complex exponential signal through their linear measurement functions. Depending on the model of motion and the number of <span class="hlt">time</span>-distance coordinates, an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is considered as a second-order (three-level scheme) or third-order (multiple-level scheme) low-pass filter. It is shown that the behaviour of an atom <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter in the frequency domain corresponds to that of the three-level corner-cube <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter. Theoretical results are applied for evaluation of random and systematic measurement errors and optimization of an experiment. The developed theory agrees with known results of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter analysis in the <span class="hlt">time</span> and frequency domains and can be used for measurement uncertainty analyses, building of vibration-isolation systems and synthesis of digital filtering algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6763A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6763A"><span id="translatedtitle">A model of seismic coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> to suppress spurious events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arora, N.; Russell, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We describe a model of coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> which has been added to NET-VISA (Network processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis) our probabilistic generative model of seismic events, their transmission, and detection on a global seismic network. The scattered energy that follows a seismic phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> tends to deceive typical STA/LTA based <span class="hlt">arrival</span> picking software into believing that a real seismic phase has been detected. These coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> which tend to follow all seismic phases cause most network processing software including NET-VISA to believe that multiple events have taken place. It is not a simple matter of ignoring closely spaced <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> since <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> from multiple events can indeed overlap. The current practice in NET-VISA of pruning events within a small space-<span class="hlt">time</span> neighborhood of a larger event works reasonably well, but it may mask real events produced in an after-shock sequence. Our new model allows any seismic <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, even coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, to trigger a subsequent coda <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. The probability of such a triggered <span class="hlt">arrival</span> depends on the amplitude of the triggering <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Although real seismic phases are more likely to generate such coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. Real seismic phases also tend to generate coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> with more strongly correlated parameters, for example azimuth and slowness. However, the SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of a coda <span class="hlt">arrival</span> immediately following a phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> tends to be lower because of the nature of the SNR calculation. We have calibrated our model on historical statistics of such triggered <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and our inference accounts for them while searching for the best explanation of seismic events their association to the <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and the coda <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. We have tested our new model on one week of global seismic data spanning March 22, 2009 to March 29, 2009. Our model was trained on two and half months of data from April 5, 2009 to June 20, 2009. We use the LEB bulletin produced by the IDC (International Data Center) as the ground truth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMSM13A0346P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMSM13A0346P"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Particle-Photon Imaging Detector With 4-Dimensional Output: <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span>-of-hit, X-Y Position, and PHA: Applications in Space Science Instruments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paschalidis, N. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>A detector that can simultaneously measure <span class="hlt">time</span>, position, and pulse high analysis (PHA) of single particle/photons with high resolutions and speeds, is a strong enabling technology for many space science instruments such as: energetic neutral atom imagers, low energy neutrals, energetic particle spectrometers, ion/electron plasma analyzers, UV spectrographs, mass spectrometers, laser range finding imagers, X-ray imagers. This presentation describes one such 4-dimentional detector based on micro-channel plates (MCPs), delay line anodes, and precise <span class="hlt">time</span> of flight, and charge integration electronics for PHA. More specifically the detector includes: a) An MCP in 2-stack or Z-stack configuration for the particle/photon detection. b) Option for a thin foil or photo-cathode in front of the MCP to increase the detection efficiency of particles or photons respectively. c) Novel 1D or 2D delay line anode adaptable to almost any geometry and physical size of common instruments mentioned above. d) Fast <span class="hlt">time</span> of flight (TOF) electronics for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> of hit and the X-Y position determination. e) Fast charge integration electronics for PHA of the total charge released by the MCP. Under certain circumstances the PHA gives information about the particle mass such as for protons, He and Oxygen, cross calibrated against UV light which typically gives a single electron distribution. f) FPGA electronics for digital data acquisition and handling. e) Standard mat lab SW for data analysis and visualization in a stand alone application. The detector achieves <span class="hlt">time</span> of hit accuracy <50ps, X-Y position resolution <20um in a field of 2048 x 2048 pixels (2048 for 1D) and adjustable speeds of: 10MHz at 256 x 256 pixels to 1MHz at 2048 x 2048 pixels. The total-charge analysis is at 10-bits. The detector can be used in its full 4D configuration such as in TOF imaging particle analyzer (i.e ENA), or in a reduced configuration such as in a UV spectrograph with X-Y position only. Typical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ams..book..145K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ams..book..145K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> High-Precision Localisation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle by Using Real-<span class="hlt">Time</span> Aerial Video Imagery for Geo-referenced Orthophoto Registration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhnert, Lars; Ax, Markus; Langer, Matthias; Nguyen van, Duong; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> localisation method for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) if GPS is unavailable for the vehicle. The basic idea is to combine an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to the ground vehicle and use it as an external sensor platform to achieve an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> localisation of the robotic team. Beside the discussion of the rather naive method directly using the GPS position of the aerial robot to deduce the ground robot's position the main focus of this paper lies on the indirect usage of the telemetry data of the aerial robot combined with live video images of an onboard camera to realise a registration of local video images with apriori registered orthophotos. This yields to a precise driftless <span class="hlt">absolute</span> localisation of the unmanned ground vehicle. Experiments with our robotic team (AMOR and PSYCHE) successfully verify this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991955','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/991955"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid pressure <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> tomography: Estimation and assessment in the presence of inequality constraints, with an application to a producing gas field at Krechba, Algeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel <span class="hlt">times</span> associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel <span class="hlt">times</span>, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel <span class="hlt">times</span> associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4923135','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4923135"><span id="translatedtitle">Correcting for Blood <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> in Global Mean Regression Enhances Functional Connectivity Analysis of Resting State fMRI-BOLD Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Erdoğan, Sinem B.; Tong, Yunjie; Hocke, Lia M.; Lindsey, Kimberly P.; deB Frederick, Blaise</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Resting state functional connectivity analysis is a widely used method for mapping intrinsic functional organization of the brain. Global signal regression (GSR) is commonly employed for removing systemic global variance from resting state BOLD-fMRI data; however, recent studies have demonstrated that GSR may introduce spurious negative correlations within and between functional networks, calling into question the meaning of anticorrelations reported between some networks. In the present study, we propose that global signal from resting state fMRI is composed primarily of systemic low frequency oscillations (sLFOs) that propagate with cerebral blood circulation throughout the brain. We introduce a novel systemic noise removal strategy for resting state fMRI data, “dynamic global signal regression” (dGSR), which applies a voxel-specific optimal <span class="hlt">time</span> delay to the global signal prior to regression from voxel-wise <span class="hlt">time</span> series. We test our hypothesis on two functional systems that are suggested to be intrinsically organized into anticorrelated networks: the default mode network (DMN) and task positive network (TPN). We evaluate the efficacy of dGSR and compare its performance with the conventional “static” global regression (sGSR) method in terms of (i) explaining systemic variance in the data and (ii) enhancing specificity and sensitivity of functional connectivity measures. dGSR increases the amount of BOLD signal variance being modeled and removed relative to sGSR while reducing spurious negative correlations introduced in reference regions by sGSR, and attenuating inflated positive connectivity measures. We conclude that incorporating <span class="hlt">time</span> delay information for sLFOs into global noise removal strategies is of crucial importance for optimal noise removal from resting state functional connectivity maps. PMID:27445751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/567322','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/567322"><span id="translatedtitle">Electric car <span class="hlt">arrives</span> - again</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dunn, S.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>The first mass-produced electric cars in modern <span class="hlt">times</span> are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373953"><span id="translatedtitle">Signal processing and tracking of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in ocean acoustic tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzieciuch, Matthew A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The signal processing for ocean acoustic tomography experiments has been improved to account for the scattering of the individual <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. The scattering reduces signal coherence over <span class="hlt">time</span>, bandwidth, and space. In the typical experiment, scattering is caused by the random internal-wave field and results in pulse spreading (over <span class="hlt">arrival-time</span> and <span class="hlt">arrival</span>-angle) and wander. The estimator-correlator is an effective procedure that improves the signal-to-noise ratio of travel-<span class="hlt">time</span> estimates and also provides an estimate of signal coherence. The estimator-correlator smoothes the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> pulse at the expense of resolution. After an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> pulse has been measured, it must be associated with a model <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, typically a ray <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. For experiments with thousands of transmissions, this is a tedious task that is error-prone when done manually. An error metric that accounts for peak amplitude as well as travel-<span class="hlt">time</span> and <span class="hlt">arrival</span>-angle can be defined. The Viterbi algorithm can then be adapted to the task of automated peak tracking. Repeatable, consistent results are produced that are superior to a manual tracking procedure. The tracking can be adjusted by tuning the error metric in logical, quantifiable manner. PMID:25373953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec93-125.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec93-125.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 93.125 - <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> or departure reservation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> or departure reservation. 93.125 Section 93.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 93.125 <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> or departure reservation. Except between 12 Midnight and 6 a.m. local <span class="hlt">time</span>, no...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373953"><span id="translatedtitle">Signal processing and tracking of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in ocean acoustic tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dzieciuch, Matthew A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The signal processing for ocean acoustic tomography experiments has been improved to account for the scattering of the individual <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. The scattering reduces signal coherence over <span class="hlt">time</span>, bandwidth, and space. In the typical experiment, scattering is caused by the random internal-wave field and results in pulse spreading (over <span class="hlt">arrival-time</span> and <span class="hlt">arrival</span>-angle) and wander. The estimator-correlator is an effective procedure that improves the signal-to-noise ratio of travel-<span class="hlt">time</span> estimates and also provides an estimate of signal coherence. The estimator-correlator smoothes the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> pulse at the expense of resolution. After an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> pulse has been measured, it must be associated with a model <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, typically a ray <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. For experiments with thousands of transmissions, this is a tedious task that is error-prone when done manually. An error metric that accounts for peak amplitude as well as travel-<span class="hlt">time</span> and <span class="hlt">arrival</span>-angle can be defined. The Viterbi algorithm can then be adapted to the task of automated peak tracking. Repeatable, consistent results are produced that are superior to a manual tracking procedure. The tracking can be adjusted by tuning the error metric in logical, quantifiable manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960016183','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960016183"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge-based scheduling of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A knowledge-based method for scheduling <span class="hlt">arrival</span> aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-<span class="hlt">time</span> simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing <span class="hlt">times</span>, and assigns runways to <span class="hlt">arrival</span> aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-<span class="hlt">time</span> simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://nm.water.usgs.gov/publications/abstracts/ofr98-397.html','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://nm.water.usgs.gov/publications/abstracts/ofr98-397.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Model input and output files for the simulation of <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of landfill leachate at the water table, Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, Peter F.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This report contains listings of model input and output files for the simulation of the <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of landfill leachate at the water table from the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF), about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. This simulation was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-developed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and Multimedia Exposure Assessment (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the production of leachate by a landfill and transport of landfill leachate to the water table. Model input data files used with and output files generated by the HELP and MULTIMED models are provided in ASCII format on a 3.5-inch 1.44-megabyte IBM-PC compatible floppy disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999eso..pres...17.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999eso..pres...17."><span id="translatedtitle">A Powerful Twin <span class="hlt">Arrives</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>First Images from FORS2 at VLT KUEYEN on Paranal The first, major astronomical instrument to be installed at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) was FORS1 ( FO cal R educer and S pectrograph) in September 1998. Immediately after being attached to the Cassegrain focus of the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU , it produced a series of spectacular images, cf. ESO PR 14/98. Many important observations have since been made with this outstanding facility. Now FORS2 , its powerful twin, has been installed at the second VLT Unit Telescope, KUEYEN . It is the fourth major instrument at the VLT after FORS1 , ISAAC and UVES.. The FORS2 Commissioning Team that is busy installing and testing this large and complex instrument reports that "First Light" was successfully achieved already on October 29, 1999, only two days after FORS2 was first mounted at the Cassegrain focus. Since then, various observation modes have been carefully tested, including normal and high-resolution imaging, echelle and multi-object spectroscopy, as well as fast photometry with millisecond <span class="hlt">time</span> resolution. A number of fine images were obtained during this work, some of which are made available with the present Press Release. The FORS instruments ESO PR Photo 40a/99 ESO PR Photo 40a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 345 pix - 203k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 689 pix - 563kb] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1280 x 1103 pix - 666kb] Caption to PR Photo 40a/99: This digital photo shows the twin instruments, FORS2 at KUEYEN (in the foreground) and FORS1 at ANTU, seen in the background through the open ventilation doors in the two telescope enclosures. Although they look alike, the two instruments have specific functions, as described in the text. FORS1 and FORS2 are the products of one of the most thorough and advanced technological studies ever made of a ground-based astronomical instrument. They have been specifically designed to investigate the faintest and most remote objects in the universe. They are "multi-mode instruments" that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/984770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/984770"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic Source Localization via <span class="hlt">Time</span> Difference of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Estimation for Distributed Sensor Networks using Tera-scale Optical-Core Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Imam, Neena; Barhen, Jacob</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>For real-<span class="hlt">time</span> acoustic source localization applications, one of the primary challenges is the considerable growth in computational complexity associated with the emergence of ever larger, active or passive, distributed sensor networks. These sensors rely heavily on battery-operated system components to achieve highly functional automation in signal and information processing. In order to keep communication requirements minimal, it is desirable to perform as much processing on the receiver platforms as possible. However, the complexity of the calculations needed to achieve accurate source localization increases dramatically with the size of sensor arrays, resulting in substantial growth of computational requirements that cannot be readily met with standard hardware. One option to meet this challenge builds upon the emergence of digital optical-core devices. The objective of this work was to explore the implementation of key building block algorithms used in underwater source localization on the optical-core digital processing platform recently introduced by Lenslet Inc. This demonstration of considerably faster signal processing capability should be of substantial significance to the design and innovation of future generations of distributed sensor networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biological needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, Stephen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended <span class="hlt">absolute</span> needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> biological needs. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. PMID:23586876</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23586876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> biological needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLeod, Stephen</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended <span class="hlt">absolute</span> needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are <span class="hlt">absolute</span> biological needs. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21E..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S21E..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of a low-velocity sedimentary cover on the 3-D velocity models derived from inversion of local <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span>. An example from the New Madrid seismic zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pujol, J. M.; Chiu, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>When applying seismic tomography to local <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> from an area with a low-velocity sedimentary cover, the effect of the sediments on travel <span class="hlt">times</span> should be taken into account. If that is not done, the resulting velocity model(s) cannot be assumed to be correct. This fairly obvious statement has been challenged recently by Powell et al. (JGR, 2010), who claimed that the sediments that cover the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ, central United States) can be ignored. This claim is examined here and shown to be incorrect. The NMSZ is covered by low-velocity, poorly consolidated sediments (Vp=1.8 km/s, Vs=3), which are underlain by Paleozoic rocks of much higher velocity. In the central NMSZ the sediment thickness varies between about 0.1 and 0.7 km. The JHD analysis of the data collected in that area by a portable network (PANDA) showed that the P- and S-wave station corrections spanned large ranges (0.35 and 0.63 s, respectively, Pujol et al., Eng. Geol., 1997). This study also showed that a Vp/Vs of 3 for the sediments would be too high if the lateral velocity variations were confined to the sedimentary cover. Here we generate synthetic traveltimes for a model with a sedimentary cover having variable depth (as determined from boreholes) underlain by the high-velocity layers in the 1-D model used for the JHD analysis. The synthetic data were generated for the station and event distributions corresponding to the Panda data. The tomographic inversion of the synthetic <span class="hlt">times</span> produces spurious anomalies in Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs, from the surface to a depth of 10 km. In addition, the events are mislocated in depth, with errors between 0 and 1 km for most of them. These results should dispel the notion that the effect of the unconsolidated sediments can be ignored. On the other hand, the inversion of the actual Panda data results in velocity anomalies similar to the synthetic anomalies, although larger, which is consistent with the conclusions of Pujol et al. (1997</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230298-flame-arrival-measurement-instrumented-spark-plug-head-gasket','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230298-flame-arrival-measurement-instrumented-spark-plug-head-gasket"><span id="translatedtitle">Flame <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Measurement By Instrumented Spark Plug or Head Gasket</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-10</p> <p>PLUGBIN was developed to support Sandia technologies involving instrumented head gaskets and spark plugs for engine research and development. It acquires and processes measurements of flame <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and pressure from a spark ignition. Flame <span class="hlt">arrival</span> is determined from analog ionization-probe or visible-emission signals, and/or digitial signals from a dedicated flame <span class="hlt">arrival</span> measurement processor. The pressure measurements are analyzed to determine the <span class="hlt">time</span> of peak pressure and the <span class="hlt">time</span> to burn 10 and 90 percent ofmore » the charge. Histograms are then calculated and displayed for each measurement.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRIvVizopsk','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRIvVizopsk"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's SOFIA <span class="hlt">Arrives</span> in Christchurch, New Zealand, July 14, 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy airborne observatory <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at Christchurch International Airport, New Zealand, July 14 at 12:14 p.m. (New Zealand Standard <span class="hlt">Time</span>) to investi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575-absolute-path-command"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231575"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path command</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moody, A.</p> <p>2012-05-11</p> <p>The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> path to a relative directory from the current working directory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1997/4036/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1997/4036/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geohydrology of the unsaturated zone and simulated <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of landfill leachate at the water table, municipal solid waste landfill facility, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Frenzel, Peter F.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility (MSWLF) is located about 10 miles northeast of downtown El Paso, Texas. The landfill is built on the Hueco Bolson, a deposit that yields water to five public-supply wells within 1.1 miles of the landfill boundary on all sides. The bolson deposits consist of lenses and mixtures of sand, clay, silt, gravel, and caliche. The unsaturated zone at the landfill is about 300 feet thick. The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and the Multimedia Exposure Assessment Model for Evaluating the Land Disposal of Wastes (MULTIMED) computer models were used to simulate the <span class="hlt">time</span> of first <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of landfill leachate at the water table. Site-specific data were collected for model input. At five sites on the landfill cover, hydraulic conductivity was measured by an in situ method; in addition, laboratory values were obtained for porosity, moisture content at field capacity, and moisture content at wilting point. Twenty-seven sediment samples were collected from two adjacent boreholes drilled near the southwest corner of the landfill. Of these, 23 samples were assumed to represent the unsaturated zone beneath the landfill. The core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for various characteristics required for the HELP and MULTIMED models: initial moisture content, dry bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention percentages at various suction values, total organic carbon, and pH. Parameters were calculated for the van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey equations that relate hydraulic conductivity to saturation. A reported recharge value of 0.008 inch per year was estimated on the basis of soil- water chloride concentration. The HELP model was implemented using input values that were based mostly on site-specific data or assumed in a conservative manner. Exceptions were the default values used for waste characteristics. Flow through the landfill was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013GeoJI.194.1878H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013GeoJI.194.1878H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast and accurate global multiphase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> tracking: the irregular shortest-path method in a 3-D spherical earth model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Guo-Jiao; Bai, Chao-Ying; Greenhalgh, Stewart</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The traditional grid/cell-based wavefront expansion algorithms, such as the shortest path algorithm, can only find the first <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> or multiply reflected (or mode converted) waves transmitted from subsurface interfaces, but cannot calculate the other later reflections/conversions having a minimax <span class="hlt">time</span> path. In order to overcome the above limitations, we introduce the concept of a stationary minimax <span class="hlt">time</span> path of Fermat's Principle into the multistage irregular shortest path method. Here we extend it from Cartesian coordinates for a flat earth model to global ray tracing of multiple phases in a 3-D complex spherical earth model. The ray tracing results for 49 different kinds of crustal, mantle and core phases show that the maximum <span class="hlt">absolute</span> traveltime error is less than 0.12 s and the average <span class="hlt">absolute</span> traveltime error is within 0.09 s when compared with the AK135 theoretical traveltime tables for a 1-D reference model. Numerical tests in terms of computational accuracy and CPU <span class="hlt">time</span> consumption indicate that the new scheme is an accurate, efficient and a practical way to perform 3-D multiphase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> tracking in regional or global traveltime tomography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26943171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26943171"><span id="translatedtitle">Queues with Dropping Functions and General <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In a queueing system with the dropping function the <span class="hlt">arriving</span> customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> process--the model which includes batch <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and the interarrival <span class="hlt">time</span> autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4778919','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4778919"><span id="translatedtitle">Queues with Dropping Functions and General <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In a queueing system with the dropping function the <span class="hlt">arriving</span> customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> process—the model which includes batch <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and the interarrival <span class="hlt">time</span> autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival <span class="hlt">time</span> distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions. PMID:26943171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009593','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009593"><span id="translatedtitle">Scheduling and Separating Departures Crossing <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Flows in Shared Airspace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chevalley, Eric; Parke, Bonny K.; Lee, Paul; Omar, Faisal; Lee, Hwasoo; Beinert, Nancy; Kraut, Joshua M.; Palmer, Everett</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Flight efficiency and reduction of flight delays are among the primary goals of NextGen. In this paper, we propose a concept of shared airspace where departures fly across <span class="hlt">arrival</span> flows, provided gaps are available in these flows. We have explored solutions to separate departures temporally from <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic and pre-arranged procedures to support controllers' decisions. We conducted a Human-in-the-Loop simulation and assessed the efficiency and safety of 96 departures from the San Jose airport (SJC) climbing across the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> airspace of the Oakland and San Francisco <span class="hlt">arrival</span> flows. In our simulation, the SJC tower had a tool to schedule departures to fly across predicted gaps in the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> flow. When departures were mistimed and separation could not be ensured, a safe but less efficient route was provided to the departures to fly under the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> flows. A coordination using a point-out procedure allowed the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> controller to control the SJC departures right after takeoff. We manipulated the accuracy of departure <span class="hlt">time</span> (accurate vs. inaccurate) as well as which sector took control of the departures after takeoff (departure vs. <span class="hlt">arrival</span> sector) in a 2x2 full factorial plan. Results show that coordination <span class="hlt">time</span> decreased and climb efficiency increased when the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> sector controlled the aircraft right after takeoff. Also, climb efficiency increased when the departure <span class="hlt">times</span> were more accurate. Coordination was shown to be a critical component of tactical operations in shared airspace. Although workload, coordination, and safety were judged by controllers as acceptable in the simulation, it appears that in the field, controllers would need improved tools and coordination procedures to support this procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/677215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/677215"><span id="translatedtitle">Gamma-Ray Burst <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> <span class="hlt">Time</span> Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter}, {ital Compton} {ital Gamma}-{ital Ray} {ital Observatory}, and {ital Ulysses}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Laros, J.G.; Hurley, K.C.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Briggs, M.S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L.</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>Between the {ital Compton} {ital Gamma} {ital Ray} {ital Observatory} ({ital CGRO}) launch in 1991 April and the {ital Pioneer} {ital V}{ital enus} {ital Orbiter} ({ital PVO}) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by {ital CGRO}, {ital PVO}, and {ital Ulysses} was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the {ital PVO} and {ital Ulysses} thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to {approximately}2{degree} accuracy by the {ital CGRO} Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed <span class="hlt">arrival-time</span> error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2{prime} to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin{sup 2}, and only four have areas greater than 1 deg{sup 2}. The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin{sup 2}. We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the {ital ROSAT} soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020061685&hterms=planning+strategic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dplanning%2Bstrategic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020061685&hterms=planning+strategic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dplanning%2Bstrategic"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Planning: Data Sharing and User Preference Tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zelenka, Richard E.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Air traffic growth and air carrier economic pressures have motivated efforts to increase the flexibility of the air traffic management process and change the relationship between the air traffic control service provider and the system user. One of the most visible of these efforts is the U.S. government/industry "free flight" initiative, in which the service provider concentrates on safety and cross-airline fairness, and the user on their business objectives and operating preferences, including selecting their own path and speed in real-<span class="hlt">time</span>. In the terminal <span class="hlt">arrival</span> phase of flight, severe restrictions and rigid control are currently placed on system users, typically without regard for individual user operational preferences. Airborne delays applied to <span class="hlt">arriving</span> aircraft into capacity constrained airports are imposed on a first-come, first-serve basis, and thus do not allow the system user to plan for or prioritize late <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, or to economically optimize their <span class="hlt">arrival</span> sequence. A central tenant of the free-flight operating paradigm is collaboration between service providers and users in reaching air traffic management decisions. Such collaboration would be particularly beneficial to an airline's "hub" operation, where off-schedule <span class="hlt">arrival</span> aircraft are a consistent problem, as they cause serious air-port ramp difficulties, rippling airline scheduling effects, and result in large economic inefficiencies. Greater collaboration can also lead to increased airport capacity and decrease the severity of over-capacity rush periods. In the NASA Collaborative <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Planning (CAP) project, both independent exchange of real-<span class="hlt">time</span> data between the service provider and system user and collaborative decision support tools are addressed. Data exchange of real-<span class="hlt">time</span> <span class="hlt">arrival</span> scheduling, airspace management, and air carrier fleet data between the FAA service provider and an air carrier is being conducted and evaluated. Collaborative <span class="hlt">arrival</span> decision support tools to allow intra</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23224549"><span id="translatedtitle">Drought in Africa caused delayed <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of European songbirds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tøttrup, A P; Klaassen, R H G; Kristensen, M W; Strandberg, R; Vardanis, Y; Lindström, Å; Rahbek, C; Alerstam, T; Thorup, K</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Despite an overall advancement in breeding area <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, one of the latest spring <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in northwest Europe since 1950 of several trans-Saharan songbird species occurred in 2011. Year-round tracking of red-backed shrikes and thrush nightingales revealed that the cause of the delay was a prolongation of stopover <span class="hlt">time</span> during spring migration at the Horn of Africa, which was affected by extreme drought. Our results help to establish a direct link at the individual level between changes in local climate during migration and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and breeding condition in Europe thousands of kilometers further north.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9844E..0RG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9844E..0RG"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of direction of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of a moving target using subspace based approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Ripul; Das, Utpal; Akula, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H. K.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this work, array processing techniques based on subspace decomposition of signal have been evaluated for estimation of direction of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of moving targets using acoustic signatures. Three subspace based approaches - Incoherent Wideband Multiple Signal Classification (IWM), Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotation Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) and Total Least Square- ESPIRIT (TLS-ESPRIT) are considered. Their performance is compared with conventional <span class="hlt">time</span> delay estimation (TDE) approaches such as Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) and Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). Performance evaluation has been conducted on experimentally generated data consisting of acoustic signatures of four different types of civilian vehicles moving in defined geometrical trajectories. Mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> error and standard deviation of the DOA estimates w.r.t. ground truth are used as performance evaluation metrics. Lower statistical values of mean error confirm the superiority of subspace based approaches over TDE based techniques. Amongst the compared methods, LS-ESPRIT indicated better performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC96-43641-6&hterms=future+shipping&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dfuture%2Bshipping','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC96-43641-6&hterms=future+shipping&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dfuture%2Bshipping"><span id="translatedtitle">X-36 <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Dryden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel steady the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft following <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The aircraft is being hoisted out of it's shipping crate. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006943"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating Controller Intervention Probabilities for Optimized Profile Descent <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meyn, Larry A.; Erzberger, Heinz; Huynh, Phu V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Simulations of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic at Dallas/Fort-Worth and Denver airports were conducted to evaluate incorporating scheduling and separation constraints into advisories that define continuous descent approaches. The goal was to reduce the number of controller interventions required to ensure flights maintain minimum separation distances of 5 nmi horizontally and 1000 ft vertically. It was shown that simply incorporating <span class="hlt">arrival</span> meter fix crossing-<span class="hlt">time</span> constraints into the advisory generation could eliminate over half of the all predicted separation violations and more than 80% of the predicted violations between two <span class="hlt">arrival</span> flights. Predicted separation violations between <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and non-<span class="hlt">arrivals</span> were 32% of all predicted separation violations at Denver and 41% at Dallas/Fort-Worth. A probabilistic analysis of meter fix crossing-<span class="hlt">time</span> errors is included which shows that some controller interventions will still be required even when the predicted crossing-<span class="hlt">times</span> of the advisories are set to add a 1 or 2 nmi buffer above the minimum in-trail separation of 5 nmi. The 2 nmi buffer was shown to increase average flight delays by up to 30 sec when compared to the 1 nmi buffer, but it only resulted in a maximum decrease in average <span class="hlt">arrival</span> throughput of one flight per hour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-resolved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Duvillaret, L; Andreoli, P L; Cipriani, M; Cristofari, G; Di Giorgio, G; Ingenito, F; Verona, C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We describe the first electro-optical <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation. PMID:27301704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4908660','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4908660"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-resolved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We describe the first electro-optical <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation. PMID:27301704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627889C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627889C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-resolved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Consoli, F.; de Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We describe the first electro-optical <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301704','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27301704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Time</span>-resolved <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Duvillaret, L; Andreoli, P L; Cipriani, M; Cristofari, G; Di Giorgio, G; Ingenito, F; Verona, C</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>We describe the first electro-optical <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000014438&hterms=nobel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnobel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000014438&hterms=nobel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnobel"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-93: Chandra Crew <span class="hlt">Arrival</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Kennedy Space Center a week before the launch. Each of the astronauts gives brief remarks, beginning with Eileen Collins, the first woman to command a space mission.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ABSOLUTE</span> POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.</p> <p>2007-09-10</p> <p>Precise and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..717D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing <span class="hlt">time</span>. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040110742"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Equilibrium Entropy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shebalin, John V.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The entropy associated with <span class="hlt">absolute</span> equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478959','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478959"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus probability effects in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response <span class="hlt">times</span> in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response <span class="hlt">times</span>. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response <span class="hlt">time</span> data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification. Implications for other theories of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ac14sViviQk','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ac14sViviQk"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA Dual Precipitation Radar <span class="hlt">Arrives</span> at Goddard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory <span class="hlt">arrived</span> on Friday, Marc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-96PC-1068&hterms=1068&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231068','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-96PC-1068&hterms=1068&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231068"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-79 astronauts <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at SLF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The STS-79 astronauts <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at about the same <span class="hlt">time</span> the three-day launch countdown gets under way. From left are Mission Specialists Carl E. Walz and John E. Blaha; Mission Commander William F. Readdy; Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Thomas D. Akers and Jay Apt. Not too far away, final preparations are in work at Launch Pad 39A to prepare the Space Shuttle Atlantis for liftoff on the 79th Shuttle mission. During the approximately 10-day flight, Atlantis will dock with the Russian Space Station Mir and Blaha will transfer to the station. Returning with the STS-79 astronauts aboard Atlantis will be American astronaut Shannon Lucid, who is wrapping up a record-setting stay aboard Mir. Liftoff currently is set for Sept. 16 at about 4:54 a.m. EDT during an approximately seven-minute launch window.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000284&hterms=Hilbert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHilbert','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000284&hterms=Hilbert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHilbert"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wen, John Ting-Yung</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear <span class="hlt">time</span>-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly <span class="hlt">time</span> varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024269','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024269"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> <span class="hlt">timing</span> of sulfide and gold mineralization: A comparison of Re-Os molybdenite and Ar-Ar mica methods from the Tintina Gold Belt, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Selby, D.; Creaser, R.A.; Hart, C.J.R.; Rombach, C.S.; Thompson, J.F.H.; Smith, M.T.; Bakke, A.A.; Goldfarb, R.J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>New Re-Os molybdenite dates from two lode gold deposits of the Tintina Gold Belt, Alaska, provide direct <span class="hlt">timing</span> constraints for sulfide and gold mineralization. At Fort Knox, the Re-Os molybdenite date is identical to the U-Pb zircon age for the host intrusion, supporting an intrusive-related origin for the deposit. However, 40Ar/39Ar dates from hydrothermal and igneous mica are considerably younger. At the Pogo deposit, Re-Os molybdenite dates are also much older than 40Ar/39Ar dates from hydrothermal mica, but dissimilar to the age of local granites. These age relationships indicate that the Re-Os molybdenite method records the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of sulfide and gold mineralization, whereas much younger 40Ar/39Ar dates are affected by post-ore thermal events, slow cooling, and/or systemic analytical effects. The results of this study complement a growing body of evidence to indicate that the Re-Os chronometer in molybdenite can be an accurate and robust tool for establishing <span class="hlt">timing</span> relations in ore systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611867"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> neutrino mass measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wolf, Joachim</p> <p>2011-10-06</p> <p>The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227359','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1227359"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous <span class="hlt">time</span>-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in <span class="hlt">time</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055713"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.</p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>A method of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous <span class="hlt">time</span>-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in <span class="hlt">time</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 232.3 - <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. When a district director has reasonable...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 232.3 - <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. When a district director has reasonable...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 232.3 - <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. When a district director has reasonable...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 232.3 - <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. When a district director has reasonable...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title8-vol1-sec232-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 232.3 - <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. 232.3 Section 232.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DETENTION OF ALIENS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATION § 232.3 <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> aliens. When a district director has reasonable...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRB..107.2127L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JGRB..107.2127L"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining surface wave <span class="hlt">arrival</span> angle anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>A new method for measuring <span class="hlt">arrival</span> angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the <span class="hlt">time</span> domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying <span class="hlt">arrival</span> angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050210224&hterms=jim+collins&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Djim%2Bcollins','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050210224&hterms=jim+collins&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Djim%2Bcollins"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-114: Discovery Crew <span class="hlt">Arrival</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>George Diller of NASA Public Affairs narrates the STS-114 Crew <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Kennedy Space Center aboard a Gulf Stream aircraft. They were greeted by Center Director Jim Kennedy. Commander Eileen Collins introduced each of her crew members and gave a brief description of their roles in the mission. Mission Specialist 3, Andrew Thomas will be the lead crew member on the inspection on flight day 2; he is the intravehicular (IV) crew member that will help and guide Mission Specialists Souichi Noguchi and Stephen Robinson during their spacewalks. Pilot James Kelly will be operating the shuttle systems in flying the Shuttle; he will be flying the space station robotic arm during the second extravehicular activity and he will be assisting Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence during the other two extravehicular activities; he will be assisting on the rendezvous on flight day three, and landing of the shuttle. Commander Collins also mentioned Pilot Kelly's recent promotion to Colonel by the United States Air Force. Mission Specialist 1, Souichi Noguchi from JAXA (The Japanese Space Agency) will be flying on the flight deck for ascent; he will be doing three spacewalks on day 5, 7, and 9; He will be the photo/TV lead for the different types of cameras on board to document the flight and to send back the information to the ground for both technical and public affairs reasons. Mission Specialist 5, Charles Camada will be doing the inspection on flight day 2 with Mission Specialist Thomas and Pilot Kelly; he will be transferring the logistics off the shuttle and onto the space station and from the space station back to the shuttle; He will help set up eleven lap tops on board. Mission Specialist 4, Wendy Lawrence will lead the transfer of logistics to the space station; she is the space station arm operator during extravehicular activities 1 and 3; she will be carrying the 6,000 pounds of external storage platform from the shuttle payload bay over to the space station; she is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008301','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008301"><span id="translatedtitle">Design Considerations for a New Terminal Area <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Scheduler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thipphavong, Jane; Mulfinger, Daniel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Design of a terminal area <span class="hlt">arrival</span> scheduler depends on the interrelationship between throughput, delay and controller intervention. The main contribution of this paper is an analysis of the above interdependence for several stochastic behaviors of expected system performance distributions in the aircraft s <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the meter fix and runway. Results of this analysis serve to guide the scheduler design choices for key control variables. Two types of variables are analyzed, separation buffers and terminal delay margins. The choice for these decision variables was tested using sensitivity analysis. Analysis suggests that it is best to set the separation buffer at the meter fix to its minimum and adjust the runway buffer to attain the desired system performance. Delay margin was found to have the least effect. These results help characterize the variables most influential in the scheduling operations of terminal area <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120016704"><span id="translatedtitle">Anchorage <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage <span class="hlt">arrival</span> schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-<span class="hlt">time</span> simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=3&id=EJ1099263','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effect&pg=3&id=EJ1099263"><span id="translatedtitle">Stimulus Probability Effects in <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response <span class="hlt">times</span> in an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=serial+AND+position+AND+effect&id=EJ735377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=serial+AND+position+AND+effect&id=EJ735377"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Identification by Relative Judgment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, Neil; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Chater, Nick</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In unidimensional <span class="hlt">absolute</span> identification tasks, participants identify stimuli that vary along a single dimension. Performance is surprisingly poor compared with discrimination of the same stimuli. Existing models assume that identification is achieved using long-term representations of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> magnitudes. The authors propose an alternative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743"><span id="translatedtitle">Be Resolute about <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article explores how conceptualization of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040745','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040745"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation Results for Airborne Precision Spacing along Continuous Descent <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; Baxley, Brian T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the results of a fast-<span class="hlt">time</span> simulation experiment and a high-fidelity simulator validation with merging streams of aircraft flying Continuous Descent <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> through generic airspace to a runway at Dallas-Ft Worth. Aircraft made small speed adjustments based on an airborne-based spacing algorithm, so as to <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at the threshold exactly at the assigned <span class="hlt">time</span> interval behind their Traffic-To-Follow. The 40 aircraft were initialized at different altitudes and speeds on one of four different routes, and then merged at different points and altitudes while flying Continuous Descent <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span>. This merging and spacing using flight deck equipment and procedures to augment or implement Air Traffic Management directives is called Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing, an important subset of a larger Airborne Precision Spacing functionality. This research indicates that Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing initiated while at cruise altitude and well prior to the Terminal Radar Approach Control entry can significantly contribute to the delivery of aircraft at a specified interval to the runway threshold with a high degree of accuracy and at a reduced pilot workload. Furthermore, previously documented work has shown that using a Continuous Descent <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> instead of a traditional step-down descent can save fuel, reduce noise, and reduce emissions. Research into Flight Deck-based Merging and Spacing is a cooperative effort between government and industry partners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbLQwg4Qn_Y','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SbLQwg4Qn_Y"><span id="translatedtitle">New Expedition 32 Trio <span class="hlt">Arrives</span> at Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Expedition 32 Flight Engineers Suni Williams, Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide have <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at the International Space Station after two days in orbit. The new trio docked its Soyuz TMA-05M spacecr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFdMnC5dELs','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFdMnC5dELs"><span id="translatedtitle">New Crew Members <span class="hlt">Arrive</span> at Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Expedition 28 crew expanded to six members with the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of Flight Engineers Mike Fossum, Sergei Volkov and Satoshi Furukawa. The new trio docked to the International Space Station in the So...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15470417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15470417"><span id="translatedtitle">Pair bonds: <span class="hlt">arrival</span> synchrony in migratory birds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gunnarsson, T G; Gill, J A; Sigurbjörnsson, T; Sutherland, W J</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Synchronous <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of pairs of migratory birds at their breeding grounds is important for maintaining pair bonds and is achieved by pairs that remain together all year round. Here we show that <span class="hlt">arrival</span> is also synchronized in paired individuals of a migratory shorebird, the black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa islandica), even though they winter hundreds of kilometres apart and do not migrate together. The mechanisms required to achieve this synchrony and prevent 'divorce' illustrate the complexity of migratory systems. PMID:15470417</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3807..491W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3807..491W"><span id="translatedtitle">Iterative direction-of-<span class="hlt">arrival</span> estimation with wideband chirp signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Genyuan; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Chen, Victor C.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Amin et. al. recently developed a <span class="hlt">time</span>-frequency MUSIC algorithm with narrow band models for the estimation of direction of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> (DOA) when the source signals are chirps. In this research, we consider wideband models. The joint <span class="hlt">time</span>-frequency analysis is first used to estimate the chirp rates of the source signals and then the DOA is estimated by the MUSIC algorithm with an iterative approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec122-31.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec122-31.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 122.31 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... advance notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in accordance with § 122.22 of this part. (ii) Aircraft <span class="hlt">arriving</span> from Cuba. Aircraft <span class="hlt">arriving</span> from Cuba must follow the advance notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> procedures set forth in § 122.154 in... aircraft <span class="hlt">arriving</span> from areas south of the United States (other than Cuba) must follow the advance notice...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720059878&hterms=rights+author&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drights%2Bauthor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720059878&hterms=rights+author&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drights%2Bauthor"><span id="translatedtitle">Singular perturbation of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siljak, D. D.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>It was previously shown (author, 1969) that the regions of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability in the parameter space can be determined when the parameters appear on the right-hand side of the system equations, i.e., the regular case. Here, the effect on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> stability of a small parameter attached to higher derivatives in the equations (the singular case) is studied. The Lur'e-Postnikov class of nonlinear systems is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26737821"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of the reaction <span class="hlt">times</span> in tasks of varying difficulty from the phase coherence of the auditory steady-state response using the least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> shrinkage and selection operator analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yokota, Yusuke; Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Okada, Masato; Naruse, Yasushi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative estimation of the workload in the brain is an important factor for helping to predict the behavior of humans. The reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> when performing a difficult task is longer than that when performing an easy task. Thus, the reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> reflects the workload in the brain. In this study, we employed an N-back task in order to regulate the degree of difficulty of the tasks, and then estimated the reaction <span class="hlt">times</span> from the brain activity. The brain activity that we used to estimate the reaction <span class="hlt">time</span> was the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) evoked by a 40-Hz click sound. Fifteen healthy participants participated in the present study and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses were recorded using a 148-channel magnetometer system. The least <span class="hlt">absolute</span> shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), which is a type of sparse modeling, was employed to estimate the reaction <span class="hlt">times</span> from the ASSR recorded by MEG. The LASSO showed higher estimation accuracy than the least squares method. This result indicates that LASSO overcame the over-fitting to the learning data. Furthermore, the LASSO selected channels in not only the parietal region, but also in the frontal and occipital regions. Since the ASSR is evoked by auditory stimuli, it is usually large in the parietal region. However, since LASSO also selected channels in regions outside the parietal region, this suggests that workload-related neural activity occurs in many brain regions. In the real world, it is more practical to use a wearable electroencephalography device with a limited number of channels than to use MEG. Therefore, determining which brain areas should be measured is essential. The channels selected by the sparse modeling method are informative for determining which brain areas to measure. PMID:26737821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000936','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000936"><span id="translatedtitle">Separation Assurance and Scheduling Coordination in the <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aweiss, Arwa S.; Cone, Andrew C.; Holladay, Joshua J.; Munoz, Epifanio; Lewis, Timothy A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Separation assurance (SA) automation has been proposed as either a ground-based or airborne paradigm. The <span class="hlt">arrival</span> environment is complex because aircraft are being sequenced and spaced to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> fix. This paper examines the effect of the allocation of the SA and scheduling functions on the performance of the system. Two coordination configurations between an SA and an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> management system are tested using both ground and airborne implementations. All configurations have a conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system and either an integrated or separated scheduler. Performance metrics are presented for the ground and airborne systems based on <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic headed to Dallas/ Fort Worth International airport. The total delay, <span class="hlt">time</span>-spacing conformance, and schedule conformance are used to measure efficiency. The goal of the analysis is to use the metrics to identify performance differences between the configurations that are based on different function allocations. A surveillance range limitation of 100 nmi and a <span class="hlt">time</span> delay for sharing updated trajectory intent of 30 seconds were implemented for the airborne system. Overall, these results indicate that the surveillance range and the sharing of trajectories and aircraft schedules are important factors in determining the efficiency of an airborne <span class="hlt">arrival</span> management system. These parameters are not relevant to the ground-based system as modeled for this study because it has instantaneous access to all aircraft trajectories and intent. Creating a schedule external to the CD&R and the scheduling conformance system was seen to reduce total delays for the airborne system, and had a minor effect on the ground-based system. The effect of an external scheduler on other metrics was mixed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411605','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3411605"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Pet <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Trigger Prosocial Behaviors in Individuals with Autism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grandgeorge, Marine; Tordjman, Sylvie; Lazartigues, Alain; Lemonnier, Eric; Deleau, Michel; Hausberger, Martine</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors – an important aspect of development – is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism - on the basis of presence or absence of pets - two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet <span class="hlt">arrival</span> after age of 5 versus no pet) and study 2 (pet versus no pet), respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two <span class="hlt">time</span> periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t0) and <span class="hlt">time</span> of assessment (t1) in the pet <span class="hlt">arrival</span> group (study 1): “offering to share” and “offering comfort”. Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more – qualitatively and quantitatively - reported in the situation of pet <span class="hlt">arrival</span> than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet’s presence or <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship. PMID:22870246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec123-91.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec123-91.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... required incoming cargo that will <span class="hlt">arrive</span> in the United States by train: (1) The rail carrier identification... name, equipment number and trip number; (3) The scheduled date and <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of the train at the..., or identification number, from the bill(s) of lading (for each house bill in a consolidated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460335','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4460335"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors Associated with Early Hospital <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Dongbeom; Tanaka, Eijirou; Lee, Kijeong; Sato, Shoichiro; Koga, Masatoshi; Kim, Young Dae; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Purpose Factors associated with early <span class="hlt">arrival</span> may vary according to the characteristics of the hospital. We investigated the factors associated with early hospital <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in two different stroke centers located in Korea and Japan. Methods Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke <span class="hlt">arrived</span> hospital within 48 hours of onset between January 2011 and December 2012 were identified and the clinical and <span class="hlt">time</span> variables were retrieved from the prospective stroke registries of Severance Hospital of Yonsei University Health System (YUHS; Seoul, Korea) and National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (NCVC; Osaka, Japan). Subjects were dichotomized into early (<span class="hlt">time</span> from onset to <span class="hlt">arrival</span> ≤4.5 hours) and late (>4.5 hours) <span class="hlt">arrival</span> groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with early hospital <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Results A total of 1,966 subjects (992 from YUHS; 974 from NCVC) were included in this study. The median <span class="hlt">time</span> from onset to <span class="hlt">arrival</span> was 6.1 hours [interquartile range, 1.7-17.8 hours]. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with early <span class="hlt">arrival</span> were atrial fibrillation (Odds ratio [OR], 1.505; 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.168-1.939]), higher initial National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores (OR, 1.037; 95% CI [1.023-1.051]), onset during daytime (OR, 2.799; 95% CI [2.173-3.605]), and transport by an emergency medical service (OR, 2.127; 95% CI [1.700-2.661]). These factors were consistently associated with early <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in both hospitals. Conclusions Despite differences between the hospitals, there were common factors related to early <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Efforts to identify and modify these factors may promote early hospital <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and improve stroke outcome. PMID:26060803</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015418','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015418"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement to Airport Throughput Using Intelligent <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Scheduling and an Expanded Planning Horizon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Glaab, Patricia C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The first phase of this study investigated the amount of <span class="hlt">time</span> a flight can be delayed or expedited within the Terminal Airspace using only speed changes. The <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Capacity Calculator analysis tool was used to predict the <span class="hlt">time</span> adjustment envelope for standard descent <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and then for CDA <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. Results ranged from 0.77 to 5.38 minutes. STAR routes were configured for the ACES simulation, and a validation of the ACC results was conducted comparing the maximum predicted <span class="hlt">time</span> adjustments to those seen in ACES. The final phase investigated full runway-to-runway trajectories using ACES. The radial distance used by the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> scheduler was incrementally increased from 50 to 150 nautical miles (nmi). The increased Planning Horizon radii allowed the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> scheduler to arrange, path stretch, and speed-adjust flights to more fully load the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> stream. The average throughput for the high volume portion of the day increased from 30 aircraft per runway for the 50 nmi radius to 40 aircraft per runway for the 150 nmi radius for a traffic set representative of high volume 2018. The recommended radius for the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> scheduler s Planning Horizon was found to be 130 nmi, which allowed more than 95% loading of the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> stream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008430','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008430"><span id="translatedtitle">Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, <span class="hlt">arrival</span> flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, CDAs also save flight <span class="hlt">time</span> for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional <span class="hlt">arrival</span> procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-<span class="hlt">arrival</span> spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023362"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> flux scale for radioastronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>The authors propose and provide support for a new <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scales in radio astronomy are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211440"><span id="translatedtitle">Feedlot Processing and <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Cattle Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Acclimating newly <span class="hlt">arrived</span> cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly <span class="hlt">arrived</span> cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H24F..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H24F..01S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity, are consistent with the general <span class="hlt">timing</span> of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the <span class="hlt">timing</span> of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003ICRC....2..911M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003ICRC....2..911M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Calibration of the HiRes Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, J. N.; Thomas, S. B.; HiRes Collaboration</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The HiRes experiment studies ultra high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence technique. The experiment uses large mirrors that collect the fluorescence light and fo cus it onto arrays of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs measure the intensity and <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of the collected light. Our primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs uses a high stability (<1%) portable light source. This source is transferred from the lab to the field where it is employed as a standard candle to calibrate the 64 detectors (>16,000 PMTs). To determine the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> response it is necessary to understand the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> light output of this source. We have measured the source irradiance using a hybrid photo dio de system, two NIST calibrated photo-dio des, and by observing the photo electron statistics of the PMTs. 2. Introduction The goal of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) project is to study cosmic rays at the highest energies. An ultra high energy cosmic ray entering the earth's atmosphere collides with atmospheric nuclei triggering the development of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS). The EAS emits fluorescence light as it develops. HiRes uses the air fluorescence signal to measure properties of the primary cosmic ray particle. The fundamental detector elements in HiRes are photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The light from an EAS is collected by large mirrors and fo cused into cameras each consisting of 256 PMTs [1]. Routine monitoring and calibration of the PMTs and associated electronics are crucial to the proper interpretation of the data. The primary system for in situ calibration of the PMTs involves the use of a high stability portable xenon flash lamp. The Roving Xenon Flasher (RXF) offers several advantages. The pulse-to-pulse variation in intensity is very small ˜0.3% and the stability over a night is better than 2%. The emission spectrum of the RXF is sufficiently broad to allow calibration over a wide range of wavelengths. It is also readily transported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010277','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010277"><span id="translatedtitle">Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Scheduling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-<span class="hlt">time</span> scheduler of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign <span class="hlt">arrival</span> aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at <span class="hlt">times</span> that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing <span class="hlt">time</span>. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900014057','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900014057"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of sequencing and scheduling methods for <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The air traffic control subsystem that performs scheduling is discussed. The function of the scheduling algorithms is to plan automatically the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing <span class="hlt">times</span> to all <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. Several important scheduling algorithms are described and the statistical performance of the scheduling algorithms is examined. Scheduling brings order to an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served scheduling (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated <span class="hlt">times</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the traffic, gaps will remain in the scheduled sequence of aircraft. These gaps are filled, or partially filled, by <span class="hlt">time</span>-advancing the leading aircraft after a gap while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly scheduled groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Separation requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Advantage is taken of this fact through mild reordering of the traffic, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. Actual delays for different samples with the same statistical parameters vary widely, especially for heavy traffic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10160736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10160736"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging leaders 1991. Six who have <span class="hlt">arrived</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, D O</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>"I would quibble with the idea that Cheryl is an 'emerging leader,"' observes a colleague of one of this year's honorees. "I believe she has <span class="hlt">arrived</span>." In truth, each of the six extraordinary people cited as 1991's Emerging Leaders have had a major impact on their organizations and, by example and design, on the nature and quality of healthcare in their communities. But then, the annual call for nominations demands nothing less. Sponsors Korn/Ferry International and The Healthcare Forum are "looking for...talented people with the proven ability to nurture the growth of the industry. They are dynamic, decisive young leaders who have already made a mark." Five men and one woman, all age 40 or younger, were selected as this year's Emerging Leaders in two separate categories. Three represent large healthcare organizations, three smaller urban or rural institutions--generally hospitals with fewer than 200 beds. Interestingly, nearly all were influenced to pursue careers in healthcare at an early age. Two had physician parents, two were sons of healthcare administrators, two worked in hospitals as teenagers. All, of course, have shown their mettle in difficult <span class="hlt">times</span> and complex, uncomfortable situations. All have been pivotal in turning around failing--or at least beleaguered--organizations. Yet, while each has labored diligently to further the interests of his or her own organization and constituency, each has also sought to shape a more cooperative system. As honoree Larry Sanders observes, "Competition without conscience will deny our claim to a true community leadership role." Marveling at the accomplishments of honoree Kevin Fickenscher, an awed peer declared: "One of these days we'll all be working for him!"(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10160736</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640024"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep seafloor <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>: an unexplained set of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in long-range ocean acoustic propagation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stephen, Ralph A; Bolmer, S Thompson; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Worcester, Peter F; Andrew, Rex K; Buck, Linda J; Mercer, James A; Colosi, John A; Howe, Bruce M</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Receptions, from a ship-suspended source (in the band 50-100 Hz) to an ocean bottom seismometer (about 5000 m depth) and the deepest element on a vertical hydrophone array (about 750 m above the seafloor) that were acquired on the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment in the North Pacific Ocean, are described. The ranges varied from 50 to 3200 km. In addition to predicted ocean acoustic <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and deep shadow zone <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> (leaking below turning points), "deep seafloor <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>," that are dominant on the seafloor geophone but are absent or very weak on the hydrophone array, are observed. These deep seafloor <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> are an unexplained set of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in ocean acoustics possibly associated with seafloor interface waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhyA..407...15O"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito</p> <p></p> <p>It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no <span class="hlt">absolute</span> general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the <span class="hlt">time</span> evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00110&hterms=f-16&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Df-16','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00110&hterms=f-16&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Df-16"><span id="translatedtitle">F-16: The <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> of NASA 516</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>NASA 516, NASA Langley's F-16A Research Support Aircraft is shown on <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the center in late summer of 1991. Delivered from Eglin AFB, NASA 516 provided an advanced fighter capability for Langley research pilots in support of advanced Fighter Research Programs at the center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec93-23.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol2-sec93-23.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 93.23 - <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Authorizations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Authorizations. 93.23 Section 93.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Congestion and Delay Reduction at Chicago...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040152','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080040152"><span id="translatedtitle">Wake Turbulence Mitigation for <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> (WTMA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Daniel M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Trujillo, Anna C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The preliminary Wake Turbulence Mitigation for <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> (WTMA) concept of operations is described in this paper. The WTMA concept provides further detail to work initiated by the Wake Vortex Avoidance System Concept Evaluation Team and is an evolution of the Wake Turbulence Mitigation for Departure concept. Anticipated benefits about reducing wake turbulence separation standards in crosswind conditions, and candidate WTMA system considerations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Absolutism&pg=3&id=EJ265369','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Absolutism&pg=3&id=EJ265369"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic <span class="hlt">Absolutism</span> in Moral Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogt, W. Paul</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=Phosphorus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPhosphorus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720027445&hterms=Phosphorus&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPhosphorus"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> transition probabilities of phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, M. H.; Roig, R. A.; Bengtson, R. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Use of a gas-driven shock tube to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> strengths of 21 P I lines and 126 P II lines (from 3300 to 6900 A). Accuracy for prominent, isolated neutral and ionic lines is estimated to be 28 to 40% and 18 to 30%, respectively. The data and the corresponding theoretical predictions are examined for conformity with the sum rules.-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-0860&hterms=smile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsmile','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-0860&hterms=smile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsmile"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-93 Mission Specialist Coleman <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at SLF for launch.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>STS-93 Mission Specialist Catherine G. 'Cady' Coleman (Ph.D.) smiles upon her <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. She and other crew members Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), are <span class="hlt">arriving</span> for pre-launch activities. Coleman is making her second Shuttle flight. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 <span class="hlt">times</span> more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SpWea...9.0E12F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SpWea...9.0E12F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating predictions of ICME <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falkenberg, T. V.; Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Vennerstrom, S.; Odstrcil, D.; Brain, D.; Delory, G.; Mitchell, D.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We present a study of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) propagation to Earth and Mars. Because of the significant space weather hazard posed by ICMEs, understanding and predicting their <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and impact at Mars is important for current and future robotic and manned missions to the planet. We compare running ENLILv2.6 with coronal mass ejection (CME) input parameters from both a manual and an automated method. We analyze shock events identified at Mars in Mars Global Surveyor data in 2001 and 2003, when Earth and Mars were separated by <80° in heliocentric longitude. The shocks identified at Mars were also identified at Earth, and the majority of the shock sources were identified through the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory-Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph catalogue. We find that <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> predicted by the two methods at both planets are statistically similar, dynamic pressures predicted when using the automated method are better, and the automated method tends to underestimate both CME width and speed. Using the location of the related flare as the CME direction did not improve results. In addition, changing the CME speed toward the plane-of-sky speed at 20 RS improves the match to observations, mainly because the speed found by the automated method is underestimated. The <span class="hlt">time</span> lapse between the shock <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Earth and Mars, for the events studied here, is shorter than expected from simulations, and the presence of high speed streams can enable an ICME to <span class="hlt">arrive</span> almost simultaneously at Earth and Mars. This work will be applied to improve the input parameter methods for ENLIL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec141-58.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec141-58.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 141.58 - Single entry for separately <span class="hlt">arriving</span> portions of unassembled or disassembled entities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... for payment at such <span class="hlt">time</span> pursuant to the Automated Clearinghouse procedures (see 19 CFR 24.25). (h... electronically through the CBP Automated Commercial System (ACS). The release of each portion upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V41E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V41E..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">A Methodology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Isotope Composition Measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, J. J.; Lee, D.; Liang, W.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Double spike technique was a well defined method for isotope composition measurement by TIMS of samples which have natural mass fractionation effect, but it is still a problem to define the isotope composition for double spike itself. In this study, we modified the old double spike technique and found that we could use the modified technique to solve the ¡§true¡¨ isotope composition of double spike itself. According the true isotope composition of double spike, we can measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> isotope composition if the sample has natural fractionation effect. A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and this is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and the natural Ca data. Because the natural sample, the two mixtures, and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to constrain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. This method not only can be used in Ca system but also in Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Mo, Ba and Pb systems. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> double spike isotopic ratio is important, which can save a lot of <span class="hlt">time</span> to check different reference standards. Especially for Pb, radiogenic isotope system, the decay systems embodied in three of four naturally occurring isotopes induce difficult to obtain true isotopic ratios for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> dating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280315"><span id="translatedtitle">Relative errors can cue <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>When repeatedly switching between two visuomotor mappings, e.g. in a reaching or pointing task, adaptation tends to speed up over <span class="hlt">time</span>. That is, when the error in the feedback corresponds to a mapping switch, fast adaptation occurs. Yet, what is learned, the relative error or the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings? When switching between mappings, errors with a size corresponding to the relative difference between the mappings will occur more often than other large errors. Thus, we could learn to correct more for errors with this familiar size (Error Learning). On the other hand, it has been shown that the human visuomotor system can store several <span class="hlt">absolute</span> visuomotor mappings (Mapping Learning) and can use associated contextual cues to retrieve them. Thus, when contextual information is present, no error feedback is needed to switch between mappings. Using a rapid pointing task, we investigated how these two types of learning may each contribute when repeatedly switching between mappings in the absence of task-irrelevant contextual cues. After training, we examined how participants changed their behaviour when a single error probe indicated either the often-experienced error (Error Learning) or one of the previously experienced <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mappings (Mapping Learning). Results were consistent with Mapping Learning despite the relative nature of the error information in the feedback. This shows that errors in the feedback can have a double role in visuomotor behaviour: they drive the general adaptation process by making corrections possible on subsequent movements, as well as serve as contextual cues that can signal a learned <span class="hlt">absolute</span> mapping. PMID:26280315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21391835"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-regulation in newly <span class="hlt">arrived</span> international adoptees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tirella, Linda Grey; Miller, Laurie C</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Many newly <span class="hlt">arrived</span> international adoptees (IA) have difficulties with eating, sleeping, and self-soothing/self-stimulating (SS) behaviors. However, to date the prevalence of these problems and associated risk factors have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we proposed to evaluate 387 IA for the presence of these self-regulation and behavioral difficulties, and examined the relationships between these behaviors and pre-adoptive risk factors including growth measures, orphanage care, age at <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and presence of medical complications. Data on participants were collected in a retrospective chart review and entered into a standardized data collection sheet by a trained research assistant. This exploratory study included 133 M and 254 F with an average age (M = 16) months at the <span class="hlt">time</span> of the study. Children in the study represented adoptees from seventeen countries. Forty-nine per cent (49%) of the retrospective sample exhibited SS behaviors, 48% had sleep disturbances, and 34% had eating issues. Many had difficulties in more than one area. Country of origin, pre-adoption residence, and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> nutritional status all related to the presence of these problems. Hence, self-regulation difficulties are common but both the course and influence of those behaviors on family functioning remains unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120017031"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA's ATM Technology Demonstration-1: Integrated Concept of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baxley, Brian T.; Swenson, Harry N.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) demonstration will integrate three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient <span class="hlt">arrival</span> operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise <span class="hlt">time</span>-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple <span class="hlt">arrival</span> streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to touchdown. It also enables aircraft to conduct Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and implantation into an operational environment. Goals of the ATD-1 demonstration include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2160Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E2160Z"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Accurate Prediction of CME <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> At the Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jie; Hess, Phillip</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We will discuss relevant issues regarding the accurate prediction of CME <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the Earth, from both observational and theoretical points of view. In particular, we clarify the importance of separating the study of CME ejecta from the ejecta-driven shock in interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). For a number of CME-ICME events well observed by SOHO/LASCO, STEREO-A and STEREO-B, we carry out the 3-D measurements by superimposing geometries onto both the ejecta and sheath separately. These measurements are then used to constrain a Drag-Based Model, which is improved through a modification of including height dependence of the drag coefficient into the model. Combining all these factors allows us to create predictions for both fronts at 1 AU and compare with actual in-situ observations. We show an ability to predict the sheath <span class="hlt">arrival</span> with an average error of under 4 hours, with an RMS error of about 1.5 hours. For the CME ejecta, the error is less than two hours with an RMS error within an hour. Through using the best observations of CMEs, we show the power of our method in accurately predicting CME <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span>. The limitation and implications of our accurate prediction method will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..94a3808D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Optomechanics for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davuluri, Sankar</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641"><span id="translatedtitle">Moral <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> and ectopic pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaczor, C</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>If one accepts a version of <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11262641"><span id="translatedtitle">Moral <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> and ectopic pregnancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaczor, C</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>If one accepts a version of <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the <span class="hlt">absolutism</span> mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate. PMID:11262641</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100014902&hterms=asp&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dasp"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kogut, A. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15831074"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification images predict <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B</p> <p>2005-02-24</p> <p>How well do classification images characterize human observers' strategies in perceptual tasks? We show mathematically that from the classification image of a noisy linear observer, it is possible to recover the observer's <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiency. If we could similarly predict human observers' performance from their classification images, this would suggest that the linear model that underlies use of the classification image method is adequate over the small range of stimuli typically encountered in a classification image experiment, and that a classification image captures most important aspects of human observers' performance over this range. In a contrast discrimination task and in a shape discrimination task, we found that observers' <span class="hlt">absolute</span> efficiencies were generally well predicted by their classification images, although consistently slightly (approximately 13%) higher than predicted. We consider whether a number of plausible nonlinearities can account for the slight under prediction, and of these we find that only a form of phase uncertainty can account for the discrepancy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of optical flats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sommargren, Gary E.</p> <p>2005-04-05</p> <p>The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> phase error of the optical flat is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24930802"><span id="translatedtitle">Does the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> index predict physiological stress reactivity in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Knowledge about children's stress reactivity and its correlates is mostly based on one stress task, making it hard to assess the generalizability of the results. The development of an additional stress paradigm for children, that also limits stress exposure and test <span class="hlt">time</span>, could greatly advance this field of research. Research in adults may provide a starting point for the development of such an additional stress paradigm, as changes in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) over a 1-h pre-stress period in the laboratory correlated strongly with subsequent reactivity to stress task (Balodis et al., 2010, Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:1363-73). The present study examined whether such strong correlations could be replicated in 9- to 11-year-old children. Cortisol and sAA samples were collected from 158 children (83 girls) during a 2.5-h visit to the laboratory. This visit included a 1-h pre-stress period in which children performed some non-stressful tasks and relaxed before taking part in a psychosocial stress task (TSST-C). A higher cortisol <span class="hlt">arrival</span> index was significantly and weakly correlated with a higher AUCg but unrelated to cortisol reactivity to the stressor. A higher sAA <span class="hlt">arrival</span> index was significantly and moderately related to lower stress reactivity and to a lower AUCi. Children's personality and emotion regulation variables were unrelated to the cortisol and sAA <span class="hlt">arrival</span> indices. The results of this study do not provide a basis for the development of an additional stress paradigm for children. Further replications in children and adults are needed to clarify the potential meaning of an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-97PC-1073&hterms=1073&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231073','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-97PC-1073&hterms=1073&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231073"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-85 Crew <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> for TCDT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The Space Shuttle Mission STS-85 crew <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at the Shuttle Landing Facility for their mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. They are (from left): Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Commander N. Jan Davis; Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam; Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Pilot Kent V. Rominger; and Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason. The liftoff for STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000402&hterms=controlling+management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontrolling%2Bmanagement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000402&hterms=controlling+management&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcontrolling%2Bmanagement"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiautomated Management Of <span class="hlt">Arriving</span> Air Traffic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>System of computers, graphical workstations, and computer programs developed for semiautomated management of approach and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of numerous aircraft at airport. System comprises three subsystems: traffic-management advisor, used for controlling traffic into terminal area; descent advisor generates information integrated into plan-view display of traffic on monitor; and final-approach-spacing tool used to merge traffic converging on final approach path while making sure aircraft are properly spaced. Not intended to restrict decisions of air-traffic controllers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-96PC-1251&hterms=Kenneth&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DKenneth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-96PC-1251&hterms=Kenneth&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DKenneth"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-80 Crew <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (Commander Kenneth Cockrell)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>STS-80 Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell and four fellow crew members <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility as preparations continue for launch of the final Shuttle flight of 1996. Tomorrow, Nov. 12, the launch countdown will begin at 1 p.m. with the countdown clock set at T-43 hours. The Space Shuttle Columbia is scheduled for liftoff from Launch Pad 39B at 2:50 p.m. EST, Nov. 15.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17229253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17229253"><span id="translatedtitle">The electronic, 'paperless' medical office; has it <span class="hlt">arrived</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gates, P; Urquhart, J</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Modern information technology offers efficiencies in medical practice, with a reduction in secretarial <span class="hlt">time</span> in maintaining, filing and retrieving the paper medical record. Electronic requesting of investigations allows tracking of outstanding results. Less storage space is required and telephone calls from pharmacies, pathology and medical imaging service providers to clarify the hand-written request are abolished. Voice recognition software reduces secretarial typing <span class="hlt">time</span> per letter. These combined benefits can lead to significantly reduced costs and improved patient care. The paperless office is possible, but requires commitment and training of all staff; it is preferable but not <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> essential that at least one member of the practice has an interest and some expertise in computers. More importantly, back-up from information technology providers and back-up of the electronic data are <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> crucial and a paperless environment should not be considered without them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945107','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945107"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Membrane Voltage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than <span class="hlt">absolute</span> numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose <span class="hlt">time</span>-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, <span class="hlt">time</span>-domain encoding of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009acse.book..955S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009acse.book..955S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Priority for a Vehicle in VANET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad</p> <p></p> <p>In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide <span class="hlt">absolute</span> priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling <span class="hlt">time</span>. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109125"><span id="translatedtitle">'To <span class="hlt">arrive</span> where we started, and know the place for the first <span class="hlt">time</span>': Heidegger, phenomenology, the way human beings first appear in the world, and fresh perspectives on the abortion debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mumford, James</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Intellectual stalemate in the abortion debate can be traced in part to its being framed as a standoff between religion and secular philosophy. While the former is thought to generate a broadly 'pro-life' position, the latter is associated with more 'pro-choice' thinking. This essay attempts to break free of this framing by criticising the philosophy informing 'pro-choice' positions, but not by resorting immediately to religious arguments but rather by drawing upon a rival philosophical tradition--the movement within twentieth and twenty-first Continental philosophy which was and is phenomenology. A phenomenological approach to human 'emergence', and in particular an application of the framework Heidegger developed in Being and <span class="hlt">Time</span> (1927), leads to a radical questioning of whether contemporary English-speaking beginning-of-life ethics have adequately taken into account the way human beings come forth in the world. PMID:25109125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109125"><span id="translatedtitle">'To <span class="hlt">arrive</span> where we started, and know the place for the first <span class="hlt">time</span>': Heidegger, phenomenology, the way human beings first appear in the world, and fresh perspectives on the abortion debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mumford, James</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Intellectual stalemate in the abortion debate can be traced in part to its being framed as a standoff between religion and secular philosophy. While the former is thought to generate a broadly 'pro-life' position, the latter is associated with more 'pro-choice' thinking. This essay attempts to break free of this framing by criticising the philosophy informing 'pro-choice' positions, but not by resorting immediately to religious arguments but rather by drawing upon a rival philosophical tradition--the movement within twentieth and twenty-first Continental philosophy which was and is phenomenology. A phenomenological approach to human 'emergence', and in particular an application of the framework Heidegger developed in Being and <span class="hlt">Time</span> (1927), leads to a radical questioning of whether contemporary English-speaking beginning-of-life ethics have adequately taken into account the way human beings come forth in the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013324','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013324"><span id="translatedtitle">The AFGL <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hammond, J. A.; Iliff, R. L.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A brief discussion of the AFGL's (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) program in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity is presented. Support of outside work and in-house studies relating to gravity instrumentation are discussed. A description of the current transportable system is included and the latest results are presented. These results show good agreement with measurements at the AFGL site by an Italian system. The accuracy obtained by the transportable apparatus is better than 0.1 microns sq sec 10 microgal and agreement with previous measurements is within the combined uncertainties of the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1287535','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1287535"><span id="translatedtitle">Familial Aggregation of <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Pitch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baharloo, Siamak; Service, Susan K.; Risch, Neil; Gitschier, Jane; Freimer, Nelson B.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> pitch (AP) is a behavioral trait that is defined as the ability to identify the pitch of tones in the absence of a reference pitch. AP is an ideal phenotype for investigation of gene and environment interactions in the development of complex human behaviors. Individuals who score exceptionally well on formalized auditory tests of pitch perception are designated as “AP-1.” As described in this report, auditory testing of siblings of AP-1 probands and of a control sample indicates that AP-1 aggregates in families. The implications of this finding for the mapping of loci for AP-1 predisposition are discussed. PMID:10924408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140004897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140004897"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal Integration of Departure and <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> in Terminal Airspace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coordination of operations with spatially and temporally shared resources such as route segments, fixes, and runways improves the efficiency of terminal airspace management. Problems in this category include scheduling and routing, thus they are normally difficult to solve compared with pure scheduling problems. In order to reduce the computational <span class="hlt">time</span>, a fast <span class="hlt">time</span> algorithm formulation using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) was introduced in this work and applied to a test case based on existing literature. The experiment showed that new method can solve the whole problem in fast <span class="hlt">time</span> instead of solving sub-problems sequentially with a window technique. The results showed a 60% or 406 second delay reduction was achieved by sharing departure fixes (more details on the comparison with MILP results will be presented in the final paper). Furthermore, the NSGA algorithm was applied to a problem in LAX terminal airspace, where interactions between 28% of LAX <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and 10% of LAX departures are resolved by spatial segregation, which may introduce unnecessary delays. In this work, spatial segregation, temporal segregation, and hybrid segregation were formulated using the new algorithm. Results showed that spatial and temporal segregation approaches achieved similar delay. Hybrid segregation introduced much less delay than the other two approaches. For a total of 9 interacting departures and <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, delay reduction varied from 4 minutes to 6.4 minutes corresponding flight <span class="hlt">time</span> uncertainty from 0 to 60 seconds. Considering the amount of flights that could be affected, total annual savings with hybrid segregation would be significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859326"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural selection for earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Velmala, William; Helle, Samuli; Ahola, Markus P; Klaassen, Marcel; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Sirkiä, Päivi M; Laaksonen, Toni</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>For migratory birds, the earlier <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of males to breeding grounds is often expected to have fitness benefits. However, the selection differential on male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> has rarely been decomposed into the direct effect of male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and potential indirect effects through female traits. We measured the directional selection differential on male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) using data from 6 years and annual number of fledglings as the fitness proxy. Using structural equation modeling, we were able to take into account the temporal structure of the breeding cycle and the hierarchy between the examined traits. We found directional selection differentials for earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date and earlier female laying date, as well as strong selection differential for larger clutch size. These selection differentials were due to direct selection only as indirect selection for these traits was nonsignificant. When decomposing the direct selection for earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> into direct and indirect effects, we discovered that it was almost exclusively due to the direct effect of male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date on fitness and not due to its indirect effects via female traits. In other words, we showed for the first <span class="hlt">time</span> that there is a direct effect of male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date on fitness while accounting for those effects that are mediated by effects of the social partner. Our study thus indicates that natural selection directly favored earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in this flycatcher population. PMID:25859326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4377264','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4377264"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural selection for earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Velmala, William; Helle, Samuli; Ahola, Markus P; Klaassen, Marcel; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Sirkiä, Päivi M; Laaksonen, Toni</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For migratory birds, the earlier <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of males to breeding grounds is often expected to have fitness benefits. However, the selection differential on male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> has rarely been decomposed into the direct effect of male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> and potential indirect effects through female traits. We measured the directional selection differential on male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) using data from 6 years and annual number of fledglings as the fitness proxy. Using structural equation modeling, we were able to take into account the temporal structure of the breeding cycle and the hierarchy between the examined traits. We found directional selection differentials for earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date and earlier female laying date, as well as strong selection differential for larger clutch size. These selection differentials were due to direct selection only as indirect selection for these traits was nonsignificant. When decomposing the direct selection for earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> into direct and indirect effects, we discovered that it was almost exclusively due to the direct effect of male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date on fitness and not due to its indirect effects via female traits. In other words, we showed for the first <span class="hlt">time</span> that there is a direct effect of male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date on fitness while accounting for those effects that are mediated by effects of the social partner. Our study thus indicates that natural selection directly favored earlier male <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in this flycatcher population. PMID:25859326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1177595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1177595"><span id="translatedtitle">GMTI Direction of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Measurements from Multiple Phase Centers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar attempts to detect and locate targets with unknown motion. Very slow-moving targets are difficult to locate in the presence of surrounding clutter. This necessitates multiple antenna phase centers (or equivalent) to offer independent Direction of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (DOA) measurements. DOA accuracy and precision generally remains dependent on target Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Clutter-toNoise Ratio (CNR), scene topography, interfering signals, and a number of antenna parameters. This is true even for adaptive techniques like Space-<span class="hlt">Time</span>-AdaptiveProcessing (STAP) algorithms.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000013938&hterms=nobel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnobel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000013938&hterms=nobel&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnobel"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-93: Crew <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> and PR Location</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The primary objective of the STS-93 mission was to deploy the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility, which had been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel Laureate Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The mission was launched at 12:31 on July 23, 1999 onboard the space shuttle Columbia. The mission was led by Commander Eileen Collins. The crew was Pilot Jeff Ashby and Mission Specialists Cady Coleman, Steve Hawley and Michel Tognini from the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). This videotape shows the astronauts <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at Kennedy and an inspection in the clean room.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec122-154.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec122-154.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 122.154 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Flights to and From Cuba § 122.154 Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. (a) Application. All aircraft entering the U.S. from Cuba must give advance notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, unless it is an Office of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23350305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23350305"><span id="translatedtitle">Relational versus <span class="hlt">absolute</span> representation in categorization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study explores relational-like and <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an <span class="hlt">absolute</span>-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a <span class="hlt">time</span> delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a <span class="hlt">time</span> delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27581485"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient <span class="hlt">absolute</span> robustness in stochastic biochemical networks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enciso, German A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> robustness allows biochemical networks to sustain a consistent steady-state output in the face of protein concentration variability from cell to cell. This property is structural and can be determined from the topology of the network alone regardless of rate parameters. An important question regarding these systems is the effect of discrete biochemical noise in the dynamical behaviour. In this paper, a variable freezing technique is developed to show that under mild hypotheses the corresponding stochastic system has a transiently robust behaviour. Specifically, after finite <span class="hlt">time</span> the distribution of the output approximates a Poisson distribution, centred around the deterministic mean. The approximation becomes increasingly accurate, and it holds for increasingly long finite <span class="hlt">times</span>, as the total protein concentrations grow to infinity. In particular, the stochastic system retains a transient, <span class="hlt">absolutely</span> robust behaviour corresponding to the deterministic case. This result contrasts with the long-term dynamics of the stochastic system, which eventually must undergo an extinction event that eliminates robustness and is completely different from the deterministic dynamics. The transiently robust behaviour may be sufficient to carry out many forms of robust signal transduction and cellular decision-making in cellular organisms. PMID:27581485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008155','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008155"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated Conflict Resolution, <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Management and Weather Avoidance for ATM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Erzberger, H.; Lauderdale, Todd A.; Chu, Yung-Cheng</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The paper describes a unified solution to three types of separation assurance problems that occur in en-route airspace: separation conflicts, <span class="hlt">arrival</span> sequencing, and weather-cell avoidance. Algorithms for solving these problems play a key role in the design of future air traffic management systems such as NextGen. Because these problems can arise simultaneously in any combination, it is necessary to develop integrated algorithms for solving them. A unified and comprehensive solution to these problems provides the foundation for a future air traffic management system that requires a high level of automation in separation assurance. The paper describes the three algorithms developed for solving each problem and then shows how they are used sequentially to solve any combination of these problems. The first algorithm resolves loss-of-separation conflicts and is an evolution of an algorithm described in an earlier paper. The new version generates multiple resolutions for each conflict and then selects the one giving the least delay. Two new algorithms, one for sequencing and merging of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic, referred to as the <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Manager, and the other for weather-cell avoidance are the major focus of the paper. Because these three problems constitute a substantial fraction of the workload of en-route controllers, integrated algorithms to solve them is a basic requirement for automated separation assurance. The paper also reviews the Advanced Airspace Concept, a proposed design for a ground-based system that postulates redundant systems for separation assurance in order to achieve both high levels of safety and airspace capacity. It is proposed that automated separation assurance be introduced operationally in several steps, each step reducing controller workload further while increasing airspace capacity. A fast <span class="hlt">time</span> simulation was used to determine performance statistics of the algorithm at up to 3 <span class="hlt">times</span> current traffic levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJBm...51..361M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007IJBm...51..361M"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macmynowski, Dena P.; Root, Terry L.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979 2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">timing</span> between sexes, (2) in <span class="hlt">arrival</span> distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest <span class="hlt">arriving</span> species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest <span class="hlt">arriving</span> individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four <span class="hlt">times</span> as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species’ <span class="hlt">arrival</span> is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory <span class="hlt">timing</span> for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal <span class="hlt">arrival</span> distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, is essential to detect species’ responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1539..394F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1539..394F"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar energetic particle <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Mars due to the 27 January 2012 solar storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frahm, R. A.; Sharber, J. R.; Winningham, J. D.; Elliott, H. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Odstrĉil, D.; Kallio, E.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Barabash, S.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>On January 27, 2012, an X-class flare brightened on the Sun at 18:15 UT. This event was associated with the generation of a high-energy stream of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) advancing along the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) which <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at Mars in about 39 minutes. A Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at Mars several days later. The Electron Spectrometer (ELS), a part of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment on the European Mars Express (MEx) Spacecraft, associatively detected elevated background levels of penetrating particle radiation which abruptly increased above the baseline level by two orders of magnitude within several hours after first <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, allowing the particle <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> to be accurately determined from this gradual SEP. As Mars reacted to the SEP, the atmosphere heated driving expansion of the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023710','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023710"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining Direction of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> at a Y-Shaped Antenna Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Starr, Stan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm computes the direction of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> (both azimuth and elevation angles) of a lightning-induced electromagnetic signal from differences among the <span class="hlt">times</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of the signal at four antennas in a Y-shaped array on the ground. In the original intended application of the algorithm, the baselines of the array are about 90 m long and the array is part of a lightning-detection-and-ranging (LDAR) system. The algorithm and its underlying equations can also be used to compute directions of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of impulsive phenomena other than lightning on arrays of sensors other than radio antennas: for example, of an acoustic pulse <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at an array of microphones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378330"><span id="translatedtitle">STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON PULSAR <span class="hlt">ARRIVAL</span> <span class="hlt">TIMES</span>: GENERAL ORIENTATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang Yan; Creighton, Teviet; Price, Richard H.; Jenet, Frederick A.</p> <p>2009-11-10</p> <p>A pulsar beam passing close to a black hole can provide a probe of very strong gravitational fields even if the pulsar itself is not in a strong field region. In the case that the spin of the hole can be ignored, we have previously shown that all strong field effects on the beam can be understood in terms of two 'universal' functions: F(phi{sub in}) and T(phi{sub in}) of the angle of beam emission phi{sub in}; these functions are universal in that they depend only on a single parameter, the pulsar/black hole distance from which the beam is emitted. Here we apply this formalism to general pulsar-hole-observer geometries, with arbitrary alignment of the pulsar spin axis and arbitrary pulsar beam direction and angular width. We show that the analysis of the observational problem has two distinct elements: (1) the computation of the location and trajectory of an observer-dependent 'keyhole' direction of emission in which a signal can be received by the observer; and (2) the determination of an annulus that represents the set of directions containing beam energy. Examples of each are given along with an example of a specific observational scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JCAP...08..060V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JCAP...08..060V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology with negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730021662','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730021662"><span id="translatedtitle">Apparatus for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hecht, R. (Inventor)</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">absolute</span> pressure sensor (e.g., the diaphragm of a capacitance manometer) was subjected to a superimposed potential to effectively reduce the mechanical stiffness of the sensor. This substantially increases the sensitivity of the sensor and is particularly useful in vacuum gauges. An oscillating component of the superimposed potential induced vibrations of the sensor. The phase of these vibrations with respect to that of the oscillating component was monitored, and served to initiate an automatic adjustment of the static component of the superimposed potential, so as to bring the sensor into resonance at the frequency of the oscillating component. This establishes a selected sensitivity for the sensor, since a definite relationship exists between resonant frequency and sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...08..060V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAP...08..060V"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmology with negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Negative <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25298030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25298030"><span id="translatedtitle">Order of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> structures arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Werner, Gijsbert D A; Kiers, E Toby</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Priority effects - the impact of a species' <span class="hlt">arrival</span> on subsequent community development - have been shown to influence species composition in many organisms. Whether priority effects among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) structure fungal root communities is not well understood. Here, we investigated whether priority effects influence the success of two closely related AMF species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus aggregatum), hypothesizing that a resident AMF suppresses invader success, this effect is <span class="hlt">time</span>-dependent and a resident will experience reduced growth when invaded. We performed two glasshouse experiments using modified pots, which permitted direct inoculation of resident and invading AMF on the roots. We quantified intraradical AMF abundances using quantitative PCR and visual colonization percentages. We found that both fungi suppressed the invading species and that this effect was strongly dependent on the <span class="hlt">time</span> lag between inoculations. In contrast to our expectations, neither resident AMF was negatively affected by invasion. We show that order of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> can influence the abundance of AMF species colonizing a host. These priority effects can have important implications for AMF ecology and the use of fungal inocula in sustainable agriculture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T13A2965T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T13A2965T"><span id="translatedtitle">The Application of Optimisation Methods to Constrain <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Plate Motions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tetley, M. G.; Williams, S.; Hardy, S.; Müller, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Plate tectonic reconstructions are an excellent tool for understanding the configuration and behaviour of continents through <span class="hlt">time</span> on both global and regional scales, and are relatively well understood back to ~200 Ma. However, many of these models represent only relative motions between continents, providing little information of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> tectonic motions and their relationship with the deep Earth. Significant issues exist in solving this problem, including how to combine constraints from multiple, diverse data into a unified model of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motions; and how to address uncertainties both in the available data, and in the assumptions involved in this process (e.g. hotspot motion, true polar wander). In deep <span class="hlt">time</span> (pre-Pangea breakup), plate reconstructions rely more heavily on paleomagnetism, but these data often imply plate velocities much larger than those observed since the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea where plate velocities are constrained by the seafloor spreading record. Here we present two complementary techniques to address these issues, applying parallelized numerical methods to quantitatively investigate <span class="hlt">absolute</span> plate motions through <span class="hlt">time</span>. Firstly, we develop a data-fit optimized global <span class="hlt">absolute</span> reference frame constrained by kinematic reconstruction data, hotspot-trail observations, and trench migration statistics. Secondly we calculate optimized paleomagnetic data-derived apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) for both the Phanerozoic and Precambrian. Paths are generated from raw pole data with optimal spatial and temporal pole configurations calculated using all known uncertainties and quality criteria to produce velocity-optimized <span class="hlt">absolute</span> motion paths through deep <span class="hlt">time</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 146.405 - Safety and Security notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... submitting an NOA: (1) All the information specified in 33 CFR Table 160.206 with the exception of... <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. 146.405 Section 146.405 Navigation and Navigable... vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. (a) General. The owner or operator of each vessel subject to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 146.405 - Safety and Security notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... submitting an NOA: (1) All the information specified in 33 CFR Table 160.206 with the exception of... <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. 146.405 Section 146.405 Navigation and Navigable... vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. (a) General. The owner or operator of each vessel subject to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 146.405 - Safety and Security notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... submitting an NOA: (1) All the information specified in 33 CFR Table 160.206 with the exception of... <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. 146.405 Section 146.405 Navigation and Navigable... vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. (a) General. The owner or operator of each vessel subject to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title33-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title33-vol2-sec146-405.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">33 CFR 146.405 - Safety and Security notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... submitting an NOA: (1) All the information specified in 33 CFR Table 160.206 with the exception of... <span class="hlt">arrival</span> for vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. 146.405 Section 146.405 Navigation and Navigable... vessels <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at a place on the OCS. (a) General. The owner or operator of each vessel subject to...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..APRB16007K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..APRB16007K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Dual phase liquid/gas xenon <span class="hlt">time</span> projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714045W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714045W"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">absolut</span> gravity reference system as replacement of IGSN 71</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilmes, Herbert; Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The determination of precise gravity field parameters is of great importance in a period in which earth sciences are achieving the necessary accuracy to monitor and document global change processes. This is the reason why experts from geodesy and metrology joined in a successful cooperation to make <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity observations traceable to SI quantities, to improve the metrological kilogram definition and to monitor mass movements and smallest height changes for geodetic and geophysical applications. The international gravity datum is still defined by the International Gravity Standardization Net adopted in 1971 (IGSN 71). The network is based upon pendulum and spring gravimeter observations taken in the 1950s and 60s supported by the early free fall <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. Its gravity values agreed in every case to better than 0.1 mGal. Today, more than 100 <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters are in use worldwide. The series of repeated international comparisons confirms the traceability of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravity measurements to SI quantities and confirm the degree of equivalence of the gravimeters in the order of a few µGal. For applications in geosciences where e.g. gravity changes over <span class="hlt">time</span> need to be analyzed, the temporal stability of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter is most important. Therefore, the proposition is made to replace the IGSN 71 by an up-to-date gravity reference system which is based upon repeated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeter comparisons and a global network of well controlled gravity reference stations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4842619S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4842619S"><span id="translatedtitle">ExoMars 2016 <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC96-43607-1&hterms=beeches&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DThe%2Bbeeches','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC96-43607-1&hterms=beeches&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DThe%2Bbeeches"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA T-34C <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Dryden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A NASA T-34C aircraft, used for safety chase, is viewed by personnel on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after its <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in June of 1996. The aircraft was previously used at the Lewis Research Center in propulsion experiments involving turboprop engines, and is now used as a chase aircraft at Dryden for smaller and slower research projects. Chase aircraft accompany research flights for photography and video purposes, and also as support for safety and research. The T-34 is used mainly for smaller remotely piloted vehicles which fly slower than NASA's F-18's, used for larger scale projects. The T-34C, built by Beech, carries a crew of 2 and is nicknamed the Mentor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920837"><span id="translatedtitle">The stratospheric <span class="hlt">arrival</span> pair in infrasound propagation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waxler, Roger; Evers, Läslo G; Assink, Jelle; Blom, Phillip</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ideal case of a deep and well-formed stratospheric duct for long range infrasound propagation in the absence of tropospheric ducting is considered. A canonical form, that of a pair of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, for ground returns of impulsive signals in a stratospheric duct is determined. The canonical form is derived from the geometrical acoustics approximation, and is validated and extended through full wave modeling. The full caustic structure of the field of ray paths is found and used to determine phase relations between the contributions to the wavetrain from different propagation paths. Finally, comparison with data collected from the 2005 fuel gas depot explosion in Buncefield, England is made. The correspondence between the theoretical results and the observations is shown to be quite good. PMID:25920837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-00PP-1043&hterms=1043&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231043','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-00PP-1043&hterms=1043&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231043"><span id="translatedtitle">P-1 truss <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at KSC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The P-1 truss, a component of the International Space Station, <span class="hlt">arrives</span> inside the RLV hangar, located near the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC. Approaching bad weather caused the detour as a precaution. The truss will eventually be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building for processing. The P-1 truss, scheduled to fly in spring of 2002, is part of a total 10-truss, girder-like structure on the Station that will ultimately extend the length of a football field. Astronauts will attach the 14-by- 15 foot structure to the port side of the center truss, S0, during the spring assembly flight. The 33,000-pound P-1 will house the thermal radiator rotating joint (TRRJ) that will rotate the Station's radiators away from the sun to increase their maximum cooling efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12032282','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12032282"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast-phase space computation of multiple <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fomel, S; Sethian, J A</p> <p>2002-05-28</p> <p>We present a fast, general computational technique for computing the phase-space solution of static Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Starting with the Liouville formulation of the characteristic equations, we derive "Escape Equations" which are static, <span class="hlt">time</span>-independent Eulerian PDEs. They represent all <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> to the given boundary from all possible starting configurations. The solution is numerically constructed through a "one-pass" formulation, building on ideas from semi-Lagrangian methods, Dijkstra-like methods for the Eikonal equation, and Ordered Upwind Methods. To compute all possible trajectories corresponding to all possible boundary conditions, the technique is of computational order O(N log N), where N is the total number of points in the computational phase-space domain; any particular set of boundary conditions then is extracted through rapid post-processing. Suggestions are made for speeding up the algorithm in the case when the particular distribution of sources is provided in advance. As an application, we apply the technique to the problem of computing first, multiple, and most energetic <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> to the Eikonal equation. PMID:12032282</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3007289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3007289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configuration of isovouacapenol C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fun, Hoong-Kun; Yodsaoue, Orapun; Karalai, Chatchanok; Chantrapromma, Suchada</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR)-4a,6-dihy­droxy-4,4,7,11b-tetra­methyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca­hydro­phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furan­oditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclo­hexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O inter­action generates an S(6) ring. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. C⋯O [3.306 (2)–3.347 (2) Å] short contacts and C—H⋯π inter­actions also occur. PMID:21588364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJOL..34.1383Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChJOL..34.1383Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A set of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real <span class="hlt">time</span> currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12290378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12290378"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergency contraception use up -- new ECP <span class="hlt">arrives</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>The first progestin-only dedicated emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) is about to enter the US market. The <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of Plan B, a levonorgestrel-only ECP produced by the Women's Capital Corporation (WCC) of Seattle, has been long awaited by providers in the US because of it is more effective and produces fewer side effects than does the combined regimen. The WCC is taking a different marketing and distributing approach to emergency contraception than its competitor, Gynetics, focusing on existing ECP provider/dispensers such as Planned Parenthood affiliates, major Title X programs, and college/university student health centers. The FDA has also approved a change in product labeling for Gynetics¿ ECU Preven. The change, marked by the disappearance of the "Black Box Warning," puts the benefits and risks of emergency contraception in perspective, according to a Gynetics executive. It further eliminates substantial restrictions on the company's ability to communicate directly to the consumer and to the medical professional. The FDA¿s decisions should help to accelerate the process of building awareness of emergency contraception and its availability in the US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JBAA..114..177M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JBAA..114..177M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassini-Huygens <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at Saturn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGee, H. W.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Cover images: Following a seven-year journey through the solar system, the NASA spacecraft Cassini, carrying the ESA Titan probe Huygens, <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at Saturn on 2004 July 1. With a flawlessly executed manoeuvre and 95-minute engine burn the spacecraft passed twice through Saturn's rings and took up orbit around the planet, ready for its four-year mission to study the Saturnian system. The cover shows Saturn's atmosphere and rings, imaged on 2004 May 15 from a distance of 24.7 million km; and three closeup images recorded during the ring plane crossing. Clockwise from right: density waves and unexpected detail in the A ring, exquisitely delicate patterning in the F ring, and the Cassini Division, seen from the unlit side of the rings. The image on the right shows a wide view of the F ring. NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute. [Hazel McGee and Nick James represented the BAA at JPL during this historic event, and will report further in future issues of the Journal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.692S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.692S"><span id="translatedtitle">On Connections Between Weather Types and the <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> of Migratory Birds in Estonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The <span class="hlt">timing</span> must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. The wide year-to-year variation in the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds <span class="hlt">arrived</span> in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1740&hterms=smile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsmile','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1740&hterms=smile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsmile"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-88 Mission Commander Cabana <span class="hlt">arrives</span> for launch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana smiles on his <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross, Mission Specialist James H. Newman, and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled <span class="hlt">time</span> of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian- built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1741&hterms=smile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsmile','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-1741&hterms=smile&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dsmile"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-88 Mission Specialist Krikalev <span class="hlt">arrives</span> for launch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut, smiles on his <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. He joins other crew members Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist Jerry L. Ross, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman for pre-launch preparations for mission STS-88 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scheduled <span class="hlt">time</span> of launch is 3:56 a.m. EST on Dec. 3 from Launch Pad 39A. The mission is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. Endeavour carries the Unity connecting module which the crew will be mating with the Russian- built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-0822&hterms=collin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcollin','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-99PP-0822&hterms=collin&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcollin"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-93 Commander Collins <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at SLF for launch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins waves to spectators after landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) aboard a T-38 jet aircraft. She and other crew members Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. 'Cady' Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), are <span class="hlt">arriving</span> for pre- launch activities. Collins is the first woman to serve as mission commander. This is her third Shuttle flight. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 <span class="hlt">times</span> more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003524','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003524"><span id="translatedtitle">Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) Dependent Parallel <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> (DPA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Colin L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) team at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been developing a concept of operations to extend the current APS concept to support dependent approaches to parallel or converging runways along with the required pilot and controller procedures and pilot interfaces. A staggered operations capability for the Airborne Spacing for Terminal <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Routes (ASTAR) tool was developed and designated as ASTAR10. ASTAR10 has reached a sufficient level of maturity to be validated and tested through a fast-<span class="hlt">time</span> simulation. The purpose of the experiment was to identify and resolve any remaining issues in the ASTAR10 algorithm, as well as put the concept of operations through a practical test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025069','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025069"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit <span class="hlt">time</span>-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> scale for lunar irradiance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860059673&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860059673&hterms=ram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dram"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-9 Shuttle grow - Ram angle effect and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Clifton, K. S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Visible imagery from Space Shuttle mission STS-9 (Spacelab 1) has been analyzed for the ram angle effect and the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> intensity of glow. The data are compared with earlier measurements and the anomalous high intensities at large ram angles are confirmed. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> intensities of the ram glow on the shuttle tile, at 6563 A, are observed to be about 20 <span class="hlt">times</span> more intense than those measured on the AE-E spacecraft. Implications of these observations for an existing theory of glow involving NO2 are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4635022','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4635022"><span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of the Relationship Between the Heat Index and <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> in the Emergency Department</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levy, Matthew; Broccoli, Morgan; Cole, Gai; Jenkins, J Lee; Klein, Eili Y.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Heatwaves are one of the most deadly weather-related events in the United States and account for more deaths annually than hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined. However, there are few statistically rigorous studies of the effect of heatwaves on emergency department (ED) <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. A better understanding of this relationship can help hospitals plan better and provide better care for patients during these types of events. Methods: A retrospective review of all ED patient <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> that occurred from April 15 through August 15 for the years 2008 through 2013 was performed. Daily patient <span class="hlt">arrival</span> data were combined with weather data (temperature and humidity) to examine the potential relationships between the heat index and ED <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> as well as the length of <span class="hlt">time</span> patients spend in the ED using generalized additive models. In particular the effect the 2012 heat wave that swept across the United States, and which was hypothesized to increase <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> was examined. Results: While there was no relationship found between the heat index and <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> on a single day, a non-linear relationship was found between the mean three-day heat index and the number of daily <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. As the mean three-day heat index initially increased, the number of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> significantly declined. However, as the heat index continued to increase, the number of <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> increased. It was estimated that there was approximately a 2% increase in <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> when the mean heat index for three days approached 100°F. This relationship was strongest for adults aged 18-64, as well as for patients <span class="hlt">arriving</span> with lower acuity. Additionally, a positive relationship was noted between the mean three-day heat index and the length of stay (LOS) for patients in the ED, but no relationship was found for the <span class="hlt">time</span> from which a patient was first seen to when a disposition decision was made. No significant relationship was found for the effect of the 2012 heat wave on ED <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, though it</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318935','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=318935"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some <span class="hlt">time</span> ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060030502&hterms=Herring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHerring','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060030502&hterms=Herring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DHerring"><span id="translatedtitle">Urey: to measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> age of Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; Herring, M.; Javadi, H.; Johnson, D. W.; Larson, T.; Malaviarachchi, K.; Sherrit, S.; Stride, S.; Trebi-Ollennu, A.; Warwick, R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first <span class="hlt">time</span>, measure the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Happiness&pg=7&id=EJ804151','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Happiness&pg=7&id=EJ804151"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Income, Relative Income, and Happiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in <span class="hlt">absolute</span> terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both <span class="hlt">absolute</span> and relative income are positively and significantly…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ853800.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Value: A Real World Application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> value simply…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RHS+AND+15&pg=4&id=EJ249107','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=RHS+AND+15&pg=4&id=EJ249107"><span id="translatedtitle">Preschoolers' Success at Coding <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Size Values.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Russell, James</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Forty-five 2-year-old and forty-five 3-year-old children coded relative and <span class="hlt">absolute</span> sizes using 1.5-inch, 6-inch, and 18-inch cardboard squares. Results indicate that <span class="hlt">absolute</span> coding is possible for children of this age. (Author/RH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=standard+AND+deviation&pg=2&id=EJ1050985','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=standard+AND+deviation&pg=2&id=EJ1050985"><span id="translatedtitle">Introducing the Mean <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Deviation "Effect" Size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gorard, Stephen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean <span class="hlt">absolute</span> deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1261596"><span id="translatedtitle">Monolithically integrated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb laser system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wanke, Michael C.</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490812','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4490812"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth of households</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Objective To estimate the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on <span class="hlt">absolute</span> wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044287&hterms=metrology&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmetrology"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy <span class="hlt">absolute</span> optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010524','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010524"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal Integration of Departures and <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> in Terminal Airspace</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Coordination of operations with spatially and temporally shared resources, such as route segments, fixes, and runways, improves the efficiency of terminal airspace management. Problems in this category are, in general, computationally difficult compared to conventional scheduling problems. This paper presents a fast <span class="hlt">time</span> algorithm formulation using a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA). It was first applied to a test problem introduced in existing literature. An experiment with a test problem showed that new methods can solve the 20 aircraft problem in fast <span class="hlt">time</span> with a 65% or 440 second delay reduction using shared departure fixes. In order to test its application in a more realistic and complicated problem, the NSGA algorithm was applied to a problem in LAX terminal airspace, where interactions between 28% of LAX <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and 10% of LAX departures are resolved by spatial separation in current operations, which may introduce unnecessary delays. In this work, three types of separations - spatial, temporal, and hybrid separations - were formulated using the new algorithm. The hybrid separation combines both temporal and spatial separations. Results showed that although temporal separation achieved less delay than spatial separation with a small uncertainty buffer, spatial separation outperformed temporal separation when the uncertainty buffer was increased. Hybrid separation introduced much less delay than both spatial and temporal approaches. For a total of 15 interacting departures and <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>, when compared to spatial separation, the delay reduction of hybrid separation varied between 11% or 3.1 minutes and 64% or 10.7 minutes corresponding to an uncertainty buffer from 0 to 60 seconds. Furthermore, as a comparison with the NSGA algorithm, a First-Come-First-Serve based heuristic method was implemented for the hybrid separation. Experiments showed that the results from the NSGA algorithm have 9% to 42% less delay than the heuristic method with varied</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033615&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability of the Gaussian wake profile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970258"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of invasive organisms via the international marine shipping network: a Khapra beetle study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paini, Dean R; Yemshanov, Denys</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Species can sometimes spread significant distances beyond their natural dispersal ability by anthropogenic means. International shipping routes and the transport of shipping containers, in particular are a commonly recognised pathway for the introduction of invasive species. Species can gain access to a shipping container and remain inside, hidden and undetected for long periods. Currently, government biosecurity agencies charged with intercepting and removing these invasive species when they <span class="hlt">arrive</span> to a county's border only assess the most immediate point of loading in evaluating a shipping container's risk profile. However, an invasive species could have infested a container previous to this point and travelled undetected before <span class="hlt">arriving</span> at the border. To assess <span class="hlt">arrival</span> risk for an invasive species requires analysing the international shipping network in order to identify the most likely source countries and the domestic ports of entry where the species is likely to <span class="hlt">arrive</span>. We analysed an international shipping network and generated pathway simulations using a first-order Markov chain model to identify possible source ports and countries for the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) to Australia. We found Kaohsiung (Taiwan) and Busan (Republic of Korea) to be the most likely sources for Khapra beetle <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, while the port of Melbourne was the most likely point of entry to Australia. Sensitivity analysis revealed significant stability in the rankings of foreign and Australian ports. This methodology provides a reliable modelling tool to identify and rank possible sources for an invasive species that could <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at some <span class="hlt">time</span> in the future. Such model outputs can be used by biosecurity agencies concerned with inspecting incoming shipping containers and wishing to optimise their inspection protocols. PMID:22970258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAG...133...50L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAG...133...50L"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying P-phase <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> with noise: An improved Kurtosis method based on DWT and STA/LTA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xibing; Shang, Xueyi; Wang, Zewei; Dong, Longjun; Weng, Lei</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and short <span class="hlt">time</span> average to long <span class="hlt">time</span> average (STA/LTA)-based Kurtosis algorithm (W-S/L-K method) is proposed to pick the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> of the P-phase; this method advantageously combines the outstanding ability of retrieving the P-phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> information from wavelet coefficients at high resolutions with inherent reliability in obtaining the P-phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> using the STA/LTA picking method. The W-S/L-K method uses local maximum amplitudes and local kurtosis onsets from the wavelet detail components to determine the P-phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> reliably and accurately. It was tested and verified using microseismic data collected from the Yongshaba mine. The results show that the W-S/L-K method's rates of picking errors smaller than 5 ms, 10 ms, and 15 ms were 58%, 86%, and 97.5%, respectively, and the W-S/L-K method was able to pick higher quality P-phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> than those determined using the Kurtosis, Skewness, STA/LTA, Kurtosis + STA/LTA, and Skewness + STA/LTA methods. The proposed method provides a reliable technique for accurately picking P-phase <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span>, especially for signals with low signal to noise ratios (SNRs), heavy tails, and spikes. Moreover, it is able to detect pure noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec26-128.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec26-128.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxpayment at port of... Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. If the... the port of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> prior to release of the liquors or articles from customs custody. The tax may...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-sec93-29.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol2-sec93-29.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 93.29 - International <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Authorizations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... point for the winter and summer scheduling seasons as follows. This section does not apply to <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> at O'Hare from Canada by U.S. or Canadian air carriers. (1) Winter Scheduling Season. Upon request... Scheduling Season, as evidenced by the FAA's records, a corresponding <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Authorization for the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in the United States of any shipment of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in the United States of any shipment of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in the United States of any shipment of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec4-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec4-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 4.2 - Reports of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of vessels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... vessels. (a) Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in any port or place within the U.S., including, for purposes of this section... purposes of this part, “foreign port or place” includes a hovering vessel, as defined in 19 U.S.C. 1401(k... <span class="hlt">arriving</span> either in distress or for the limited purpose of taking on certain supplies and departing within...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec93-804.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 93.804 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.804 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, or tapir at a..., rhinoceros, or tapir was shipped; (h) The number, species, and purpose of importation of the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car... cars....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car... cars....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car... cars....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage cars....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title8-vol1-sec251-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title8-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title8-vol1-sec251-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8 CFR 251.1 - <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> manifests and lists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> manifests and lists. 251.1 Section 251.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS <span class="hlt">ARRIVAL</span> AND... or agent of the vessel shall indicate in writing immediately below the name of the last alien...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in the United States of any shipment of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol5-sec322-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 322.7 - Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.7 Notice of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. (a) At least 10 business days prior to the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in the United States of any shipment of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10564616','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10564616"><span id="translatedtitle">Divorce and asynchronous <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in common terns, Sterna hirundo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>GonzáLez-SolíS; Becker; Wendeln</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>We investigated which of three hypotheses (better option, incompatibility or asynchronous <span class="hlt">arrival</span>) best explains divorce in the common tern. One partner did not return the next year in 18.5% of 150 pairs. Among the 106 pairs in which both mates returned, the divorce rate was 18.9%. We found no significant differences in: breeding performance or condition in relation to the probability of divorce; quality of previous mates and new mates, mean age in relation to pair bond status; breeding success before and after divorce nor did this differ from breeding success of reunited pairs. Hence the better option and incompatibility hypotheses were not supported. However, divorce was more likely in pairs in which mates <span class="hlt">arrived</span> asynchronously on the breeding grounds, supporting the asynchronous <span class="hlt">arrival</span> hypothesis. Median <span class="hlt">arrival</span> asynchrony for divorced pairs was 7.5 days and for reunited pairs 2 days; mates <span class="hlt">arriving</span> more than 16 days apart always split up. About 20% of divorced birds lost breeding status in the year of divorce, probably as a consequence of their late <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Our results suggest that terns search for a new mate as soon as they <span class="hlt">arrive</span> on the breeding grounds and that mates remain faithful to each other to avoid the costs of searching for a new partner. Thus, synchrony in <span class="hlt">arrival</span> facilitates pair bond maintenance rather than asynchrony promoting divorce, since divorce appears to be a side-effect of asynchrony and not an active decision. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10564616</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec26-128.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec26-128.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 26.128 - Taxpayment at port of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayment at port of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. 26.128 Section 26.128 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Liquors and Articles Purchased by Tourists in Puerto Rico § 26.128 Taxpayment at port of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. If...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=settlement+AND+pattern+AND+analysis&pg=4&id=ED251580','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=settlement+AND+pattern+AND+analysis&pg=4&id=ED251580"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Post-<span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Programs and Services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Australian Inst. of Multicultural Affairs, Melbourne (Australia).</p> <p></p> <p>This book assesses the effectiveness of recommendations implemented after the release of the Australian government's "Report of the Review of Post-<span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Programs and Services for Migrants" in 1977. In general, the implementation of the Report's proposals has been of substantial benefit to migrants (both newly <span class="hlt">arrived</span> and longer resident), to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title9-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title9-vol1-sec98-7.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">9 CFR 98.7 - Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Ruminant and Swine Embryos from Regions Free of Rinderpest and Foot-and-Mouth Disease; and Embryos of Horses and Asses § 98.7 Declaration upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. Upon <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of an embryo at a port of entry, the importer or the importer's agent shall notify APHIS of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol1-sec123-61.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage <span class="hlt">arriving</span> in baggage car... cars....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020017252&hterms=Proficiency&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DProficiency','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020017252&hterms=Proficiency&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DProficiency"><span id="translatedtitle">TRACON Aircraft <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A new aircraft <span class="hlt">arrival</span> planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft <span class="hlt">arrival</span> plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable <span class="hlt">arrival</span> plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire <span class="hlt">arrival</span> airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft <span class="hlt">arrival</span> plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft <span class="hlt">arrival</span> plan that is more acceptable in terms of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control <span class="hlt">arrival</span> planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AdSpR..44..641A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AdSpR..44..641A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multipath Separation-Direction of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (MS-DOA) with Genetic Search Algorithm for HF channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arikan, Feza; Koroglu, Ozan; Fidan, Serdar; Arikan, Orhan; Guldogan, Mehmet B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Direction-of-<span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (DOA) defines the estimation of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> angles of an electromagnetic wave impinging on a set of sensors. For dispersive and <span class="hlt">time</span>-varying HF channels, where the propagating wave also suffers from the multipath phenomena, estimation of DOA is a very challenging problem. Multipath Separation-Direction of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (MS-DOA), that is developed to estimate both the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> angles in elevation and azimuth and the incoming signals at the output of the reference antenna with very high accuracy, proves itself as a strong alternative in DOA estimation for HF channels. In MS-DOA, a linear system of equations is formed using the coefficients of the basis vector for the array output vector, the incoming signal vector and the array manifold. The angles of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> in elevation and azimuth are obtained as the maximizers of the sum of the magnitude squares of the projection of the signal coefficients on the column space of the array manifold. In this study, alternative Genetic Search Algorithms (GA) for the maximizers of the projection sum are investigated using simulated and experimental ionospheric channel data. It is observed that GA combined with MS-DOA is a powerful alternative in online DOA estimation and can be further developed according to the channel characteristics of a specific HF link.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000081','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000081"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancellation of spurious <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in Green's function extraction and the generalized optical theorem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Snieder, R.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.; Calvert, R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The extraction of the Green's function by cross correlation of waves recorded at two receivers nowadays finds much application. We show that for an arbitrary small scatterer, the cross terms of scattered waves give an unphysical wave with an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> that is independent of the source position. This constitutes an apparent inconsistency because theory predicts that such spurious <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> do not arise, after integration over a complete source aperture. This puzzling inconsistency can be resolved for an arbitrary scatterer by integrating the contribution of all sources in the stationary phase approximation to show that the stationary phase contributions to the source integral cancel the spurious <span class="hlt">arrival</span> by virtue of the generalized optical theorem. This work constitutes an alternative derivation of this theorem. When the source aperture is incomplete, the spurious <span class="hlt">arrival</span> is not canceled and could be misinterpreted to be part of the Green's function. We give an example of how spurious <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> provide information about the medium complementary to that given by the direct and scattered waves; the spurious waves can thus potentially be used to better constrain the medium. ?? 2008 The American Physical Society.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4684316','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4684316"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactions between a Candidate Gene for Migration (ADCYAP1), Morphology and Sex Predict Spring <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> in Blackcap Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Avian research has begun to reveal associations between candidate genes and migratory behaviors of captive birds, yet few studies utilize genotypic, morphometric, and phenological data from wild individuals. Previous studies have identified an association between ADCYAP1 polymorphism and autumn migratory behavior (restlessness, or zugunruhe), but little is known about the relationship between ADCYAP1 and spring migratory behavior. The <span class="hlt">timing</span> of spring migration and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> to the breeding ground are phenological traits which could be particularly favorable for establishing territories and acquiring mates, thus important to fitness and reproductive success. Here, we investigated how individual genotypic ADCYAP1 variation and phenotypic variation (wing length and shape) of blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) affect spring <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date across nine natural populations in Europe. We hypothesized that longer alleles should be associated with earlier spring <span class="hlt">arrival</span> dates and expected the effect on <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date to be stronger for males as they <span class="hlt">arrive</span> earlier. However, we found that longer wings were associated with earlier spring <span class="hlt">arrival</span> to the breeding grounds for females, but not for males. Another female-specific effect indicated an interaction between ADCYAP1 allele size and wing pointedness on the response of spring <span class="hlt">arrival</span>: greater allele size had a positive effect on spring <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date for females with rounder wings, while a negative effect was apparent for females with more pointed wings. Also, female heterozygotes with pointed wing tips <span class="hlt">arrived</span> significantly earlier than both homozygotes with pointed wings and heterozygotes with round wings. Stable isotope ratios (δ2H) of a subset of blackcaps captured in Freiburg in 2011 allowed us also to assign individuals to their main overwintering areas in northwest (NW) and southwest (SW) Europe. NW males <span class="hlt">arrived</span> significantly earlier to the Freiburg breeding site than both SW males and females in 2011. NW females had more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27106323','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27106323"><span id="translatedtitle">Computationally efficient method for estimation of angle of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> with non-uniform reconfigurable receiver arrays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Hua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The main focus of this paper is the design and formulation of a computationally efficient approach to the estimation of the angle of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> with non-uniform reconfigurable receiver arrays. Subsequent to demodulation and matched filtering, the main signal processing task is a double-integration operation. The simplicity of this algorithm enables the implementation of the estimation procedure with simple operational amplifier (op-amp) circuits for real-<span class="hlt">time</span> realization. This technique does not require uniform and structured array configurations, and is most effective for the estimation of angle of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> with dynamically reconfigurable receiver arrays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690697"><span id="translatedtitle">Tomographic lifetime imaging using combined early- and late-<span class="hlt">arriving</span> photons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Steven S; Rice, William L; Bacskai, Brian J; Kumar, Anand T N</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We present a novel, hybrid approach for <span class="hlt">time</span> domain fluorescence tomography that efficiently combines lifetime multiplexing using late-<span class="hlt">arriving</span> or asymptotic photons, with the high spatial resolution capability of early photon tomography. We also show that a decay amplitude-based asymptotic approach is superior to direct inversion of late-<span class="hlt">arriving</span> photons for tomographic lifetime imaging within turbid media. The hybrid reconstruction approach is experimentally shown to recover fluorescent inclusions separated as close as 1.4 mm, with improved resolution and reduced cross talk compared to just using early photons or the asymptotic approach alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24796876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24796876"><span id="translatedtitle">Marrying after <span class="hlt">arriving</span>: The role of individuals' networks for immigrant choice of partner's origin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>del Rey Poveda, Alberto; Vono de Vilhena, Daniela</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the impact of social networks on the transition to marriage among recently <span class="hlt">arrived</span>, single, immigrants in Spain. Our hypothesis states that the existence of individual networks at the moment of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> strongly influences partner selection. Using the 2007 Spanish National Immigration Survey we apply competing risk models to estimate the likelihood of endogamous or exogamous marriage, for men and women separately. The analysis shows that among immigrant men and women, the presence of relatives or friends from their home-country at the <span class="hlt">time</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> increases the probability of marriage to a co-national. Correspondingly, immigrants who obtained Spanish citizenship before migrating present higher chances of intermarriage, as they are likely to have more contact with the host society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900012456','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900012456"><span id="translatedtitle">A conflict analysis of 4D descent strategies in a metered, multiple-<span class="hlt">arrival</span> route environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Izumi, K. H.; Harris, C. S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A conflict analysis was performed on multiple <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic at a typical metered airport. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to simulate <span class="hlt">arrival</span> operations using Denver Stapleton's <span class="hlt">arrival</span> route structure. Sensitivities of conflict performance to three different 4-D descent strategies (clear-idle Mach/Constant AirSpeed (CAS), constant descent angle Mach/CAS and energy optimal) were examined for three traffic mixes represented by those found at Denver Stapleton, John F. Kennedy and typical en route metering (ERM) airports. The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate simulation entry point <span class="hlt">times</span>. Analysis results indicate that the clean-idle descent strategy offers the best compromise in overall performance. Performance measures primarily include susceptibility to conflict and conflict severity. Fuel usage performance is extrapolated from previous descent strategy studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206772','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19206772"><span id="translatedtitle">The structure of raylike <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in a shallow-water waveguide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roux, Philippe; Cornuelle, Bruce D; Kuperman, W A; Hodgkiss, W S</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Acoustic remote sensing of the oceans requires a detailed understanding of the acoustic forward problem. The results of a shallow-water transmission experiment between a vertical array of sources and a vertical array of receivers are reported. The source array is used to provide additional degrees of freedom to isolate and track raylike <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> by beamforming over both source and receiver arrays. The coordinated source-receiver array processing procedure is presented and its effectiveness in an example of tracking raylike <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> in a fluctuating ocean environment is shown. Many of these <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> can be tracked over an hour or more and show slowly varying amplitude and phase. The use of a double-beamforming algorithm lays the foundation for shallow-water acoustic remote sensing using travel <span class="hlt">time</span> and source and receive angles of selected eigenrays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023950','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920023950"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of delay reducing and fuel saving sequencing and spacing algorithms for <span class="hlt">arrival</span> traffic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Neuman, Frank; Erzberger, Heinz</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The air traffic control subsystem that performs sequencing and spacing is discussed. The function of the sequencing and spacing algorithms is to automatically plan the most efficient landing order and to assign optimally spaced landing <span class="hlt">times</span> to all <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>. Several algorithms are described and their statistical performance is examined. Sequencing brings order to an <span class="hlt">arrival</span> sequence for aircraft. First-come-first-served sequencing (FCFS) establishes a fair order, based on estimated <span class="hlt">times</span> of <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, and determines proper separations. Because of the randomness of the <span class="hlt">arriving</span> traffic, gaps will remain in the sequence of aircraft. Delays are reduced by <span class="hlt">time</span>-advancing the leading aircraft of each group while still preserving the FCFS order. Tightly spaced groups of aircraft remain with a mix of heavy and large aircraft. Spacing requirements differ for different types of aircraft trailing each other. Traffic is reordered slightly to take advantage of this spacing criterion, thus shortening the groups and reducing average delays. For heavy traffic, delays for different traffic samples vary widely, even when the same set of statistical parameters is used to produce each sample. This report supersedes NASA TM-102795 on the same subject. It includes a new method of <span class="hlt">time</span>-advance as well as an efficient method of sequencing and spacing for two dependent runways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S53C..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S53C..06B"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelet-based automatic determination of the P- and S-wave <span class="hlt">arrivals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogiatzis, P.; Ishii, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The detection of P- and S-wave <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> is important for a variety of seismological applications including earthquake detection and characterization, and seismic tomography problems such as imaging of hydrocarbon reservoirs. For many years, dedicated human-analysts manually selected the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> of P and S waves. However, with the rapid expansion of seismic instrumentation, automatic techniques that can process a large number of seismic traces are becoming essential in tomographic applications, and for earthquake early-warning systems. In this work, we present a pair of algorithms for efficient picking of P and S onset <span class="hlt">times</span>. The algorithms are based on the continuous wavelet transform of the seismic waveform that allows examination of a signal in both <span class="hlt">time</span> and frequency domains. Unlike Fourier transform, the basis functions are localized in <span class="hlt">time</span> and frequency, therefore, wavelet decomposition is suitable for analysis of non-stationary signals. For detecting the P-wave <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, the wavelet coefficients are calculated using the vertical component of the seismogram, and the onset <span class="hlt">time</span> of the wave is identified. In the case of the S-wave <span class="hlt">arrival</span>, we take advantage of the polarization of the shear waves, and cross-examine the wavelet coefficients from the two horizontal components. In addition to the onset <span class="hlt">times</span>, the automatic picking program provides estimates of uncertainty, which are important for subsequent applications. The algorithms are tested with synthetic data that are generated to include sudden changes in amplitude, frequency, and phase. The performance of the wavelet approach is further evaluated using real data by comparing the automatic picks with manual picks. Our results suggest that the proposed algorithms provide robust measurements that are comparable to manual picks for both P- and S-wave <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ288694','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=organic+AND+carbon&pg=5&id=EJ288694"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Gimmick for Assigning <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Configuration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ayorinde, F. O.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment <span class="hlt">absolute</span> configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=husserl&pg=3&id=EJ118696','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=husserl&pg=3&id=EJ118696"><span id="translatedtitle">The Simplicity Argument and <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Morality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mijuskovic, Ben</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> system of morality. (Author/RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3501N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3501N"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting Wave Amplitudes after the <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> of a Tsunami</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nyland, David; Huang, Paul</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The destructive Pacific Ocean tsunami generated off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 prompted the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) to issue a tsunami warning and advisory for the coastal regions of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. Estimating the length of <span class="hlt">time</span> the warning or advisory would remain in effect proved difficult. To address this problem, the WCATWC developed a technique to estimate the amplitude decay of a tsunami recorded at tide stations within the Warning Center's Area of Responsibly (AOR). At many sites along the West Coast of North America, the tsunami wave amplitudes will decay exponentially following the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> of the maximum wave ( Mofjeld et al., Nat Hazards 22:71-89, 2000). To estimate the <span class="hlt">time</span> it will take before wave amplitudes drop to safe levels, the real-<span class="hlt">time</span> tide gauge data are filtered to remove the effects of tidal variations. The analytic envelope is computed and a 2 h sequence of amplitude values following the tsunami peak is used to obtain a least squares fit to an exponential function. This yields a decay curve which is then combined with an average West Coast decay function to provide an initial tsunami amplitude-duration forecast. This information may then be provided to emergency managers to assist with response planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150019868&hterms=Empirical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DEmpirical','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150019868&hterms=Empirical&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DEmpirical"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing the Empirical Shock <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Model Using Quadrature Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The empirical shock <span class="hlt">arrival</span> (ESA) model was developed based on quadrature data from Helios (in situ) and P-78 (remote sensing) to predict the Sun-Earth travel <span class="hlt">time</span> of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The ESA model requires earthward CME speed as input, which is not directly measurable from coronagraphs along the Sun-Earth line. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) were in quadrature during 20102012, so the speeds of Earth-directed CMEs were observed with minimal projection effects. We identified a set of 20 full halo CMEs in the field of view of SOHO that were also observed in quadrature by STEREO. We used the earthward speed from STEREO measurements as input to the ESA model and compared the resulting travel <span class="hlt">times</span> with the observed ones from L1 monitors. We find that the model predicts the CME travel <span class="hlt">time</span> within about 7.3 h, which is similar to the predictions by the ENLIL model. We also find that CME-CME and CME-coronal hole interaction can lead to large deviations from model predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ESASP.464..355T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ESASP.464..355T"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> alignment of GONG images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toner, C. G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>In order to combine data from the six instruments in the GONG network the alignment of all of the images must be known to a fairly high precision (~0°.1 for GONG Classic and ~0°.01 for GONG+). The relative orientation is obtained using the angular cross-correlation method described by (Toner & Harvey, 1998). To obtain the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> orientation the Project periodically records a day of drift scans, where the image of the Sun is allowed to drift across the CCD repeatedly throughout the day. These data are then analyzed to deduce the direction of Terrestrial East-West as a function of hour angle (i.e., <span class="hlt">time</span>) for that instrument. The transit of Mercury on Nov. 15, 1999, which was recorded by three of the GONG instruments, provided an independent check on the current alignment procedures. Here we present a comparison of the alignment of GONG images as deduced from both drift scans and the Mercury transit for two GONG sites: Tucson (GONG+ camera) and Mauna Loa (GONG Classic camera). The agreement is within ~0°.01 for both cameras, however, the scatter is substantially larger for GONG Classic: ~0°.03 compared to ~0°.01 for GONG+.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066712"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot, and at day 40 after <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the feedlot and from <span class="hlt">arrival</span> to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over <span class="hlt">time</span>. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960881','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3960881"><span id="translatedtitle">A Deeper Statistical Examination of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> Dates of Migratory Breeding Birds in Relation to Global Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wilson, W. Herbert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Using an 18-year dataset of <span class="hlt">arrival</span> dates of 65 species of Maine migratory breeding birds, I take a deeper view of the data to ask questions about the shapes of the distribution. For each year, most species show a consistent right-skewed pattern of distribution, suggesting that selection is stronger against individuals that <span class="hlt">arrive</span> too early compared to those that <span class="hlt">arrive</span> later. Distributions are consistently leptokurtic, indicating a narrow window of optimal <span class="hlt">arrival</span> dates. Species that <span class="hlt">arrive</span> earlier in the spring show higher skewness and kurtosis values. Nectarivorous species showed more pronounced skewness. Wintering area did not explain patterns of skewness or kurtosis. Deviations from average temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation index explained little variation in skewness and kurtosis. When <span class="hlt">arrival</span> date distributions are broken down into different medians (e.g., 5% median and 75% median), stronger correlations emerge for portions of the distribution that are adjacent, suggesting species fine-tune the progress of their migration. Interspecific correlations for birds <span class="hlt">arriving</span> around the same <span class="hlt">time</span> are stronger for earliest migrants (the 25% median) compared to the true median and the 75% median. PMID:24832806</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066712','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27066712"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot, and at day 40 after <span class="hlt">arrival</span>. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at the feedlot and from <span class="hlt">arrival</span> to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over <span class="hlt">time</span>. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at a feedlot. PMID:27066712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119....1Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119....1Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Shock Propagation Model version 2 and its application in predicting the <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> at Earth of interplanetary shocks during Solar Cycle 23</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, X. H.; Feng, X. S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Shock Propagation Model (SPM) based on an analytic solution of blast waves has been proposed to predict shock <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> at Earth. Here to reduce the limitations of the SPM theoretical model in real applications and optimize its input parameters, a new version (called SPM2) is presented in order to enhance prediction performance. First, an empirical relationship is established to adjust the initial shock speed, which, as computed from the Type II burst drift rate, often contains observational uncertainties. Second, an additional acceleration/deceleration relation is added to the model to eliminate inherent prediction bias. Third, the propagation direction is derived in order to mitigate the isotropy limitation of blast wave theory in real predictions. Finally, an equivalent shock strength index at the Earth's location to judge whether or not an interplanetary shock will encounter the Earth is implemented in SPM2. The prediction results of SPM2 for 551 solar disturbance events of Solar Cycle 23 demonstrate that the success rate of SPM2 for both shock (W-shock) and nonshock (W/O-shock) events at Earth is ˜ 60%. The prediction error for the W-shock events is less than 12 h (root-mean-square) and 10 h (mean-<span class="hlt">absolute</span>). Comparisons between the predicted results of SPM2 and those of Shock <span class="hlt">Time</span> of <span class="hlt">Arrival</span> (STOA), Interplanetary Shock Propagation (ISPM), and Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2) based on similar data samples reveal that the SPM2 model offers generally equivalent prediction accuracy and reliability compared to the existing Fearless Forecast models (STOA, ISPM, and HAFv.2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007815','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007815"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept of Operations for Interval Management <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> and Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) after 2020. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> terminal area, in a terminal environment that includes other <span class="hlt">arrival</span> management tools such as <span class="hlt">arrival</span> metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic Controllers and Flight Crews and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the primary operation and variations are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH53A2143M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH53A2143M"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-<span class="hlt">time</span> Ensemble Forecasting of Coronal Mass Ejections using the WSA-ENLIL+Cone Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Odstrcil, D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ensemble forecasting of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) provides significant information in that it provides an estimation of the spread or uncertainty in CME <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> predictions due to uncertainties in determining CME input parameters. Ensemble modeling of CME propagation in the heliosphere is performed by forecasters at the Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) using the WSA-ENLIL cone model available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). SWRC is an in-house research-based operations team at the CCMC which provides interplanetary space weather forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and performs real-<span class="hlt">time</span> model validation. A distribution of n (routinely n=48) CME input parameters are generated using the CCMC Stereo CME Analysis Tool (StereoCAT) which employs geometrical triangulation techniques. These input parameters are used to perform n different simulations yielding an ensemble of solar wind parameters at various locations of interest (satellites or planets), including a probability distribution of CME shock <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">times</span> (for hits), and geomagnetic storm strength (for Earth-directed hits). Ensemble simulations have been performed experimentally in real-<span class="hlt">time</span> at the CCMC since January 2013. We present the results of ensemble simulations for a total of 15 CME events, 10 of which were performed in real-<span class="hlt">time</span>. The observed CME <span class="hlt">arrival</span> was within the range of ensemble <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> predictions for 5 out of the 12 ensemble runs containing hits. The average <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> prediction was computed for each of the twelve ensembles predicting hits and using the actual <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> an average <span class="hlt">absolute</span> error of 8.20 hours was found for all twelve ensembles, which is comparable to current forecasting errors. Some considerations for the accuracy of ensemble CME <span class="hlt">arrival</span> <span class="hlt">time</span> predictions include the importance of the initial distribution of CME input parameters, particularly the mean and spread. When the observed <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> are not within the predicted range, this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HVAC&pg=5&id=EJ282612','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=HVAC&pg=5&id=EJ282612"><span id="translatedtitle">What to Do until the Microprocesser <span class="hlt">Arrives</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barzilla, Frank</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Advises administrators how to develop an energy master plan and how to reduce the usage of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems by means of a <span class="hlt">time</span> clock, thermostat, and a scheduled preventive maintenance program. (MLF)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940024091&hterms=beers+law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dbeers%2Blaw','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940024091&hterms=beers+law&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dbeers%2Blaw"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few <span class="hlt">times</span> 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition <span class="hlt">time</span> of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19831037"><span id="translatedtitle">Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Jasminum flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span> from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine <span class="hlt">absolutes</span> from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8s7hH-vcxbo','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8s7hH-vcxbo"><span id="translatedtitle">President Obama and Family <span class="hlt">Arrive</span> at Kennedy Space Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>President Obama, accompanied by First Lady Michelle Obama and their two daughters, <span class="hlt">arrive</span> aboard Air Force One at the Cape Canaveral AFS near NASA’s Kennedy Space Center at approximately 2 p.m. E...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOnTnaX59xA','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOnTnaX59xA"><span id="translatedtitle">Countdown to Exploration Flight Test 1: The <span class="hlt">Arrival</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As NASA counts down to the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) of Orion in 2014, the spacecraft that will fly that mission has <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at the launch site in Florida. Take a look inside the Operations...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVbb5D8UUi0','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVbb5D8UUi0"><span id="translatedtitle">Webb Telescope Backplane <span class="hlt">Arrives</span> at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Webb Telescope's Backplane <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at Joint Base Andrews on Monday, August 24, 2015 aboard a U.S. Air Force C-5 cargo plane. The Backplane, inside the Space Telescope Transporter for Air Road and S...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160007720"><span id="translatedtitle">Concept of Operations for Interval Management <span class="hlt">Arrivals</span> and Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hicok, Daniel S.; Barmore, Bryan E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents the concept of operations for interval management operations to be deployed in the US National Airspace System (NAS) by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Interval Management Program. The <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> and approach operations are explored in detail including the primary operation and variations. The use of interval management operations is described that begin in en route airspace and continue to a termination point inside the <span class="hlt">arrival</span> terminal area in the highly automated terminal environment that includes other <span class="hlt">arrival</span> management tools such as <span class="hlt">arrival</span> metering, Ground-based Interval Management - Spacing (GIM-S), and Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSAS). The roles of Air Traffic and Pilots and the ground automation tools that are used by Air Traffic Controllers to enable the operations are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=S66-18607&hterms=neil+armstrong&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dneil%2Barmstrong','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=S66-18607&hterms=neil+armstrong&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dneil%2Barmstrong"><span id="translatedtitle">Astronauts Armstrong and Scott <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at Hickam Field, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (center), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, <span class="hlt">arrive</span> at Hickam Field, Hawaii on their way from Naha, Okinawa, to Cape Kennedy, Florida. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. is at extreme left.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-97PC-1074&hterms=1074&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-97PC-1074&hterms=1074&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231074"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-85 Commander Curtis Brown <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at SLF for TCDT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>STS-85 Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr., <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at the Shuttle Landing Facility for his mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The liftoff of STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-97PC-1075&hterms=1075&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231075','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-97PC-1075&hterms=1075&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231075"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-85 Pilot Kent Rominger <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at SLF for TCDT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>STS-85 Pilot Kent V. Rominger <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at the Shuttle Landing Facility for his mission's Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The liftoff of STS-85 is targeted for August 7, 1997.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0472&hterms=children+photo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dchildren%2Bphoto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0472&hterms=children+photo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dchildren%2Bphoto"><span id="translatedtitle">STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk <span class="hlt">arrives</span> at KSC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., tosses mission hats to his two children shortly after <span class="hlt">arrival</span> at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. The crew of STS-90 <span class="hlt">arrived</span> at KSC in preparation for their mission, scheduled for launch from KSC's Launch Pad 39B on April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The flight of Neurolab is scheduled to last nearly 17 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ufm..conf..509K"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> and Modern Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kostro, Ludwik</p> <p></p> <p>The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal <span class="hlt">Absolute</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G51B0368C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.G51B0368C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic <span class="hlt">absolute</span> meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this <span class="hlt">time</span>, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple <span class="hlt">absolute</span> gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5973740','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5973740"><span id="translatedtitle">Can we image complex structures with first-<span class="hlt">arrival</span> traveltime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Geoltrain, S.; Brac, J. . PSI Research Consortium)</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The authors experienced difficulties when attempting to perform seismic imaging in complex velocity fields using prestack Kirchhoff depth migration in conjunction with traveltimes computed by finite-differencing the eikonal equation. The problem arose not because of intrinsic limitations of kirchhoff migration, but rather from the failure of finite-differencing to compute traveltimes representative of the energetic part of the wavefield. Further analysis showed that the first <span class="hlt">arrival</span> is most often associated with a marginally energetic event wherever subsequent <span class="hlt">arrivals</span> exist. The consequence is that energetic seismic events are imaged with a kinematically incorrect operator and turn out mispositioned at depth. They therefore recommend that first-<span class="hlt">arrival</span> traveltime fields, such as those computed by finite-differencing the eikonal equation, be used in Kirchhoff migration only with great care when the velocity field hosts multiple transmitted <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>; such a situation is typically met where geological structure creates strong and localized velocity hetero-geneities, which partition the incident and reflected wavefields into multiple <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>; in such an instance, imaging cannot be strictly considered a kinematic process, as it must be performed with explicit reference to the relative amplitudes of multiple <span class="hlt">arrivals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92f2125A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92f2125A"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum theory allows for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> maximal contextuality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-<span class="hlt">absolute</span>-maximal contextuality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6063303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration in vivo measurement systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24117660"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative standards for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> linguistic universals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> linguistic universals are often justified by cross-linguistic analysis: If all observed languages exhibit a property, the property is taken to be a likely universal, perhaps specified in the cognitive or linguistic systems of language learners and users. In many cases, these patterns are then taken to motivate linguistic theory. Here, we show that cross-linguistic analysis will very rarely be able to statistically justify <span class="hlt">absolute</span>, inviolable patterns in language. We formalize two statistical methods--frequentist and Bayesian--and show that in both it is possible to find strict linguistic universals, but that the numbers of independent languages necessary to do so is generally unachievable. This suggests that methods other than typological statistics are necessary to establish <span class="hlt">absolute</span> properties of human language, and thus that many of the purported universals in linguistics have not received sufficient empirical justification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24322224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24322224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Absolute</span> photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for <span class="hlt">absolute</span> temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/371207"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular iodine <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequencies. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sansonetti, C.J.</p> <p>1990-06-25</p> <p>Fifty specified lines of {sup 127}I{sub 2} were studied by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy. For each line the classification of the molecular transition was determined, hyperfine components were identified, and one well-resolved component was selected for precise determination of its <span class="hlt">absolute</span> frequency. In 3 cases, a nearby alternate line was selected for measurement because no well-resolved component was found for the specified line. <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> frequency determinations were made with an estimated uncertainty of 1.1 MHz by locking a dye laser to the selected hyperfine component and measuring its wave number with a high-precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. For each line results of the <span class="hlt">absolute</span> measurement, the line classification, and a Doppler-free spectrum are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001056','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140001056"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regional Temperature Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shindell, D. T.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the <span class="hlt">time</span>-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012063"><span id="translatedtitle">Orion <span class="hlt">Absolute</span> Navigation System Progress and Challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">absolute</span> navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a <span class="hlt">timely</span> and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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