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Sample records for absolute body fat

  1. A Physical Model for Estimating Body Fat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    U.&. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natimnl Technical InWsrmatlg. Su,~ic AD-A034 111 A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATING BODY FAT SCHOOL OF AEROSPACE MEDICINE...PERIOD COVEREO A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR ESTIMATING BODY FAT Interim May 1972-May 1976 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) -. CONTRACT OR...human subjects. The fat mass of seven body compartments is estimated and summed to obtain an esti- mate of the total body fat . Measurements were made

  2. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  3. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  4. Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    A268 695 DTIC ELECTE AUG 3 0 1993 dI I Public . MILITARY MEDICINE, 158, 1:026, 1993 A Predicting Percent Body Fat from Circumference Measurements LT...are required to meet percent Introduction body fat (%BF) standards as a condition of military service. Naval personnel who exceed standards for %BF...or 31-35.9% body fat (%BF), and with 22%BF or greater and women with 30%BF or greater. Val- obese as 26 or 36%BF or greater for men and women, respec

  5. Whole body fat: content and distribution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Fitzpatrick, J A; Malik, S J; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Bell, J D

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and its co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases, have become one of the biggest health issues of present times. The impact of obesity goes well beyond the individual and is so far-reaching that, if it continues unabated, it will cause havoc with the economies of most countries. In order to be able to fully understand the relationship between increased adiposity (obesity) and its co-morbidity, it has been necessary to develop proper methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution, including ectopic fat depots. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as the gold-standard for accomplishing this task. Here, we will review the use of different MRI techniques currently being used to determine body fat content and distribution. We also discuss the pros and cons of MRS to determine ectopic fat depots in liver, muscle, pancreas and heart and compare these to emerging MRI techniques currently being put forward to create ectopic fat maps. Finally, we will discuss how MRI/MRS techniques are helping in changing the perception of what is healthy and what is normal and desirable body-fat content and distribution.

  6. Creatine monohydrate supplementation on body weight and percent body fat.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Matthew R; Gunter, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Seventeen active males (age 22.9 +/- 4.9 year) participated in a study to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on total body weight (TBW), percent body fat, body water content, and caloric intake. The TBW was measured in kilograms, percent body fat by hydrostatic weighing, body water content via bioelectrical impedance, and caloric intake by daily food log. Subjects were paired and assigned to a creatine or placebo group with a double-blind research design. Supplementation was given for 4 weeks (30 g a day for the initial 2 weeks and 15 g a day for the final 2 weeks). Subjects reported 2 days a week for supervised strength training of the lower extremity. Significant increases before and after the study were found in TBW (90.42 +/- 14.74 to 92.12 +/- 15.19 kg) and body water content (53.77 +/- 1.75 to 57.15 +/- 2.01 L) for the creatine group (p = 0.05). No significant changes were found in percent body fat or daily caloric intake in the creatine group. No significant changes were noted for the placebo group. These findings support previous research that creatine supplementation increases TBW. Mean percent body fat and caloric intake was not affected by creatine supplementation. Therefore weight gain in lieu of creatine supplementation may in part be due to water retention.

  7. GENESIS OF MITOCHONDRIA IN INSECT FAT BODY

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electron microscopy and stereological methods have been used to study the time course and mechanism of mitochondrial genesis in the adult fat body of Calpodes ethlius, (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). Most of the larval mitochondria are destroyed during a phase of autolysis shortly before pupation, so that pupal and early adult fat body cells have few mitochondria. The number of mitochondria per cell increases rapidly at the end of the 1st day after the adult emerges. Characteristic partitioned mitochondria appear during the period when the number is rapidly increasing. This evidence, coupled with the results of morphometric analyses of mitochondrial diameter, volume, and surface area, confirms the view that the genesis of adult mitochondria involves the growth and division of mitochondria surviving from the larva. PMID:19866737

  8. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  9. Prediction of Percent Body Fat for U.S. Navy Women from Body Circumferences and Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY WOMEN FROII BODY CIRCUMFERENCES AND HEIGHT James A. Hodgdon Marcie B. Beckett Naval Health Research Center...22, including those having body fat above the 301 Navy body fat standard. It was decided to develop an alternative equation. o Factor analysis of the...is reconinended that this new equation be adopte’d for the determination of 1BF for female Navy personnel. -.. PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S

  10. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  11. The Relationship between Farming Activities, Physical Fitness and Body Fat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Military training, *Military personnel, *Research management, *Physical fitness, *Measurement, National Guard, Statistical analysis, Mean, Fat cells, Human body , Questionnaires, Field tests, Test methods, Variables, Scoring

  12. Fat body of the frog Rana esculenta: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Zancanaro, C; Merigo, F; Digito, M; Pelosi, G

    1996-03-01

    In the frog, the fat body is the largest body lipid deposit and is associated with the gonad. The aim of the present work was to investigate the fine structure of the fat body at different periods of the annual cycle and during prolonged starvation. Results indicate that fat body cells of Rana esculenta caught in autumn and after winter hibernation resemble mammalian adipocytes of white adipose tissue and contain markers of adipose tissue, such as S-100 protein and lipoproteinlipase. However, unlike mammalian adipocytes, fat body adipocytes consistently show small lipid droplets associated with their single, large lipid deposits, a lack of a definite external lamina, and the presence of cellular prolongations and spicula at their surfaces. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy in association with lanthanum tracer experiments suggest that in fat body adipocytes a vesicular-tubular system connects the cytoplasm and the interstitial space. In June (i.e., during the reproductive period), fat body adipocytes appear to have lost much of their lipid deposit and adjacent adipocytes show interdigitation of their plasma membranes and prominent Golgi complexes. In starved frogs, fat body cells can be almost devoid of lipid and in regression to a near-mesenchymal state. Nevertheless, these fat bodies still contain lipoproteinlipase activity (approximately 45% of that found in lipid-filled ones), indicating persistent adipose differentiation of the cells therein. Results presented here show that the R. esculenta fat body is an adipose organ undergoing reversible extreme changes in adipocyte fat content, which are associated with definite ultrastructural features. The fat body represents a suitable model for studying adipose tissue under different and extreme physiological conditions.

  13. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  14. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Pulit, Sara L; Karaderi, Tugce; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2017-02-28

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment.

  15. Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Pulit, Sara L.; Karaderi, Tugce

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality and is a risk factor for a number of other diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obesity confers an enormous, costly burden on both individuals and public health more broadly. Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. Body fat distribution is distinct from overall obesity in measurement, but studies of body fat distribution can yield insights into the risk factors for and causes of overall obesity. Sexual dimorphism in body fat distribution is present throughout life. Though sexual dimorphism is subtle in early stages of life, it is attenuated in puberty and during menopause. This phenomenon could be, at least in part, due to the influence of sex hormones on the trait. Findings from recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for various measures of body fat distribution (including waist-to-hip ratio, hip or waist circumference, trunk fat percentage and the ratio of android and gynoid fat percentage) emphasize the strong sexual dimorphism in the genetic regulation of fat distribution traits. Importantly, sexual dimorphism is not observed for overall obesity (as assessed by body mass index or total fat percentage). Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. Research that specifically focuses on sexual dimorphism in fat distribution can provide novel insights into human physiology and into the development of obesity and its comorbidities, as well as yield biological clues that will aid in the improvement of disease prevention and treatment. PMID:28073971

  16. Relationship Between Body Fatness and Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Larry D.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between physical performance tests and body fatness in young children, and the extent to which differences in performance between the sexes could be explained by differences in body fatness. Measurements of age, height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and performance scores on the vertical jump, standing…

  17. The Influence of Increased Body Fat or Lean Body Mass on Aerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Maciejczyk, Marcin; Więcek, Magdalena; Szymura, Jadwiga; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Wiecha, Szczepan; Cempla, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine aerobic performance in men with an increased body mass due to (a) high body fat (>21.5%) but with a average (59.0–64.3 kg) lean body mass (HBF group) and (b) high lean body mass (>66.3 kg), but with average body fat (14.0–18.5%) (HLBM group). Methods The men in the HBF and HLBM had similar absolute body mass and body mass index (BMI). The aerobic performance was also determined in control group. Methods: Study participants comprised 39 men aged 21.3±1.9 years who did not participate in competitive sports but were recreationally physically active. Participants were divided into three groups. Each group comprised 13 persons. The study involved anthropometric measurements, assessing aerobic performance (VO2max) using an incremental test on a mechanical treadmill. VO2max was expressed in absolute values, relative to body mass (VO2max⋅BM−1), relative to lean body mass (VO2max⋅LBM−1), and relative to BM raised by the exponents of 0.75 and 0.67. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in relative values of VO2max were found between the HBF and HLBM groups, in VO2max⋅BM−1 (50.24±4.56 vs. 53.11±5.45 mL⋅kg−1), VO2max⋅LBM−1 (65.33±5.63 vs. 63.86±7.13 mL⋅kgLBM−1), and VO2max⋅BM−0.75 (150.29±13.5 vs. 160.39±16.15 mL⋅kg−0.75). Values of VO2max⋅BM−1 were significantly lower in the HBF and HLBM groups than in the control group (58.23±5.84 mL⋅kg−1). Conclusion High body mass, regardless of the cause decreases VO2max⋅BM−1. PMID:24752377

  18. Genetics of fat intake in the determination of body mass.

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Mlodzik, Monika A

    2017-03-15

    Body mass and fat intake are multifactorial traits that have genetic and environmental components. The gene with the greatest effect on body mass is FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated), but several studies have shown that the effect of FTO (and of other genes) on body mass can be modified by the intake of nutrients. The so-called gene-environment interactions may also be important for the effectiveness of weight-loss strategies. Food choices, and thus fat intake, depend to some extent on individual preferences. The most important biological component of food preference is taste, and the role of fat sensitivity in fat intake has recently been pointed out. Relatively few studies have analysed the genetic components of fat intake or fatty acid sensitivity in terms of their relation to obesity. It has been proposed that decreased oral fatty acid sensitivity leads to increased fat intake and thus increased body mass. One of the genes that affect fatty acid sensitivity is CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36). However, little is known so far about the genetic component of fat sensing. We performed a literature review to identify the state of knowledge regarding the genetics of fat intake and its relation to body-mass determination, and to identify the priorities for further investigations.

  19. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  20. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  1. Pulse pressure amplification in relation to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Krauze, Tomasz; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Marciniak, Ryszard; Wysocki, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Arterial pressure transfer to the periphery is accompanied by pulse pressure amplification (PPA). Pulse pressure is influence by body fat. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate any possible inter-relation between body fatness and PPA in healthy subjects. METHODS Haemodynamic and wave reflection indices were estimated by pulse wave analysis. Body fat was measured by bio-impedance. RESULTS A total of 367 healthy volunteers (136 men and 231 women) was studied. Pulse pressure amplification correlated significantly with percentage of body fat (r = −0.53, P < 0.0001), age (r = −0.62, P < 0.0001), height (r = 0.43, P < 0.0001), heart rate (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure (r = −0.29, P < 0.0001). The association of PPA with body fat was also significant in a multiple linear regression model. Age was an independent predictor of PPA and analysis of study subjects subdivided into two groups, those <50 years and those >50 years showed that body fatness correlated inversely and significantly with PPA in individuals both younger and older than 50 years (r = −0.44, P < 0.0001, r = −0.37, P < 0.0001 respectively). Augmentation pressure was also associated significantly with percentage of body fat in both subgroups (r = 0.48, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study performed on healthy subjects showed that pulse pressure amplification is related to body fatness over a wide age range. Percentage body fat is significantly associated with augmentation pressure, a component of central pulse pressure. PMID:22008022

  2. Fat body remodeling and homeostasis control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huimei; Yang, Xiaohang; Xi, Yongmei

    2016-12-15

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of the Drosophila fat body and its functions in energy storage, immune response and nutrient sensing. The fat body interplays with other tissues to respond to the physiological needs of the body's growth and coordinates various metabolic processes at different developmental stages and under different environmental conditions. The identification of various conserved genetic functions and signaling pathways relating to the Drosophila fat body may provide clues to lipometabolic disease and other aspects of tissue remodeling in humans. Here, we discuss recent insights into how regulation of fat body remodeling contributes to hemostasis with a special focus on how signaling networks and internal physiological states shape different aspects of the lipid metabolism in Drosophila.

  3. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repeatability for the BIA method was established from duplicate measurements. Body composition was then determined by BIA in 1139 girls and 1243 boys aged 7-16 years, who were randomly sampled in eight local primary and secondary schools to establish reference ranges.
RESULTS—The 95% limits of agreement between BIA and DXA methods were considered acceptable (−3.3 kg to −0.5 kg fat mass and −3.9 to 0.6% body fat). The percentage body fat increased with increasing age. Compared to the 1993 Hong Kong growth survey, these children had higher body mass index. Mean (SD) percentage body fat at 7years of age was 17.2% (4.4%) and 14.0% (3.4%) respectively for boys and girls, which increased to 19.3% (4.8%) and 27.8% (6.3%) at age 16.
CONCLUSION—Leg to leg BIA is a valid alternative method to DXA for the measurement of body fat. Provisional reference ranges for percentage body fat for Hong Kong Chinese children aged 7-16 years are provided.

 PMID:11517118

  4. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  5. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Mohr, Harald M

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16) the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body) while in the second experiment (n = 16) we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  6. What Do Fats Do in the Body?

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical reactions that help control growth, immune function, reproduction and other aspects of basic metabolism. The cycle of making, breaking, storing and mobilizing fats is at the core of how humans and all animals regulate their energy. An imbalance in any step ...

  7. Determination of Percent Body Fat Using 3D Whole Body Laser Scanning: A Preliminary Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    circumferences, 3D whole body laser scans and DEXA scans were performed on fifty-one men and women age 18-62. Mean percent body fat was not statistically...3D whole body laser scan , and DEXA scan to measure individuals during a one hour measurement session. 1 Report Documentation Page Form...underwent a 6 minute whole body DEXA scan using a GE Lunar Prodigy DEXA scanner running software version 7.53. Percent body fat was calculated from the

  8. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  9. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  10. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  11. Effect of body composition methodology on estimates of fat mass heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Body fatness is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have produced a wide range of estimates for the heritability of body fatness, ranging from 0.34-0.90 for body mass index (BMI), 0.59-0.83 for percent body fat, and 0.45-0.71 for fat mass. Little atte...

  12. Tracking of weight status and body fatness in Italian children.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Di Michele, Rocco

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of weight disorders among school-aged children is an increasing phenomenon and it is of great importance to identify the characteristics of individuals at risk of gaining or retaining weight. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of weight disorders and their tracking over a 3-year period in a sample of Italian children. Body mass, body height and selected skinfold thicknesses were assessed in 355 children at the age of 7 and 10 years. Tracking of body mass index (BMI), inverted BMI (iBMI) and skinfold-based body fat were analyzed and the relationships between changes in BMI and body fat were examined. Children presenting with overweight or obesity at 7 years old showed a trend toward lower weight categories at 10 years old. Conversely, a trend to become overweight was observed among normal weight boys, and a trend to become underweight was observed among normal weight girls. BMI, iBMI and body fat showed good levels of tracking, with high correlations between measurements performed at 7 and 10 years of age. Furthermore, BMI and iBMI changes were correlated to body fatness changes. The present study shows the importance of carefully following children's development over time because weight disorders may appear even in previously normal weight children.

  13. The fat body of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) tadpoles during metamorphosis: changes in mass, histology, and melatonin content and effect of food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Mary L; Richardson, Shaun E; Bigos, Jill M

    2011-12-01

    The fat body of Lithobates catesbeianus (formerly Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles was studied during metamorphosis and after food deprivation in order to detect changes in its weight, adipocyte size, histology, and melatonin content. Bullfrog tadpoles have large fat bodies throughout their long larval life. Fat bodies increase in absolute weight, and weight relative to body mass, during late stages of prometamorphosis, peaking just before climax, and then decreasing, especially during the latter stages of transformation into the froglet. The climax decrease is accompanied by a reduction in size of adipocytes and a change in histology of the fat body such that interstitial tissue becomes more prominent. Food deprivation for a month during early prometamorphosis significantly decreased fat body weight and adipocyte size but did not affect the rate of development. However, food restriction just before climax retarded development, suggesting that the increased nutrient storage in the fat body before climax is necessary for metamorphic progress. Melatonin, which might be involved in the regulation of seasonal changes in fat stores, stayed approximately at the same level during most of larval life, but increased sharply in the fat body during the late stages of climax. The findings show that the rate of development of these tadpoles is not affected by starvation during larval life as long as they can utilize fat body stores for nourishment. They also suggest that the build up of fat body stores just before climax is necessary for progress during the climax period when feeding stops.

  14. Evaluation of a rotary laser body scanner for body volume and fat assessment.

    PubMed

    Pepper, M Reese; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Yu, Wurong; Stanforth, Philip R; Xu, Bugao

    2010-07-08

    This paper reports the evaluation tests on the reliability and validity of a 3-dimensional (3D) laser body scanner for estimation of body volume and % fat. Repeated measures of body imaging were performed for reproducibility analysis. Validity of the instrument was assessed by comparison of measures of body volume by imaging to hydrodensitometry, and body fat was compared to hydrodensitometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reproducibility analysis showed little difference between within-subjects measurements of volume (ICC ≥ 0.99, p < 0.01). Body volume estimations by laser body scanner and hydrodensitometry were strongly related (r = 0.99, p < 0.01), and agreement was high (ICC = 0.99, p < 0.01). Measurements of % body fat also agreed strongly with each other between methods (ICC = 0.86, p < 0.01), and mean % fat estimates by body imaging did not differ from criterion methods (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that the 3D laser body scanner is a reliable and valid technique for the estimation of body volume. Furthermore, body imaging is an accurate measure of body fat, as compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. This new instrument is promising as a quick, simple to use, and inexpensive method of body composition analysis.

  15. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  16. Prediction of Percent Body Fat for U.S. Navy Men from Body Circumferences and Height

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    AD-A143 890 (1" PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY MEN FROM BODY CIRCUMFERENCES AND JEIGHT ’•, i. A. HODGDON M.. B. BECKETI -W" RTll NO. 84...11 - N•. , 1 . V -’, ’’I ,Q NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTE•P - .AV’AL 1,iL[-i(.AL iI:- ARCh i,r.F: i[ jOFUi PREDICTION OF PERCENT BODY FAT FOR U.S. NAVY...6110.1B established percent body fat (%BF) as the basis for weight control decisions, replacing height/weight tables. Tables based upon the work of

  17. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  18. Eating regulation styles, appearance schemas, and body satisfaction predict changes in body fat for emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K; Ryan, Aubrey E; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time to investigate changes in body composition and associated psychological influences on decision making is during the emerging adulthood period. The first few years of college are a time when adolescents begin to regulate for themselves their own eating behaviors. Previous research shows that freshmen gain weight and increase in percent body fat during their first year of college. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by investigating (1) individual growth in percent body fat over a longer period of time in college than previous available research and (2) important psychological and sex differences in this growth. This study measures percent body fat across the first 3 years of college at 8 time points for 542 undergraduates (351 females, 65 %; 191 males, 35 %). Longitudinal data analysis was conducted to identify changes in percent body fat, psychological predictors of those changes, and how changes differ for males and females. Our study found that significant increases exist in percent body fat during undergraduates' college years and that change differs for males and females. In addition, through the use of nested hierarchical models, eating regulation style (autonomous or controlled regulation), appearance schema (self-evaluative salience or motivational salience), and body satisfaction were identified as influential predictors of change in percent body fat. For example, young females, who do not feel in control of their physical appearance yet spend a great deal of time maintaining their appearance, have the highest initial body fat percentage and the steepest increase in percent body fat

  19. In vivo determination of body fat by measuring total body carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kehayias, J.J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; LoMonte, A.F.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    Total body carbon (TBC) is measured in vivo by neutron inelastic scattering. The fast neutrons needed for the irradiation are produced by a miniature deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Body fat and protein are the main contributors to TBC. Bone ash and carbohydrates contribute less than 3%. Fat is calculated from TBC after the subtraction of the carbon contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. The technique was applied to 14 normal volunteers (8 females, 6 males) aged 24-94 y who underwent neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation measurements for body carbon, nitrogen, and calcium. The initial results agree with other techniques. Unlike models that evaluate body fat by subtracting lean body mass from body weight, the TBC technique is not sensitive to assumptions on the composition of lean body; therefore, it is appropriate for studies of adults of any age and health condition.

  20. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  1. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  2. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  3. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  4. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat.

  5. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  6. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  7. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    PubMed Central

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  8. Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain.

    PubMed

    Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.

  9. Body fat and fat-free mass inter-relationships: Forbes's theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical equation was developed by Forbes that quantifies the fat-free proportion of a weight change as a function of the initial body fat. However, Forbes's equation was strictly valid only for infinitesimal weight changes. Here, I extended Forbes's equation to account for the magnitude and direction of macroscopic body weight changes. The new equation was also re-expressed in terms of an alternative representation of body composition change defined by an energy partitioning parameter called the P-ratio. The predictions of the resulting equations compared favourably with data from human underfeeding and overfeeding experiments and accounted for previously unexplained trends in the data. The magnitude of the body weight change had a relatively weak effect on the predicted body composition changes and the results were very similar to Forbes's original equation for modest weight changes. However, for large weight changes, such as the massive weight losses found in patients following bariatric surgery, Forbes's original equation consistently underestimated the fat-free mass loss, as expected. The new equation that accounts for the magnitude of the weight loss provides better predictions of body composition changes in such patients.

  10. Association of body fat with inflammation in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.

  11. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yuehjen E.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone's health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector regression (SVR) techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models. PMID:24723804

  12. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  13. Effects of 2 different prior endurance exercises on whole-body fat oxidation kinetics: light vs. heavy exercise.

    PubMed

    Chenevière, Xavier; Borrani, Fabio; Droz, David; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 different prior endurance exercises on subsequent whole-body fat oxidation kinetics. Fifteen men performed 2 identical submaximal incremental tests (Incr2) on a cycle ergometer after (i) a ∼40-min submaximal incremental test (Incr1) followed by a 90-min continuous exercise performed at 50% of maximal aerobic power-output and a 1-h rest period (Heavy); and (ii) Incr1 followed by a 2.5-h rest period (Light). Fat oxidation was measured using indirect calorimetry and plotted as a function of exercise intensity during Incr1 and Incr2. A sinusoidal equation, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry and translation), was used to characterize the fat oxidation kinetics and to determine the intensity (Fat(max)) that elicited the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) during Incr. After the Heavy and Light trials, Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates were significantly greater during Incr2 than Incr1 (p < 0.001). However, Δ (i.e., Incr2-Incr1) Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates were greater in the Heavy compared with the Light trial (p < 0.05). The fat oxidation kinetics during Incr2(Heavy) showed a greater dilatation and rightward asymmetry than Incr1(Heavy), whereas only a greater dilatation was observed in Incr2(Light) (p < 0.05). This study showed that although to a lesser extent in the Light trial, both prior exercise sessions led to an increase in Fat(max), MFO, and absolute fat oxidation rates during Incr2, inducing significant changes in the shape of the fat oxidation kinetics.

  14. Splanchnic insulin metabolism in obesity. Influence of body fat distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, A N; Mueller, R A; Smith, G A; Struve, M F; Kissebah, A H

    1986-01-01

    The effects of obesity and body fat distribution on splanchnic insulin metabolism and the relationship to peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed in 6 nonobese and 16 obese premenopausal women. When compared with the nonobese women, obese women had significantly greater prehepatic production and portal vein levels of insulin both basally and following glucose stimulation. This increase correlated with the degree of adiposity but not with waist-to-hip girth ratio (WHR). WHR, however, correlated inversely with the hepatic extraction fraction and directly with the posthepatic delivery of insulin. The latter correlated with the degree of peripheral insulinemia. The decline in hepatic insulin extraction with increasing WHR also correlated with the accompanying diminution in peripheral insulin sensitivity. Increasing adiposity is thus associated with insulin hypersecretion. The pronounced hyperinsulinemia of upper body fat localization, however, is due to an additional defect in hepatic insulin extraction. This defect is closely allied with the decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity. PMID:3537010

  15. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  16. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  17. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions.

  18. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats.

  19. Premature remodeling of fat body and fat mobilization triggered by platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huimei; Wang, Xuexiang; Guo, Pengfei; Ge, Wanzhong; Yan, Qinfeng; Gao, Weiqiang; Xi, Yongmei; Yang, Xiaohang

    2017-01-26

    In Drosophila, fat body remodeling accompanied with fat mobilization is an ecdysone-induced dynamic process that only occurs during metamorphosis. Here, we show that the activated Drosophila platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor (PVR) is sufficient to induce shape changes in the fat body, from thin layers of tightly conjugated polygonal cells to clusters of disaggregated round-shaped cells. These morphologic changes are reminiscent of those seen during early pupation upon initiation of fat body remodeling. Activation of PVR also triggers an early onset of lipolysis and mobilization of internal storage as revealed by the appearance of small lipid droplets and up-regulated lipolysis-related genes. We found that PVR displays a dynamic expression pattern in the fat body and peaks at the larval-prepupal transition under the control of ecdysone signaling. Removal of PVR, although it does not prevent ecdysone-induced fat body remodeling, causes ecdysone signaling to be up-regulated. Our data reveal that PVR is active in a dual-secured mechanism that involves an ecdysone-induced fat body remodeling pathway and a reinforced PVR pathway for effective lipid mobilization. Ectopic expression of activated c-kit-the mouse homolog of PVR in the Drosophila fat body-also results in a similar phenotype. This may suggest a novel function of c-kit as it relates to lipid metabolism in mammals.-Zheng, H., Wang, X., Guo, P., Ge, W., Yan, Q., Gao, W., Xi, Y., Yang, X. Premature remodeling of fat body and fat mobilization triggered by platelet-derived growth factor/VEGF receptor in Drosophila.

  20. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  1. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  2. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  3. Standards for total body fat and fat-free mass in infants.

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, N C; van Velthoven, K A; de Ridder, M; Stijnen, T; Juttmann, R E; Degenhart, H J; Visser, H K

    1996-01-01

    Data on body composition in conjunction with reference centiles are helpful in identifying the severity of growth and nutritional disorders in infancy and for evaluating the adequacy of treatment given during this important period of rapid growth. Total body fat (TBF) and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated from total body electrical conductivity (TBEC) measurements in 423 healthy term Caucasian infants, aged 14-379 days. Cross sectional age, weight, and length related centile standards are presented for TBF and FFM. Centiles were calculated using Altman's method, based on polynomial regression and modelling of the residual variation. The TBF percentage steeply increased during the first half year of life, and slowly declined beyond this age. Various simple TBEC derived anthropometric prediction equations for TBF and FFM are available to be used in conjunction with these standards. Regression equations for the P50 and the residual SD, depending on age, weight, or length, are provided for constructing centile charts and calculating standard deviation scores. PMID:8669953

  4. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  5. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  6. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  7. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    PubMed

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  8. Body mass index and body fat status of men involved in sports, exercise, and sedentary activites.

    PubMed

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups with different physical activity levels. The height and weight of respondents were measured using the Seca weighing balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular regions, and suprailiac regions of each respondent were measured using Harpenden skinfold calipers. Percentage body fat was calculated as the sum of the four measurements of skinfold thickness. The results showed that the mean (± SD) BMIs in the athlete, exercise, and sedentary groups were 22.6 ± 2.9, 23.4 ± 3.5, and 24.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The combined prevalence of pre-obese (BMI 25.029.9) and obese (BMI ³ 30.0) subjects was 21.7% in the athlete group, 29.9% in the exercise group, and 47.5% in the sedentary group. The mean (± SD) percentage of body fat in athletes was 15.7 ± 5.4%, which was lower than in the exercise (18.9 ± 5.5%) and sedentary (20.6 ± 5.8%) groups. The study revealed that individuals who are actively involved in physical activity, particularly in sport activities, have lower BMIs and percentage body fat values compared to sedentary people. Therefore, to prevent obesity, all individuals are encouraged to perform regular physical activity, particularly sports activities.

  9. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    PubMed

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  10. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  11. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Gjesing, Anette P.; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Jonsson, Anna; Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Have, Christian T.; Ekstrøm, Claus T.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Brage, Soren; Witte, Daniel R.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Aadahl, Mette; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan; Eiberg, Hans; Pedersen, Oluf; Grarup, Niels; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus associates with CRF. Methods Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles of twelve independent risk variants known to associate with body fat%. We assessed CRF as maximal oxygen uptake expressed in millilitres of oxygen uptake per kg of body mass (VO2max), per kg fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM), or per kg fat mass (VO2maxFM). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, and when relevant, for body composition. Results We found a significant negative genetic correlation between VO2max and body fat% (ρG = -0.72 (SE ±0.13)). The body fat% GRS associated with decreased VO2max (β = -0.15 mL/kg/min per allele, p = 0.0034, age and sex adjusted). The body fat%-increasing FTO allele was associated with a 0.42 mL/kg/min unit decrease in VO2max per allele (p = 0.0092, age and sex adjusted). Both associations were abolished after additional adjustment for body fat%. The fat% increasing GRS and FTO risk allele were associated with decreased VO2maxFM but not with VO2maxFFM. Conclusions Our findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF. PMID:27846319

  12. Relationship Between Body Fat and Physical Fitness in Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Steed, Carly L; Krull, Benjamin R; Morgan, Amy L; Tucker, Robin M; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2016-09-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), including timed push-ups, sit-ups, and run, assesses physical performance for the Army. Percent body fat is estimated using height and circumference measurements. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the accuracy of height and circumference measurements to other, more accepted, body fat assessment methods and (b) determine the relationships between body composition and APFT results. Participants included Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets (n = 11 males, 2 females, 21.6 ± 3.5 years) from a midwestern university). At one visit, percent body fat was assessed using height and circumference measurements, air-displacement plethysmography, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. APFT results were provided by the ROTC director. All assessment methods for percent body fat were strongly associated (r ≥ 0.7, p < 0.01), implying that height and circumference measurement is a practical tool to estimate percent body fat of ROTC cadets. Total APFT score was not associated with any body fat assessment method. Push-up number was negatively associated with percent body fat by all assessment methods (r ≥ -0.8, p = 0.001), although run time was positively associated (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.05). This suggests that percent body fat may be an important variable in determining or improving cardiovascular and muscular endurance, but not APFT performance.

  13. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  14. Reliability of field methods for estimating body fat.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Barnes, Jeremy T; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Isaacs, Melissa N; Pujol, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    When health professionals measure the fitness levels of clients, body composition is usually estimated. In practice, the reliability of the measurement may be more important than the actual validity, as reliability determines how much change is needed to be considered meaningful. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of two bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices (in athlete and non-athlete mode) and compare that to 3-site skinfold (SKF) readings. Twenty-one college students attended the laboratory on two occasions and had their measurements taken in the following order: body mass, height, SKF, Tanita body fat-350 (BF-350) and Omron HBF-306C. There were no significant pairwise differences between Visit 1 and Visit 2 for any of the estimates (P>0.05). The Pearson product correlations ranged from r = 0.933 for HBF-350 in the athlete mode (A) to r = 0.994 for SKF. The ICC's ranged from 0.93 for HBF-350(A) to 0.992 for SKF, and the MD's ranged from 1.8% for SKF to 5.1% for BF-350(A). The current study found that SKF and HBF-306C(A) were the most reliable (<2%) methods of estimating BF%, with the other methods (BF-350, BF-350(A), HBF-306C) producing minimal differences greater than 2%. In conclusion, the SKF method presented with the best reliability because of its low minimal difference, suggesting this method may be the best field method to track changes over time if you have an experienced tester. However, if technical error is a concern, the practitioner may use the HBF-306C(A) because it had a minimal difference value comparable to SKF.

  15. Interrelationship between food availability, fat body, and ovarian cycles in the frog, Rana tigrina, with a discussion on the role of fat body in anuran reproduction.

    PubMed

    Girish, S; Saidapur, S K

    2000-04-01

    Long-term experiments were conducted to study the progression of vitellogenic cycles in Rana tigrina (an annual breeder) having different foraging backgrounds and held under conditions of weekly or daily food supply and in presence or absence of abdominal fat bodies. They were autopsied in June to assess fecundity. In nature an adult R. tigrina produces on an average 4,000 eggs/100 g body mass (b.m.) And spawns in June-July following monsoon rains. Weekly feeding from July to next breeding season, June resulted in a significant decrease in both fecundity (1700 eggs/100 g body b.m.) And mean size of eggs, compared to well-fed or wild-caught frogs. The abdominal fat bodies were barely seen in frogs fed weekly throughout, whereas in frogs fed weekly from July-December but daily from January onwards, the fat bodies became noticeable (1% of b.m.) And number and mean size of eggs increased significantly over those fed weekly throughout. Frogs captured in January possessed enlarged fat bodies (5% of b.m.), depicting a good foraging history. Maintenance of these frogs on a weekly feeding regimen led to an exhaustion of fat stores. They produced less number of eggs (2, 000/100 g b.m.) As compared to wild frogs but of normal size, whereas daily feeding slowed down a depletion of fat body mass and also significantly increased fecundity (3,000/100 g b.m.) Over the weekly fed individuals. Sham operation or fat body ablation in October or February had no significant effect on total fecundity per se (3,000-3,500 eggs/100 g b.m.) Compared to that of wild-caught frogs. However, eggs were significantly smaller due to fat body ablation despite daily feeding. The study shows that food abundance/fat bodies influence egg size and number in R. tigrina and that a direct or indirect functional relationship exists between fat body and ovarian cycles that are characteristically inverse to each other. J. Exp. Zool. 286:487-493, 2000.

  16. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  17. Associations among calcium intake, resting energy expenditure, and body fat in a multiethnic sample of children

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Casazza, Krista; Willig, Amanda L.; Cardel, Michelle I.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine if calcium intake was associated with resting energy expenditure (REE) and body fat in children, after accounting for ancestral genetic background. Study design Participants included 315 children. REE, body composition, and dietary calcium were assessed by indirect calorimetry, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and 24-hour recalls, respectively. Structural equations modeling assessed the relationships among REE, calcium intake and body fat. Results There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01) and between REE and total body fat (p<0.0001). There was indirect effect of calcium intake on total body fat (p<0.01). There were positive associations between calcium intake and REE (p<0.01), and a trend towards an association of calcium intake and total body fat (p=0.065) among males only; whereas, the only significant relationship among females was an association of REE on total body fat (p<0.0001). Conclusions REE was associated with calcium intake and mediated a relationship between calcium intake and total body fat. These findings suggest calcium intake may play a role in fat accumulation and energy balance through its effects on REE, especially in males. PMID:20400090

  18. Improved visualization of fat body conditions and abundance in the southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat bodies are a crucial source of energy for insect survival and reproduction. Differing types of fat body cells and amounts have been previously reported for southern green stink bug but clear supporting images are lacking. Further, in ongoing studies elucidating the ecology of southern green st...

  19. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  20. The relationships between fat talk, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: perceived stress as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Warren, Cortney S; Holland, Samuel; Billings, Hilary; Parker, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Although body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness are commonplace in college-aged women, their relationships with fat talk and stress are understudied. This study examined (a) whether fat talk predicts body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness and (b) whether stress moderates these relationships. Results from self-report questionnaires completed by 121 female college students revealed that fat talk and perceived stress were significantly positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Although fat talk was a significant independent predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, stress moderated these relationships such that they were stronger at lower stress levels. Although contrary to predictions, these results are logical when means are considered. Results suggest that fat talk positively predicts body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in students with relatively lower stress levels, but does not for students under high stress because mean levels of these constructs are all already high.

  1. Fat body involvement in vitellogenin fate in the green frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Varriale, B; Di Matteo, L; Minucci, S; Pierantoni, R; Chieffi, G

    1988-01-01

    1. Since, in Rana esculenta, fat bodies contain vitellogenin, the present study was performed in order to determine whether or not fat bodies are involved in the fate of vitellogenin. 2. The experiment of November shows that fat body excision provokes plasma vitellogenin increase even in animals treated with estradion-17 beta + pituitary crude homogenate (as compared with relative control). The same picture has been shown in the April experiment. 3. The result on protein-bound phosphate in ovaries from the April experiment has shown that fat body extirpation causes a decrease of protein-bound phosphate in the ovary. 4. This results indicates that fat bodies play an important role in sequestrating circulating vitellogenin by the ovary.

  2. Mmp1 and Mmp2 cooperatively induce Drosophila fat body cell dissociation with distinct roles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qiangqiang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hanhan; Li, Sheng

    2014-12-18

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the single-cell layer of fat body tissues gradually dissociates into individual cells. Via a fat body-specific RNAi screen in this study, we found that two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Mmp1 and Mmp2, are both required for fat body cell dissociation. As revealed through a series of cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic experiments, Mmp1 preferentially cleaves DE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions, while Mmp2 preferentially degrades basement membrane (BM) components and thus destroy cell-BM junctions, resulting in the complete dissociation of the entire fat body tissues into individual cells. Moreover, several genetic interaction experiments demonstrated that the roles of Mmp1 and Mmp2 in this developmental process are cooperative. In conclusion, Mmp1 and Mmp2 induce fat body cell dissociation during Drosophila metamorphosis in a cooperative yet distinct manner, a finding that sheds light on the general mechanisms by which MMPs regulate tissue remodeling in animals.

  3. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet.

  4. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  5. Body fat from body density: Underwater weighing vs. dual-photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Aulet, M.; Thornton, J.C.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.

    1989-06-01

    We measured fat in 286 healthy volunteers by underwater weighing (FUWW) and dual-photon absorptiometry (FDPA) to develop a translation table for the differing results from these entirely different techniques and to study the sources of these differences. In 99 males and 187 females aged 19-94 yr, fatness was 7-47%. Prediction equations are presented for FUWW-FDPA (delta F), density of lean body mass (DLBM), and FDPA. FUWW and FDPA were significantly different from each other (P less than 0.01). Calculated DLBM is less than the assumed constant of 1.10 (P less than 0.01), ranging widely from 1.05 to 1.13 and being highly correlated with the ratio of total body bone mineral to lean body mass (TBBM/LBM). delta F, the differences between FUWW and FDPA measurements in individual subjects, varied widely (-7 to +11% in males and -18 to +13% in females). The difference was positively correlated with the DLBM. FUWW was no better than anthropometrics in equations for predicting FDPA. The FDPA predicted from anthropometrics showed smaller standard errors than when FUWW was used. Neither anthropometrics nor FUWW equations are clearly superior to those previously available.

  6. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  7. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  8. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  9. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat

  10. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  11. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  12. Body fat assessment by a new bipedal bioimpedance instrument in normal weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Horejs, J; Müller, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new bioimpedance method for assessment of body fat employing bipedal electrodes instead of those attached to both upper and lower extremities. The new analyzer (TBF-105, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) enables simultaneous measurements of body weight and total body resistance in a subject standing on the stainless steel electrodes. The instrument was tested in both normal weight and obese women. Fat mass estimated by bipedal bioimpedance was highly correlated with that determined by hydrodensitometry (n = 145, r = 0.945, p < 0.001). Fat mass estimated by bipedal bioimpedance significantly correlated not only with subcutaneous fat measured as a sum of 10 skinfolds (r = 0.758, p < 0.001) but also with visceral fat determined as an area on CT scan (r = 0.780, p < 0.001). Anthropometric variables did not substantially influence the differences revealed in fat mass determined by bipedal bioimpedance and by densitometry. An overestimation of total fat mass by bipedal bioimpedance has not been revealed in severely obese individuals, even in those with higher fat accumulation in the limb region. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that the new bioimpedance instrument employing bipedal electrodes represents a reliable tool for rapid body fat assessment in both normal weight and obese women.

  13. Predicting carcass and body fat composition using biometric measurements of grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    De Paula, N F; Tedeschi, L O; Paulino, M F; Fernandes, H J; Fonseca, M A

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop equations to predict carcass and body fat compositions using biometric measures (BM) and body postmortem measurements and to determine the relationships between BM and carcass fat and empty body fat compositions of 44 crossbred bulls under tropical grazing conditions. The bulls were serially slaughtered in 4 groups at approximately 0 d (n = 4), 84 d (n = 4), 168 d (n = 8), 235 d (n = 8), and 310 d (n = 20) of growth. The day before each slaughter, bulls were weighed, and BM were taken, including hook bone width, pin bone width, abdomen width, body length, rump height, height at withers, pelvic girdle length, rib depth, girth circumference, rump depth, body diagonal length, and thorax width. Others measurements included were total body surface (TBS), body volume (BV), subcutaneous fat (SF), internal fat (InF), intermuscular fat, carcass physical fat (CFp), empty body physical fat (EBFp), carcass chemical fat (CFch), empty body chemical fat (EBFch), fat thickness in the 12th rib (FT), and 9th- to 11th-rib section fat (HHF). The stepwise procedure was used to select the variables included in the model. The r(2) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to account for precision and variability. Our results indicated that lower rates of fat deposition can be attributed to young cattle and low concentration of dietary energy under grazing conditions. The BM improved estimates of TBS (r(2) = 0.999) and BV (r(2) = 0.997). The adequacy evaluation of the models developed to predict TBS and BV using theoretical equations indicated precision, but lower and intermediate accuracy (bias correction = 0.138 and 0.79), respectively, were observed. The data indicated that BM in association with shrunk BW (SBW) were precise in accounting for variability of SF (r(2) = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.94 kg), InF (r(2) = 0.984 and RMSE = 1.26 kg), CFp (r(2) = 0.981 and RMSE = 2.98 kg), EBFp (r(2) = 0.985 and RMSE = 3.99 kg), CFch (r(2) = 0.940 and RMSE = 2

  14. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  15. The body that does not diminish itself: fat acceptance in Israel's lesbian queer communities.

    PubMed

    Maor, Maya

    2012-01-01

    This article follows Charlotte Cooper's call to widen fat studies scholarship to contexts outside the United States, and Adrianne Hill's call to locate historically specific connections between lesbian communities and promotion of fat acceptance. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with Jewish-Israeli fat women. Through the development of their ability to appreciate their fat body and the fat bodies of other women, participants employed a mixture of disparate feminist-lesbian and queer discourses, in a similar, albeit not identical manner to the one used in the U.S. context. One of the major differences is that queer/lesbian communities in Israel are not in contact with the Israeli fat acceptance movement.

  16. Relationships between body size and percent body fat among Melanesians in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; DeHuff, Christa; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; Chan, Chim; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic, and measures to define it must be appropriate for diverse populations for accurate assessment of worldwide risk. Obesity refers to excess body fatness, but is more commonly defined by body mass index (BMI). Body composition varies among populations: Asians have higher percent body fat (%BF), and Pacific Islanders lower %BF at a given BMI compared to Europeans. Many researchers thus propose higher BMI cut-off points for obesity among Pacific Islanders and lower cut-offs for Asians. Because of the great genetic diversity in the Asia-Pacific region, more studies analyzing associations between BMI and %BF among diverse populations remain necessary. We measured height; weight; tricep, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfolds; waist and hip circumference; and %BF by bioelectrical impedance among 546 adult Melanesians from Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed relationships among anthropometric measurements and compared them to measurements from other populations in the Asia-Pacific region. BMI was a relatively good predictor of %BF among our sample. Based on regression analyses, the BMI value associated with obesity defined by %BF (>25% for men, >35% for women) at age 40 was 27.9 for men and 27.8 for women. This indicates a need for a more nuanced definition of obesity than provided by the common BMI cut-off value of 30. Rather than using population-specific cut-offs for Pacific Islanders, we suggest the World Health Organization's public health action cut-off points (23, 27.5, 32.5, 37.5), which enhance the precision of assessments of population-wide obesity burdens while still allowing for international comparison.

  17. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anitha; Kapa, Sarjan Rao; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-03-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854).

  18. [Development of skin moisture and body fat measurement system for mobile application].

    PubMed

    Huang, Naihan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Congzheng; Dong, Zhongfei

    2014-03-01

    Integrating physiological parameters measurement into mobile devices is a development tendency of mobile healthcare. Measurement methods for skin moisture and body fat content are studied in this paper. Electrodes are designed for easy integration into mobile devices, and can be embedded in the cover of the mobile phone. Experiments were conducted to obtain a fast and easy measurement method. The results of evaluation show that the measurement system can achieve the same accuracy as commercial products (with correlation above 0.9 and root mean squared error below 4%) in skin moisture and body fat content measurement. Measurement of local-area body fat content showed a nearly linear positive correlation between local-area body fat content and local-area body impedance.

  19. Derivation of Anthropometry Based Body Fat Equations for the Army’s Weight Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    Histogram comparing male group means of % -* body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 "Figure Sb. Histogram comparing female...group means of % body fat by three methods as a function of BMI groupings 33 .pi •’. iv 0O 9 LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO. Table 1. Age and ethnic distributions...index ( BMI ) (also referred to as quetelet index) (weight/height 2 ) or Ponderal Index (weight 1/ 3 /height). The correlation between BMI and % body fat

  20. Assessment of total body fat in infancy from skinfold thickness measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Dauncey, M J; Gandy, G; Gairdner, D

    1977-01-01

    A formula is given, allowing a value for total body fat to be calculated from skinfold thickness measurements at two sites (subscapular and triceps), in conjunction with nine body dimensions. For newborn infants total body fat so calculated accorded satisfactorily with published data from cadaver analyses. The formula has been tentatively applied to infants up to the age of 40 weeks, and to preterm infants. The difference between the growth of male and female infants was analysed in a series of 27 normal infants; the greater growth of musculoskeletal tissue in the male contrasted with the relatively greater growth of fat tissue in the female. PMID:849001

  1. Effect of different swim caps on the assessment of body volume and percentage body fat by air displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Maarten W; Claessens, Albrecht L

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal air trapped in scalp hair generates an underestimation of body volume when it is measured by air displacement plethysmography. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of wearing different types of swim caps on the measurement of body volume and percentage body fat by air displacement plethysmography. It was hypothesized that wearing a silicone swim cap would more thoroughly compress scalp hair compared with a lycra swim cap, yielding higher estimates of body volume and percent body fat. Thirty female participants aged 25.7 ± 6.4 years were measured in random order when wearing no swim cap, a lycra swim cap or a silicone swim cap. For the no-cap versus lycra cap condition, the mean bias for body volume was -0.579 ± 0.380 litre (limits of agreement: -1.340 to 0.181 litre) and for percent fat -4.9 ± 3.1% fat (limits of agreement: -11.2 to 1.3% fat) (P < 0.05). For the silicone versus lycra condition, the mean bias for body volume was 0.137 ± 0.099 litre (limits of agreement: -0.062 to 0.335 litre) and for percent fat 1.2 ± 0.9% fat (limits of agreement: -0.5 to 2.9% fat) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, attention should be paid to optimal compression of isothermal air trapped in scalp hair when using air displacement plethysmography. The present results suggest that this compression may be more thorough when wearing a silicone swim cap.

  2. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  3. Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Edralin A; Li, Wenjia; Peterson, Sandra K; Brown, Angela; Kuvibidila, Solo; Perkins-Veazie, Penny; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for their role in the prevention of many chronic conditions. Among the fruits, mango provides numerous bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of freeze-dried mango pulp, in comparison with the hypolipidaemic drug, fenofibrate, and the hypoglycaemic drug, rosiglitazone, in reducing adiposity and alterations in glucose metabolism and lipid profile in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six treatment groups (eight to nine/group): control (10 % energy from fat); HF (60 % energy from fat); HF+1 or 10 % freeze-dried mango (w/w); HF+fenofibrate (500 mg/kg diet); HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet). After 8 weeks of treatment, mice receiving the HF diet had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0·0205) and epididymal fat mass (P = 0·0037) compared with the other treatment groups. Both doses of freeze-dried mango, similar to fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, prevented the increase in epididymal fat mass and the percentage of body fat. Freeze-dried mango supplementation at the 1 % dose improved glucose tolerance as shown by approximately 35 % lower blood glucose area under the curve compared with the HF group. Moreover, freeze-dried mango lowered insulin resistance, as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and modulated NEFA. The present findings demonstrate that incorporation of freeze-dried mango in the diet of mice improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile and reduced adiposity associated with a HF diet.

  4. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students.

  5. Body Fat Assessment: A Comparison of Visual Estimation and Skinfold Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Thomas G.; Burke, Edmund J.

    1986-01-01

    This study compared skinfold measurements and visual estimation as methods of measuring percent body fat against underwater weighing, using a sample of 71 males. The results suggest some individuals can visually estimate percent fat about as accurately as skinfold measures do. (MT)

  6. Changes in the biochemical composition of fat body stores during adult development of female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Matthias W; Anand, Anurag N

    2004-07-01

    Age-dependent changes in the fat body composition and aspects of lipogenesis in the free abdominal fat body of female crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, were studied. Lipid, protein, glycogen, and free carbohydrate content of the fat body, and fat body wet weight increased simultaneously and sharply from day 0 onwards and were doubled/almost doubled by day 2 after adult emergence. Lipogenic activity of the fat body, fat body weight, and the energy stores in the fat body peaked on day 2, except for free carbohydrate, which peaked on day 3. On day 2, the fat body was mainly comprised of lipid (53.8%) and protein (6.6%), while glycogen and free carbohydrate together contributed less than 1% of the fat body wet weight. After peaking, both lipogenesis and energy stores decreased in a synchronous manner. The depletion of the fat body energy stores and the consequent decrease in the fat body weight were concomitant with a fast and massive gain in ovary weight (day 2: 19.5 +/- 1.5 mg; day 4: 332.8 +/- 31.5 mg) due to the vitellogenic oocyte growth that started on day 2. Our data clearly underline the importance of the free abdominal fat body as a source of energy for reproduction in the cricket. Fat body fatty acid synthase activity coincided with lipogenic activity. Adipokinetic hormone inhibits lipid synthesis in the fat body, but treatment of the fat body with adipokinetic hormone in vitro showed no consistent effect on fatty acid synthase activity.

  7. Role of Fat Body Lipogenesis in Protection against the Effects of Caloric Overload in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Laura Palanker; Fink, Jill L.; Ramachandran, Prasanna Venkatesh; Patterson, Bruce W.; Okunade, Adewole L.; Maier, Ezekiel; Brent, Michael R.; Turk, John; Baranski, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila fat body is a liver- and adipose-like tissue that stores fat and serves as a detoxifying and immune responsive organ. We have previously shown that a high sugar diet leads to elevated hemolymph glucose and systemic insulin resistance in developing larvae and adults. Here, we used stable isotope tracer feeding to demonstrate that rearing larvae on high sugar diets impaired the synthesis of esterified fatty acids from dietary glucose. Fat body lipid profiling revealed changes in both carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acid substituents, particularly in stored triglycerides. We tested the role of the fat body in larval tolerance of caloric excess. Our experiments demonstrated that lipogenesis was necessary for animals to tolerate high sugar feeding as tissue-specific loss of orthologs of carbohydrate response element-binding protein or stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 resulted in lethality on high sugar diets. By contrast, increasing the fat content of the fat body by knockdown of king-tubby was associated with reduced hyperglycemia and improved growth and tolerance of high sugar diets. Our work supports a critical role for the fat body and the Drosophila carbohydrate response element-binding protein ortholog in metabolic homeostasis in Drosophila. PMID:23355467

  8. Body Fat Measurement: Weighing the Pros and Cons of Electrical Impedance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1985-01-01

    Research technologists have developed electrical impedance units in response to demand for a convenient and reliable method of measuring body fat. Accuracy of impedance measures versus calipers and underwater weighing are discussed. (MT)

  9. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    PubMed

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  10. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-29

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group.

  11. Plasma ghrelin is positively associated with body fat, liver fat and milk fat content but not with feed intake of dairy cows after parturition.

    PubMed

    Börner, Sabina; Derno, Michael; Hacke, Sandra; Kautzsch, Ulrike; Schäff, Christine; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto; Hammon, Harald M; Röntgen, Monika; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Kuhla, Björn

    2013-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that is present in blood mostly in a non-posttranslationally modified form, with a minor proportion acylated at Ser(3). Both ghrelin forms were initially assigned a role in the control of food intake but there is accumulating evidence for their involvement in fat allocation and utilization. We investigated changes in the ghrelin system in dairy cows, exhibiting differences in body fat mobilization and fatty liver, from late pregnancy to early lactation. Sixteen dairy cows underwent liver biopsy and were retrospectively grouped based on high (H) or low (L) liver fat content post-partum. Both groups had a comparable feed intake in week -6 (before parturition) and week 2 (after parturition). Only before parturition was preprandial total ghrelin concentration higher in L than in H cows and only after parturition was the basal plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids higher in H than in L cows. Both before and after parturition, H cows had higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, a higher acyl:total ghrelin ratio, lower plasma triacylglyceride concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient compared with L cows. These group differences could not be attributed to an allelic variant of the acyl ghrelin receptor. Rather, the ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with several aspects of fat metabolism and with respiratory quotient but not with feed intake. These results show that endogenous ghrelin forms are associated with fat allocation, fatty liver, and utilization of fat during the periparturient period.

  12. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  13. Can alternating lower body negative and positive pressure during exercise alter regional body fat distribution or skin appearance?

    PubMed

    Löberbauer-Purer, Elisabeth; Meyer, Nanna L; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Haudum, Judith; Kässmann, Helmut; Müller, Erich

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity, with and without lower body pressure, leads to increased regional fat loss in the lower extremities of overweight females. Eighty-six obese women with a female phenotype were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (C), diet only (D), diet plus exercise (DE) or diet, exercise and lower body pressure intervention (DEP). The three treatment groups followed the same diet, the two exercise groups (DE and DEP) additionally followed an endurance training program of 30 min of cycling at 50%VO(2)max three times per week with or without lower body pressure. Body composition and fat distribution were assessed by DXA. Body size circumference measurements were recorded as well as subjective ratings of cellulite and skin appearance. As expected, all test groups (D, DE, DEP) showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total body mass and fat mass. DXA revealed significant differences between the experimental groups and C. The DEP group also lost significantly more body mass and fat mass when compared with D, while no significant difference was observed between the other groups. A similar pattern was seen for circumference measurement data. A significant perceived improvement was made by the DEP group when compared with C, D and DE groups for skin condition and also between the DEP versus C and D groups for cellulite. The combination of diet and exercise is successful for weight reduction. The additional application of lower body pressure especially affects skin appearance.

  14. [Association between dietary intake, physical activity, socioeconomic factors and body fat percentage among schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    D'Avila, Gisele Liliam; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article was to assess the association between dietary intake, physical activity and socioeconomic factors associated with body fat percentage in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. It is a cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 2,481 students from public and private schools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body fat percentage was investigated by measuring triceps and subscapular skin folds. Poisson regression was performed to test the association between excess body fat and independent variables, estimating prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of excess body fat was 23.9%, though there was no significant difference between sex (p = 0.359) and age (p = 0.202). Excess body fat was associated with different factors in 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, namely eating less than three meals a day (OR = 1.62, CI: 1.38 to 1.91) and consumption of high-risk food more than 3 times a day (OR = 0.61 CI: 0.47 to 0.79). No significant difference was observed with physical activity. The high prevalence of excess body fat detected reveals the need for fostering the adoption of healthier behavioral practices (in relation to nutrition and physical activity) by schoolchildren.

  15. Influence of regular exercise on body fat and eating patterns of patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-05-18

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%-170% vs. IC-Con 29%-52%) and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex -2.1%-1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%-10%). IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%-10% vs. -0.6%-1.4%). Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.

  16. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52%) and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%). IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%). Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification. PMID:25993298

  17. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  18. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  19. Increased 2-hydroxylation of estrogen is associated with lower body fat and increased lean body mass in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Nicola; Vattikuti, Swapna; Yarramaneni, Jayasree; Giri, Tusar K; Nekkalapu, Srenath; Qualls, Clifford; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C

    2012-05-01

    Menopause is associated with changes in bone, muscle and fat mass. The importance of postmenopausal estrogen metabolism in bone health has been established. However, its relationship to body composition in postmenopausal women remains undetermined. The objective of this study is to determine the association between estrogen metabolism and body composition in postmenopausal women. This is a cross sectional study of 97 postmenopausal Caucasian women, 49-80 y.o., ≥1 year from the last normal menstrual period or those who have had oophorectomy. Inactive [2-hydroxyestrone (2OHE(1))] and active [16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE(1))] urinary metabolites of estrogen were measured by ELISA. The whole and regional body composition was measured by DXA. We have found that both 2OHE(1), and 2OHE(1)/16α-OHE(1) ratio were negatively correlated with % total fat, and % truncal fat but positively correlated with % total lean mass. Comparing the fat and lean parameters of body composition according to tertiles of 2OHE(1) and 2OHE(1)/16αOHE(1) ratio showed that subjects in the lowest tertiles, had the highest % total fat, and % truncal fat and the lowest % total lean mass. Multiple regression analysis also showed 2OHE(1) and calcium intake as statistically significant predictors of all body composition parameters. In conclusion, in postmenopausal women, an increase in the metabolism of estrogen towards the inactive metabolites is associated with lower body fat and higher lean mass than those with predominance of the metabolism towards the active metabolites.

  20. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment.

  1. Low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Kavita H; Hosig, Kathy W; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Anderson, Eileen S; Herbert, William G; Duncan, Susan E

    2009-08-01

    Dairy calcium may help prevent excess weight gain and obesity when consumed in adequate amounts (three or more servings per day) and combined with energy balance. This prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate dairy intake and examine the association between low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students. Seventy-six college students (65 women and 11 men; mean age+/-standard error [SE]=19.2+/-0.2 years) completed 7-day food records, body height (cm), weight (kg), and waist circumference (cm) measurements twice (September 2004 and April 2005). Percentage of truncal fat and percentage of total body fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. One-way multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted. Overall (mean+/-SE) total dairy (1.4+/-0.1 servings/day), low-fat dairy (0.5+/-0.1 servings/day), and calcium (815+/-41 mg/day) intakes were low. Subjects who consumed a higher amount of low-fat dairy products (mean+/-SE=0.8+/-0.1 servings/day) had better diet quality, gained less body weight, and had reductions in waist circumference, percentage truncal fat, and percentage total body fat compared to those with lower intake (mean+/-SE=0.1+/-0.0 servings/day). Low-fat dairy intake may be associated with better diet quality and weight management in college students. Nutrition interventions in young adults should promote low-fat dairy intake as part of an overall healthful lifestyle.

  2. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p < 0.001). We did not find differences between body mass index and body adiposity index classification in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the

  3. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  4. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (p<0.01). Also, participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) presented lower consumption of high-fat foods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that

  5. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  6. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  7. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  8. Body mass index and body fat distribution in newly-arrived Vietnamese refugees in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, M; Brock, K; Nguyen, D; Tran-Dinh, H

    1996-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI), body fat distribution and some behavioural variables were examined in an ethnic Vietnamese population newly arrived in Australia. The age range was 23 to 74 years for males (n = 246, mean = 38.8) and 24 to 66 for females (n = 165, mean = 36.4). Mean BMI was 20.62 +/- 2.65 (male) and 21.25 +/- 3.16 (female). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.844 (males) v 0.802 (females), p < 0.0001: waist was 73.7 cm (males) v 71.7 cm (females), (p = 0.007). Male smoking was 69%, female, 1%; the BMI of male non-smokers was higher than that of smokers 21.22 v 20.35 (p = 0.0017). Exercise patterns, diet or alcohol intake did not appear to affect BMI. The mean BMI of this refugee Vietnamese population is low by comparison with the Australian population. Vietnamese females although of lower mean BMI, have higher WHR than Australian females.

  9. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    PubMed

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores.

  10. The impact of body fat on three dimensional motion of the paediatric foot during walking.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Ryan; Morrison, Stewart C; Bassett, Paul; Drechsler, Wendy I; Cramp, Mary C

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is commonly associated with a pes planus foot type and altered lower limb joint function during walking. However, limited information has been reported on dynamic intersegment foot motion with the level of obesity in children. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between intersegment foot motion during gait and body fat in boys age 7-11 years. Fat mass was measured in fifty-five boys using air displacement plethysmography. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted on the right foot of each participant using the 3DFoot model to capture angular motion of the shank, calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsals. Two multivariate statistical techniques were employed; principle component analysis reduced the multidimensional nature of gait analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis accounted for potential confounding factors. Higher fat mass predicted greater plantarflexion of the calcaneus during the first half and end of stance phase and at the end of swing phase. Greater abduction of the calcaneus throughout stance and swing was predicted by greater fat mass. At the midfoot, higher fat mass predicted greater dorsiflexion and eversion throughout the gait cycle. The findings present novel information on the relationships between intersegment angular motion of the foot and body fat in young boys. The data indicates a more pronated foot type in boys with greater body fat. These findings have clinical implications for pes planus and a predisposition for pain and discomfort during weight bearing activities potentially reducing motivation in obese children to be physically active.

  11. Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis.

  12. Influence of aerobic fitness and body fatness on tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    PubMed

    Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the independent and combined importance of aerobic fitness and body fatness on physiological tolerance and exercise time during weight-bearing exercise while wearing a semipermeable protective ensemble. Twenty-four men and women were matched for aerobic fitness and body fatness in one of four groups (4 men and 2 women in each group). Aerobic fitness was expressed per kilogram of lean body mass (LBM) to eliminate the influence of body fatness on the expression of fitness. Subjects were defined as trained (T; regularly active with a peak aerobic power of 65 ml x kg LBM(-1) x min(-1)) or untrained (UT; sedentary with a peak aerobic power of 53 ml x kg LBM(-1) x min(-1)) with high (High; 20%) or low (Low; 11%) body fatness. Subjects exercised until exhaustion or until rectal temperature reached 39.5 degrees C or heart rate reached 95% of maximum. Exercise times were significantly greater in T(Low) (116 +/- 6.5 min) compared with their matched sedentary (UT(Low); 70 +/- 3.6 min) or fatness (T(High); 82 +/- 3.9 min) counterparts, indicating an advantage for both a high aerobic fitness and low body fatness. However, similar effects were not evident between T(High) and UT(High) (74 +/- 4.1 min) or between the UT groups (UT(Low) and UT(High)). The major advantage attributed to a higher aerobic fitness was the ability to tolerate a higher core temperature at exhaustion (the difference being as great as 0.9 degrees C), whereas both body fatness and rate of heat storage affected the exercise time as independent factors.

  13. Muscle Mass and Body Fat in Relation to Cardiovascular Risk Estimation and Lipid-Lowering Eligibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2016-12-06

    This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationships of muscle-mass and body-fat phenotypes to 10-yr risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and eligibility for lipid management. Participants were Korean adults (N = 7315; 3163 men, 4152 women) aged 40-79 yr, free from stroke and coronary heart disease, who provided complete data for estimating 10-yr CVD risk and body composition during the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010). Four levels of combined muscle mass and body fat were determined using sex-specific quintiles of appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared, and sex-specific quintiles of total body fat percentage. Ten-year CVD risk was calculated using Pooled Cohort Equations and Framingham risk scores. Lipid-lowering medication eligibility was determined using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Compared with the reference group, the risk of CVD events was higher in men with low muscle mass, high body fat, or the 2 factors combined. CVD risk was lower in women with low muscle mass, higher in women with high body fat, and nonsignificant in women with the 2 factors. Participants with low muscle mass and high body fat had higher odds for medication eligibility using the ACC/AHA guidelines but not the ATP III guidelines. Higher estimated 10-yr CVD risk was associated with combined phenotypes of low muscle mass and high fat in men but not in women. Also, the relationship of these phenotypes to lipid-lowering medication eligibility was guideline-specific.

  14. Dietary calcium is associated with body mass index and body fat in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Loria, Catherine; Mattil, Claudia; Goldbourt, Uri; Howard, Barbara V; Resnick, Helaine E

    2007-08-01

    American Indians have a high prevalence of obesity. Evidence supports a relationship between increased dietary calcium intake and lower body weight. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake, BMI, and percentage of body fat (PBF) in American Indians (ages 47-79 y) in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) (2nd exam, 1992-1995). SHS data were compared with data for the general U.S. adult population from the NHANES III (1988-1994). BMI was calculated as kg/m(2). PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance using an equation based on total body water. The clinical examination included measures of blood chemistry. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h dietary recall. Calcium intake was significantly lower in SHS participants than in age-matched NHANES III participants. Mean calcium intake in the SHS was 680 mg/d (range: 103-4574 mg/d) for men and 610 mg/d (range: 71-4093 mg/d) for women (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, BMI and PBF were lower by 0.80 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -1.53 to -0.08, P = 0.046) and 1.28% (95% CI: -2.10 to -0.47, P = 0.011) in SHS participants with higher (> or = 873 mg/d in the 5th quintile) vs. lower calcium intake (<313 mg/d in the 1st quintile). No relation between calcium intake and BMI or PBF was observed in NHANES III participants. Our data may be used to develop nutritional interventions aimed at weight control in culturally appropriate clinical trials.

  15. Dietary Calcium is Associated with Body Mass Index and Body Fat in American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Xu, Jiaqiong; Loria, Catherine; Mattil, Claudia; Goldbourt, Uri; Howard, Barbara V.; Resnick, Helaine E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indians have a high prevalence of obesity. Evidence exists to support a relationship between increased dietary calcium intake and lower body weight. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake, BMI, and percentage of body fat (PBF) in American Indians (ages 47–79 y) in the Strong Heart Study (SHS) (2nd exam: 1992–1995). SHS data were compared with data for the general U.S. adult population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994). BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2). PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance, using an equation based on total body water. The clinical examination included measures of blood chemistry. Dietary data were collected using a 24-h dietary recall. Calcium intake was significantly lower among SHS participants than among age-matched NHANES III participants. Mean calcium intake in the SHS was 680 mg/d (range: 103 – 4574 mg/d) for men and 610 mg/d (range: 71 – 4093 mg/d) for women (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, BMI and PBF were lower by 0.80 kg/m2 (95% CI: −1.53 to −0.08, P = 0.046) and 1.28% (95% CI: −2.10 to −0.47, P = 0.011) in SHS participants with higher (≥ 873 mg/d in the 5th quintile) versus lower calcium intake (< 313 mg/d in the 1st quintile). No relation between calcium intake and BMI or PBF was observed in NHANES III participants. Our data may be used to develop nutritional interventions aimed at weight control in culturally appropriate clinical trials. PMID:17634270

  16. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. RESULTS After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group (P < 0.05), and kidney fat and epididymal fat pad weights were significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group (P < 0.05). In the HFCS group, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ1 (PPAR-γ1), and PPAR-γ2 mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the epididymal fat pad, whereas cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme-4, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in liver and adipose tissues (P < 0.05). In the HFCS group, mRNA expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were elevated (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS It can be concluded that high maysin corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat

  17. Relationships Between Body Fat and Appearance Ratings of U.S. Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    of endomorphy using Sheldon’s (1940) visual somatotyping scheme and body specific gravity. This work was extended by Brozek and Keys (1952) to show...1950) Anthropometry of extreme somatotypes . Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 8:367-385. Durnin, J.V.G.A., and J. Womersely. (1974) Body fat assessed from total

  18. To Be Fat or Thin? Social Representations of the Body among Adolescent Female Students in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…

  19. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages.

  20. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  1. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  2. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable.

  3. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  4. Novel obesity risk loci do not determine distribution of body fat depots: a whole-body MRI/MRS study.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Axel; Thamer, Claus; Heni, Martin; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Staiger, Harald

    2010-06-01

    A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies has identified six new risk-loci for common obesity. We studied whether these risk loci influence the distribution of body fat depots. We genotyped 1,469 nondiabetic subjects for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TMEM18 rs6548238, KCTD15 rs11084753, GNPDA2 rs10938397, SH2B1 rs7498665, MTCH2 rs10838738, and NEGR1 rs2815752. We assessed BMI, waist circumference, total body fat, and lean body mass (bioimpedance). All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for estimation of insulin sensitivity. In 332 subjects, we measured total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), nonvisceral adipose tissue (NVAT), liver fat content, and intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In the dominant inheritance model, the risk alleles of TMEM18 rs6548238 and MTCH2 rs10838738 were nominally associated with higher BMI (P = 0.04, both). The risk allele of TMEM18 rs6548238 was additionally associated with higher waist circumference and total body fat (P body fat distribution (all P > 0.009, dominant inheritance model). Therefore, our results suggest that these new obesity SNPs, despite their influence on BMI, are neither associated with a metabolically unfavorable nor with a favorable body composition.

  5. THE 24-MONTH CHANGES IN BODY FAT MASS AND ADIPOKINES IN PATIENTS STARTING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Jeong; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk

    2017-01-17

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is characterized by a gain in fat mass. The fat tissue is a complex endocrine organ that releases various adipokines. In this study, we prospectively examined serial changes of fat composition and adipokines in patients undergoing PD. ♦ Methods: Body composition was assessed by computed tomography (CT). Nutrition status and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin [IL]-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were assessed on the 7th day and 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after the start of PD. ♦ Results: Fifty-four patients (28 men), with a mean age of 53.2 ± 13.2 years, were enrolled. Baseline fat mass, especially subcutaneous fat mass, was correlated with baseline leptin (ρ= 0.612), adiponetin (ρ= -0.477), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (ρ= 0.391). Visceral fat mass was correlated with leptin (ρ= 0.545) and adiponectin (ρ= -0.514). Baseline adiponectin was negatively correlated with baseline leptin (ρ= -0.363). While body weight and leptin increased during the 24 months, serum adiponectin decreased in that period. The changes in visceral and subcutaneous fat mass were greater in the first 12 months and 6 months, respectively. There was no difference in IL-6 and TNF-α. Eight patients died during the follow-up period (mean 47.4 months). Twenty-seven patients continued PD. Increased baseline and serial change of IL-6 level were risk factors for mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary vascular disease (CVD), the significance of the IL-6 level disappeared. ♦ Conclusions: Baseline subcutaneous fat in patients starting PD is correlated with baseline adipokine levels rather than visceral fat. The increase in subcutaneous fat was greatest in the first 6 months. While leptin and adiponectin increased and decreased respectively, IL-6 did not change in the first 24 months.

  6. The Work and Home Activities Questionnaire: Energy Expenditure Estimates and Association With Percent Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Block, Gladys; Jensen, Christopher D.; Block, Torin J.; Norris, Jean; Dalvi, Tapashi B.; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and increasing physical activity requires assessment of occupational, home, leisure and sedentary activities. Methods A physical activity questionnaire was developed using data from a large representative U.S. sample; includes occupational, leisure and home-based domains; and produces estimates of energy expenditure, percent body fat, minutes in various domains, and meeting recommendations. It was tested in 396 persons, mean age 44 years. Estimates were evaluated in relation to percent body fat measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median energy expenditure was 2,365 kcal (women) and 2.960 kcal (men). Women spent 35.1 minutes/day in moderate household activities, 13.0 minutes in moderate leisure and 4.0 minutes in vigorous activities. Men spent 18.0, 22.5 and 15.6 minutes/day in those activities, respectively. Men and women spent 276.4 and 257.0 minutes/day in sedentary activities. Respondents who met recommendations through vigorous activities had significantly lower percent body fat than those who did not, while meeting recommendations only through moderate activities was not associated with percent body fat. Predicted and observed percent body fat correlated at r = .73 and r = .82 for men and women respectively, P < .0001. Conclusions This questionnaire may be useful for understanding health effects of different components of activity, and for interventions to increase activity levels. PMID:19998851

  7. AHSG gene variation is not associated with regional body fat distribution--a magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Müssig, K; Staiger, H; Machicao, F; Machann, J; Hennige, A M; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Fritsche, A; Häring, H-U; Stefan, N

    2009-09-01

    Obesity-resistance in AHSG-knockout mice indicate an important role of alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A (AHSG) in the development of obesity. We studied whether genetic variation within AHSG affects whole-body adiposity and regional fat distribution in humans. We genotyped 321 subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs2248690, rs4831, rs2070635, rs4917, and rs1071592. Body fat distribution and ectopic hepatic and intramyocellular lipids were assessed by magnetic resonance techniques. AHSG levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry. The five chosen SNPs covered 100% of common genetic variation (minor allele frequency >/=0.05) within AHSG (r (2)>/=0.8). All SNPs were significantly associated with AHSG levels (p<0.0001), except for rs4831 (p=0.9) after adjustment for gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). AHSG levels were associated with liver fat content (p=0.0160) and BMI (p=0.0247) after adjustment for gender and age. While rs2248690 was nominally associated with BMI in the dominant model (p=0.0432), none of the SNPs was associated with regional fat distribution. Common genetic variation within AHSG does not appear to influence regional body fat distribution, but may affect whole-body adiposity in humans.

  8. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  9. Association between body fat and vitamin D status in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body fat mass and vitamin D appears to vary by ethnicity, but our understanding of this predisposition in Asians is limited due to the scarcity of prior investigations. Data on 1,697 Korean adults were obtained from the second and third years (2008-2009) of the fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Body fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both linear regression analysis for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and logistic analysis for vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <20 ng/mL] were performed to determine significant predictors among BMI, waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (BF), after adjustment of multiple covariates. To explore a possible non-linear relationship between them, the fractional polynomials method was used. All analyses were conducted following stratification by sex. In linear regression analysis, BMI and WC were not associated with 25(OH)D. However, BF was inversely related to 25(OH)D, irrespective of the fat location (both appendicular and truncal fat) in both sexes. In logistic regression analysis, the highest quartile group of BF had a greater OR for vitamin D deficiency than the lower quartile groups, irrespective of the fat location and sex. However, the quartiles of BMI and WC were not associated with vitamin D deficiency. The linear relationships between BF and 25(OH)D (or vitamin D deficiency) were confirmed despite use of the fractional polynomials method. Body fat mass is inversely associated with serum 25(OH)D in Korean adults. Monitoring of vitamin D deficiency in Korean adults with high fat mass is needed.

  10. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women.

    PubMed

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the inter-relationships between body fat, sex, and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, nondiabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0-56.0% body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: (i) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass (FM) and total FFA Ra (micromol/min); (ii) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, P<0.001); (iii) FFA Ra per kg FM decreased in a curvilinear fashion with increasing FM (r=-0.806; P<0.001); (iv) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass (FFM) was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; and (v) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects.

  11. Robust automatic measurement of 3D scanned models for the human body fat estimation.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Andrea; Lovato, Christian; Piscitelli, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic tool for estimating geometrical parameters from 3-D human scans independent on pose and robustly against the topological noise. It is based on an automatic segmentation of body parts exploiting curve skeleton processing and ad hoc heuristics able to remove problems due to different acquisition poses and body types. The software is able to locate body trunk and limbs, detect their directions, and compute parameters like volumes, areas, girths, and lengths. Experimental results demonstrate that measurements provided by our system on 3-D body scans of normal and overweight subjects acquired in different poses are highly correlated with the body fat estimates obtained on the same subjects with dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. In particular, maximal lengths and girths, not requiring precise localization of anatomical landmarks, demonstrate a good correlation (up to 96%) with the body fat and trunk fat. Regression models based on our automatic measurements can be used to predict body fat values reasonably well.

  12. Sertraline inhibits increases in body fat and carbohydrate dysregulation in adult female cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein-Metzler, Marnie G.; Shively, Carol A.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Appt, Susan E.; Carr, J.Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Jones, Sara R.; Register, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are widely prescribed for depression and other disorders. SSRIs have become one of the most commonly used drugs in the United States, particularly by women. Acute effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism have been reported, but little is known regarding the effects of chronic SSRI use. We evaluated the effects of chronic administration of a commonly prescribed SSRI, sertraline HCl, on body weight and composition, fat distribution, carbohydrate metabolism, as well as activity, in adult female depressed and nondepressed cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis; n = 42) using a placebo-controlled, longitudinal, randomized study design. Phenotypes were evaluated prior to and after 18 months of oral sertraline (20 mg/kg) or placebo. Over the 18 month treatment period, the placebo group experienced increases in body weight, body fat (visceral and subcutaneous) fasting insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR). Sertraline treatment prevented increases in body weight, fat, insulin, and HOMA-IR (all p < 0.05), without significantly altering activity levels. Sertraline treatment altered adiponectin in an unusual way — reducing circulating adiponectin in depressed monkeys without affecting fat mass or body weight. Deleterious effects on adiponectin, a potentially insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective protein, may result in adverse effects on cardiovascular health despite otherwise beneficial effects on body composition and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26939086

  13. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    PubMed

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  14. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered.

  15. A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Hsin; Beason, Tracey S; Hunleth, Jean M; Colditz, Graham A

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review investigating body fat distribution in older adults and its association with morbidity and mortality. Our search yielded 2702 citations. Following three levels of screening, 25 studies were selected to evaluate the association between body fat distribution and comorbidity, and 17 studies were used in the mortality analysis. Most of the selected studies in our analyses used anthropometric measures, e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio; relatively few studies used direct measures, such as body fat/lean mass, and percentage body fat. Studies reported inconsistent findings regarding the strongest predictor(s) of morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of studies suggested that BMI per se was not the most appropriate predictor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly because of its inability to discern or detect age-related body fat redistribution. In addition, studies using BMI found that the optimal BMI range for the lowest mortality in the elderly was overweight (25 kg/m(2)≤BMI<30 kg/m(2)) or mildly obese (30 kg/m(2)≤BMI<35 kg/m(2)). Our findings suggest that the current clinical guidelines, recommending that overweight and obesity are major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality are not applicable to this population. Therefore, the central message of this review is to advise the government to establish new guidelines specifically for this population, using a combination of body fat distribution measurements, and to certify that these guidelines will not be applied to inappropriate populations.

  16. Effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese Korean elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Im; Park, Ho Ran; Koo, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyo Shin

    2004-02-29

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese elementary school children. Sixty-two elementary students of the 4th to 6th grade were selected from two different Seoul schools. Thirty-four children in one school were designated as the experimental group, and 28 children from the other school as the control group. The experimental group received 60 - 70 minutes of behavior modification, once a week, for 8 weeks. The control group received neither management nor treatment. The results indicated a significant improvement of body image and a reduction in the increase rate of body fat for the experimental group. This finding strongly supports the theory that behavior modification can be used as an effective strategy in the treatment of obese children.

  17. Effect of oral theaflavin administration on body weight, fat, and muscle in healthy subjects: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Teruki; Yamamoto, Ayaka; Ueno, Tomoya

    2017-02-01

    Theaflavins are reddish-colored polyphenols in black tea. To test the efficacy of theaflavin administration on body fat and muscle, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and investigated the effect of theaflavins administration on the body composition using of healthy subjects. In this study, 30 male and female Japanese were enrolled and participants were randomly allocated to receive placebo, theaflavin (50 or 100 mg/day), or catechin (400 mg/ml) for 10 weeks. The effects were evaluated using body weight, body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage, and skeletal muscle percentage. Theaflavin administration significantly improved body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat percentage, and skeletal muscle percentage when compared to with the placebo. In contrast, there was no significant difference in all measured outcomes between the catechin and the placebo groups. The results indicate that oral administration of theaflavin had a beneficial effect on body fat and muscle in healthy individuals.

  18. Arboreal adaptations of body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) and the evolution of adiposity in primates.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of information on body composition and fat patterning in wild nonhuman primates. Dissected adipose tissue from wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) (WTM), feeding on a natural diet, accounted for 2.1% of body weight. This was far less than fatness reported for nonhuman primates raised in captivity or for contemporary humans. In WTM, fatness increased with age and diet richness, but did not differ by sex. In WTM (none of which were obese) intra-abdominal fat filled first, and "excess" fat was stored peripherally in a ratio of about 6:1. Intermuscular fat was minimal (0.1%). The superficial paunch held <15% of subcutaneous fat weight in contrast to its much larger proportions in obese humans and captive monkeys where most added fat accumulates subcutaneously. With increasing total adiposity, accumulating fat shifted in its distribution among eight different main internal and peripheral deposit areas-consistent with maintaining body balance and a low center of gravity. The available data suggest that, in arboreal primates, adaptations for agile locomotion and terminal branch feeding set constraints on the quantity and distribution of fat. The absence of a higher percentage of body fat in females and neonates (as are typical of humans) suggests that arboreal adaptations preclude the development of fat-dependent, large-brained infants and the adipose-rich mothers needed to sustain them. The lifestyle and body composition of wild primates represent a more appropriate model for early human foragers than well-fed captive monkeys do.

  19. Simulated increases in body fat and errors in bone mineral density measurements by DXA and QCT.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elaine W; Thomas, Bijoy J; Brown, J Keenan; Finkelstein, Joel S

    2012-01-01

    Major alterations in body composition, such as with obesity and weight loss, have complex effects on the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The effects of altered body fat on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements are unknown. We scanned a spine phantom by DXA and QCT before and after surrounding with sequential fat layers (up to 12 kg). In addition, we measured lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD by DXA and trabecular spine BMD by QCT in 13 adult volunteers before and after a simulated 7.5 kg increase in body fat. With the spine phantom, DXA BMD increased linearly with sequential fat layering at the normal (p < 0.01) and osteopenic (p < 0.01) levels, but QCT BMD did not change significantly. In humans, fat layering significantly reduced DXA spine BMD values (mean ± SD: -2.2 ± 3.7%, p = 0.05) and increased the variability of measurements. In contrast, fat layering increased QCT spine BMD in humans (mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 2.5%, p = 0.05). Fat layering did not change mean DXA BMD of the femoral neck or total hip in humans significantly, but measurements became less precise. Associations between baseline and fat-simulation scans were stronger for QCT of the spine (r(2)= 0.97) than for DXA of the spine (r(2)= 0.87), total hip (r(2) = 0.80), or femoral neck (r(2)= 0.75). Bland-Altman plots revealed that fat-associated errors were greater for DXA spine and hip BMD than for QCT trabecular spine BMD. Fat layering introduces error and decreases the reproducibility of DXA spine and hip BMD measurements in human volunteers. Although overlying fat also affects QCT BMD measurements, the error is smaller and more uniform than with DXA BMD. Caution must be used when interpreting BMD changes in humans whose body composition is changing.

  20. Body Fat Composition Assessment Using Analytic Morphomics Predicts Infectious Complications After Bowel Resection in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Day, Nicholas M.; Bergmans, Carrie L.; Zahn, Katelin M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Su, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decisions between medical and surgical management of Crohn's disease (CD) incorporate risk assessments for potential complications of each therapy. Analytic morphomics is a novel method of image analysis providing quantifiable measurements of body tissue composition, characterizing body fat more comprehensively than body mass index alone. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative complications in CD, incorporating fat composition analysis using analytic morphomics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adults undergoing bowel resection for CD between 2004 and 2011 at a single center. Computed tomography obtained within 30 days prior to surgery underwent morphomic analysis for fat characterization. Postoperative infectious complications were defined as the need for a postoperative abdominal drain, intravenous antibiotics, or reoperation within 30 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to generate a prediction model of infectious complications. Results: A total of 269 subjects met selection criteria; 27% incurred postoperative infectious complications. Bivariate analysis showed hemoglobin, albumin, surgical urgency, high-dose prednisone use, and subcutaneous-to-visceral fat volume distribution as predictors of complications. Body mass index, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies, and immunomodulator use were not predictors of complication. Multivariate modeling demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.77 and a negative predictive value of 81.1% with surgical urgency (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–6.02; P = 0.004), subcutaneous-to-visceral fat distribution (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.19; P = 0.006), and hemoglobin (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.85; P = 0.001) as predictors of infectious complication. Conclusions: Fat subtype and distribution are predictive of postoperative infectious complications

  1. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  2. Treating the binge or the (fat) body? Representations of fatness in a gold standard psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown-Bowers, Amy; Ward, Ashley; Cormier, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention. We recommend that psychology as a discipline abandons the weight loss imperative associated with binge eating disorder and fat bodies. We recommend that practitioners locate the problem of fat shame in society as opposed to the individual person's body and provide individuals with tools to identify and resist fat stigma and oppression, rather than provide them with tools to reshape their bodies.

  3. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  4. Effects of foraging effort on body fat and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, D E; Bartness, T J

    2001-02-15

    Food hoard size varies inversely with body fat levels in Siberian hamsters. If food hoarding only increases when body fat decreases, then hamsters foraging for their food should only increase food hoarding when foraging efforts decrease body fat ("lipostatic hypothesis"); however, if food hoarding increases whenever there is an energy flux away from fat storage, then it should increase regardless of significant body fat decreases ("metabolic hypothesis"). Female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) earned food pellets after completion of a programmed number of wheel revolutions (Immobilized Wheel [free access to food], Free Wheel [wheel active, free food], and 10, 50, 100, and 200 revolutions/pellet). Hamsters were killed after 19 days and inguinal, retroperitoneal, and parametrial white adipose tissue (WAT) pads (IWAT, RWAT, and PWAT, respectively) were harvested and carcass composition determined. Food hoard size increased fourfold with the availability of running wheels alone (Free Wheel), increased threefold with low foraging levels (10 and 50 revolutions/pellet), but was nearly abolished at the highest foraging level (200 revolutions/pellet). Surplus food (earned, not eaten or hoarded) was significantly greatest at the lowest level of foraging. As foraging effort increased, PWAT mass decreased the most (<10 revolutions/pellet), while RWAT and IWAT mass only were decreased at the highest foraging effort. Carcass lipid content only was significantly decreased at the highest foraging effort, yet food hoarding was nearly abolished at that level. Collectively, these results demonstrate that body fat levels and food hoarding can be uncoupled with increases in foraging effort. J. Exp. Zool. 289:162-171, 2001.

  5. Renal morphology assessed by ultrasound in relation to central haemodynamics and body fat.

    PubMed

    Wykretowicz, Mateusz; Katulska, Katarzyna; Krauze, Tomasz; Milewska, Agata; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Stajgis, Marek; Wysocki, Henryk

    2013-02-01

    There is a correlation between renal function and the morphological characteristics of the kidney. However, little is known about the association between renal morphology and other important predictors of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as central haemodynamics or body fat. Thus, in the present study we investigated correlations between renal morphology, body fat and central haemodynamics. Renal morphology and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat were assessed by ultrasound, whereas central haemodynamics were evaluated by pulse wave analysis, in 93 healthy, non-obese subjects (mean (±SEM) age 52 ± 1 years; 43 men, 50 women). Significant correlations were found for indices of body fat (waist : hip ratio, body mass index and intra-abdominal fat) and renal morphology (kidney length, width and volume). Significant inverse correlations were found between central augmentation pressure (cAP) and kidney length (r = -0.33; P = 0.0009), width (r = -0.24; P = 0.01) and volume (r = -0.27; P = 0.007). In addition, significant negative correlations were found between the central augmentation index (cAIx) and kidney length (r = -0.36; P = 0.0003), width (r = -0.29; P = 0.003) and volume (r = -0.33; P = 0.0008). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed independent associations between kidney length and both cAP and cAIx. In conclusion, common morphometric characteristics of the kidney, as assessed by ultrasound, are associated with measures of body fat and descriptors of central haemodynamics. The relationships demonstrated in the present study indicate that these associations may be a biologically plausible phenomenon.

  6. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  7. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Langford, Kelly; Lateo, Jenna; Brock, Erin; Walton, Karen; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Eisenhauer, Katie; Green, Nick; McLean, Cameron

    2015-08-26

    Impaired strength adversely influences an older person's ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI) = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m²) aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1) upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS); (2) lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG) and sit to stand test (STS)); and (3) endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT). Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM)) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA) and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg), MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln) of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001) and % body fat (p < 0.005) were significant (r² = 46.5%; p < 0.000). For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000), age (p = 0.036), protein intake (p = 0.015) and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015) were significant (r² = 0.535; p < 0.000). For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r² = 0.346; p < 0.000). For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r² = 0.251; p < 0.000). LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  8. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-09-06

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.

  9. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (P<0·05). Whole body and segmental fat mass, abdominal fat area, IMCL did not change in either group. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations significantly reduced in both groups (P<0·05). Although area under the curve for the postprandial blood glucose concentrations significantly decreased in both groups (P<0·05), the change was significantly greater in the HYPO group than in the NOR group (P<0·05). Changes in postprandial plasma ghrelin were similar in both groups. A significant reduction of postprandial leptin response was observed in both groups (P<0·05), while postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations increased significantly in the NOR group only (P<0·05). In conclusion, hypoxic training for 4 weeks resulted in greater improvement in glucose tolerance without loss of whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area or IMCL. However, hypoxic training did not have synergistic effect on the regulation of appetite-related hormones.

  10. Effect of very high-fat diets on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status in the obese.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Frederick F

    2005-11-01

    Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest in the effect of dietary fat on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets. Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has substantially different effects on lipoproteins. Saturated fat raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but has unfavorable effects on total cholesterol, and has been associated with increased cardiovascular events. In contrast, unsaturated fats, and particularly omega-3 fatty acids, have the combined benefits of lowering serum cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein, as well as favorable effects on insulin resistance and inflammation; they also lower cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Although current national guidelines modestly liberalize unsaturated fat consumption, important questions still remain about the optimal percentage of unsaturated fats in the diet.

  11. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men. The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008). Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  12. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    PubMed Central

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Methods Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. Results After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = −0.52, P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (β = 0.27, P < 0.0001) were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) − 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. Conclusion The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners. PMID:24198587

  13. Determining BMI cut points based on excess percent body fat in US children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...

  14. Longitudinal DXA Studies: Minimum scanning interval for pediatric assessment of body fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, has led to the increased use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessment of body fat mass (TBF) in pediatric populations. We examined DXA precision, in order to determine suitable scanning intervals for the measurement of change...

  15. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  16. Fat body protein granules and storage proteins in the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia.

    PubMed

    Tojo, S; Betchaku, T; Ziccardi, V J; Wyatt, G R

    1978-09-01

    Fat body cells of silkmoth pupae (Hyalophora cecropia ) contain granules, showing a less dense outer zone and a denser, often crystalline, inner portion appear after cocoon spinning and increase until the larval-pupal ecdysis; more granules are formed in females than in males. Urate granules, appearing fibrous in internal structure, first form about the same time, but their accumulation is more gradual, and continues in the pupa. Both types have been isolated by centrifugation. Protein granules dissolve in buffers to yield proteins 1 and 2, with distinct electrophoretic and antigenic properties. These proteins have been isolated individually from pupal fat body extracts by using their different thermal stabilities in phosphate buffer containing MgCl2 and (NH4)2SO4, respectively, and purification was completed by gel chromatography. Protein 1 has a molecular weight of 480,000 and a subunit of 85,000 daltons, while protein 2 gives values of 530,000 and 89,000, respectively. Their amino acid compositions are similar but distinct. Proteins 1 and 2 accumulate in the hemolymph, beginning 3 days before spinning, reach maximal levels at spinning, and then decline in the hemolymph while granules are formed in the fat body, although the total hemolymph protein concentration does not decline at this time. It is concluded that the fat body of the late, feeding larva synthesizes two related "storage proteins" and secretes them in partially crystalline granules as protein reserves for metamorphosis.

  17. Skinfold Measurements and the Percentage of Body Fat Differences Between Black and White Male Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-16

    Malina, R.M. (1972). Skinfold-body weight correlations in Negro and white children of elementary school age. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25, 861-863. (41) Robson...Professor Paul F. Parks, Dean Nutrition and Foods Graduate School D-C QuZ .,,"D 1 SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS AND THE PERCENTAGE OF BODY FAT DIFFERENCES...Washington, D. C. She attended schools in Virginia, Great Britain, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and graduated from East Washington High School , Washington

  18. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  19. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  20. Does increased glucose exposure lead to increased body fat and reduced lean body mass in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Davenport, A

    2014-11-01

    Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the effect of developing anuria in a cohort of 136 PD patients followed for a median of 12 months, to determine whether increasing exposure to higher glucose dialysates affected body composition by increasing body fat and reducing muscle mass. Despite increasing prescription of 22.7 and 38.6 g/l glucose dialysates there was no increase in body fat (31.1±15.4 vs 30.9±16.3 kg) or loss of fat-free weight (36.4±12.1 vs 35.8±12.3 kg). Changing PD prescriptions to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes did not lead to detrimental changes in body composition in the short term.

  1. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  2. Body mass index, muscle and fat in chronic kidney disease: questions about survival.

    PubMed

    Mafra, D; Guebre-Egziabher, F; Fouque, D

    2008-08-01

    The human body can be roughly divided into two major compartments, fat mass and lean body mass. Adipose tissue is now considered to be a highly active tissue and, in addition to storing calories as triglycerides, it also secretes a large variety of compounds, including cytokines, chemokines and hormone-like factors such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin. On the other hand, muscle plays a central role in whole-body protein metabolism by serving as the principal provider for amino acids to maintain protein synthesis in vital tissues and organs and by providing hepatic gluconeogenic precursors. Although not a good indicator of body composition, the Quetelet index, also called body mass index (BMI), is often used for practical reasons. It is well known that high BMI predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. However, observational reports in the dialysis population have suggested that obesity is associated with improved survival, a phenomenon that is not well understood and subject to controversies. This review describes the characteristics of BMI in the general population and in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, as well as the respective role of muscle, whole body fat and fat distribution towards mortality, with particular emphasis on patients with CKD.

  3. Myocyte androgen receptors increase metabolic rate and improve body composition by reducing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Rao, Pengcheng; Niel, Lee; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Stagljar, Marijana; Monks, D Ashley

    2010-07-01

    Testosterone and other androgens are thought to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men by activating the androgen receptor. However, the clinical potential of androgens for improving body composition is hampered by our limited understanding of the tissues and cells that promote such changes. Here we show that selective overexpression of androgen receptor in muscle cells (myocytes) of transgenic male rats both increases lean mass percentage and reduces fat mass. Similar changes in body composition are observed in human skeletal actin promoter driving expression of androgen receptor (HSA-AR) transgenic mice and result from acute testosterone treatment of transgenic female HSA-AR rats. These shifts in body composition in HSA-AR transgenic male rats are associated with hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers and decreased size of adipocytes. Metabolic analyses of transgenic males show higher activity of mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle and increased O(2) consumption by the rats. These results indicate that androgen signaling in myocytes not only increases muscle mass but also reduces fat body mass, likely via increases in oxidative metabolism.

  4. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  5. Genetic factors contributing to obesity and body weight can act through mechanisms affecting muscle weight, fat weight, or both.

    PubMed

    Brockmann, Gudrun A; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Neuschl, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Li, Renhua

    2009-01-08

    Genetic loci for body weight and subphenotypes such as fat weight have been mapped repeatedly. However, the distinct effects of different loci and physiological interactions among different traits are often not accounted for in mapping studies. Here we used the method of structural equation modeling to identify the specific relationships between genetic loci and different phenotypes influencing body weight. Using this technique, we were able to distinguish genetic loci that affect adiposity from those that affect muscle growth. We examined the high body weight-selected mouse lines NMRI8 and DU6i and the intercross populations NMRI8 x DBA/2 and DU6i x DBA/2. Structural models help us understand whether genetic factors affect lean mass and fat mass pleiotropically or nonpleiotropically. Sex has direct effects on both fat and muscle weight but also influences fat weight indirectly via muscle weight. Three genetic loci identified in these two crosses showed exclusive effects on fat deposition, and five loci contributed exclusively to muscle weight. Two additional loci showed pleiotropic effects on fat and muscle weight, with one locus acting in both crosses. Fat weight and muscle weight were influenced by epistatic effects. We provide evidence that significant fat loci in strains selected for body weight contribute to fat weight both directly and indirectly via the influence on lean weight. These results shed new light on the action of genes in quantitative trait locus regions potentially influencing muscle and fat mass and thus controlling body weight as a composite trait.

  6. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  7. Subcutaneous Adipose Cell Size and Distribution: Relationship to Insulin Resistance and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, TC; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, SW

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell-size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight/moderately-obese individuals. 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25–38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose concentrations (SSPG) during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell-size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group; according to IR and IS subgroups; and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r=0.26, p=0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with %body fat (r=0.26, p=0.014), female sex (r=0.21, p=0.036), and SSPG (r=0.20, p=0.012). In the highest vs lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7% whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2. Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. PMID:23666871

  8. Basal metabolic rate and body fatness of adult men in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valencia, M E; Moya, S Y; McNeill, G; Haggarty, P

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the possibility that overprediction of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of tropical populations is related to differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations, 32 Mexican men aged 18-40 years underwent measurements of BMR and body fat content. The men were divided into four body mass index (BMI) groups (< 20, 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40). The mean weight was 78 (range 52-119) kg and the mean height was 1.75 (range 1.61-1.89) m. BMR was measured in the subjects after an overnight stay in a residential unit by a Deltatrac ventilated hood indirect calorimetry system. Body fat content was determined by 2H2O dilution. The relationship between BMR and body weight was analysed by linear regression and the equations derived were compared to the values predicted using the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations. The FAO/WHO/UNU equations overestimated measured BMR by 9.8%, 9.6%, 7.8% and 5.5% in the four groups. The overall difference was 8.2%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The intercepts of the two equations were significantly different (P < 0.001) by 532 kJ/day, but there was no significant difference between the slopes of the two regression equations. There was no significant difference between BMR/kg fat-free mass in the four BMI groups. The results therefore do not support the possibility that the overprediction of BMR in tropical populations by international prediction equations based on body weight is accounted for by differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations.

  9. Detecting body fat-A weighty problem BMI versus subcutaneous fat patterns in athletes and non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruschitz, Renate; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Hamlin, Michael J; Moser, Maximilian; Ludvik, Bernhard; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Tafeit, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the relationship between BMI and the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography within young athletes and non-athletic controls, to comparatively evaluate the diagnostic powers of subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses at different body sites, furthermore to explore appropriate cut-offs to discriminate between athletes and controls. Measurements were determined in 64 males and 42 females, who were subsequently separated into two even groups (athletes and non-athletes). The optical device LIPOMETER was applied at standardised body sites to measure the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue layers. To calculate the power of the different body sites and the BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. In men, the neck (optimal cut-off value 2.3 mm) and trunk (optimal cut-off value 15.5 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power: with 90.6% (58 of 64) of the subjects being correctly classified into athletes or non-athletes. Discrimination power of the BMI values was 64.1% (41 of 64 were correctly classified). In women, the upper back (optimal cut-off value 3.3 mm) and arms (optimal cut-off value 15.9 mm) provided the strongest discrimination power with 88.1% (37 of 42 being correctly classified). When using BMI to discriminate between athletes and non-athletes only 52.4% (22 of 42) were correctly classified. These results suggest that compared to BMI levels, subcutaneous fat patterns are a more accurate way of discriminating between athletes and non-athletes. In particular the neck and the trunk compartment in men and the upper back and arms compartment in women, were the best sites to discriminate between young athletes and non-athletes on the basis of their fat patterns.

  10. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  11. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  12. Roles of subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining ability to stabilize body temperature in water.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, M G; Keatinge, W R

    1981-01-01

    1. The lowest water temperature in which different young adults could stabilize body temperature was found to vary from 32 degrees C to less than 12 degrees C, because of large differences in both total body insulation and metabolic heat production. 2. Total body insulation per unit surface area, in the coldest water allowing stability, was quite closely determined by mean subcutaneous fat thickness measured ultrasonically (r = 0.92), regardless of differences in distribution of this fat between men and women. 3. Reactive individuals developed high metabolic rates, and often rather high insulations in relation to fat thickness, which enabled them to stabilize their body temperatures in water more than 10 degrees C colder than was possible for less reactive individuals of similar fat thickness. 4. Measurements of heat flux, after stabilization in the coldest water possible, showed that the trunk was the main site of heat loss and that over half of the internal insulation there could be accounted for by subcutaneous fat; by contrast, fat could account for less than a third of higher insulations found in muscular parts of the limbs, and for less than 3% of very high insulations in the hands and feet. 5. After stabilization of body temperature at rest in the coldest possible water, exercise reduced internal insulation only in muscular parts of the limbs. Exercise also increased heat loss elsewhere by exposing skin of protected regions such as flexural surfaces of joints. During exercise total heat production increased rather more than heat loss in unreactive subjects, but less than loss in subjects whose heat production had already risen to a high level when they were at rest in cold water. 6. In warm (37 degrees C) water, tissue insulations were lower and much more uniform between subjects and between different body regions than in the cold. Even in the warm, however, insulations remained rather higher in fat than thin subjects, higher at rest than during exercise

  13. Ethnic and sex differences in body fat and visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Staiano, A E; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2012-10-01

    Body fat and the specific depot where adipose tissue (AT) is stored can contribute to cardiometabolic health risks in children and adolescents. Imaging procedures including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allow for the exploration of individual and group differences in pediatric adiposity. This review examines the variation in pediatric total body fat (TBF), visceral AT (VAT) and subcutaneous AT (SAT) due to age, sex, maturational status and ethnicity. TBF, VAT and SAT typically increase as a child ages, though different trends emerge. Girls tend to accumulate more TBF and SAT during and after puberty, depositing fat preferentially in the gynoid and extremity regions. In contrast, pubertal and postpubertal boys tend to deposit more fat in the abdominal region, particularly in the VAT depot. Sexual maturation significantly influences TBF, VAT and SAT. Ethnic differences in TBF are mixed. VAT tends to be higher in white and Hispanic youth, whereas SAT is typically higher in African American youth. Asian youth typically have less gynoid fat but more VAT than whites. Obesity per se may attenuate sex and ethnic differences. Particular health risks are associated with high amounts of TBF, VAT and SAT, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome and hypertension. These risks are affected by genetic, biological and lifestyle factors including physical activity, nutrition and stress. Synthesizing evidence is difficult as there is no consistent methodology or definition to estimate and define depot-specific adiposity, and many analyses compare SAT and VAT without controlling for TBF. Future research should include longitudinal examinations of adiposity changes over time in representative samples of youth to make generalizations to the entire pediatric population and examine variation in organ-specific body fat.

  14. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Borab, Zachary M; Godek, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway.

  15. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Godek, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway. PMID:28077985

  16. The function of fat bodies in relation to the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in the frog, Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, G; Rastogi, R K; Iela, L; Milone, M

    1975-08-18

    In this study the authors have tried to furnish experimental support for the importance of fat bodies in the normal functioning of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system of the male frog, Rana esculenta. These experiments have shown a hypothalamo-hypophyseal control of the mobilization of fat body contents, directly involved in the control of testicular activity. Furthermore it is proposed that the fat body contents are released into the testis through direct vascular contacts between the two organs. We suggest that the A1 cells (lactotrophs) and/or B2 cells (FSH-gonadotrops) of the pars distalis gonadotropins are incapable of stimulating the testis in the absence of fat bodies. In the light of these results a scheme has been put forward showing the position of fat bodies in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis of the frog.

  17. Percent body fat via DEXA: comparison with a four-compartment model.

    PubMed

    Van Der Ploeg, Grant E; Withers, Robert T; Laforgia, Joe

    2003-02-01

    This study compared body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA; Lunar DPX-L) with that via a four-compartment (4C; water, bone mineral mass, fat, and residual) model. Relative body fat was determined for 152 healthy adults [30.0 +/- 11.1 (SD) yr; 75.10 +/- 14.88 kg; 176.3 +/- 8.7 cm] aged from 18 to 59 yr. The 4C approach [20.7% body fat (%BF)] resulted in a significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean %BF compared with DEXA (18.9% BF), with intraindividual variations ranging from -2.6 to 7.3% BF. Linear regression and a Bland and Altman plot demonstrated the tendency for DEXA to progressively underestimate the %BF of leaner individuals compared with the criterion 4C model (4C %BF = 0.862 x DEXA %BF + 4.417; r(2) = 0.952, standard error of estimate = 1.6% BF). This bias was not attributable to variations in fat-free mass hydration but may have been due to beam-hardening errors that resulted from differences in anterior-posterior tissue thickness.

  18. Percentage of Body Fat and Weight Gain in Participants in the Tehran High School Wrestling Championship

    PubMed Central

    Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss in wrestling has been found to be an interesting issue for researchers. In this regard, complications of weight loss in wrestlers before the competitions and their weight gain in course of competitions have been debated in previous studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of weight gain and to estimate the percentage of body fat in participants in the Tehran high school male wrestling championship. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey. Subjects were participants of the Tehran high school male wrestling championship (n = 365). Weight gain in course of competitions and body fat levels (based on skin fold measurements) of subjects were measured. Results Between the first weigh-in of the wrestlers which was done one day before the competitions and the second weigh-in which was conducted immediately before the first round of their first competition (20 hours), 69% of subjects gained on average 1.3±0.9 kg (range: 0.1 to 6.10 kg) or 2.2±1.7% of the wrestler’s weight (range: 0.1 to 9.3). Among the subjects, the mean of fat body percentage was found to be 15.2%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches was prevalent among subjects. It was also found that Iranian wrestlers have a relatively higher body fat percentage in comparison to American wrestlers. Therefore, it can be concluded that weight loss behavior of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss such as fat reduction methods. PMID:22942998

  19. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  20. Body Fat and Body-Mass Index among a Multiethnic Sample of College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Catherine L.; Yan, Eric; Chen, Steve; Hong, Kurt; Arechiga, Adam; Kim, Woo S.; Deng, Max; Heber, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and average body composition vary by US race and gender. Asian Americans have the lowest prevalence of obesity. Relying on body-mass index (BMI) to estimate obesity prevalence may misclassify subgroups that appear normally weighted but have excess body fat. We evaluated percentage body fat (PBF) and BMI to determine whether BMI reflects PBF consistently across different races. 940 college students were recruited from a local public university over four consecutive years. We measured PBF by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), weight by physicians' scales, and height with stadiometers. Our sample comprised Asians (49%), Caucasians (23%), Hispanics (7%), and Other (21%). Participants averaged 21.4 years old; BMI was 22.9 kg/m2; PBF was 24.8%. BMI and PBF varied significantly by race and gender (P value = 0.002 and 0.005 for men; 0.0009 and 0.0008 for women). Asian-American women had the lowest BMI (21.5 kg/m2) but the second highest PBF (27.8%). Linear association between BMI and PBF was the weakest (r2 = 0.09) among Asian-American women and BMI had the poorest sensitivity (37%) to detect PBF. The high PBF with low BMI pattern exhibited by Asian-American women suggests that they could escape detection for obesity-related disease if BMI is the sole measure that estimates body composition. PMID:23691288

  1. Relationship between Regional Body Fat Distribution and Diabetes Mellitus: 2008 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo In; Chung, Dawn; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Shin, Jang Yel; Chung, Choon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between regional body fat distribution, especially leg fat mass, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in adult populations. Methods A total of 3,181 men and 3,827 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older were analyzed based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008 to 2010). Body compositions including muscle mass and regional fat mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The odds ratios (ORs) for DM was higher with increasing truncal fat mass and arm fat mass, while it was lower with increasing leg fat mass. In a partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, leg fat mass was negatively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin in both sexes and fasting glucose in women. Leg fat mass was positively correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass and homeostasis model assessment of β cell. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for DM decreased gradually with increasing leg fat mass quartiles in both genders. When we subdivided the participants into four groups based on the median values of leg fat mass and leg muscle mass, higher leg fat mass significantly lowered the risk of DM even though they have smaller leg muscle mass in both genders (P<0.001). Conclusion The relationship between fat mass and the prevalence of DM is different according to regional body fat distribution. Higher leg fat mass was associated with a lower risk of DM in Korean populations. Maintaining leg fat mass may be important in preventing impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:28029016

  2. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity.

  3. Body mass, fat percentage, and fat free mass as reference variables for lung function: effects on terms for age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, J; Chinn, D; Reed, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Sex specific cross sectional reference values for lung function indices usually employ a linear model with terms for age and stature. The effects of also matching for body mass index (BMI= mass/stature2) or its components, fat percentage of body mass (fat%) and fat free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/stature2) were studied.
METHODS—The subjects were 458 asymptomatic male and female non-smokers (383 men) and 22 female ex-smokers. Measurements were made of ventilatory capacity, lung volumes, transfer factor (diffusing capacity, single breath CO method), and body composition (skinfold method). Linear and proportional regression models were used.
RESULTS—Terms for fat% and FFMI significantly improved the accuracy of reference values for all the primary lung function indices. The improvements in subjects with atypical physiques (fat% and FFMI at the ends of the distributions for the subjects) were in the range 0.3-2.3 SD compared with conventional regression equations. The new partial regression coefficients on age were independent of age related changes in body fat. The coefficient for total lung capacity (TLC) on age in men was now positive. Most differences between the sexes were eliminated. A term for BMI improved the descriptions of subdivisions of TLC but lacked the other advantages.
CONCLUSION—Allowance for fat% and FFMI increases the accuracy of reference equations for lung function, particularly for subjects with a lot of fat and little muscle or vice versa. Allowance for BMI is less informative.

 PMID:11641507

  4. Accuracy of body mass index (BMI) thresholds for predicting excess body fat in girls from five ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The association between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in young people differs among ethnic groups. Consequently, BMI thresholds for defining childhood overweight may not represent an equivalent level of adiposity in multiethnic populations. The objectives of this study were to characterise the relationships between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) and to determine the appropriateness of universal BMI standards for predicting excess fatness in girls from five ethnic groups. The BMI and %BF of 1,676 European, Maori, Pacific Island, East Asian, and South Asian girls aged 5-16 years were determined using anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were prepared to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI thresholds for detecting %BF >85th percentile. Compared with European girls, South and East Asians averaged 4.2% and 1.3% more %BF at a fixed BMI and age, whereas Pacific Islanders averaged 1.8% less %BF. Areas under the ROC curves ranged from 89.9% to 92.4%, suggesting that BMI is an acceptable screening tool for identifying excess adiposity. However, the IOTF and CDC thresholds showed low sensitivity for predicting excess %BF in South and East Asian girls, with low specificity in Pacific Island and Maori girls. The development of an ethnic-specific definition of overweight improved diagnostic performance. We conclude that BMI can be an acceptable proxy measure of excess fatness in girls from diverse ethnicities, especially when ethnic-specific BMI reference points are implemented.

  5. Inverted BMI rather than BMI is a better predictor of DEXA determined body fatness in children.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Martins, C; Silva, G; Marques, E; Mota, J; Aires, L

    2014-05-01

    This study compared body mass index (BMI) and inverted BMI (iBMI) as predictors of body fatness in 177 Portuguese children (149 girls and 96 boys) aged 7-16 years. Participants undertook measures of height and body mass from which BMI (kg/m(2)) and iBMI (cm(2)/kg) were determined. Maturation was determined via self-report and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m(2)) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Significant relationships were evident between BMI and iBMI and FMI (both P=0.0001). BMI was not normally distributed (P=0.0001) but iBMI was (P>0.05). Analysis of covariance identified that BMI and iBMI, controlling for maturation, were both significant predictors of FMI (both P=0.0001) but that iBMI predicted a slightly greater amount of the variance (adjusted R(2)=0.970) compared with BMI (adjusted R(2)=0.968). This study suggests that iBMI is a similar proxy for body fatness compared with BMI in children.

  6. Comparison between body fat measurements obtained by portable ultrasound and caliper in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Ripka, W L; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the Portable Ultra Sound (US) measuring technique to the skinfold measuring technique (SF) to estimate body fat percentage (%F) in young adults. Sixty military were evaluated, all males, divided in two groups: Group 1 (normal) composed by 30 military with Body Mass Index (BMI) until 24.99 kg/m(2) and Group 2 (overweight) composed by 30 military with BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Weight, height, skinfolds and ultrasound were measured in 9 points (triceps, subscapular, biceps, chest, medium axillary, abdominal, suprailiac, thigh and calf). Body fat average values obtained by skinfold thickness and ultrasound measurements were 13.25 ± 6.32 % and 12.73 ± 5.95 % respectively. Despite significant differences in measurements of each anatomical site, it was possible to verify that the total final body fat percentage calculated by both techniques did not present significant differences and that overweight group presented greater similarity between the values obtained using caliper and ultrasound equipment.

  7. Effect of instant cooked giant embryonic rice on body fat weight and plasma lipid profile in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Im; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-06-13

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, and atherogenic index relative to NC group. However, instant rice supplementation counteracted this high fat-induced hyperlipidemia through regulation of lipogenesis and adipokine production. The GB rice exhibited greater hypolipidemic and body fat-lowering effects than the GW or NB rice. These findings illustrate that the giant embryo mutant may be useful as functional biomaterial for the development of instant rice with strong preventive action against high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  8. The effects of fat talk on body dissatisfaction and eating behavior: the moderating role of dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Compeau, Alyssa; Ambwani, Suman

    2013-09-01

    Although research suggests that fat talk, the normalized conversations that involve degrading one's body shape/weight and size, can increase body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior, the extent to which dietary restraint may moderate these relationships remains uncertain. A pilot study (N=30) comparing online videos with researcher-developed vignettes as prospective manipulations for fat talk exposure suggested use of the vignettes as potent yet subtle stimuli. In the main study, women undergraduates (N=116) were randomized to read a fat talk or neutral vignette and then completed standardized measures of body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint while being concurrently presented with food stimuli. Results suggest significant moderation effects for dietary restraint: whereas fat talk exposure was associated with increased body dissatisfaction among low dietary restrainers, it appeared to reduce food consumption among high dietary restrainers. Findings highlight the importance of individual differences in shaping responses to fat talk.

  9. Body adiposity index (BAI) correlates with BMI and body fat pre- and post-bariatric surgery but is not an adequate substitute for BMI in severely obese women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.

  10. Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-08-23

    Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat.

  11. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF BODY FAT IN OBESE PATIENTS PREOPERATIVELY FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDEZ, Mônica; TOIMIL, Rosana Farah; RASSLAN, Zied; ILIAS, Elias Jirjoss; GRADINAR, Ana Lúcia Torloni; MALHEIROS, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The study of body composition in patient candidates for bariatric surgery is directly related to the increase and distribution of body fat in the development of cardiovascular disease. Aim: To correlate anthropometric indicators and bioelectrical impedance in the assessment of body fat in female candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study of 88 women. The weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference data were evaluated in the anthropometric analysis. The body fat was determinate by bioelectrical impedance conducted according to the manufacturer´s recommended technique with a specific severe obesity formula. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the average waist circumference and body mass index for better analysis of the results. Results: The group had a mean age of 39.7 years (±7.2), average weight of 125.6 kg (±16.2), mean body mass index of 48.7 kg/m2 (±6.4) and the mean waist circumference 137.6 cm (±12.4). Negative and significant relationship between BMI values waist circumference and resistance obtained by bioelectrical impedance ​​were found. By analyzing the two groups the mean BMI and waist circumference, a significant relationship was observed, ie, the higher the degree of obesity less resistance was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. The higher is the obesity the lower is value found for resistance. Conclusion: The increase of anthropometric indicators (BMI and waist circumference) determined reduction in resistance and reactance obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis in obese women candidates to bariatric surgery. PMID:27683778

  13. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) regulates body size and fat metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Ikuma; Matsumura, Hirokazu; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Kusakabe, Ken; Kiso, Yasuo; Kano, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by fibrillar collagens, which act as its endogenous ligand. DDR2 regulates cell proliferation, cell adhesion, migration, extracellular matrix remodeling and reproductive functions. Both DDR2 null allele mice and mice with a recessive, loss-of-function allele for Ddr2 exhibit dwarfing and a reduction in body weight. However, the detailed mechanisms by which DDR2 exerts its positive systemic regulation of whole body size, local skeletal size and fat tissue volume remain to be clarified. To investigate the systemic role of DDR2 in body size regulation, we produced transgenic mice in which the DDR2 protein is overexpressed, then screened the transgenic mice for abnormalities using systematic mouse abnormality screening. The modified-SHIPRA screen revealed that only the parameter of body size was significantly different among the genotypes. We also discovered that the body length was significantly increased, while the body weight was significantly decreased in transgenic mice compared to their littermate controls. We also found that the epididymal fat pads were significantly decreased in transgenic mice compared to normal littermate mice, which may have been the cause of the leptin decrement in the transgenic mice. The new insight that DDR2 might promote metabolism in adipocyte cells is very interesting, but more experiments will be needed to elucidate the direct relation between DDR2 and adipose-derived hormones. Taken together, our data demonstrated that DDR2 might play a systemic role in the regulation of body size thorough skeletal formation and fat metabolism.

  14. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Body Fat, Physical Fitness and Energy Requirements in Military and Civilian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    military. Pregnancy-induced changes in body weight In the Institute of Medicine (9) appointed a Subcommittee to review the effect of gestational...women. Further, the effect of gestational weight gain and fat accretion on the ability to return to body fat standards in the 6 months following...Allen LH. The effects of lactation on energy and protein consumption, postpartum weight change and body composition of well nourished North American

  15. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'.

  16. Body mass index centile charts to assess fatness of British children.

    PubMed Central

    White, E M; Wilson, A C; Greene, S A; McCowan, C; Thomas, G E; Cairns, A Y; Ricketts, I W

    1995-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) relates weight to height and reflects the shape of a child, but because of age dependency it has not been used conventionally for the estimation of fatness in children. From measurements of Tayside children (n = 34,533) centile charts were constructed for BMI (wt/ht2) from the raw data of height and weight, using Cole's LMS method for normalised growth standards. These data were compared with the only available European BMI charts published from data of French children obtained over a period of 24 years from 1956-79. British children appear to be 'fatter'. Within a subgroup (n = 445) the BMI values were correlated with estimations of body fat, for boys and girls, from skinfold thickness (r = 0.8 and 0.81) and bioelectrical impedance (r = 0.65 and 0.7). The limits of acceptable BMI have yet to be defined. PMID:7717735

  17. The preparation of trophocytes from disaggregated fat body of the cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    PubMed

    Steele, J E; Ireland, R

    1994-03-01

    A method has been developed for disaggregating the fat body of the adult American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using collagenase. The yield of cells is sensitive to the osmolarity of the dispersing medium and to the age of the cockroaches from which the fat bodies are taken. Trophocytes uncontaminated with other cells were obtained by taking advantage of the low density of these cells which causes them to float to the top of the dispersion medium. In contrast, the mycetocytes and urocytes being denser than the medium sink to the bottom. The trophocytes retain the ability to respond to the synthetic hyperglycaemic hormones, CCI and CCII, as shown by the activation of phosphorylase and the stimulation of trehalose efflux. The trophocytes incorporated leucine into protein secreted by the cells in a time dependent manner.

  18. Relation Between Cigarette Smoking, Body Fat Distribution and Density of Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Cholesterol in Women Linda R. Beson, Major AFIT Student Attending: University of Florida AFIT/CI/CIA-92-085 DTIC Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6583 ELECTE 1...CIGARETTE SMOKING, BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY OF LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL IN WOMEN By W: , LINDA R. BESON " Di t A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE...12 Cholesterol and Serum Lipoproteins ......... .. 14 Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol . . . 18 High Density Lipoprotein (HDL

  19. Differences in the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat between Japanese and Australian-Caucasian young men.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Uchida, Hayato; Binns, Colin W

    2006-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine ethnic and environmental influences on the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat, using a sample of 144 Japanese and 140 Australian-Caucasian men living in Australia, and eighty-eight Japanese men living in Japan. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry using standard international methods (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry protocol). Body density was predicted using Durnin and Womersley's (1974) equation, and percentage body fat was calculated from Siri's (1961) equation. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in stature, body mass and BMI were observed between Japanese and Australian men, but no ethnic differences were observed in their percentage body fat and height-corrected sum of skinfold thicknesses. No differences were found in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship between the Japanese subjects living in Australia and in Japan. Significant (P<0.05) ethnic differences in the BMI-percentage body fat relationship observed from a comparison between pooled Japanese men (aged 18-40 years, BMI range 16.6-32.8 kg/m2) and Australians (aged 18-39 years, BMI range 16.1-31.4 kg/m2) suggest that Japanese men are likely to have a greater percentage body fat than Australian men at any given BMI value. From the analyses, the Japanese men were estimated to have an equivalent amount of body fat to the Australian men at BMI values that were about 1.5 units lower than those of the Australians (23.5 kg/m2 and 28.2 kg/m2, respectively). It was concluded that Japanese men have greater body fat deposition than Australian-Caucasians at the same BMI value. Japanese men may therefore require lower BMI cut-off points to identify obese individuals compared with Australian-Caucasian men.

  20. A comparison between CLNA and CLA effects on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J; Fernández-Quintela, A; Macarulla, M T; Churruca, I; García, C; Rodríguez, V M; Simón, E; Portillo, M P

    2009-03-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as an anti-obesity molecule for humans is still a matter for debate. Thus, a great deal of scientific work is focussed on the research of new effective molecules without deleterious effects on health. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effects of jacaranda seed oil, rich in a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA), jacaric acid (cis-8,trans-10,cis-12), on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition in rats, and to compare these effects with those of trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups fed with high-fat diets, supplemented or not (control group) with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA group) or 0.5% jacaric acid (CLNA group) for 7 weeks. No statistical differences in food intake or in final body weight were found. Whereas CLA reduced adipose tissue size, CLNA did not. Both CLA and CLNA significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol. In spite of a lack of significant changes in glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR index was significantly increased, as well as did non-esterified fatty acid levels in CLNA-fed rats. No changes in liver composition were observed. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, jacaric acid, unlike CLA, does not show a body-fat lowering effect. Even though it leads to a healthy lipoprotein profile, it impairs insulin function. Consequently, it cannot be proposed as an anti-obesity molecule.

  1. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  2. Comparison of BMI and percentage of body fat of Indian and German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Janewa, Vanessa Schönfeld; Ghosh, Arnab; Scheffler, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Today, serious health problems as overweight and obesity are not just constricted to the developed world, but also increase in the developing countries (Prentice 2006, Ramachandram et al. 2002). Focusing on this issue, BMI and percentage of body fat were compared in 2094 schoolchildren from two cross-sectional studies from India and Germany investigated in 2008 and 2009. The German children are in all age groups significantly taller, whereas the Indian children show higher values in BMI (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 22 kg/m2; German: around 19 kg/m2) and in the percentage of body fat (e.g. 12 years: Indian: around 27%; German: around 18-20%) in most of the investigated age groups. The Indian children have significantly higher BMI between 10 and 13 (boys) respectively 14 years (girls). Indian children showed significant higher percentage of body fat between 10 and 15 years (boys) and between 8 and 16 years (girls). The difference in overweight between Indian and German children was strongest at 11 (boys) and 12 (girls) years: 70% of the Indian but 20% of the German children were classified as overweight. In countries such as India that undergo nutritional transition, a rapid increase in obesity and overweight is observed. In contrast to the industrialized countries, the risk of overweight in developing countries is associated with high socioeconomic status. Other reasons of the rapid increase of overweight in the developing countries caused by different environmental or genetic factors are discussed.

  3. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  4. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  5. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  6. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England†

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  7. Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, Hein A. M.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1997-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

  8. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  9. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female.

  10. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL-Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-17

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))(-18)) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland-Altman's agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R²) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R² = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = -6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = -0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  11. Body fat and racial genetic admixture are associated with aerobic fitness levels in a multiethnic pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Willig, Amanda L; Hunter, Gary R; Casazza, Krista; Heimburger, Douglas C; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R

    2011-11-01

    Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate (i) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to BMI as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and (ii) the congruence of BMI categories with high and low body fat categories of objectively measured percent body fat. Participants were 232 African-American (AA), European-American (EA), and Hispanic-American (HA) children aged 7-12 years (Tanner stage <3). Aerobic fitness was measured via a submaximal indirect calorimetry treadmill test (VO(2-170)), and physical activity levels with accelerometry. Genetic admixture estimates were obtained using 140 genetic ancestry informative markers to estimate European, African, and Amerindian admixture. Fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children were classified into a low body fat group (<25% in males, <30% in females) or a high body fat group based on their percent body fat; children were also categorized according to BMI percentile. Children in the low body fat group had significantly higher aerobic fitness (P < 0.05) regardless of BMI percentile classification. Higher African genetic admixture was associated with lower aerobic fitness (P < 0.05), while physical activity was positively associated with fitness (P < 0.01). In conclusion, aerobic fitness levels differ by percent body fat and genetic admixture irrespective of BMI classification, and such differences should be taken into account when evaluating outcomes of health interventions.

  12. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  13. Sitting height, fat-free mass and body fat as reference variables for lung function in healthy British children: comparison with stature.

    PubMed

    Cotes, J E; Dabbs, J M; Hall, A M; Heywood, C; Laurence, K M

    1979-01-01

    The ventilatory capacity, total lung capacity and transfer factor with their respective subdivisions have been measured on 254 healthy British boy and girl twins aged 8-16 yrs. The logarithmic regression relationships of lung function on stature have been compared with those on sitting height and on stature plus indices of body muscle and fat. The regressions on stature and on sitting height describe the results with similar precision, but stature is marginally better; either index may be used as the reference variable. For the description of inspiratory capacity and of all indices which include this volume (e.g. vital capacity, total lung capacity and transfer factor), additional precision is secured by adding to the regression equation on stature a term for fat-free mass or body mass divided by the square of the stature; for the description of functional residual capacity, the inclusion of a term for % body fat similarly reduces the variance about the regression equation. The difference in lung function between boys and girls is smaller when the function is related to stature than to sitting height. It is further reduced when fat-free mass/sature and % body fat are also included in the prediction equations. The equations may be used to obtain reference values for indices of lung function in similar subjects.

  14. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W; Barlow, Sarah E; Mikhail, Carmen; Wilson, Theresa A; Hernandez, Paula M; Shypailo, Roman J; Abrams, Stephanie H

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and weight-related quality of life, we measured the changes in body fat by bioimpedance and quality of life by Impact of Weight on Quality of Life instrument on 42 multiethnic obese children who took part in our Kamp K'aana program. Significant reduction in body fat was detected with significant improvements in the weight-related quality of life scores.

  15. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Review of the Mechanisms and Effects of Noninvasive Body Contouring Devices on Cellulite and Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Zahra; Halabchi, Farzin; Mazaheri, Reza; Abolhasani, Maryam; Tabesh, Mastaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Today, different kinds of non-invasive body contouring modalities, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency (RF), low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are available for reducing the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue or cellulite. Each procedure has distinct mechanisms for stimulating apoptosis or necrosis adipose tissue. In addition to the mentioned techniques, some investigations are underway for analyzing the efficacy of other techniques such as whole body vibration (WBV) and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). In the present review the mechanisms, effects and side effects of the mentioned methods have been discussed. The effect of these devices on cellulite or subcutaneous fat reduction has been assessed. Evidence Acquisition We searched pubmed, google scholar and the cochrane databases for systemic reviews, review articles, meta-analysis and randomized clinical trials up to February 2015. The keywords were subcutaneous fat, cellulite, obesity, noninvasive body contouring, cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT, HIFU, ESWT and WBV with full names and abbreviations. Results We included seven reviews and 66 original articles in the present narrative review. Most of them were applied on normal weight or overweight participants (body mass index < 30 kg/m2) in both genders with broad range of ages (18 to 50 years on average). In the original articles, the numbers of included methods were: 10 HIFU, 13 RF, 22 cryolipolysis, 11 LLLT, 5 ESWT and 4 WBV therapies. Six of the articles evaluated combination therapies and seven compared the effects of different devices. Conclusions Some of the noninvasive body contouring devices in animal and human studies such as cryolipolysis, RF, LLLT and HIFU showed statistical significant effects on body contouring, removing unwanted fat and cellulite in some body areas. However, the clinical effects are mild to moderate, for example 2 - 4 cm circumference reduction as a sign of subcutaneous fat

  17. Body condition and forage type influence intramuscular and rump fat, and reproductive performance of postpartum Brahman-influenced cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiparous Brahman-influenced cows were managed to achieve marginal (BCS = 4.9 ± 0.1; n = 55) or moderate (BCS = 6.5 ± 0.1; n = 55) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of forage type on estrous characteristics, intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat (RF), and reproductive performan...

  18. Voglibose administration regulates body weight and energy intake in high fat-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Do, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taeon; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Ji Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-17

    We tested whether long-term administration of voglibose (VO) prevents diet induced obesity in addition to hypoglycemic effects in high fat fed mice and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which voglibose exerts its weight lowering effect. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with the control diet (CTL), high-fat diet (HFD) or the HFD with VO supplementations. Blood lipid profile, plasma leptin levels and hepatic triglyceride content, as well as expressions of genes involved in appetite and mitochondrial function were examined. The results showed that VO significantly reduced body weight, fat mass and energy intakes in high fat fed mice. VO showed improved metabolic profiles including blood glucose, triglyceride and free fatty acid. Elevated levels of plasma leptin in HFD were significantly reduced with the VO, furthermore, VO modulated the hypothalamic expressions of leptin receptors and appetite related genes. VO showed the upregulated expressions of PGC-1 in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In conclusion, VO may exert antiobesity properties through reductions in energy intake and improvement in mitochondrial function, indicating that VO has potential therapeutic use in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related complications.

  19. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  20. The acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body metabolic flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Joo, J; Cox, C C; Kindred, E D; Lashinger, L M; Young, M E; Bray, M S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both circadian disruption and timing of feeding have important roles in the development of metabolic disease. Despite growing acceptance that the timing of food consumption has long-term impact on metabolic homeostasis, little is known regarding the immediate influence on whole body metabolism, or the mechanisms involved. We aimed to examine the acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body substrate metabolism and metabolic plasticity, and to determine the potential contribution of the adipocyte circadian clock. Methods: Mice were fed a regimen of 4-h meal at the beginning and end of the dark (waking) cycle, separated by 4 h of fasting. Daily experimental conditions consisted of either an early very high fat or high fat (EVHF or EHF, 60 or 45% kcals from fat, respectively) or late (LVHF or LHF) meal, paired with a low fat (LF, 10% kcals from fat) meal. Metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were assessed. To determine the role of the adipocyte circadian clock, an aP2-CLOCK mutant (ACM) mouse model was used. Results: Mice in the EVHF or EHF groups showed a 13.2 or 8.84 higher percentage of caloric intake from fat and had a 0.013 or 0.026 lower daily average respiratory exchange ratio, respectively, compared with mice eating the opposite feeding regime. Changes in glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were not significant at the end of the 9-day restricted feeding period. ACM mice did not exhibit different metabolic responses to the feeding regimes compared with wild-type littermates. Circadian clock disruption did not influence the short-term response to timed feeding. Conclusions: Both the total fat composition of diet and the timing of fat intake may differentially mediate the effect of timed feeding on substrate metabolism, but may not induce acute changes in metabolic flexibility. PMID:27133618

  1. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  2. Relationship of optical density and skinfold measurements: effects of age and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Quatrochi, J A; Hicks, V L; Heyward, V H; Colville, B C; Cook, K L; Jenkins, K A; Wilson, W L

    1992-12-01

    We examined relationships between skinfold (SKF) and optical density (delta OD) measurements across age and levels of body fatness (%BF) for 151 women, 20 to 72 years. There were significant (p < .05) relationships between delta ODs and SKFs at all sites, except the thigh. The interaction (SKF x Age) was significant (p < .05) for pectoral and biceps delta ODs. Slope comparisons indicated the relationships for younger (29 years) and older (59 years) women differed significantly from zero and each other (p < .05). Analysis of SKF x %BF interactions revealed that relationships between SKFs and delta ODs at the pectoral and biceps sites for leaner (22% BF) women differed significantly from zero (p < .05) and were larger than those for obese (39% BF) women (p < or = .05). Thus, the relationship between SKFs and delta ODs is stronger for younger and leaner women compared to older and fatter women. These findings may reflect differences in fat layering due to age or body fatness and provide insight as to why the manufacturer's near-infrared (NIR) equation significantly underestimates the %BF of obese women.

  3. Disappearance of body fat in normal rats induced by adenovirus-mediated leptin gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoxun; Koyama, Kazunori; Yuan, Xue; Lee, Young; Zhou, Yan-Ting; O’Doherty, Robert; Newgard, Christopher B.; Unger, Roger H.

    1996-01-01

    Sustained hyperleptinemia of 8 ng/ml was induced for 28 days in normal Wistar rats by infusing a recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA (AdCMV-leptin). Hyperleptinemic rats exhibited a 30–50% reduction in food intake and gained only 22 g over the experimental period versus 115–132 g in control animals that received saline infusions or a recombinant virus containing the β-galactosidase gene (AdCMV-βGal). Body fat was absent in hyperleptinemic rats, whereas control rats pair-fed to the hyperleptinemic rats retained ≈50% body fat. Further, plasma triglycerides and insulin levels were significantly lower in hyperleptinemic versus pair-fed controls, while fatty acid and glucose levels were similar in the two groups, suggestive of enhanced insulin sensitivity in the hyperleptinemic animals. Thus, despite equivalent reductions in food intake and weight gain in hyperleptinemic and pair-fed animals, identifiable fat tissue was completely ablated only in the former group, raising the possibility of a specific lipoatrophic activity for leptin. PMID:8962134

  4. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  5. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  6. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  7. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  8. The effects of metabolizable energy intake on body fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Chay-Canul, A J; Ayala-Burgos, A J; Ku-Vera, J C; Magaña-Monforte, J G; Tedeschi, L O

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on changes in fat depots of adult Pelibuey ewes fed roughage diets under tropical conditions. Eighteen 3-year-old Pelibuey ewes with similar body weight (BW) of 37.6 ± 4.0 kg and body condition score (BCS) of 2.5 ± 0.20 were randomly assigned to three groups of six ewes each in a completely randomized design. Ewes were housed in metabolic crates and fed three levels of MEI: low (L), medium (M), and high (H) for 65 days to achieve different BW and BCS. At the end of the experiment, the ewes were slaughtered. Data recorded at slaughter were: weights of viscera and carcass. Internal fat (IF, internal adipose tissue) was dissected, weighed, and grouped as pelvic (around kidneys and pelvic region), omental, and mesenteric regions. Carcass was split at the dorsal midline in two equal halves, weighed, and chilled at 6°C during 24 h. After refrigeration, the left half of the carcass was completely dissected into subcutaneous and intermuscular fat (carcass fat). Dissected carcass fat (CF) of the left carcass was adjusted as whole carcass. At low levels of MEI, proportion of IF and CF was approximately 50%; however, as the MEI was increased, the proportion of IF was increased up to 57% and 60% for M and H, respectively. Omental and pelvic fat depots were those which increased in a larger proportion with respect to the mesenteric fat depot. Regression equations between the weight of each body fat depot and BW had a coefficient of determination (r (2)) that ranged between 0.37 for mesenteric fat and 0.87 for CF. The regression with BCS had a r (2) that ranged between 0.57 for mesenteric and 0.71 for TBF. BW was the best predictor for TBF, CF, omental fat, and pelvic fat; whereas, BCS was better than BW in predicting IF and mesenteric fat. Inclusion of both BW and BCS in multiple regressions improved the prediction for all fat depots, except for pelvic fat, which was best

  9. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  10. The Relationship Between Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Individuals in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie S.; Igumbor, Ehimario U.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in both developed and developing countries is associated with musculoskeletal and other non-communicable diseases. To address this, an accurate measure of body adiposity, bearing in mind several shortcomings of body mass index (BMI), should be used. This study determined the relationship between BMI and body fat (BF)% among adult Nigerians of different ethnic groups residing in an urban setting. Using multistage cluster sampling technique were recruited 1571 subjects (>18 years; male=51.2%) in a cross-sectional study. Body adiposity indices were assessed using BMI and BF%. Using BF%, the result shows that a total number of 156 (9.9%) had low BF% while 291 (18.5%) had very high BF%, while the BMI classifications of body adiposity, 68 (4.3%) were underweight while 271 (17.3%) were obese. There was a strong and positive statistical relationship between BF% and BMI when both were paired without controlling for gender and age (r=0.81, P<0.01). The results show that there is a strong positive association between BMI and BF%, and age and sex are predictors of this association. PMID:28299149

  11. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Body Fat, Physical Fitness and Energy Requirements in Military and Civilian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    discharged from the military. Pregnancy-induced changes in body weight In the Institute of Medicine (9) appointed a Subcommittee to review the effect of... effect of a given weight gain is greatest in thin women and least in overweight women. Pre-pregnancy BMI is also a determinant of fetal growth above and...use in postpartum women. Further, the effect of gestational weight gain and fat accretion on the ability to return to body fat standards in the 6

  12. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  13. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.

  14. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  15. Antihyperlipidemic and body fat-lowering effects of silk proteins with different fibroin/sericin compositions in mice fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seo, Chung-Won; Um, In Chul; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2011-04-27

    The effect of silk protein with different fibroin/sericin compositions on body weight and lipid metabolism in high fat-fed mice was investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for 6 weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF) and high fat diet supplemented with F100 (pure fibroin, HF-F100), F81 (81:19 fibroin/sericin, w/w, HF-F81) or F50 (50:50 fibroin/sericin, w/w, HF-F50). The silk protein-fed mice showed markedly reduced body weight and enhanced lipid profile relative to the HF group. In general, the amount of body fat, triglyceride and total plasma cholesterol levels, atherogenic index and free fatty acid level tended to decrease, while the HDL-cholesterol level increased, with increased amount of sericin in the diet. This hypolipidemic effect was partly due to increased fecal lipid excretion, inhibition of lipogenesis and regulation of adipokine production. These findings illustrate that silk protein, particularly sericin, may be beneficial in the prevention of high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  16. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women). Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively). Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women). Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  17. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  18. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Percent Body Fat in Vietnamese: Implications for the Diagnosis of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ho-Pham, Lan T.; Lai, Thai Q.; Nguyen, Mai T. T.; Nguyen, Tuan V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of obesity in Vietnam has not been well defined because there is a lack of reference data for percent body fat (PBF) in Asians. This study sought to define the relationship between PBF and body mass index (BMI) in the Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation that involved 1217 individuals of Vietnamese background (862 women) aged 20 years and older (average age 47 yr) who were randomly selected from the general population in Ho Chi Minh City. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). PBF was derived as FM over body weight. Results Based on BMI ≥30, the prevalence of obesity was 1.1% and 1.3% for men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ≥25) was ~24% and ~19% in men and women, respectively. Based on the quadratic relationship between BMI and PBF, the approximate PBF corresponding to the BMI threshold of 30 (obese) was 30.5 in men and 41 in women. Using the criteria of PBF >30 in men and PBF >40 in women, approximately 15% of men and women were considered obese. Conclusion These data suggest that body mass index underestimates the prevalence of obesity. We suggest that a PBF >30 in men or PBF >40 in women is used as criteria for the diagnosis of obesity in Vietnamese adults. Using these criteria, 15% of Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City was considered obese. PMID:26018910

  19. Cryolipolysis for Fat Reduction and Body Contouring: Safety and Efficacy of Current Treatment Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Ingargiola, Michael J.; Motakef, Saba; Chung, Michael T.; Vasconez, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cryolipolysis is a nonsurgical technique for localized fat reduction. With the increased risk of complications from more invasive methods such as liposuction, cryolipolysis presents a promising method for nonsurgical body contouring. This study presents a systematic review of the available clinical data, with an emphasis on the efficacy, methods, safety, and complications of cryolipolysis. Methods: To identify clinical studies that assessed outcomes of cryolipolysis, a systematic review of the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was performed with the search algorithm cryolipolysis OR cool sculpting OR fat freezing OR lipocryolysis. Results: The primary literature search returned 319 articles. After inclusion criteria were applied and additional articles were idenfied via manual review of article references, 19 studies were selected for review. Average reduction in caliper measurement ranged from 14.67 percent to 28.5 percent. Average reduction by ultrasound ranged from 10.3 percent to 25.5 percent. No significant impact on lipid levels or liver function tests after cryolipolysis treatments was noted in any study. Only mild, short-term side effects, such as erythema, swelling, and pain, were noted. Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia was described in one patient. Conclusions: Cryolipolysis is a promising procedure for nonsurgical fat reduction and body contouring and presents a compelling alternative to liposuction and other, more invasive methods. This procedure appears to be safe in the short term, with a limited side effect profile, and results in significant fat reduction when used for localized adiposities. It remains unclear whether posttreatment manual massage and multiple treatments in the same anatomic area enhance the efficacy of cryolipolysis. PMID:26017594

  20. Personal best time, percent body fat, and training are differently associated with race time for male and female ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average amount of weekly training, and best time in an Ironman triathlon. For male athletes, percent body fat (r2 = 0.57, p < .001) was related to total race time but not average weekly training. For women, percent body fat showed no association with total race time; howeven average weekly training volume was related to total race time (r = .43, p < .01). Percent body fat and average weekly training were not correlated in either gender Speed in training was not associated with race performance in either gender. For men (r2 = .56, p < .001) and women (r2 = .45, p < .05), personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was related to total race time. We concluded that percent body fat was related to race performance in male athletes and to average weekly training in female athletes. Personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was associated with total race time for both male and female athletes.

  1. Two-generation diet-induced obesity model producing mice with increased amount of body fat in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kubandová, J; Fabian, D; Burkuš, J; Cikoš, Š; Czikková, S; Mozeš, Š; Šefčíková, Z; Koppel, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to develop a model producing obese mice in early adulthood (4-6 weeks) based on their over-nutrition during fetal and early postnatal development. The fertilized dams of the parental generation were fed the standard diet supplemented with high-energy nutritional product Ensure Plus during gestation and lactation. Delivered weanlings were then fed with standard or supplemented diet and assessed for body fat deposits using EchoMRI at the time of early and late adulthood. Maternal over-feeding during the period before weaning had the most significant effect on obesity development in the filial generation. In weanlings, significantly higher body fat deposits and average body weight were recorded. Later, further significant increase in percentage of body fat in both male and female mice was observed. Withdrawal of the Ensure Plus supplement caused a decrease in the percentage of body fat in part of the filial generation. In offspring fed the standard diet, higher fat deposits persisted till the time of late adulthood. We conclude that this diet-induced obesity model might be used in exploration of the effects of elevated body fat on physiological functions of various organ systems during juvenile and early adulthood periods of life of a human being.

  2. Failure to ferment dietary resistant starch in specific mouse models of obesity results in no body fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Martin, Roy J; Tulley, Richard T; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Lissy, Elizabeth; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Keenan, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable fiber that decreases dietary energy density and results in fermentation in the lower gut. The current studies examined the effect of RS on body fat loss in mice. In a 12 week study (study 1), the effect of two different types of RS on body fat was compared with two control diets (0% RS) in C57Bl/6J mice: regular control diet or the control diet that had equal energy density as the RS diet (EC). All testing diets had 7% (wt/wt) dietary fat. In a 16 week study (study 2), the effect of RS on body fat was compared with EC in C57BL/6J mice and two obese mouse models (NONcNZO10/LtJ or Non/ShiLtJ). All mice were fed control (0% RS) or 30% RS diet for 6 weeks with 7% dietary fat. On the 7th week, the dietary fat was increased to 11% for half of the mice, and remained the same for the rest. Body weight, body fat, energy intake, energy expenditure, and oral glucose tolerance were measured during the study. At the end of the studies, the pH of cecal contents was measured as an indicator of RS fermentation. Results: Compared with EC, dietary RS decreased body fat and improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice, but not in obese mice. For other metabolic characteristics measured, the alterations by RS diet were similar for all three types of mice. The difference in dietary fat did not interfere with these results. The pH of cecal contents in RS fed mice was decreased for C57BL/6J mice but not for obese mice, implying the impaired RS fermentation in obese mice. Conclusion: 1) decreased body fat by RS is not simply due to dietary energy dilution in C57Bl/6J mice, and 2) along with their inability to ferment RS; RS fed obese mice did not lose body fat. Thus, colonic fermentation of RS might play an important role in the effect of RS on fat loss. PMID:19739641

  3. Adult offspring of high-fat diet-fed dams can have normal glucose tolerance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Platt, K M; Charnigo, R J; Pearson, K J

    2014-06-01

    Maternal high-fat diet consumption and obesity have been shown to program long-term obesity and lead to impaired glucose tolerance in offspring. Many rodent studies, however, use non-purified, cereal-based diets as the control for purified high-fat diets. In this study, primiparous ICR mice were fed purified control diet (10-11 kcal% from fat of lard or butter origin) and lard (45 or 60 kcal% fat) or butter (32 or 60 kcal% fat)-based high-fat diets for 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and for 2 weeks of nursing. Before mating, female mice fed the 32 and 60% butter-based high-fat diets exhibited impaired glucose tolerance but those females fed the lard-based diets showed normal glucose disposal following a glucose challenge. High-fat diet consumption by female mice of all groups decreased lean to fat mass ratios during the 4th week of diet treatment compared with those mice consuming the 10-11% fat diets. All females were bred to male mice and pregnancy and offspring outcomes were monitored. The body weight of pups born to 45% lard-fed dams was significantly increased before weaning, but only female offspring born to 32% butter-fed dams exhibited long-term body weight increases. Offspring glucose tolerance and body composition were measured for at least 1 year. Minimal, if any, differences were observed in the offspring parameters. These results suggest that many variables should be considered when designing future high-fat diet feeding and maternal obesity studies in mice.

  4. Medium-chain fatty acid nanoliposomes suppress body fat accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Lin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Yang, Shui-Bing; Liu, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hui-Juan; Su, Kun-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are widely used in diets for patients with obesity. To develop a delivery system for suppressing dietary fat accumulation into adipose tissue, MCFA were encapsulated in nanoliposomes (NL), which can overcome the drawbacks of MCFA and keep their properties unchanged. In the present study, crude liposomes were first produced by the thin-layer dispersion method, and then dynamic high-pressure microfluidisation (DHPM) and DHPM combined with freeze-thawing methods were used to prepare MCFA NL (NL-1 and NL-2, respectively). NL-1 exhibited smaller average size (77.6 (SD 4.3) nm), higher zeta potential (- 40.8 (SD 1.7) mV) and entrapment efficiency (73.3 (SD 16.1) %) and better stability, while NL-2 showed narrower distribution (polydispersion index 0.193 (SD 0.016)). The body fat reduction property of NL-1 and NL-2 were evaluated by short-term (2 weeks) and long-term (6 weeks) experiments of mice. In contrast to the MCFA group, the NL groups had overcome the poor palatability of MCFA because the normal diet of mice was maintained. The body fat and total cholesterol (TCH) of NL-1 (1.54 (SD 0.30) g, P = 0.039 and 2.33 (SD 0.44) mmol/l, P = 0.021, respectively) and NL-2 (1.58 (SD 0.69) g, P = 0.041 and 2.29 (SD 0.38) mmol/l, P = 0.015, respectively) significantly decreased when compared with the control group (2.11 (SD 0.82) g and 2.99 (SD 0.48) mmol/l, respectively). The TAG concentration of the NL-1 group (0.55 (SD 0.14) mmol/l) was remarkably lower (P = 0.045) than the control group (0.94 (SD 0.37) mmol/l). No significant difference in weight and fat gain, TCH and TAG was detected between the MCFA NL and MCFA groups. Therefore, MCFA NL could be potential nutritional candidates for obesity to suppress body fat accumulation.

  5. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  6. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael; Emek, Sinan C; Albertsson, Per-Ake; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

  7. Effects of Ag Nanoparticles on Growth and Fat Body Proteins in Silkworms (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xu; Abdlli, Nouara; Wang, Niannian; Lü, Peng; Nie, Zhichao; Dong, Xin; Lu, Shuang; Chen, Keping

    2017-03-30

    Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs), a widely used non-antibiotic, antibacterial material, have shown toxic and other potentially harmful effects in mammals. However, the deleterious effects of AgNPs on insects are still unknown. Here, we studied the effects of AgNPs on the model invertebrate organism Bombyx mori. After feeding silkworm larvae different concentrations of AgNPs, we evaluated the changes of B. mori body weights, survival rates, and proteomic differences. The results showed that low concentrations (<400 mg/L) of AgNPs promoted the growth and cocoon weights of B. mori. Although high concentrations (≥800 mg/L) of AgNPs also improved B. mori growth, they resulted in silkworm death. An analysis of fat body proteomic differences revealed 13 significant differences in fat body protein spots, nine of which exhibited significantly downregulated expression, while four showed significantly upregulated expression. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that at an AgNP concentration of 1600 mg/L, the expression levels of seven proteins were similar to the transcription levels of their corresponding genes. Our results suggest that AgNPs lowered the resistance to oxidative stress, affected cell apoptosis, and induced cell necrosis by regulating related protein metabolism and metabolic pathways in B. mori.

  8. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  9. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  10. Utility of metformin as an adjunct to hydroxycitrate/carnitine for reducing body fat in diabetics.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1998-11-01

    Excessive exposure of tissues to fatty acids is likely to be the chief cause of the various dysfunctions that lead to sustained hyperglycemia in type II diabetes. These dysfunctions are likely to be substantially reversible if body fat and dietary fat can be greatly reduced. Disinhibition of hepatic fatty acid oxidation with hydroxycitrate (HCA) and carnitine has considerable potential as a new weight-loss strategy, but in diabetics runs the risk of further enhancing excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis. Since the clinical utility of metformin in diabetes is probably traceable to inhibition of gluconeogenesis, its use as an adjunct to HCA/carnitine treatment of obesity in diabetics deserves evaluation, particularly as metformin therapy itself tends to reduce body weight. A consideration of relevant evidence suggests that metformin therapy will not impede the activation of fatty acid oxidation by HCA/carnitine, and is likely to potentiate the appetite-suppressant and thermogenic benefits of this strategy. Indeed, since metformin has been reported to lower body weight and improve cardiovascular risk factors in obese non-diabetics, a broader application of a metformin/HCA/carnitine therapy for obesity can be contemplated.

  11. Torso, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a novel role in the larval fat body in regulating insulin signaling and body growth.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Woo; Han, Gangsik; Yun, Hyun Myoung; Lee, Gang Jun; Hyun, Seogang

    2016-08-01

    Torso is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose localized activation at the termini of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by its ligand, Trunk. Recent studies have unveiled a second function of Torso in the larval prothoracic gland (PG) as the receptor for the prothoracicotropic hormone, which triggers pupariation. As such, inhibition of Torso in the PG prolongs the larval growth period, thereby increasing the final pupa size. Here, we report that Torso also acts in the larval fat body, regulating body size in a manner opposite from that of Torso in PG. We confirmed the expression of torso mRNA in the larval fat body and its reduction by RNA interference (RNAi). Fat body-specific knockdown of torso, by either of the two independent RNAi transgenes, significantly decreased the final pupal size. We found that torso knockdown suppresses insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the fat body, as confirmed by repression of Akt and S6K. Notably, the decrease in insulin/TOR signaling and decrease of pupal size induced by the knockdown of torso were rescued by the expression of a constitutively active form of the insulin receptor or by the knockdown of FOXO. Our study revealed a novel role for Torso in the fat body with respect to regulation of insulin/TOR signaling and body size. This finding exemplifies the contrasting effects of the same gene expressed in two different organs on organismal physiology.

  12. Differences in mitochondrial DNA inheritance and function align with body conformation in genetically lean and fat sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, B A; Loughnan, R; Hickford, J; Young, I R; St John, J C; Clarke, I

    2015-05-01

    Body weight and adiposity are determined by the balance between energy intake, energy expenditure, and nutrient deposition. We have identified differences in appetite-regulating peptides in sheep selectively bred to be either lean or fat, wherein gene expression for orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone are elevated in the lean group. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms leading to differences in body composition in the lean and fat lines remains unknown. We measured postprandial temperature in adipose tissue and muscle to ascertain whether a difference in thermogenesis is associated with the difference in body composition in genetically lean (n = 8) and fat (n = 12) ewes. Body weight was higher (P < 0.01) but percent fat mass was lower (P < 0.001) in the lean group. The percent lean mass was similar in lean and fat groups. Animals received intracerebroventricular cannulae and temperature probes implanted into the retroperitoneal fat and the hind-limb skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis). Animals were meal fed (1100-1600 h) to entrain postprandial thermogenesis. Food intake was similar between lean and fat animals. Postprandial thermogenesis was greater (P < 0.05) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of lean animals but not in skeletal muscle. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin reduced (P< 0.05) food intake by an equal extent in both groups. Postprandial expression of UCP1 mRNA was greater (P < 0.05) in retroperitoneal fat of lean animals, with similar UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial genome sequencing indicated haplotypic clustering in lean and fat animals within both the encoding and nonencoding regions. This demonstrates that differences in body composition may be underpinned by differences in thermogenesis, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, thermogenic differences may be associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, suggesting a strong genetic component inherited through the maternal lineage.

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2016-12-05

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n=13) or non-exercising control group (n=14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group x time interaction (P<0.05) for heart rate, sympathovagal balance and body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P<0.05); and R-R intervals which significant increased (P<0.05) following WBVT compared to no changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r=0.63, P<0.05). Our findings indicate that WBVT improves HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  14. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. PMID:23031203

  15. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  16. Feeding behavior and body weight development: lessons from rats subjected to gastric bypass surgery or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Furnes, M W; Zhao, C-M; Stenstrom, B; Arum, C-J; Tommeras, K; Kulseng, B; Chen, D

    2009-12-01

    Weight loss treatments include diets, drugs, physical training, and surgery, namely bariatric or obesity surgery. The current standard for bariatric surgery is gastric bypass. There are common beliefs that gastric bypass induces body weight loss because of a reduced food intake and that high-fat diet induces overweight and obesity because of overnutrition. The principal aim of the studies on rats summarized herein was to better understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass achieves body weight loss and by which high-fat diet induces obesity. The results indicated that gastric bypass efficiently reduced body weight, particularly the fat compartment, which was unlikely to be caused by early satiety, reduced food intake or malabsorption, and that large meal size, but not overnutrition, was mainly responsible for high-fat diet-induced obesity. It was unclear whether gastric ghrelin, obestatin and/or amine in the A-like cells were involved in this context.

  17. Cytochemical localization of malate synthase in amphibian fat body adipocytes: possible glyoxylate cycle in a vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Davis, W L; Jones, R G; Goodman, D B

    1986-05-01

    The adipocytes of amphibian abdominal fat bodies contain typical microperoxisomes, as indicated by their fine structure. Electron microscopic cytochemistry showed that these organelles contain the enzymes catalase, typical for peroxisomes, and malate synthase. The latter is an enzymatic component characteristic of the glyoxylate cycle, a biochemical pathway known to exist in plant glyoxysomes (peroxisomes). This metabolic pathway makes possible the net conversion of lipid to carbohydrate. Toad adipocytes may represent yet another example of vertebrate peroxisomes which contain one of the marker enzymes (malate synthase) characteristic of the glyoxylate shunt.

  18. FADS2 genotype influences whole-body resting fat oxidation in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Roke, Kaitlin; Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Spriet, Lawrence L; Mutch, David M

    2016-07-01

    Considerable evidence supports an association between fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) polymorphisms and the efficiency of converting alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) via the desaturation-elongation pathway. However, ALA conversion into EPA represents only 1 of the metabolic fates for this essential fatty acid, as ALA is also highly oxidized. This study demonstrates for the first time that genetic variation in FADS2 (rs174576) is not only associated with the activity of the desaturation-elongation pathway, but also whole-body fat oxidation.

  19. Homeostatic and circadian control of body temperature in the fat-tailed gerbil.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-01-01

    The interplay of homeostasis and circadian rhythmicity in the control of body temperature was studied in the fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). In a first study, the body temperature rhythm of 8 gerbils maintained at 24 degrees C under a 14L:10D light-dark cycle was studied by telemetry. Data from 9 other species of small mammals were also obtained for comparison. The gerbils were found to exhibit a robust rhythm of body temperature (the most robust of the 10 species) with a high plateau during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle and a low plateau during the light phase. In a second experiment, 5 gerbils were allowed to select the temperature of their environment by moving along a thermal gradient. The animals consistently selected higher ambient temperatures during the light phase of the light-dark cycle (when their body temperature was at the low plateau). In a third experiment, the metabolic response of 8 gerbils to an acute cold exposure was determined by indirect calorimetry. Greater cold-induced thermogenesis was observed during the light phase. The fact that the animals selected higher ambient temperatures and displayed greater cold-induced thermogenesis when their body temperature was lower contradicts the hypothesis that the body temperature rhythm is caused by a rhythmic oscillation of the thermoregulatory set point.

  20. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  1. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances.

  2. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schellart, Nico A M; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P; van Hulst, Rob A

    2013-03-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded by a blood compartment in series, nitrogen tensions and loads were calculated with a 40 min/3.1 bar (absolute) profile. Compared with Haldanian models, the new model showed a substantial delay in N2 uptake and (especially) release. One hour after surfacing, an increase of 14-28% in BF resulted in a whole body increase of the N2 load of 51%, but in only 15% in the blood compartment. This would result in an increase in the bubble grade of only 0.01 Kisman-Masurel (KM) units at the scale near KM = I-. This outcome was tested indirectly by a dry dive simulation (air breathing) with 53 male divers with a small range in age and Vo2max to suppress multicollinearity. BF was determined with the four-skinfold method. Precordial Doppler bubble grades determined at 40, 80, 120, and 160 min after surfacing were used to calculate the Kisman Integrated Severity Score and were also transformed to the logarithm of the number of bubbles/cm(2) (logB). The highest of the four scores yielded logB = -1.78, equivalent to KM = I-. All statistical outcomes of partial correlations with BF were nonsignificant. These results support the model outcomes. Although this and our previous study suggest that BF does not influence venous gas embolism (Schellart NAM, van Rees Vellinga TP, van Dijk FH, Sterk W. Aviat Space Environ Med 83: 951-957, 2012), more studies with different profiles under various conditions are needed to establish whether BF remains (together with age and Vo2max) a basic physical characteristic or will become less important for the medical examination and for risk assessment.

  3. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  4. Associations between body fat variability and later onset of cardiovascular disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Osamu; Arioka, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Daiki

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is current debate regarding whether body weight variability is associated with cardiovascular events. Recently, high body fat percentage (BF%) has been shown to be a cardiovascular risk factor. We therefore hypothesized that BF% variability would present a stronger cardiovascular risk than body weight variability. Methods A single-center retrospective cohort study of medical check-up examinees aged 20 years or older at baseline (2005) was performed. Examinees were followed in 2007, 2009, and 2013–2014. BF% variability in 2005, 2007 and 2009 was calculated as the root-mean square error (RMSE) using a simple linear regression model. Multiple logistic regression models estimated the association between BF%-RMSE and new diagnoses of cardiovascular risk factors occurring between the 2009 and 2013–2014 visits. Results In total, 11,281 participants (mean age: 51.3 years old, 48.8% were male) were included in this study. The average BF%-RMSE of our subjects was 0.63, and the average BMI-RMSE was 0.24. The high BF%-RMSE group (76-100th percentile) had a higher incidence of hypertension and a lower incidence of diabetes mellitus than the low BF%-RMSE group (1-25th percentile). This tendency was particularly evident in male participants. BMI-RMSE was not associated with any cardiovascular risks in our study. Conclusions This study indicates that body fat variability has contrasting effects on cardiovascular risk factors, while body weight variability has no significant effects. PMID:28369119

  5. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  6. Normative data of body fat mass and its distribution as assessed by DXA in Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Raman K; Tandon, Nikhil; Garg, M K; Narang, Archna; Mehan, Neena; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of body fat mass is precise and highly correlated with under water weighing. In view of ethnic differences, we undertook this study to prepare normative data for body fat mass in apparently healthy adult Indians and correlate it with body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional population-based study included 2347 subjects (male: 924; female: 1423) aged >20 yr who participated in a general health examination. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body fat mass by DXA. All subjects were categorized as overweight and obese based on standard BMI criteria. Mean age and BMI were 49.1 ± 18.2yr and 25.0 ± 4.7kg/m(2), respectively. Mean percent total and regional fat (trunk, arm, and leg) reached maximum in the age group of 30-40yr in males and 50-60yr in females. Females had significantly higher total and regional fat mass compared with males. Fat mass was positively correlated with age (r = 0.224; p < 0.00001) and BMI (r = 0.668; p < 0.00001). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen in 2119 (46.1%) and 536 (13.8%), respectively, according to World Health Organization definition and 64.0% and 31.1%, respectively, as per Indian guidelines. Percent total body fat mass (PTBFM) of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22.0kg/m(2) with sensitivity of >80% and specificity of >70% in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Body fat mass in Indians is higher than that in Western populations for a given age and BMI. PTBFM of 25% in males and 30% in females corresponds to BMI of 22kg/m(2) in Indians.

  7. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-07

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans.

  8. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E. N.; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J.; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  9. Pancreatic Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome and Visceral Fat but Not Beta-Cell Function or Body Mass Index in Pediatric Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Staaf, Johan; Labmayr, Viktor; Paulmichl, Katharina; Manell, Hannes; Cen, Jing; Ciba, Iris; Dahlbom, Marie; Roomp, Kirsten; Anderwald, Christian-Heinz; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Schneider, Reinhard; Forslund, Anders; Widhalm, Kurt; Bergquist, Jonas; Ahlström, Håkan; Bergsten, Peter; Weghuber, Daniel; Kullberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with obesity have increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Pancreatic fat has been related to these conditions; however, little is known about associations in pediatric obesity. The present study was designed to explore these associations further. Methods We examined 116 subjects, 90 with obesity. Anthropometry, MetS, blood samples, and oral glucose tolerance tests were assessed using standard techniques. Pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and other fat depots were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Results The PFF was elevated in subjects with obesity. No association between PFF and body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) was found in the obesity subcohort. Pancreatic fat fraction correlated to Insulin Secretion Sensitivity Index-2 and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in simple regression; however, when using adjusted regression and correcting for BMI-SDS and other fat compartments, PFF correlated only to visceral adipose tissue and fasting glucose. Highest levels of PFF were found in subjects with obesity and MetS. Conclusions In adolescents with obesity, PFF is elevated and associated to MetS, fasting glucose, and visceral adipose tissue but not to beta-cell function, glucose tolerance, or BMI-SDS. This study demonstrates that conclusions regarding PFF and its associations depend on the body mass features of the cohort. PMID:27941426

  10. Body fat percentile curves for Korean children and adolescents: a data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-03-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys and 745 for girls aged between 10 and 18 yr. Fat mass and fat free mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of development in body fat percentage, fat mass and fat free mass differed for boys and girls, showing a decreased fat mass with an increased fat free mass in boys but gradual increases with age in girls. The considerable proportion of boys and girls with relatively normal fat mass appeared to be misclassified to be at risk of overweight based on the BMI criteria. Therefore, the information on the percentiles of body fat and fat free mass with their patterns would be helpful to complement assessment of overweight and obesity based on BMI for Korean children and adolescents.

  11. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  12. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  13. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  14. Physical Activity is Associated with Percent Body Fat and Body Composition but not Body Mass Index in White and Black College Students.

    PubMed

    Zanovec, Michael; Lakkakula, Anantha P; Johnson, Lisa G; Turri, Georgianna

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of self-reported physical activity (PA) with body composition in 290 college students (49% male, 60% White) 18-25 years of age. Outcome measures included: self-reported PA levels calculated in MET-hrs·wk(-1) from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); body mass index (BMI; in kg·m(-2)); and body composition variables estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean activity levels of the sample were 39.8 ± 23.8 MET-hrs·wk(-1). Participants were divided into quartiles of PA levels: ≥0 to <24.0, ≥24.0 to <34.0, ≥34.0 to <51.25, and ≥51.25 MET-hrs ·wk(-1) and body composition variables were compared by group. Chi-square analyses revealed a significant difference for gender by PA quartile [χ(2) (3, N=290) = 32.42, p < 0.0001], and for gender by race by PA quartile [χ(2) (9, N=290) = 37.82, p < 0.0001]. MET-hrs·wk(-1) was inversely correlated with %BF (r = -0.40, p < 0.0001) but not BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.43). When comparing body composition variables across PA quartiles, no significant differences were observed for BMI; however, subjects in the highest quartile of PA had a lower percent body fat (%BF) and fat mass (FM), and a higher lean-tissue mass (LTM) compared to subjects in the other three groups. In this cohort of young adults, participants in the highest activity group had a more fit body composition profile (e.g., lower %BF, lower FM, and higher LTM) which was not reflected in BMI and was independent of gender and race.

  15. Effects of high-fat diets on body composition, hypothalamus NPY, and plasma leptin and corticosterone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Stachoń, Małgorzata; Fürstenberg, Ewa; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the adipogenic effects of high-fat diets with different fat sources, as well as their influence on hypothalamus NPY content (NPY) and plasma corticosterone (Cs) and leptin (Lep) concentrations. In a 6-wk experiment performed in 28 male Wistar rats, high-fat diets (approx 60% of energy as fat) containing sunflower oil (S), rapeseed oil (R), palm oil (P), or lard (L) as the fat source were applied. Carcass composition was analyzed by standard methods; NPY, Cs, and Lep were determined by RIA method. Gas chromatography was applied to measure fatty acid composition of dietary fats. S group had the highest body fat content and Lep and the lowest Cs and NPY, while L rats had high Lep and the highest Cs and NPY. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of dietary fat is of high importance where effects of high fat diets on adiposity, as well as on plasma levels of both hormones and hypothalamus NPY content are concerned.

  16. Development of a Body Condition Scoring Index for Female African Elephants Validated by Ultrasound Measurements of Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1–5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2–5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  17. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  18. Improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity and body fat accumulation by a Nelumbo nucifera leaf flavonoid-rich extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Chung, Pei-Jun; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-06-09

    Diets high in fat lead to excessive lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the antiobesity effect of a flavonoid-enriched extract from Nelumbo nucifera leaf (NLFE) in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. NLFE reduced the body weight, body lipid accumulation, and activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. NLFE also suppressed the expression of FAS, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and HMGCoA reductase and increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver. Taken together, we demonstrated that NLFE targets lipid-regulated enzymes and may be effective in attenuating body lipid accumulation and preventing obesity.

  19. Fat bodies and thin bodies. Cultural, biomedical and market discourses on obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Arnaiz, Mabel

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the question of why dieting, health, and the care of the body have come to play such a central role in our daily lives, and explores the relationship of these practices to the emergence of obesity as a social and health problem. Messages urging people to regulate their food intake and get more exercise in order to avoid obesity conflict with warnings that anorexia and bulimia are among the possible consequences of overly strict diets and excessive physical activity. The relationship between diet, beauty and health has been appropriated and re-elaborated as a marketing strategy with wide-ranging cultural consequences. "Being on a diet" is no longer only a matter of biology, nutrition, medicine or science; it is also about culture, politics and society.

  20. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body

    SciTech Connect

    Lindmo, Karine; Simonsen, Anne; Brech, Andreas; Finley, Kim; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald . E-mail: stenmark@ulrik.uio.no

    2006-07-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm by way of autophagy is essential for cellular amino acid homeostasis and for tissue remodeling. In insects such as Drosophila, autophagy is developmentally upregulated in the larval fat body prior to metamorphosis. Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In yeast, Vps18 and other members of the HOPS complex have been found essential for autophagic degradation. In Drosophila, the Vps18 homologue Deep orange (Dor) has previously been shown to mediate fusion of multivesicular endosomes with lysosomes. A requirement of Dor for ecdysone-mediated chromosome puffing has also been reported. In the present report, we have tested the hypothesis that Dor may control programmed autophagy at the level of ecdysone signaling as well as by mediating autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion. We show that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy and provide evidence that autophagy is blocked at two levels. First, PI3K activity was not down-regulated correctly in dor larvae, which correlated with a decrease in ecdysone reporter activity. The down-regulation of PI3K activity was restored by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae. Second, neither exogenous ecdysone nor overexpression of PTEN, a silencer of PI3K signaling, restored fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in the fat body of dor mutants. These results indicate that Dor controls autophagy indirectly, via ecdysone signaling, as well as directly, via autolysosomal fusion.

  1. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:24789992

  2. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A.; Dar, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001) as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018). Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027) as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029), with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001) of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.003), waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03), total body fat (P = 0.003), plasma glucose (P < 0.001), leptin levels (P = 0.013), and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03) at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities. PMID:27042412

  3. Skeletal muscle TLR4 and TACE are associated with body fat percentage in older adults.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Kyle L; Connors, Ian D; Deal, Michael A; Mott, Rachael E

    2016-04-01

    Elevated skeletal muscle expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to increased inflammation in clinical populations. TNFα converting enzyme (TACE), which cleaves membrane-bound TNFα (mTNFα) to its soluble (sTNFα) and more bioactive form, has been linked to chronic disease. In contrast, higher physical activity level is associated with decreased chronic disease risk and inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and skeletal muscle TLR4, TACE, and TNFα in older adults. In 26 older adults (age = 68 ± 4 years, body mass index = 26 ± 3 kg·m(-2)), self-reported physical activity (kcal·week(-1)), estimated maximal oxygen consumption, and body composition (air plethysmography) were measured. TLR4, TACE, mTNFα, and sTNFα were measured in skeletal muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) using western blot analyses. Pearson product-moment correlations were run between variables. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Skeletal muscle TACE was directly associated with sTNFα (r = 0.53, p < 0.01). Linear regression modeling showed that mTNFα and TACE expression were predictive of sTNFα expression. No correlations were observed between physical activity and TLR4, TACE, or sTNFα. Percent body fat was directly associated with skeletal muscle TLR4 (r = 0.52, p < 0.01) and TACE (r = 0.50, p < 0.01), whereas fasting blood glucose was directly associated with TACE and sTNFα. In conclusion, we found that percent body fat was directly associated with TLR4 and TACE expression in skeletal muscle of older adults. These findings suggest that elevated skeletal muscle expression of TLR4 and TACE may contribute to the augmented inflammation and chronic disease risk observed with increased adiposity.

  4. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P < 0.0001) and in the lean BMI-classified subjects (P < 0.0001), but not in the overweight or obese-classified individuals. Importantly, BF% was significantly higher in lean (by BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P < 0.0001), whereas no differences were observed for BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  5. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  6. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  7. Combined intervention of soy isoflavone and moderate exercise prevents body fat elevation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Wang, Xinxiang; Chiba, Hiroshige; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Nakatani, Teruyo; Ezaki, Osamu; Cui, Hongbin; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2004-07-01

    Body fat accumulation and bone loss are both often associated with estrogen deficiency following menopause. In this study, we examined whether soy isoflavone, one of the phytoestrogens, and moderate exercise interventions exhibit cooperative effects on body composition and bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Eight-week-old female mice were assigned to 6 groups: (1) sham-operated (sham); (2) OVX; (3) OVX with received a soy isoflavone diet (OVX+ISO); (4) OVX with exercised on a treadmill (OVX+EX); (5) OVX with given both isoflavone and exercise (OVX+ISO&EX ); and (6) OVX with treated with 17 beta-estradiol subcutaneously (OVX+E2). Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After the 6-week intervention, whole body fat (%) in the OVX group showed significantly higher than that in the sham group. Intervention of exercise and isoflavone alone partially inhibited OVX-induced body fat gain, and the combined intervention as well as E2 treatment completely restored fat mass to the sham level. Lean body mass in the whole body was not different in OVX group compared with that in OVX+ISO, OVX+EX, and OVX+E2 groups, but it was significantly higher in OVX+ISO&EX than in other groups. BMD of the whole body, lumbar spine, or femur showed significantly reduced by OVX, and the bone loss was partially inhibited by intervention of exercise or isoflavone alone. However, the combined intervention completely restored the bone mass to the level of sham, as did E2. Serum total cholesterol was significantly increased by OVX, which was normalized by the combined intervention or E2 treatment. These results demonstrate that combined intervention of soybean isoflavone and exercise prevented body fat accumulation in the whole body with an increase in lean body mass and restoration of bone mass, and reduced high serum cholesterol in OVX mice.

  8. Effect of an Environmental School-based Obesity Prevention Program On Changes in Body Fat and Body Weight: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, D.A.; Champagne, C.M.; Harsha, D.; Han, H.; Martin, C.K.; Newton, R.L.; Sothern, M.; Stewart, T.M.; Webber, L.S.; Ryan, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized 3-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N=2060; M age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in Grades 4 to 6 participated in the study. 17 school clusters (M = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: 1) Primary Prevention (PP), an environmental modification program, 2) Primary + Secondary Prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or 3) Control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and body mass index z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an environmental modification arm (EM). Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (−1.7% ± 0.38% versus −0.14% ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9% ± 0.22% versus 3.93% ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (< 0.30). In conclusion, this school-based environmental modification programs had modest beneficial effects on changes in percent body fat. Addition of a classroom/internet program to the environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children. PMID:22402733

  9. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N.

    2010-05-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted RST to systematically exceed the DXA-measured RST (mean ± SD, 1.389 ± 0.024 versus 1.341 ± 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 ± 12.0% versus 24.9 ± 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA RST is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  10. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-05-07

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R(ST) value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R(ST) concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R(ST) values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R(ST) value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body (40)K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R(ST) values. The DXA R(ST) values were strongly associated with the R(ST) values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted R(ST) to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R(ST) (mean +/- SD, 1.389 +/- 0.024 versus 1.341 +/- 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 +/- 12.0% versus 24.9 +/- 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA R(ST) is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  11. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  12. Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.

  13. [Effect of rapeseed in beef cattle feeding on fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and oxidative stability of body fat].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Richter, G H; Wendemuth, M; Möckel, P; Graf, H; Jahreis, G; Lübbe, F

    1994-12-01

    Four groups of five fattening bulls each consumed a concentrate--wheat straw-diet (2.5:1) supplemented with either 0, 7, 14 or 21% ground rape seed for 350 days. Rape seed contained 427 g crude fat (ether extract) and 127 mg vitamin E per kg dry matter. The supplementation with rapeseed increased the fat concentrations in the rations from 25 to 50, 75 and 100 g, and of vitamin E from 11 to 19, 26 and 34 mg per kg dry matter. All bulls were slaughtered with about 560 kg body weight. Fatty acid composition of depot fat and of the fat of musc. long. dorsi were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Vitamin E concentrations in blood, depot fat and muscle were determined by HPLC. Oxidative stability of depot fat was measured as induction time by means of rancimat-test. Rape seed supplementation decreased C16-fatty acids and increased C18-fatty acids in depot and muscle fat. Muscle fat contained significantly more mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids (40.2 and 7.4%) than depot fat (33.5 and 2.0%, respectively). Rape seed supplementation enhanced significantly the vitamin E-concentrations in all body samples. In depot fat vit. E increased from 4.5 to 7.3, 8.5 and 14.9 micrograms/g. Induction time increased from 10.9 to 18.5, 16.1 and 19.5 h, when 0, 7, 14 or 21% rapeseed were added.

  14. Protein supplementation with low fat meat after resistance training: effects on body composition and strength.

    PubMed

    Negro, Massimo; Vandoni, Matteo; Ottobrini, Sara; Codrons, Erwan; Correale, Luca; Buonocore, Daniela; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-08-04

    Beef is a nutrient-rich, high-quality protein containing all the essential amino acids in proportions similar to those found in human skeletal muscle. In order to investigate the efficacy of a beef supplementation strategy on strength and body composition, we recruited 26 young healthy adults to participate in a resistance-training program of eight weeks, based on the use of isotonic machines and free weights at 75% of one repetition maximum. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, food group and control group, of 12 and 14 subjects respectively. Food group were supplemented after resistance training with a 135 g serving of lean beef (tinned meat), providing 20 g of protein and 1.7 g of fat. No supplementation was provided to control group. Fat mass, fat free mass, lean mass, assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and muscle strength, assessed by one repetition maximum test, were evaluated in all subjects both at the beginning (week 0) and at the end (week 8) of the study. Pre- and post-training differences were evaluated with paired t-tests while group differences for each outcome parameter was evaluated with independent t-tests. At the end of the study the food group showed a significantly decrease in fat mass (week 0: 15.0 ± 6.7 kg; week 8: 13.1 ± 7.6 kg; Δ: -1.9 ± 2.9 kg; p < 0.05) and a significantly increase in fat free mass (week 0: 52.8 kg ± 9.4; week 8: 55.1 kg ± 10.9; Δ: 2.3 ± 2.5 kg; p < 0.01). No significant differences in lean mass were found in either food group or control group. No significant differences in one repetition maximum tests were found between food group and control group. Tinned meat can be considered a nutrition strategy in addition to other proteins or amino acid supplements, but as with any other supplementation strategy, a proper nutrition plan must be coupled.

  15. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Strom, Sara S.; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Sun, Yan V.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W. Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Britton, Angela F.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V.; Becker, Diane M.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Evans, Michele K.; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M.; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce

  16. Fat body and hemocyte contribution to the antimicrobial peptide synthesis in Calliphora vicina R.-D. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Andrey Yu; Nesin, Alexander P; Simonenko, Nina P; Gordya, Natalia A; Tulin, Dmitriy V; Kruglikova, Anastasia A; Chernysh, Sergey I

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides accumulated in the hemolymph in response to infection are a key element of insect innate immunity. The involvement of the fat body and hemocytes in the antimicrobial peptide synthesis is widely acknowledged, although release of the peptides present in the hemolymph from the immune cells was not directly verified so far. Here, we studied the presence of antimicrobial peptides in the culture medium of fat body cells and hemocytes isolated from the blue blowfly Calliphora vicina using complex of liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and antimicrobial activity assays. Both fat body and hemocytes are shown to synthesize and release to culture medium defensin, cecropin, diptericins, and proline-rich peptides. The spectra of peptide antibiotics released by the fat body and hemocytes partially overlap. Thus, the results suggest that insect fat body and blood cells are capable of releasing mature antimicrobial peptides to the hemolymph. It is notable that the data obtained demonstrate dramatic difference in the functioning of insect antimicrobial peptides and their mammalian counterparts localized into blood cells' phagosomes where they exert their antibacterial activity.

  17. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana.

    PubMed

    Chowański, Szymon; Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress.

  18. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  19. New Insight into Fat, Muscle and Bone Relationship in Women: Determining the Threshold at Which Body Fat Assumes Negative Relationship with Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z.; Brummel-Smith, Ken; Ghosh, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim was to investigate the relationships among lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), and bone mineral density (BMD) in women stratified by body mass index (BMI) (BMI – normal-weight, overweight, obese) and to determine threshold at which body fat assumes negative relationship with BMD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 471 healthy Caucasian women, aged 18-67 years. BMD, LM, and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections was used to test the BMI group differences. Linear regression was used to examine independent contributions of LM and FM on BMD of various skeletal sites (controlling for age and height). In overweight/obese women PROC LOESS plots were used to determine the inflection points at which either LM or FM relationship with BMD changes direction. Separate analyses in pre- and post-menopausal women were conducted as well. Results: Spine and femoral neck BMD were not different among three BMI groups while total body, femur and radius BMD were statistically different (the highest in the obese group). Linear regression revealed that LM had significant positive association with BMD of various skeletal sites in all groups. FM showed a negative association with BMD of femoral neck and femur in normal-weight and spine in overweight women, but a positive association with radius in obese women. Inflection points showed that body fat between 33% and 38% assumed negative relationship with BMD for most skeletal sites in overweight and obese women. Conclusions: Although LM has strong positive relationship with BMD, FM above 33% in overweight/obese women is negatively related to BMD of most skeletal sites. Therefore, overweight/obesity after certain amount of FM, may not be a protective factor against osteoporosis in females. For clinical practice in women, it is important to maintain LM and keep FM accrual below ~30% body fat to maintain good skeletal health. PMID:25538842

  20. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise.

  1. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (<0.30). In conclusion, this school-based EM programs had modest beneficial effects on changes in percent body fat. Addition of a classroom/internet program to the environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children.

  2. Several statins increase body and liver fat accumulation in a model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, L; Hijona, E; Macarulla, M T; Gracia, A; Larrechi, I; Bujanda, L; Hijona, L; Portillo, M P

    2013-06-01

    Statins are a family of drugs used in hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of statins on body and liver fat accumulation in obese Zucker rats. Seventy Zucker (fa/fa) rats were divided into seven groups. Rats from six statin groups were treated with pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin and lovastatin respectively, at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg body weight/day. After 6 weeks, liver and white adipose tissue from intra-abdominal and subcutaneous locations were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin and lovastatin treated rats was significantly increased. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity was increased by the administration of fluvastatin and lovastatin, as was glucose-6-P dehydrogenase (G6PDH) by the administration of atorvastatin and lovastatin. No changes were observed in malic enzyme (ME) activity. Furthermore, heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) was increased in all groups where the subcutaneous depot was increased, and total LPL increased only in rosuvastatin and fluvastatin-treated groups. With regard to liver, there were no changes in weight but the amount of triacylglycerols was increased in rosuvastatin group, as well as its liver damage was higher. In this group FAS and G6PDH activities were increased and no changes were observed in ME, acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a) activities. All statins, with the exception of simvastatin, worsen insulin resistance. These results show that statins have different effects on body fat accumulation. Moreover, rosuvastatin also shows a prosteatotic effect. These results should be taken into account for statin choice in prescription.

  3. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for assessing fat and lean body mass in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Colette N; Kauffman, Tricia G; Cooney, Paula T; Ramseur, Keshia R; Brown, Lynda M

    2011-04-18

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples.

  4. Percent body fat equations for a diverse population, aged 17 to 30: the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research from our lab showed that the Jackson-Pollock generalized equations gave biased percent fat (%fat) estimates of men and women. The likely sources are increased %fat and the diversity of contemporary subjects. Our goal was to develop anthropometric %fat equations valid for a diverse populat...

  5. Pregnancy-Induced Changes in Body Fat, Physical Fitness and Energy Requirements in Military and Civilian Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    at 6 mo postpartum. The effect of gestational weight gain, fat accretion and deconditioning would affect a woman’s ability to return to weight , body ...military. 8 UNPUBLISHEE Pregnancy-induced changes in body weight In the Institute of Medicine (9) appointed a Subcommittee to review the effect of...examined in this data set of healthy women. The effects of physical activity level on pregnancy-induced changes in weight , body composition, physical

  6. Effects of education in an obesity control program for obese homemakers on body fat and flexibility in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Sun; Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Nam-Cho

    2014-09-01

    The study aims to investigate the effects of education in an obesity-control program (EOCP) on the percentage of body fat and flexibility in obese women in Korea. Women with over 30% body fat were offered EOCP between July 2012 and October 2012. The EOCP consisted of an educational program, exercise program, and counseling. The numbers of participants both in the EOCP and control group were 17. The study was analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test using the Statistical Analysis System package. The EOCP participants presented statistically significant increases in the degree of forward trunk flexion, but only the percentage of the body fat showed differences within the EOCP group. The EOCP improved flexibility in obese women, and can be used in local obesity-control programs.

  7. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    PubMed

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  8. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-10-27

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength.

  9. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity.

  10. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  11. Low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: regulation of energy balance and body weight regain in rats.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Yinglong, Bai; Burget, Lukas; Spangler, Lothar J; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the current investigations was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (LC-HFD) on body weight, body composition, growth hormone (GH), IGF-I, and body weight regain after stopping the dietary intervention and returning the diet back to standard laboratory chow (CH). In study one, both adolescent and mature male Wistar rats were maintained on either an isocaloric LC-HFD or CH for 16 days before having their diet switched. In study two, mature rats were maintained on either LC-HFD or CH for 16 days to determine the effects of the LC-HFD on fat pad weight. LC-HFD leads to body weight loss in mature rats (P < 0.01) and lack of body weight gain in adolescent rats (P < 0.01). Despite less body weight, increased body fat was observed in rats maintained on LC-HFD (P < 0.05). Leptin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05), and IGF-I (P < 0.01) concentrations were reduced in the LC-HFD rats. When the diet was returned to CH following LC-HFD, body weight regain was above and beyond that which was lost (P < 0.01). The LC-HFD resulted in increased body fat and had a negative effect upon both GH and IGF-I concentrations, which might have implications for the accretion and maintenance of lean body mass (LBM), normal growth rate and overall metabolic health. Moreover, when the LC-HFD ceases and a high-carbohydrate diet follows, more body weight is regained as compared to when the LC-HFD is consumed, in the absence of increased energy intake.

  12. Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and WHR ≥ 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm2), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults. PMID:23346302

  13. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to <70th, 70th to <85th, and 85th to <98th. The assignments were 1) dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P < 0.45). The effect of the intervention did not differ by BMI percentile stratum. There was no difference in weight change between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our findings that the dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  14. 20-hydroxyecdysone mediates fat body arylphorin regulation during development of rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica.

    PubMed

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-01-10

    Arylphorin hexamerins are one of the major insect storage proteins involved in diverse functions during metamorphosis. However, their regulation during development is not elucidated so far. In the present study, we documented 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-mediated regulation of arylphorin expression in the fat body of the stored grain pest, Corcyra cephalonica. Based on the differential developmental expression and 20E-induced transcriptional as well as translational level alterations of arylphorin, we isolated the 5' upstream region of the gene to analyze regulatory motifs. Promoter motif analysis revealed the presence of ecdysone response element (ERE). Transient transfection studies showed the functionality of the ERE. Enzyme mobility shift experiments with radiolabelled, cold and mutated probes indicate ERE-nuclear factor binding. This study is the first to report transcriptional regulation of arylphorins by 20E in lepdopteran insect species.

  15. Genetic studies of spectrin in the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster: evidence for a novel lipid uptake apparatus.

    PubMed

    Diaconeasa, Bianca; Mazock, G Harper; Mahowald, Anthony P; Dubreuil, Ronald R

    2013-11-01

    Spectrin cytoskeleton defects produce a host of phenotypes affecting the plasma membrane, cell polarity, and secretory membrane traffic. However, many of the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unexplained by prevailing models. Here we used the larval fat body of Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to further elucidate mechanisms of αβ-spectrin function. The results provide unexpected new insights into spectrin function as well as mechanisms of dietary fat uptake and storage. We show that loss of α- or β-spectrin in the fat body eliminated a population of small cortical lipid droplets and altered plasma membrane architecture, but did not affect viability of the organism. We present a novel model in which αβ-spectrin directly couples lipid uptake at the plasma membrane to lipid droplet growth in the cytoplasm. In contrast, strong overexpression of β-spectrin caused fat body atrophy and larval lethality. Overexpression of β-spectrin also perturbed transport of dietary fat from the midgut to the fat body. This hypermorphic phenotype appears to be the result of blocking secretion of the lipid carrier lipophorin from fat cells. However, this midgut phenotype was never seen with spectrin loss of function, suggesting that spectrin is not normally required for lipophorin secretion or function. The β-spectrin hypermorphic phenotype was ameliorated by co-overexpression of α-spectrin. Based on the overexpression results here, we propose that β-spectrin family members may be prone to hypermorphic effects (including effects on secretion) if their activity is not properly regulated.

  16. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  17. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  18. Body fat and condition in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, from southern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark A; Thiele, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Blubber thickness (n=102) and lipid content (n=37) were measured in sperm whales from three mass stranding events on the west and north-west coasts of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. Blubber thickness was highly variable, ranging from 43.0 to 168.0 mm (mean 98.4+/-18.4 mm) while lipid fat content, also highly variable, ranged from 16.19 to 89.34% (mean 49.2+/-17.9%). Blubber thickness was significantly and positively related to total length, but a blubber thickness index based on the residuals of this relationship was not related to age, sex or reproductive condition. No relationship was found between blubber thickness index and blubber lipid content, indicating that blubber thickness may not provide a comprehensive indication of body fat condition in sperm whales when only measured at a single site. Blubber lipid content was not related to total length, age or sex. Blubber lipid content was stratified vertically throughout the blubber layer, suggesting that the inner blubber layer may be a more active site for lipid deposition and mobilisation, while the outer blubber layer may serve in a structural or thermoregulatory role. The social structure and foraging ecology of this species may serve to minimise the need to rely on stored energy reserves to meet reproductive energy requirements. In addition, the broader role of blubber for structural, buoyancy and insulative functions coupled with high individual variability may cause a lack of obvious relationships between these variables and body size, age, sex and reproductive state in this species.

  19. Discordance between fat mass index and body mass index is associated with reduced bone mineral density in women but not in men: the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K; Hunter, M; James, A; Lim, E M; Cooke, B R; Walsh, J P

    2017-01-01

    The obesity-BMD relationship is complex. In 3045 middle-aged adults, we found that in women (but not men) with discordant fat mass index (FMI)/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone.

  20. Clinical study on the combined effect of capsaicin, green tea extract and essence of chicken on body fat content in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Daniel; Nah, Agatha Khow Hui; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Moritani, Toshio; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2003-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the body fat content of free-living healthy human subjects taking a health supplement containing 0.4 mg capsaicin, 625 mg green tea extract (125 mg catechins and 50 mg caffeine) and 800 mg essence of chicken (CGTE). Subjects were advised to maintain their regular dietary habits and routine physical activity throughout study duration. Their body fat content was measured before and throughout the trial duration using a hand-grip body fat monitor. After 2 wk of supplementation with CGTE, the mean body fat percentage of males and female subjects was significantly less than the initial value (p < 0.05; t-test). 70.6%, of volunteers showed a trend for decreasing body fat content with 4 subjects showing a significant decrease in body fat content over time. The findings suggested that the effects were more prominent in subjects with higher initial body fat content. It was also demonstrated that the resting energy expenditure (REE) of the subjects taking the test samples were significantly increased in groups supplemented with CGTE, compared to placebo group. Thus, the combined thermogenic effect of capsaicin, green tea extract and essence of chicken could translate to a positive clinical effect by reducing approximately 460 g of body fat, following 2 wk of supplementation and the application of this natural health supplement for excess fat regulation, should be considered.

  1. Effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Wen; Yang, Huijie; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Cuiliu; Tong, Guoyu; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Bin; Weng, Jianping; Zhu, Dalong

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. HbA1c declined significantly in all three groups. Body weight, waist, and serum triglycerides decreased with exenatide. After interventions, IHF significantly reduced with three treatments (exenatide Δ = -68 %, insulin Δ = -58 %, pioglitazone Δ = -49 %). Exenatide reduced VF (Δ = -36 %) and SF (Δ = -13 %), and pioglitazone decreased VF (Δ = -30 %) with no impact on SF, whereas insulin had no impact on VF or SF. Levels of TNFα (exenatide/insulin/pioglitazone) decreased, and levels of adiponectin (exenatide/pioglitazone) increased. Analysis showed that ΔIHF correlated with ΔHbA1c and Δweight. Besides, ΔIHF correlated with Δtriglycerides and ΔTNFα, but the correlations fell short of significance after BMI adjustment. By linear regression analysis, ΔHbA1c alone explained 41.5 % of the variance of ΔIHF, and ΔHbA1c + Δweight explained 57.6 % of the variance. Liver fat content can be significantly reduced irrespective of using exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone. Early glycaemic control plays an important role in slowing progression of fatty liver in T2DM.

  2. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  3. Development and validation of anthropometric prediction equations for estimation of body fat in Indonesian men.

    PubMed

    Hastuti, Janatin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Body composition of 292 males aged between 18 and 65 years was measured using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Participants were divided into development (n=146) and cross-validation (n=146) groups. Stature, body weight, skinfold thickness at eight sites, girth at five sites, and bone breadth at four sites were measured and body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) calculated. Equations were developed using multiple regression analyses with skinfolds, breadth and girth measures, BMI, and other indices as independent variables and percentage body fat (%BF) determined from deuterium dilution technique as the reference. All equations were then tested in the cross-validation group. Results from the reference method were also compared with existing prediction equations by Durnin and Womersley (1974), Davidson et al (2011), and Gurrici et al (1998). The proposed prediction equations were valid in our cross-validation samples with r=0.77- 0.86, bias 0.2-0.5%, and pure error 2.8-3.6%. The strongest was generated from skinfolds with r=0.83, SEE 3.7%, and AIC 377.2. The Durnin and Womersley (1974) and Davidson et al (2011) equations significantly (p<0.001) underestimated %BF by 1.0 and 6.9% respectively, whereas the Gurrici et al (1998) equation significantly (p<0.001) overestimated %BF by 3.3% in our cross-validation samples compared to the reference. Results suggest that the proposed prediction equations are useful in the estimation of %BF in Indonesian men.

  4. With Nips, Tucks and Fat Transplants, Americans Are Reshaping Their Bodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... be interested in rejuvenating," ASPS President Dr. Debra Johnson said in a society news release. Removing fat ... called fat grafting, and results can be dramatic, Johnson said. "Because the material injected is the patient's ...

  5. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  6. Thermogenesis is involved in the body-fat lowering effects of resveratrol in rats.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Miranda, Jonatan; Macarulla, M Teresa; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P

    2013-11-15

    The effect of resveratrol on thermogenesis in skeletal muscle and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was investigated. Rats were fed an obesogenic diet supplemented with resveratrol (30mg/kg/day) or not supplemented for 6weeks. Resveratrol intake led to increased gene expression of mitochondrial-transcription-factor-A (TFAM), mitochondrial-protein-cytochrome-C-oxidase subunit-2 (COX2), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator1-α (PGC-1α) in IBAT and increased UCP1protein expression; however, peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-α (PPARα) expression remained unchanged. In gastrocnemius muscle, resveratrol increased the gene expression of TFAM and COX2; however, no changes were observed in levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α and PPARβ/δ. Acetylated-PGC-1α was decreased in the resveratrol-treated group, indicating a higher level of activation, and a significant increase of UCP3 protein expression was observed in this group. The increases in UCP protein expression in two important thermogenic tissues after resveratrol treatment may contribute to increased whole-body energy dissipation, which may help to better understand the body-fat lowering effect of this polyphenol.

  7. Predictive accuracy of three field methods for estimating relative body fatness of nonobese and obese women.

    PubMed

    Heyward, V H; Cook, K L; Hicks, V L; Jenkins, K A; Quatrochi, J A; Wilson, W L

    1992-03-01

    Three methods of body composition assessment were used to estimate percent body fat (%BF) in nonobese (n = 77) and obese (n = 71) women, 20-72 yrs of age. Skinfolds (SKF), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) methods were compared to criterion-derived %BF from hydrostatic weighing (%BFHW). Nonobese subjects had < 30% BFHW and obese subjects had > or = 30% BFHW. The Jackson, Pollock, and Ward SKF equation and the manufacturer's equations for BIA (Valhalla) and NIR (Futrex-5000) were used. For nonobese women there were no significant differences between mean %BFHW and %BFSKF, %BFBIA, and %BFNIR. The rs and SEEs were 0.65 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.61 and 3.6% BF for BIA, and 0.58 and 3.7% BF for NIR for nonobese subjects. For obese women, mean %BFHW was significantly underestimated by the SKF, BIA, and NIR methods. The rs and SEEs for the obese group were 0.59 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.56 and 3.5% BF for BIA, and 0.36 and 3.9% BF for NIR. The total errors of the equations ranged from 5.6 to 8.0% BF in the obese group. It is concluded that all three field methods accurately estimate %BF for nonobese women; however, none of the methods is suitable for estimating %BF for obese women.

  8. Muscle performance, body fat, pain and function in the elderly with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Wagner Teixeira; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To correlate muscule performance, body composition, pain and joint function in elderly people with gonarthrosis. Method: 21 elderly patients were submitted to bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry associated with electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of isometric knee extension, in addition to pain assessment by the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale and function assessment, by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) questionnaire. Correlations were checked by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The sample characteristics were mean age 67.36 ± 4.21 years old, body fat percentage 40.57±6.15%, total WOMAC score 43.27 ± 16.32%, and maximum strength 19.95 ± 6.99 kgF. Pain during movement showed a statistical association with WOMAC physical activity domain (r = 0.47) and its general score (r = 0.51); pain intensity at night presented association with WOMAC stiffness domain (r = 0.55), in addition to the negative correlation with the slope values of the Medium Frequency of the EMG signal (r = - 0.57). Conclusion: pain intensity is correlated to functional incapacity in elderly people with knee OA and to a greater expression of fatigue in EMG signal. Levels of Evidence III, Study of non consecutive patients PMID:24644422

  9. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  10. A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: mechanisms and possible caveats.

    PubMed

    Pesta, Dominik H; Samuel, Varman T

    2014-01-01

    High protein diets are increasingly popularized in lay media as a promising strategy for weight loss by providing the twin benefits of improving satiety and decreasing fat mass. Some of the potential mechanisms that account for weight loss associated with high-protein diets involve increased secretion of satiety hormones (GIP, GLP-1), reduced orexigenic hormone secretion (ghrelin), the increased thermic effect of food and protein-induced alterations in gluconeogenesis to improve glucose homeostasis. There are, however, also possible caveats that have to be considered when choosing to consume a high-protein diet. A high intake of branched-chain amino acids in combination with a western diet might exacerbate the development of metabolic disease. A diet high in protein can also pose a significant acid load to the kidneys. Finally, when energy demand is low, excess protein can be converted to glucose (via gluconeogenesis) or ketone bodies and contribute to a positive energy balance, which is undesirable if weight loss is the goal. In this review, we will therefore explore the mechanisms whereby a high-protein diet may exert beneficial effects on whole body metabolism while we also want to present possible caveats associated with the consumption of a high-protein diet.

  11. Fat-free body mass is the most important body composition determinant of 10-yr longitudinal development of lumbar bone in adult men and women.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Ingrid; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the longitudinal relationship between body composition and lumbar bone mineral density (LBMD) and lumbar bone mineral content (LBMC) in (young) adults over a 10-yr period. The data are from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Two hundred twenty-five men and 241 women were measured at 27, 32, and/or 36 yr of age. Nine body composition components were explored: total body weight, standing height, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, sum of four skinfolds, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Stratified analyses were performed by gender and adjustment was made for physical activity and calcium intake. Univariate multilevel analyses indicated that FFM was significantly positively related to the 10-yr development of both LBMD and LBMC in both sexes. Total body weight, standing height, and body mass index also showed a significant positive univariate relationships with LBMD and LBMC in both sexes, fat mass only with female LBMD. All best predictive multiple regression models included FFM, explaining 4-27% of the variation in bone mineral over this 10-yr period. Because FFM can be interpreted as a proxy for skeletal muscle mass, these results indicate the importance of muscle contractions on bone to increase bone strength in (young) adults.

  12. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051

  13. Transgenic rescue of adipocyte glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor expression restores high fat diet-induced body weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Jørgensen, Signe Marie; Kissow, Hanne-Louise; Nytofte, Nikolaj; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Seino, Yutaka; Thams, Peter; Holst, Peter Johannes; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-12-30

    The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPr) has been implicated in high fat diet-induced obesity and is proposed as an anti-obesity target despite an uncertainty regarding the mechanism of action. To independently investigate the contribution of the insulinotropic effects and the direct effects on adipose tissue, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of the human GIPr to white adipose tissue or beta-cells, respectively. These mice were then cross-bred with the GIPr knock-out strain. The central findings of the study are that mice with GIPr expression targeted to adipose tissue have a similar high fat diet -induced body weight gain as control mice, significantly greater than the weight gain in mice with a general ablation of the receptor. Surprisingly, this difference was due to an increase in total lean body mass rather than a gain in total fat mass that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass, but it does not support a direct and independent role for the adipocyte or beta-cell GIPr in promoting adipogenesis.

  14. Deficiency of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 decreases triacylglycerol storage and induces fatty acid oxidation in insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Ramos, Isabela B; De Paula, Iron F; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect. RhoprGPAT1 contributes 15% of the total GPAT activity in anterior midgut, 50% in posterior midgut and fat body, and 70% in the ovary. The RhoprGpat1 gene is the predominant transcript in the midgut and fat body. To evaluate the physiological relevance of RhoprGPAT1, we generate RhoprGPAT1-deficient insects. The knockdown of RhoprGpat1 results in 50% and 65% decrease in TAG content in the posterior midgut and fat body, respectively. RhoprGpat1-deficient insects also exhibits impaired lipid droplet expansion and a 2-fold increase in fatty acid β-oxidation rates in the fat body. We propose that the RhoprGPAT1 mitochondrial-like isoform is required to channel fatty acyl chains towards TAG synthesis and away from β-oxidation. Such a process is crucial for the insect lipid homeostasis.

  15. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  16. The Effects a Physical Educator's Appearance of Body Fatness Has on Communicating Exercise Concepts to High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, D. Scott; Maddalozzo, John G. F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a male physical educator's appearance of body fatness affects his ability to teach and instill good exercise intentions in high school students. Eight hundred and fifty students viewed one of two 20-minute videotapes in which exercise concepts were presented. The tapes were identical except that in one…

  17. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  18. Edin Expression in the Fat Body Is Required in the Defense Against Parasitic Wasps in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Anderl, Ines; Vesala, Laura; Hultmark, Dan; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2015-05-01

    The cellular immune response against parasitoid wasps in Drosophila involves the activation, mobilization, proliferation and differentiation of different blood cell types. Here, we have assessed the role of Edin (elevated during infection) in the immune response against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The expression of edin was induced within hours after a wasp infection in larval fat bodies. Using tissue-specific RNAi, we show that Edin is an important determinant of the encapsulation response. Although edin expression in the fat body was required for the larvae to mount a normal encapsulation response, it was dispensable in hemocytes. Edin expression in the fat body was not required for lamellocyte differentiation, but it was needed for the increase in plasmatocyte numbers and for the release of sessile hemocytes into the hemolymph. We conclude that edin expression in the fat body affects the outcome of a wasp infection by regulating the increase of plasmatocyte numbers and the mobilization of sessile hemocytes in Drosophila larvae.

  19. A somatic piRNA pathway in the Drosophila fat body ensures metabolic homeostasis and normal lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian C.; Wood, Jason G.; Chang, Chengyi; Tam, Austin D.; Franklin, Michael J.; Siegel, Emily R.; Helfand, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    In gonadal tissues, the Piwi-interacting (piRNA) pathway preserves genomic integrity by employing 23–29 nucleotide (nt) small RNAs complexed with argonaute proteins to suppress parasitic mobile sequences of DNA called transposable elements (TEs). Although recent evidence suggests that the piRNA pathway may be present in select somatic cells outside the gonads, the role of a non-gonadal somatic piRNA pathway is not well characterized. Here we report a functional somatic piRNA pathway in the adult Drosophila fat body including the presence of the piRNA effector protein Piwi and canonical 23–29 nt long TE-mapping piRNAs. The piwi mutants exhibit depletion of fat body piRNAs, increased TE mobilization, increased levels of DNA damage and reduced lipid stores. These mutants are starvation sensitive, immunologically compromised and short-lived, all phenotypes associated with compromised fat body function. These findings demonstrate the presence of a functional non-gonadal somatic piRNA pathway in the adult fat body that affects normal metabolism and overall organismal health. PMID:28000665

  20. Adjusted and unadjusted energy usage rates both determine body fat and plasma leptin in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Rahman, S; Saint-Preux, S; Owen, D R; Boozer, C N

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between plasma leptin and energy usage have yielded contradictory findings. The present study was therefore conducted to clearly distinguish and measure the energy usage rate and the energy usage rate adjusted for a surrogate of metabolically active tissue mass. We investigated the simultaneous relationships between these two measures of energy usage, leptin, and body fat in 21-month-old adult male Fischer 344 rats on three different long-term dietary regimens: (1) continuous ad libitum feeding (Ad-lib); (2) ad libitum feeding until early adulthood, and then continuous 60% caloric restriction (CR); and (3) ad libitum feeding until early adulthood, then 60% caloric restriction until 16 months, and then ad libitum feeding for 5 months (CR/Ad-lib). Two versions of the daily usage rate were measured: daily dietary caloric intake (DCI), and daily energy expenditure (EE) based on indirect calorimetry. Two versions of the metabolically active tissue mass were also measured: fat-free mass (FFM), and the sum of the weight of the heart, brain, liver, and kidneys. Energy usage rates were adjusted for these measures of metabolically active tissue mass to yield measures of the energy metabolic rate. Correlation, regression, and path analyses showed that both the energy usage rate and adjusted energy usage rate played important independent roles in determining body fat and plasma leptin, but only after multivariate techniques were used to account for the simultaneous interactions between variables. Increases in the energy usage rate were associated with increases in body fat and the adjusted energy usage rate. Increases in the adjusted energy usage rate were associated with decreases in body fat and plasma leptin. These findings suggest that differences in subjects adjusted energy usage rate could explain some of the apparently contradictory findings concerning the relationship between energy usage and plasma leptin in previously published

  1. The physiological role of fat body and muscle tissues in response to cold stress in the tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana

    PubMed Central

    Lubawy, Jan; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Spochacz, Marta; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Słocińska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G. coquereliana. Following cold exposure, we found that the level of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins did not change significantly. Nevertheless, we observed significant changes in mitochondrial respiration activity. The oxygen consumption of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) mitochondria was altered following cold exposure. The increase in respiratory rate in state 4 respiration was observed in both tissues. In state 3, oxygen consumption by mitochondria in fat body was significantly lower compared to control insects, whereas there were no changes observed for mitochondria in muscle tissue. Moreover, there were cold-induced changes in UCP protein activity, but the changes in activity differed in fat body and in muscles. Additionally, we detected changes in the level of HSP70 and aquaporins expression. Insects treated with cold had significantly higher levels of HSP70 in fat body and muscles. On the other hand, there were lower levels of aquaporins in both tissues following exposure to cold. These results suggest that fat body play an important role in protecting tropical insects from cold stress. PMID:28253309

  2. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2014-03-27

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

  3. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A.; Bates, G. Wright; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. Methods In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40%energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Results Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (p<0.05 for difference between diets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (−7.1%, −4.6%, and −11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (p<0.05) during the SMT. Conclusions In women with PCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. PMID:25125349

  4. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMI<25 kg m(-2) (β=0.358, 95% CI 0.138-0.579, P=0.001), but not in women with BMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  5. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  6. Detraining increases body fat and weight and decreases VO2peak and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Arciero, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Competitive collegiate swimmers commonly take a month off from swim training after their last major competition. This abrupt cessation of intense physical training has not been well studied and may lead to physiopsychological decline. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of swim detraining (DT) on body composition, aerobic fitness, resting metabolism, mood state, and blood lipids in collegiate swimmers. Eight healthy endurance-trained swimmers (V(O2)peak, 46.7 ± 10.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 2 identical test days, 1 in the trained (TR) state and 1 in the detrained (~5 weeks) state (DT). Body composition and circumferences, maximal oxygen consumption (V(O2)peak), resting metabolism (RMR), blood lipids, and mood state were measured. After DT, body weight (TR, 68.9 ± 9.7 vs. DT, 69.8 ± 9.8 kg; p = 0.03), fat mass (TR, 14.7 ± 7.6 vs. DT, 16.5 ± 7.4 kg; p = 0.001), and waist circumference (TR, 72.7 ± 3.1 vs. DT, 73.8 ± 3.6 cm; p = 0.03) increased, whereas V(O2)peak (TR, 46.7 ± 10.8 vs. DT, 43.1 ± 10.3 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = 0.02) and RMR (TR, 1.34 ± 0.2 vs. DT, 1.25 ± 0.17 kcal · min(-1); p = 0.008) decreased, and plasma triglycerides showed a trend to increase (p = 0.065). Our data suggest that DT after a competitive collegiate swim season adversely affects body composition, fitness, and metabolism. Athletes and coaches need to be aware of the negative consequences of detraining from swimming, and plan off-season training schedules accordingly to allow for adequate rest/recovery and prevent overuse injuries. It's equally important to mitigate the negative effects on body composition, aerobic fitness and metabolism so performance may continue to improve over the long term.

  7. Body composition changes and inhibition of fat development in vivo implicates androgen in regulation of stem cell lineage allocation

    PubMed Central

    Semirale, Anthony A.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wiren, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Androgens regulate body composition in youth and declining testosterone that occurs with aging is associated with muscle wasting, increased fat mass and osteopenia. Transgenic mice with targeted androgen receptor (AR) overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were generated to explore the role of androgen signaling in the regulation of body composition. Transgenic males, but not females, were shorter and have reduced body weight and visceral fat accumulation. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) revealed significant reductions in fat mass with a reciprocal increase in lean mass, yet no difference in food consumption or locomotor activity was observed. Adipose tissue weight was normal in brown fat but reduced in both gonadal and perirenal depots, and reduced hyperplasia was observed with smaller adipocyte size in visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Although serum leptin, adiponectin, triglyceride, and insulin levels were no different between the genotypes, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing showed improved glucose clearance in transgenic males. High levels of the AR transgene are detected in MSCs but not in mature fat tissue. Reduced fibroblast colony forming units indicate fewer progenitor cells resident in the marrow in vivo. Precocious expression of GLUT4, PPARγ and C/EBPα was observed in proliferating precursor cultures from transgenic mice compared to controls. In more mature cultures, there was little difference between the genotypes. We propose a mechanism where enhanced androgen sensitivity can alter lineage commitment in vivo to reduce progenitor number and fat development, while increasing the expression of key factors to promote smaller adipocytes with improved glucose clearance. PMID:21381083

  8. Relationship between estradiol-17 beta seasonal profile and annual vitellogenin content of liver, fat body, plasma, and ovary in the frog (Rana esculenta).

    PubMed

    Varriale, B; Pierantoni, R; Di Matteo, L; Minucci, S; Milone, M; Chieffi, G

    1988-03-01

    The seasonal plasma estradiol-17 beta (E2-17 beta) profile and annual vitellogenin content of liver, fat body, plasma, and ovary were investigated in Rana esculenta. Concomitant with the increase in E2-17 beta, vitellogenin peaked in liver, plasma, and ovary during autumn and winter, while it remained at a relatively high concentration in fat body during spring. In vitro experiments showed that E2-17 beta (10(-9) M) is ineffective in inducing vitellogenin production in fat body, but is effective in inducing vitellogenin production in liver. As fat bodies do not produce the vitellogenin they contain, we suggest that fat bodies are involved in the transfer of vitellogenin to the ovary.

  9. Age-related decrease in cold-activated brown adipose tissue and accumulation of body fat in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Matsushita, Mami; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Miyagawa, Masao; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Saito, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT) in adult humans. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between BAT and adiposity in healthy adult humans, particularly to test the idea that decreased BAT activity may be associated with body fat accumulation with age. One hundred and sixty-two healthy volunteers aged 20-73 years (103 males and 59 females) underwent FDG-PET/CT after 2-h cold exposure at 19 °C with light clothing. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 41% of the subjects (BAT-positive). Compared with the BAT-negative group, the BAT-positive group was younger (P < 0.01) and showed a lower BMI (P < 0.01), body fat content (P < 0.01), and abdominal fat (P < 0.01). The incidence of cold-activated BAT decreased with age (P < 0.01), being more than 50% in the twenties, but less than 10% in the fifties and sixties. The adiposity-related parameters showed some sex differences, but increased with age in the BAT-negative group (P < 0.01), while they remained unchanged from the twenties to forties in the BAT-positive group, in both sexes. These results suggest that decreased BAT activity may be associated with accumulation of body fat with age.

  10. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-08-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism.

  11. Short-day-like body weight changes do not prevent fat pad compensation after lipectomy in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mauer, M M; Bartness, T J

    1997-01-01

    Long-day (LD)-housed Siberian hamsters show compensatory increases in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight after lipectomy, whereas hamsters exposed to short days (SDs) for a long duration (22 wk) do not. We tested whether SD-induced body weight changes prevent fat pad compensation after lipectomy. In experiment 1, hamsters with lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNx) rapidly increased body weight similarly to 22-wk SD-exposed hamsters. In experiment 2, LD-housed hamsters were food restricted for 22 wk and then pair fed with SD-housed hamsters for 12 wk to produce body weight changes mimicking those of ad libitum-fed SD-exposed animals. Epididymal WAT (EWAT) lipectomy (EWATx) of PVNx or food-restricted hamsters elicited compensatory increases in retroperitoneal and inguinal WAT (RWAT and IWAT) weights. Unlike other fat pads, EWAT was less affected by food restriction or PVNx than by SD exposure. In general, food restriction decreased adipocyte number, whereas SD exposure decreased adipocyte size. PVNx increased RWAT adipocyte size and IWAT adipocyte number. These results suggest that the lack of body fat compensation by EWATx hamsters exposed to SDs for a long duration is due to SD-associated responses other than body weight changes per se.

  12. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Tull, Eugene S; Fraser, Henry S; Mutunhu, Nyasha R; Sobers, Natasha; Niles, Elisa

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of internalized racism (INR) and hostility to body fat distribution and insulin resistance in black adolescent children age 14-16 years on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Questionnaire data on psychosocial variables and anthropometric measurements, together with a fasting blood sample, were obtained from 53 low-birthweight and 119 normal-birthweight adolescents. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Spearman correlation analyses showed that both INR (r = 0.244) and hostility (r = 0.204) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with waist circumference in girls but not boys. Among girls, age- and birthweight-adjusted mean levels of BMI and waist circumference were greater for those with high levels of INR and hostility compared to those with low levels of both variables. In multiple logistic regression analyses, a high INR remained independently associated [odds ratio = 3.30 (95% CI = 1.30-8.36); p = 0.012] with having an elevated HOMA value in models that included age, income, birthweight, hostility, physical activity and family history of diabetes. The results of the current study show that the positive relationship between INR and metabolic health risk seen in African-Caribbean adults also exists in African Caribbean adolescent youth independent of birthweight.

  13. exo-Brevicomin biosynthesis in the fat body of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-02-01

    exo-Brevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. It also has been found in other insects and even in the African elephant. Despite its significance, little is known about its biosynthesis. In order to fill this gap and to identify new molecular targets for potential pest management methods, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of cell cultures and in vitro assays of various D. ponderosae tissues with exo-brevicomin intermediates, analogs, and inhibitors. We confirmed that exo-brevicomin was synthesized by "unfed" males after emerging from the brood tree. Furthermore, in contrast to the paradigm established for biosynthesis of monoterpenoid pheromone components in bark beetles, exo-brevicomin was produced in the fat body, and not in the anterior midgut. The first committed step involves decarboxylation or decarbonylation of ω-3-decenoic acid, which is derived from a longer-chain precursor via β-oxidation, to (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol. This secondary alcohol is converted to the known precursor, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and further epoxidized by a cytochrome P450 to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one. The keto-epoxide is stable at physiological pH, suggesting that its final cyclization to form exo-brevicomin is enzyme-catalyzed. exo-Brevicomin production is unusual in that tissue not derived from ectoderm apparently is involved.

  14. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  15. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development.

  16. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  17. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  18. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for total fat mass and baseline IAAT). Participants lost an average of 5.8 kg during the hypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P<0.05, adjusted for lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPARγ agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPARγ agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

  20. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  1. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  2. Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.

    PubMed

    Hongu, N; Sachan, D S

    2000-02-01

    The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. In a 2x2 factorial design, one-half of each dietary group was exercised, and the other half was sedentary. Body weight and food intake of all rats were measured every day for 28 d. Rats were killed and blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. Food intake of the groups was not different, but the body weight was significantly reduced by exercise in both dietary groups. Fat pad weights and total lipids of epididymal, inguinal and perirenal regions were significantly reduced by the supplements as well as by exercise. Regardless of exercise, supplements significantly lowered triglycerides in serum but increased levels in skeletal muscle. Serum leptin concentrations were equally lowered by supplements and exercise. Serum leptin was correlated with body weight (r = 0.55, P< or =0.01), fat pad weight (r = 0.82, P< or =0.001) and serum glucose (r = 0.51, P< or =0.05). We conclude that the indices of body fat loss due to dietary supplements were similar to those due to mild exercise, and there were no interactive effects of the two variables.

  3. Validity of near-infrared interactance (FUTREX 6100/XL) for estimating body fat percentage in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, David H; Wray, Mandy E; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-12-15

    This investigation aimed to compare hydrostatic weighing (HW) with near-infrared interactance (NIR) and skinfold measurements (SKF) in estimating body fat percentage (FAT%) in rowing athletes. FAT% was estimated in 20 elite male rowers (mean ± SD: age = 24·8 ± 2·2 years, height = 191·0 ± 6·8 cm, weight = 86·8 ± 11·3 kg, HW FAT% = 11·50 ± 3·16%) using HW with residual volume, 3-site SKF and NIR on the biceps brachii. Predicted FAT% values for NIR and SKF were validated against the criterion method of HW. Constant error was not significant for NIR (-0·06, P = 0·955) or SKF (-0·20, P = 0·813). Neither NIR (r = 0·045) nor SKF (r = 0·229) demonstrated significant validity coefficients when compared to HW. The standard error of the estimate values for NIR and SKF were both less than 3·5%, while total error was 4·34% and 3·60%, respectively. When compared to HW, SKF and NIR provide similar mean values when compared to HW, but the lack of apparent relationships between individual values and borderline unacceptable total error may limit their application in this population.

  4. Optical body fat measurement might contribute to the search for a predictor of type-2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafeit, Erwin; Horejsi, Renate; Sudi, Karl; Berg, Aloys; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Moeller, Reinhard

    2001-10-01

    The optical device LIPOMETER allows for non-invasive, quick, precise and safe determination of subcutaneous fat distribution, so-called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Previously we showed how the high-dimensional SAT-Top information of women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and a health control group can be analysed and represented in low-dimensional plots by applying special artificial neural networks (ANNs). Three top-down sorted subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments were determined (upper trunk, lower trunk, legs). NIDDM women provided significantly higher upper trunk obesity and significantly lower leg obesity (apple type), as compared with their healthy control group. Now we apply those ANN results on SAT-Top measurements of young and healthy women, comparing their individual subcutaneous fat pattern to the body fat distribution of NIDDM women and to the normal fat development of healthy women. Some of these young and healthy women provide a subcutaneous fat distribution very similar to the SAT-Top results of NIDDM women, which might increase their risk for this disease later in life.

  5. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  6. Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and learning relative to an isocaloric glucose diet

    PubMed Central

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Masnik, Ashley M.; Mun, Jonathan G.; Du, Kristy; Clark, Diana; Dilger, Ryan N.; Dilger, Anna C.; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fructose consumption is associated with weight gain, fat deposition and impaired cognitive function. However it is unclear whether the detrimental effects are caused by fructose itself or by the concurrent increase in overall energy intake. In the present study we examine the impact of a fructose diet relative to an isocaloric glucose diet in the absence of overfeeding, using a mouse model that mimics fructose intake in the top percentile of the USA population (18% energy). Following 77 days of supplementation, changes in body weight (BW), body fat, physical activity, cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis were assessed. Despite the fact that no differences in calorie intake were observed between groups, the fructose animals displayed significantly increased BW, liver mass and fat mass in comparison to the glucose group. This was further accompanied by a significant reduction in physical activity in the fructose animals. Conversely, no differences were detected in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive/motor performance as measured by object recognition, fear conditioning and rotorod tasks. The present study suggests that fructose per se, in the absence of excess energy intake, increases fat deposition and BW potentially by reducing physical activity, without impacting hippocampal neurogenesis or cognitive function. PMID:25892667

  7. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal) is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day) for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day) for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P<0.0001) and body fat percentage by 2.18% (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.83; P<0.0001) following regular intake of 30 gm /day Gum Arabic for six weeks. Side effects caused by GA ingestion were experienced only in the first week. They included unfavorable viscous sensation in the mouth, early morning nausea, mild diarrhea and bloating abdomen. Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23241359

  8. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  9. "You better not leave me shaming!": Conditional indirect effect analyses of anti-fat attitudes, body shame, and fat talk as a function of self-compassion in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Fiery, Mallory F; Jafari, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation provided a theoretically-driven analysis testing whether body shame helped account for the predicted positive associations between explicit weight bias in the form of possessing anti-fat attitudes (i.e., dislike, fear of fat, and willpower beliefs) and engaging in fat talk among 309 weight-diverse college women. We also evaluated whether self-compassion served as a protective factor in these relationships. Robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures adjusted for body mass index (BMI) revealed stronger indirect and conditional indirect effects for dislike and fear of fat attitudes and weaker, marginal effects for the models inclusive of willpower beliefs. In general, the indirect effect of anti-fat attitudes on fat talk via body shame declined with increasing levels of self-compassion. Our preliminary findings may point to useful process variables to target in mitigating the impact of endorsing anti-fat prejudice on fat talk in college women and may help clarify who is at higher risk.

  10. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P < .01). The high-fat diet increased body weight (P < .01) in OVX mice and nonsignificantly decreased BV/TV (P = .08) and Conn.D (P = .10). Despite having similar serum estradiol concentrations and higher body weight, OVX mice consuming the high-fat diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

  11. The potential for mitochondrial fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle influences whole body fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, K; Mogensen, M; Bagger, M; Fernström, M; Pedersen, P K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in isolated mitochondrial vesicles (mit) and its relation to training status, fiber type composition, and whole body FA oxidation. Trained (Vo(2 peak) 60.7 +/- 1.6, n = 8) and untrained subjects (39.5 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), n = 5) cycled at 40, 80, and 120 W, and whole body relative FA oxidation was assessed from respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Mit were isolated from muscle biopsies, and maximal ADP stimulated respiration was measured with carbohydrate-derived substrate [pyruvate + malate (Pyr)] and FA-derived substrate [palmitoyl-l-carnitine + malate (PC)]. Fiber type composition was determined from analysis of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) composition. The rate of mit oxidation was lower with PC than with Pyr, and the ratio between PC and Pyr oxidation (MFO) varied greatly between subjects (49-93%). MFO was significantly correlated to muscle fiber type distribution, i.e., %MHC I (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), but was not different between trained (62 +/- 5%) and untrained subjects (72 +/- 2%). MFO was correlated to RER during submaximal exercise at 80 (r = -0.62, P = 0.02) and 120 W (r = -0.71, P = 0.007) and interpolated 35% Vo(2 peak) (r = -0.74, P = 0.004). ADP sensitivity of mit respiration was significantly higher with PC than with Pyr. It is concluded that MFO is influenced by fiber type composition but not by training status. The inverse correlation between RER and MFO implies that intrinsic mit characteristics are of importance for whole body FA oxidation during low-intensity exercise. The higher ADP sensitivity with PC than that with Pyr may influence fuel utilization at low rate of respiration.

  12. Prediction of body fat percentage from skinfold and bio-impedance measurements in Indian school children

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Sarah H.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Lubree, Himangi G.; Wills, Andrew K.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Bhat, Dattatray S.; Kishore, Ravi; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Kurpad, Anura

    2011-01-01

    Background Few equations for calculating body fat percentage (BF%) from field methods have been developed in South Asian children. Objective To assess agreement between BF% derived from primary reference methods and that from skinfold equations and bio-impedance analysis (BIA) in Indian children. Methods We measured BF% in two groups of Indian children. In Pune, 570 rural children aged 6-8 years underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In Mysore 18O was administered to 59 urban children aged 7-9 years. We conducted BIA at 50kHz and anthropometry including subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses. We used the published equations of Wickramasinghe, Shaikh, Slaughter and Dezenburg to calculate BF% from anthropometric data and the manufacturer’s equation for BIA measurements. We assessed agreement with values derived from DXA and DLW using Bland Altman analysis. Results Children were light and thin compared to international standards. There was poor agreement between the reference BF% values and those from all equations. Assumptions for Bland Altman analysis were not met for Wickramasinghe, Shaikh and Slaughter equations. The Dezenberg equations under-predicted BF% for most children (mean difference in Pune −13.4, LOA −22.7, −4.0 and in Mysore −7.9, LOA −13.7 and −2.2). The mean bias for the BIA equation in Pune was +5.0% and in Mysore +1.95% and the LOA were wide; −5.0, 15.0 and −7.8, 11.7 respectively. Conclusions Currently available skinfold equations do not accurately predict BF% in Indian children. We recommend development of BIA equations in this population using a 4-compartment model. PMID:21731039

  13. Body mass index, abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa; Vatten, Lars J

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated a positive association between adiposity and gallbladder disease risk, however, the shape of the dose-response relationship and differences between overall and abdominal adiposity remains to be clarified. We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio and risk of gallbladder disease. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 9th 2015. Summary relative risks were calculated using a random effects model. Seventeen prospective studies of BMI and gallbladder disease risk with 55,670 cases among 1,921,103 participants were included. The summary relative risk (RR) for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.63 (95 % CI 1.49-1.78, I(2) = 98 %). There was evidence of a nonlinear association overall and among women, p(nonlinearity) < 0.0001, but not among men, p(nonlinearity) = 0.99, with a slight flattening of the curve at very high BMI levels (BMI 40-45), however, the risk of gallbladder disease increased almost twofold even within the "normal" BMI range. The summary RR for a 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.46 (95 % CI 1.24-1.72, I(2) = 98 %, n = 5) and for a 0.1 unit increment in waist-to-hip ratio was 1.44 (95 % CI 1.26-1.64, I(2) = 92 %, n = 4). Associations were attenuated, but still significant, when BMI and abdominal adiposity measures were mutually adjusted. Our results confirm a positive association between both general and abdominal fatness and the risk of gallbladder disease. There is an almost twofold increase in the risk even within the "normal" BMI range, suggesting that even moderate increases in BMI may increase risk.

  14. Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84% of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms.

  15. Juvenile Hormone Differentially Regulates Two Grp78 Genes Encoding Protein Chaperones Required for Insect Fat Body Cell Homeostasis and Vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Maowu; Li, Dong; Wang, Zhiming; Guo, Wei; Kang, Le; Zhou, Shutang

    2017-03-29

    Juvenile hormone (JH) has a well-known role in stimulating insect vitellogenesis (i.e. yolk deposition) and oocyte maturation, but the molecular mechanisms of JH action in insect reproduction are unclear. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (Grp78) is a heat shock protein 70 kDa family member and one of the most abundant chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it helps fold newly synthesized peptides. Because of its prominent role in protein folding and also ER stress, we hypothesized that Grp78 might be involved in fat body cell homeostasis and vitellogenesis and a regulatory target of JH. We report here that the migratory locust Locusta migratoria possesses two Grp78 genes that are differentially regulated by JH. We found that Grp78-1 is regulated by JH through Mcm4/7-dependent DNA replication and polyploidization, whereas Grp78-2 expression is directly activated by the JH-receptor complex comprising Methoprene-tolerant and Taiman proteins. Interestingly, Grp78-2 expression in the fat body is about 10-fold higher than that of Grp78-1 Knockdown of either Grp78-1 or Grp78-2 significantly reduced levels of vitellogenin (Vg) protein, accompanied by retarded maturation of oocytes. Depletion of both Grp78-1 and Grp78-2 resulted in ER stress and apoptosis in the fat body and in severely defective Vg synthesis and oocyte maturation. These results indicate a crucial role of Grp78 in JH-dependent vitellogenesis and egg production. The presence and differential regulation of two Grp78 genes in L. migratoria likely help accelerate the production of this chaperone in the fat body to facilitate folding of massively synthesized Vg and other proteins.

  16. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  17. Activation of the lipid droplet controls the rate of lipolysis of triglycerides in the insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh T; Soulages, Jose L; Hariharasundaram, Balaji; Arrese, Estela L

    2005-06-17

    The hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG) stored in the lipid droplets of the insect fat body is under hormonal regulation by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH), which triggers a rapid activation cAMP-dependent kinase cascade (protein kinase A (PKA)). The role of phosphorylation on two components of the lipolytic process, the TG-lipase and the lipid droplet, was investigated in fat body adipocytes. The activity of purified TG-lipase determined using in vivo TG-radiolabeled lipid droplets was unaffected by the phosphorylation of the lipase. However, the activity of purified lipase was 2.4-fold higher against lipid droplets isolated from hormone-stimulated fat bodies than against lipid droplets isolated from unstimulated tissue. In vivo stimulation of lipolysis promotes a rapid phosphorylation of a lipid droplet protein with an apparent mass of 42-44 kDa. This protein was identified as "Lipid Storage Droplet Protein 1" (Lsdp1). In vivo phosphorylation of this protein reached a peak approximately 10 min after the injection of AKH. Supporting a role of Lsdp1 in lipolysis, maximum TG-lipase activity was also observed with lipid droplets isolated 10 min after hormonal stimulation. The activation of lipolysis was reconstituted in vitro using purified insect PKA and TG-lipase and lipid droplets. In vitro phosphorylation of lipid droplets catalyzed by PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of Lsdp1 and the lipolytic rate of the lipase, demonstrating a prominent role PKA and protein phosphorylation on the activation of the lipid droplets. AKH-induced changes in the properties of the substrate do not promote a tight association of the lipase with the lipid droplets. It is concluded that the lipolysis in fat body adipocytes is controlled by the activation of the lipid droplet. This activation is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the lipid droplet. Lsdp1 is the main target of PKA, suggesting that this protein is a major player in the activation of lipolysis in insects.

  18. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response.

  19. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Simón, Edurne; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Portillo, María Puy

    2008-12-01

    Very little evidence exists concerning the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Moreover, although an effect of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on lipolysis has been suggested, it has not been consistently shown. The aims of the present study were to determine whether trans-10, cis-12-CLA increases the reduction of body fat induced by energy restriction, and to analyse its effect on lipolysis and adipose tissue lipase expression (hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose tissue TAG lipase (ATGL)). Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet during 7 weeks in order to make them fatter. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25 %) without or with supplementation of 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 3 weeks. Basal glycerol release and lipolysis stimulated by several drugs acting at different levels of the lipolytic cascade were measured in epididymal adipose tissue. The expression of HSL and ATGL was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. No differences were found in adipose tissues size between the experimental groups. Medium adipocyte size and total number of adipocytes were similar in both experimental groups. Animals fed the CLA-enriched diet showed similar lipolytic rates as well as HSL and ATGL expressions to the controls. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12-CLA does not promote adipose tissue lipid mobilisation nor does it heighten body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Consequently, this CLA isomer does not seem to be a useful tool to be included in body weight-loss strategies followed in obesity treatment.

  20. Running 338 Kilometres within Five Days has no Effect on Body Mass and Body Fat But Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mass - the Isarrun 2006.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg·m(-2)), who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05), but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01) of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism. Key pointsUltra-runners at the Isarrun 2006 suffered no loss of body mass.Skeletal muscle mass decreased highly significantly during the first stage but no significant changes of skeletal muscle mass were observed during the following 4 stages of the Isarrun 2006.Body fat mass remained stable during the Isarrun 2006.

  1. Cloning and expression of the VHDL receptor from fat body of the corn ear worm, Helicoverpa zea.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Deryck R; Haunerland, Norbert H

    2004-01-01

    In Noctuids, storage proteins are taken up into fat body by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These include arylphorin and a second, structurally unrelated very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL). Previously, we have isolated a single storage protein receptor from the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, which binds both VHDL and arylphorin. The receptor protein is a basic, N-terminally blocked, approximately 80 kDa protein that is associated with fat body membranes. Microsequencing of proteolytic fragments of the isolated receptor protein revealed internal sequences that were used to clone the complete cDNA of the VHDL receptor by 3' and 5' RACE techniques. The receptor protein, when expressed in vitro via a suitable insect expression vector, reacted with antibodies against the native VHDL receptor and bound strongly to its ligand VHDL, thus confirming that the cloned cDNA represents indeed the previously purified VHDL receptor. The receptor protein and a second, similar protein also found associated with the fat body membrane show considerable homology to putative basic juvenile hormone suppressible proteins cloned previously from other Noctuid species. Sequence analysis revealed that the receptor is likely a peripheral membrane protein that may mediate the selective uptake of VHDL.

  2. Antioxidative capacity in the fat body of Bombyx mori is increased following oral administration of 4-methylumbelliferone.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Hua; Zhu, Wenjuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Hengjiang; He, Yue; Xu, Xu; Yin, Weimin; Sima, Yanghu; Xu, Shiqing

    2014-01-01

    Plant sources of umbelliferones have tumor-inhibitory effects at the cellular level. However, their physiological functions in animals are largely unresolved. In this study, we provide evidence to show that 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) participates in the regulation of antioxidative capacity in the fat body of Bombyx mori, a tissue similar to mammalian liver in this model invertebrate. Larvae (3rd day of the 5th instar) were orally exposed to 4 mM 4-MU, an umbelliferone, which swiftly induced the generation of a large number of ROS (e.g. H2O2 increased 6 to 8-fold), and 4-MU was detected in the fat body 8 min after administration. In addition, the activities of CAT and GPx were up-regulated 4 to 11-fold and 2 to 16-fold, respectively, and were helpful in defending fat body cells against oxidative injury in combination with NADPH. Furthermore, significant increases in the contents of T-AOC (up to approx. 2-fold), antioxidants of ASAFR (by 2 to 4-fold) and GSH were detected.

  3. Identification and characterization of uncoupling protein 4 in fat body and muscle mitochondria from the cockroach Gromphadorhina cocquereliana.

    PubMed

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2011-12-01

    We have identified and characterized an uncoupling protein in mitochondria isolated from leg muscle and from fat body, an insect analogue tissue of mammalian liver and adipose tissue, of the cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana (GcUCP). This is the first functional characterization of UCP activity in isolated insect mitochondria. Bioenergetic studies clearly indicate UCP function in both insect tissues. In resting (non-phosphorylating) mitochondria, cockroach GcUCP activity was stimulated by the addition of micromolar concentrations of palmitic acid and inhibited by the purine nucleotide GTP. Moreover, in phosphorylating mitochondria, GcUCP activity was able to divert energy from oxidative phosphorylation. Functional studies indicate a higher activity of GcUCP-mediated uncoupling in cockroach muscle mitochondria compared to fat body mitochondria. GcUCP activation by palmitic acid resulted in a decrease in superoxide anion production, suggesting that protection against mitochondrial oxidative stress may be a physiological role of UCPs in insects. GcUCP protein was immunodetected using antibodies raised against human UCP4 as a single band of around 36 kDa. GcUCP protein expression in cockroach muscle mitochondria was significantly higher compared to mitochondria isolated from fat body. LC-MS/MS analyses revealed 100% sequence identities for peptides obtained from GcUCP to UCP4 isoforms from D. melanogaster (the highest homology), human, rat or other insect mitochondria. Therefore, it can be proposed that cockroach GcUCP corresponds to the UCP4 isoforms of other animals.

  4. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiangqing; Pan, Hui; Dai, Yufei; Li, Naishi; Wang, Linjie; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Safflower yellow (SY) is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: HFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg−1) daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT), and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies. Results: The administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P < 0.05). IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1), PKB protein kinase (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1) in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9- , 2.8- , 3.3- , and 5.9-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: SY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The

  5. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

  6. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  7. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  8. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  9. Vascularization of Air Sinuses and Fat Bodies in the Head of the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Morphological Implications on Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Costidis, Alex; Rommel, Sentiel A.

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans have long been considered capable of limiting diving-induced nitrogen absorption and subsequent decompression sickness through a series of behavioral, anatomical, and physiological adaptations. Recent studies however suggest that in some situations these adaptive mechanisms might be overcome, resulting in lethal and sublethal injuries. Perhaps most relevant to this discussion is the finding of intravascular gas and fat emboli in mass-stranded beaked whales. Although the source of the gas emboli has as yet to been ascertained, preliminary findings suggest nitrogen is the primary component. Since nitrogen gas embolus formation in divers is linked to nitrogen saturation, it seems premature to dismiss similar pathogenic mechanisms in breath-hold diving cetaceans. Due to the various anatomical adaptations in cetacean lungs, the pulmonary system is thought of as an unlikely site of significant nitrogen absorption. The accessory sinus system on the ventral head of odontocete cetaceans contains a sizeable volume of air that is exposed to the changing hydrostatic pressures during a dive, and is intimately associated with vasculature potentially capable of absorbing nitrogen through its walls. The source of the fat emboli has also remained elusive. Most mammalian fat deposits are considered poorly vascularized and therefore unlikely sites of intravascular introduction of lipid, although cetacean blubber may not be as poorly vascularized as previously thought. We present new data on the vasculature of air sinuses and acoustic fat bodies in the head of bottlenose dolphins and compare it to published accounts. We show that the mandibular fat bodies and accessory sinus system are associated with extensive venous plexuses and suggest potential physiological and pathological implications. PMID:22969724

  10. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Subjects/Methods: Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Results: Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R2=0.751, P<0.001). Conclusions: During pregnancy, adipose tissue morphology and function change comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance. PMID:26563815

  11. Daily ingestion of grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract increases whole-body energy expenditure and decreases visceral fat in humans.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Sugishima, Yuuki; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Suzuki, Isao; Saito, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that a single ingestion of an alcohol extract of grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, increases energy expenditure (EE) through the activation of brown adipose tissue, a site of sympathetically mediated metabolic theromogenesis. The present study aimed to examine a daily ingestion of GP extract on whole-body EE and body fat in humans. Whole-body EE and body fat content were measured before and after daily oral ingestion of GP extract (30 mg/d) for 4 wk in 19 non-obese female volunteers aged 20-22 y in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Four-week daily ingestion of GP and a placebo decreased and increased slightly the visceral fat area at the umbilicus level, respectively. The GP-induced change was significantly different from that induced by the placebo (p<0.05), and negatively correlated with the initial visceral fat area (r=-0.64, p<0.01). Neither GP nor placebo ingestion affected subcutaneous or total fat. The daily ingestion of GP, but not the placebo, increased whole-body EE (p<0.05). These results suggest that GP extract may be an effective and safe tool for reducing body fat, mainly by preventing visceral fat accumulation.

  12. Early life body fatness and risk of colorectal cancer in US women and men – results from two large cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Colditz, Graham A.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Nimptsch, Katharina; Ogino, Shuji; Wei, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between body fatness before adulthood and later risk of colorectal cancer remains unclear. We hypothesized that, independent of adult body fatness, early life body fatness would be associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. Methods We assessed body fatness during childhood and adolescence using a validated 9-level somatotype and inquired body weight in young adulthood in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to estimate relative risks (RRs, 95% CIs) adjusting for adult body mass index (BMI) and other known colorectal cancer risk factors. Results We identified 2,100 incident colorectal cancer cases (1,292 in women and 808 in men) during 22 years of follow-up. Among women, the RR(95% CI) for childhood body fatness of level 5 or higher versus level 1 was 1.28(1.04-1.58, p-trend=0.08) and for adolescent body fatness, it was 1.27(1.01-1.60, p-trend = 0.23). The corresponding RRs for men were 1.04(0.82-1.31, p-trend=0.48) and 0.98(0.75-1.27, p-trend=0.20), respectively. Results were generally similar across anatomic subsites within the colorectum. Additionally, the RRs comparing BMI categories ≥ 27.5 to < 19 kg/m2 were 1.44(1.06-1.95, at age 18, p-trend=0.009) for women and 1.18(0.84-1.65, at age 21, p-trend=0.57) for men. Conclusion Increased body fatness in early life, independent of adult obesity, might be a risk factor for colorectal cancer in women, but we observed a weaker association in men. Impact Our findings support the growing evidence that early life body fatness affects the risk of colorectal cancer many decades later. PMID:25777804

  13. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  14. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exercise is considered as one of the most effective means of countering symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MS) such as obesity and hyperglycemia. Rodent models of forced or voluntary exercise are often used to study the mechanisms of MS and type 2 diabetes. However, there is little known on the impact of genetic strain on the metabolic response to exercise. We studied the effects of housing rats with running wheels (RW) for 65 days compared to sedentary (SED) housing in five female rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE), Wistar (WIS), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). Key parameters measured were total distance run, body composition, food consumption, motor activity, ventilatory responses by plethysmography, and resting metabolic rate (MR). WKY and SHR ran significantly more than the WIS, LE, and SD strains. Running-induced reduction in body fat was affected by strain but not by distance run. LE's lost 6% fat after 21 d of running whereas WKY's lost 2% fat but ran 40% more than LE's. LE and WIS lost body weight while the SHR and WKY strains gained weight during running. Food intake with RW was markedly increased in SHR, WIS, and WKY while LE and SD showed modest increases. Exploratory motor activity was reduced sharply by RW in all but the SD strain. Ventilatory parameters were primarily altered by RW in the SHR, WKY, and WIS strains. MR was unaffected by RW. In an overall ranking of physiological and behavioral responses to RW, the SD strain was considered the least responsive whereas the WIS was scored as most responsive. In terms of RW-induced fat loss, the LE strain appears to be the most ideal. These results should be useful in the future selection of rat models to study benefits of volitional exercise.

  15. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (p<0.034) and carbohydrate consumption in the objects with euriplastic and subathletic somatotypes (p<0.046). The most significant of the findings is the absence of veracious differences in daily energy consumption between the cohorts with different somatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes.

  16. Green tea polyphenols benefits body composition and improves bone quality in long-term high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on body composition and 2 bone properties in obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old SD female rats were fed either a 3 low-fat (LF) diet (n = 12) or a high-fat (HF) diet (n= 24) for 4 months. Animals in the LF diet 4 group continu...

  17. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of silkworm fat body after knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene: a novel insight into cross-talk between tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Ma, Zhengang; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhiqing; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Sanyuan; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-09-01

    Cross-talk between tissues plays key roles in development of organisms; however, there are few researches on cross-talk between tissues in insects. Our previous studies showed that the pupal body weight was elevated after knocking out the fibroin heavy chain gene (BmFib-H), whereas the gene specifically expressed in silk glands of silkworm. Hence, the mutant is a good material for studying the cross-talk between tissues. It is considered that the fat body of silkworm during larval stage is used to store nutrients for pupal development. Herein, comparative proteomic of fat body on the 5th day of fifth instar was performed between BmFib-H gene knock-out Bombyx mori line (FGKO) and its wide-type Dazao. These results revealed that a single gene knock-out in silk gland triggered large-scale metabolic pathways changes in fat body. The levels of proteins involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, and glycine-serine biosynthetic pathway were down-regulated in the FGKO fat body. In contrast, the abundances of many proteins participating in protein synthesis, including ribosomal proteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, and elongation factor, were up-regulated. Moreover, the concentrations of glycogen and proteins in the FGKO fat body were greatly increased. These findings provided a novel insight into the cross-talk between silk gland and fat body in silkworm, and the presence of cross-talk between silk gland and fat body could regulate the redistribution of nutrients in the FGKO fat body leading to the increase of the pupal weight.

  19. I’m not just fat, I’m old: has the study of body image overlooked “old talk”?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that body dissatisfaction is correlated with and often predictive of both physical and mental health problems. “Fat talk,” a well-studied form of body image talk in adolescents and university-aged women, has been implicated as contributing to body dissatisfaction and mediating the relationship between body dissatisfaction and other mental health problems. Limited research, however, has investigated fat talk across the female lifespan. Further, consistent with most body image research, fat talk research solely focuses on the thin dimension of idealized female attractiveness, even though other dimensions may contribute to body dissatisfaction in women. Method The current study investigated whether or not “old talk,” a hereto un-described form of body image talk, appears to be a parallel, but distinct, form of body image talk that taps into the young dimension of the thin-young-ideal standard of female beauty. An international, internet sample of women (aged 18-87, N = 914) completed questionnaires aimed at assessing fat talk, old talk, body image disturbance, and eating disorder pathology. Results Results indicated that both fat talk and old talk were reported by women across the lifespan, although they evidenced different trajectories of frequency. Like fat talk, old talk was significantly correlated with body image disturbance and eating disorder pathology, albeit at a lower rate than fat talk in the total sample. Old talk was more highly correlated with ageing appearance anxiety than fat talk, and the correlation between old talk and body image disturbance and ED pathology increased with women’s ages. Conclusion Results suggest that old talk is a form of body image talk that is related to but distinct from fat talk. Old talk appears to be similarly problematic to fat talk for women whose age increases their deviation from the thin-young-ideal. Further research into the phenomenon of old talk is warranted as is increased

  20. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  1. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  2. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions.

  3. Sex differences in body composition, fat storage, and gene expression profile in Caenorhabditis elegans in response to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Claudia; Döring, Frank

    2013-07-02

    The metabolic and health-promoting effects of dietary restriction (DR) have been extensively studied in several species. The response to DR with respect to sex is essentially unknown. To address this question, we used the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze body composition and gene expression in males and hermaphrodites in response to DR. Unexpectedly, DR increased the fat-to-fat-free mass ratio and enlarged lipid droplets in both sexes to a similar extent. These effects were linked to a downregulation of the lipase-like 5 (lipl-5) gene in both sexes at two developmental stages. By contrast, the reductions in body size, protein content, and total RNA content in response to DR were more pronounced in hermaphrodites than in males. Functional enrichment analysis of gene expression data showed a DR-induced downregulation of several embryogenesis-associated genes concomitant with an ongoing expression of sperm-associated genes in hermaphrodites. In conclusion, DR increases fat stores in both sexes of C. elegans in the form of large and possibly lipolysis-resistant lipid droplets and markedly alters the reproductive program in hermaphrodites but not in males.

  4. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  5. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  7. [Vitrectomy--absolute indication in case of intraocular foreign body localized in vitreous cavity or within vitreo-retinal interface].

    PubMed

    Robaszkiewicz, Jacek; Nowosielska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    Ocular trauma is the leading cause of visual loss in young adults. Open globe injuries with intraocular foreign bodies are an important part of this group, and in general an early surgery is required, in order to preserve the visual acuity and the eye globe. Primary surgical repair and foreign body removal may be performed using external magnet or vitrectomy. Based on published reports and our clinical experience we think that vitrectomy is safer procedure, giving better chance for good postoperative visual outcome.

  8. Body mass index trajectory patterns and changes in visceral fat and glucose metabolism before the onset of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated BMI trajectory patterns before diabetes diagnosis and examined associated changes in visceral adiposity and glucose metabolism. 23,978 non-diabetic Japanese participants (2,789 women) aged 30–64 years were assessed with a mean follow-up of 7.6 years. Diabetes was diagnosed via fasting glucose, HbA1c, and self-report. Latent-class trajectory analyses were performed to identify BMI trajectories. Longitudinal changes in BMI, visceral adiposity, and glucose metabolism were estimated using mixed models. 1,892 individuals developed diabetes. Three distinct BMI trajectories were identified in adults developing and not developing diabetes, respectively. Among adults developing diabetes, 47.3% were classified as “medium BMI” (n = 895), and had increased mean BMI within the obesity category before diagnosis. The “low BMI” group (38.4%, n = 726) had an initial mean BMI of 21.9 kg/m2, and demonstrated small weight gain. The “high BMI” group (n = 271) were severely obese and showed greater increase in BMI until diagnosis. All groups which developed diabetes showed absolute and/or relative increase in visceral fat and impaired β-cell compensation for insulin resistance. All groups not developing diabetes showed measured variables were relatively stable during observation. These data suggest that visceral fat gain may induce β-cell failure in compensation for insulin resistance, resulting in diabetes regardless of obesity level. PMID:28266592

  9. Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    PubMed

    Tsurim, Ido; Sapir, Nir; Belmaker, Jonathan; Shanni, Itai; Izhaki, Ido; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Karasov, William H; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-05-01

    Fat accumulation by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water. Birds staging in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water increased their body mass and fat reserves both faster and to a greater extent than birds deprived of water. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments on birds captured during the autumn migration period in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birds' dietary choices and, consequently, feeding and food processing rates, and that the availability of drinking water leads to improved digestion and, therefore, to higher apparent metabolizable energy. Blackcaps were trapped in autumn in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel and transferred to individual cages in the laboratory. Birds were provided with P. atlantica fruit and mealworms, and had either free access to water (controls) or were water-deprived. In experiment 1, in which mealworm availability was restricted, water-deprived birds had a fourfold lower fruit and energy intake rates and, consequently, gained less fat and total mass than control birds. Water availability did not affect food metabolizability. In experiment 2, in which mealworms were provided ad libitum, water availability influenced the birds' diet: water-restricted birds ate more mealworms, while control birds consumed mainly P. atlantica fruit. Further, in experiment 2, fat and mass gain did not differ between the two treatment groups. We conclude that water availability may have important consequences for fat accumulation in migrating birds while they fatten at stopover sites, especially when water-rich food is scarce. Restricted water availability may also impede the blackcap's dietary shift from insectivory to frugivory, a shift probably necessary for successful pre-migratory fattening.

  10. Modulation of polyamine metabolic flux in adipose tissue alters the accumulation of body fat by affecting glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunli; Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos; Zahedi, Kamyar; Soleimani, Manoocher; Porter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The continued rise in obesity despite public education, awareness and policies indicates the need for mechanism-based therapeutic approaches to help control the disease. Our data, in conjunction with other studies, suggest an unexpected role for the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in fat homeostasis. Our previous studies showed that deletion of SSAT greatly exaggerates weight gain and that the transgenic overexpression suppresses weight gain in mice on a high-fat diet. This discovery is substantial but the underlying molecular linkages are only vaguely understood. Here, we used a comprehensive systems biology approach, on white adipose tissue (WAT), to discover that the partition of acetyl-CoA towards polyamine catabolism alters glucose homeostasis and hence, fat accumulation. Comparative proteomics and antibody-based expression studies of WAT in SSAT knockout, wild type and transgenic mice identified nine proteins with an increasing gradient across the genotypes, all of which correlate with acetyl-CoA consumption in polyamine acetylation. Adipose-specific SSAT knockout mice and global SSAT knockout mice on a high-fat diet exhibited similar growth curves and proteomic patterns in their WAT, confirming that attenuated consumption of acetyl-CoA in acetylation of polyamines in adipose tissue drives the obese phenotype of these mice. Analysis of protein expression indicated that the identified changes in the levels of proteins regulating acetyl-CoA consumption occur via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. Together, our data suggest that differential expression of SSAT markedly alters acetyl-CoA levels, which in turn trigger a global shift in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, thus affecting the accumulation of body fat. PMID:23881108

  11. Posttraumatic fat necrosis presenting as prepatellar loose bodies in an adolescent football player.

    PubMed

    Sole, Joshua S; Wisniewski, Steve J; Dahm, Diane L; Bond, Jeffrey; Smith, Jay

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old high school football player presented with 4 months of anterior knee pain and small, mobile, prepatellar "lumps" after falling onto an opponent's cleat. He reported knee pain primarily during knee flexion and direct pressure during squatting and kneeling. Knee radiographs were unremarkable. Ultrasonography revealed multiple, freely mobile, subcutaneous nodules of variable size and echogenicity in the prepatellar region. Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging suggested possible fat necrosis but was nondiagnostic. The patient opted for surgical exploration, at which time multiple, opalescent subcutaneous nodules were removed. Pathology was consistent with encapsulated fat necrosis. After surgery, his symptoms resolved, and he returned to sports without restrictions.

  12. Weak effect of trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jonatan; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Macarulla, María Teresa; Simón, Edurne; Portillo, María Puy

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that young animals and subjects are more responsive to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than the adults. Nevertheless, there is very little information concerning the effectiveness of CLA in adult animals. In the present study we aimed to explore the effects of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters, as well as on some of the molecular mechanisms described in young animals as responsible for the CLA body fat-lowering effect, such as lipogenesis, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated fat uptake and thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with sixteen adult male Syrian Golden hamsters (aged 8 months) fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 6 weeks. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), LPL, PPARgamma, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c expressions were assessed in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Total and heparin-releasable LPL activities were determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue by fluorimetry and FAS activity by spectrophotometry. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue was assessed by Western blot. Hamsters fed the trans-10, cis-12-CLA diet showed a significant reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes were observed in the expression of ACX, FAS, LPL, SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma, nor in total and heparin-releasable LPL and FAS activities. Trans-10, cis-12-CLA induced a significant increase in the amount of UCP1. These results suggest a low responsiveness to trans-10, cis-12-CLA in adults, lower than that in young hamsters. One of the reasons explaining this difference is the lack of effect on LPL.

  13. Am I too fat to be a princess? Examining the effects of popular children's media on young girls' body image.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sharon; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of brief exposure to appearance-related media on young girls' body image. One hundred and twenty-one girls aged 3-6 years old participated. Results indicated that exposure did not affect body dissatisfaction or engagement in appearance-related play behaviours. This is the first empirical study to provide support for previous findings that suggest media exposure does not affect body image in young girls. In contrast to older populations, it is possible that young children may adopt the persona of attractive characters with whom they identify rather than comparing themselves to the characters. Although nearly all girls liked the way they looked, self-report data indicated that nearly one-third of the participants would change something about their physical appearance and nearly half of the girls worried about being fat. Exposure to appearance-related media did not exacerbate concerns.

  14. Activities of enzymes of fat and ketone-body metabolism and effects of starvation on blood concentrations of glucose and fat fuels in teleost and elasmobranch fish

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Victor A.; Newsholme, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Activities of 3-oxo acid CoA-transferase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase together with tri- and di-acylglycerol lipase were present in red and heart muscles of the teleost fish. However, d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity was not detectable. These results suggest that the heart and red muscles of the teleosts should be able to utilize the fat fuels triacylglycerol, fatty acids or acetoacetate, but not hydroxybutyrate. The muscles from the elasmobranchs differed in that d-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and 3-oxo acid