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Sample records for absolute body fat

  1. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  2. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  3. Regulation of body fat in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans have helped to uncover the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. This review highlights the powerful combination of genetics, pharmacology, and biochemistry used to study energy balance and the regulation of cellular fat metabolism in C. elegans. The complete wiring diagram of the C. elegans nervous system has been exploited to understand how the sensory nervous system regulates body fat and how food perception is coupled with the production of energy via fat metabolism. As a model organism, C. elegans also offers a unique opportunity to discover neuroendocrine factors that mediate direct communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Saeed, N; Hajnal, J V; Brynes, A; Goldstone, A P; Frost, G; Bell, J D

    1998-11-01

    In this study we assessed different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning regimes and examined some of the assumptions commonly made for measuring body fat content by MRI. Whole body MRI was used to quantify and study different body fat depots in 67 women. The whole body MRI results showed that there was a significant variation in the percentage of total internal, as well as visceral, adipose tissue across a range of adiposity, which could not be predicted from total body fat and/or subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, variation in the amount of total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements such as skinfold measurements, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio. Finally, we show for the first time subjects with a percent body fat close to the theoretical maximum (68%). This study demonstrates that the large variation in individual internal fat content cannot be predicted from either indirect methods or direct imaging techniques, such as MRI or computed tomography, on the basis of a single-slice sampling strategy. PMID:9804581

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of total body fat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Saeed, N; Hajnal, J V; Brynes, A; Goldstone, A P; Frost, G; Bell, J D

    1998-11-01

    In this study we assessed different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning regimes and examined some of the assumptions commonly made for measuring body fat content by MRI. Whole body MRI was used to quantify and study different body fat depots in 67 women. The whole body MRI results showed that there was a significant variation in the percentage of total internal, as well as visceral, adipose tissue across a range of adiposity, which could not be predicted from total body fat and/or subcutaneous fat. Furthermore, variation in the amount of total, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue was not related to standard anthropometric measurements such as skinfold measurements, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio. Finally, we show for the first time subjects with a percent body fat close to the theoretical maximum (68%). This study demonstrates that the large variation in individual internal fat content cannot be predicted from either indirect methods or direct imaging techniques, such as MRI or computed tomography, on the basis of a single-slice sampling strategy.

  6. Density of fat-free body mass: relationship with race, age, and level of body fatness.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Gallagher, D; Deurenberg, P; Wang, J; Pierson, R N; Heymsfield, S B

    1997-05-01

    The two-compartment body composition method assumes that fat-free body mass (FFM) has a density of 1.100 kg/l. This study tested the hypothesis that FFM density is independent of race, age, and body fatness. Subjects were 703 black and white subjects, ages 20-94 yr, with body mass index (BMI) 17-35 kg/m2. Body composition was assessed using a four-compartment model based on tritium dilution volume, body density by underwater weighing, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body weight. No relationship was observed between FFM density and race or BMI. A tendency was observed for a lower FFM density only in older white women. The difference in percent body fat (delta fat) between the four-compartment model and underwater weighing was < 2% for all groups. Race, age, and BMI explained only 2.3 (women) and 1.4% (men) of the variance in delta fat, whereas the total body water fraction of FFM explained 77%. In contrast to current thinking, these results show that the assumption of constant FFM density is valid in black, elderly, and obese subjects.

  7. Imaging Body Fat: Techniques and Cardiometabolic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y. E; Eitzman, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic and is associated with multiple comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and adverse health outcomes remain poorly understood. This may be due to several factors including the crude measures used to estimate adiposity, the striking heterogeneity between adipose tissue depots, and the influence of fat accumulation in multiple organs. In order to advance our understanding of fat stores and associated co-morbidities in humans, it will be necessary to image adiposity throughout the body and ultimately also assess its functionality. Large clinical studies are demonstrating the prognostic importance of adipose tissue imaging. Newer techniques capable of imaging fat metabolism and other functions of adipose tissue may provide additional prognostic utility and may be useful in guiding therapeutic interventions. PMID:25147343

  8. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  9. Fat talk and its relationship with body image disturbance.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jacqueline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Although past studies have highlighted fat talk as relevant to body image disturbance, the majority of these have only investigated the link between fat talk and body esteem, to the exclusion of other body image constructs. One hundred and ninety-nine women completed an online survey measuring levels of appearance-based comparisons, body surveillance, thin ideal internalization, body esteem, and fat talk (FT-body concerns and FT-body comparisons). Results showed that fat talk made a significant contribution in explaining additional variance in body esteem above the other three body image factors, with FT-body concerns in particular making the highest unique contribution. Hierarchical regression analyses suggest that fat talk should be viewed as an independent psychosocial predictor of body esteem in both theoretical and therapeutic contexts. Future research should explore these relationships from a longitudinal perspective, and also clarify the nuances in the relationships by investigating the nature of women's everyday body image experiences. PMID:27286565

  10. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  11. Familial lipoprotein lipase-activity deficiency: study of total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Brun, L D; Gagné, C; Julien, P; Tremblay, A; Moorjani, S; Bouchard, C; Lupien, P J

    1989-10-01

    Total body fatness and subcutaneous fat tissue distribution were evaluated in 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients. Eleven were males, aged 10 to 57 years, and eight were females, aged 13 to 46 years. Familial lipoprotein-lipase-activity deficiency was diagnosed by the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in the plasma withdrawn ten and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of ten units of heparin per kilogram of body weight. The 19 patients had skin-fold measurements for evaluation of subcutaneous fat distribution. Fifteen also underwent body density measurements by underwater weighing. Percent body fat was calculated from body density. These anthropometric data were plotted against the regression curves of 1638 normal controls of both sexes (aged 10 to 54 years) for fat tissue weight, percent body fat, subcutaneous fat/total fat mass ratio and trunk/extremity skin-fold ratio. Impairments in the process of building fat tissue reserves could not be shown in the 19 hyperchylomicronemic patients, in spite of the absence of lipoprotein-lipase activity in their postheparin plasma. It is hypothesized that normal fat tissue mass in these patients could be due partly to de novo synthesis of fatty acids by adipocytes, hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides by hepatic lipase, and/or contribution of a specific fat-tissue lipase to the catabolism of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

  12. Absolute and relative choreographies in rigid body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kilin, A. A.; Mamaev, I. S.

    2008-06-01

    For the classical problem of motion of a rigid body about a fixed point with zero area integral, we present a family of solutions that are periodic in the absolute space. Such solutions are known as choreographies. The family includes the well-known Delone solutions (for the Kovalevskaya case), some particular solutions for the Goryachev-Chaplygin case, and the Steklov solution. The “genealogy” of solutions of the family naturally appearing from the energy continuation and their connection with the Staude rotations are considered. It is shown that if the integral of areas is zero, the solutions are periodic with respect to a coordinate frame that rotates uniformly about the vertical (relative choreographies).

  13. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Faries, Mark D; Speakman, John R

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r (2)) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  14. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanlin; Djafarian, Kurosh; Egedigwe, Chima A.; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Ojiambo, Robert; Ramuth, Harris; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra Johanna; Lackner, Sonja; Diouf, Adama; Sauciuvenaite, Justina; Hambly, Catherine; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Faries, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions). Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK), three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius) and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal) rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2) in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated. PMID:26336638

  15. Relationship Between Body Fatness and Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Larry D.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between physical performance tests and body fatness in young children, and the extent to which differences in performance between the sexes could be explained by differences in body fatness. Measurements of age, height, weight, skinfold thicknesses, and performance scores on the vertical jump, standing…

  16. Effect of body composition methodology on heritability estimation of body fatness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male ...

  17. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude.

  18. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  19. Pulse pressure amplification in relation to body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Krauze, Tomasz; Przymuszala, Dagmara; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Marciniak, Ryszard; Wysocki, Henryk

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Arterial pressure transfer to the periphery is accompanied by pulse pressure amplification (PPA). Pulse pressure is influence by body fat. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate any possible inter-relation between body fatness and PPA in healthy subjects. METHODS Haemodynamic and wave reflection indices were estimated by pulse wave analysis. Body fat was measured by bio-impedance. RESULTS A total of 367 healthy volunteers (136 men and 231 women) was studied. Pulse pressure amplification correlated significantly with percentage of body fat (r = −0.53, P < 0.0001), age (r = −0.62, P < 0.0001), height (r = 0.43, P < 0.0001), heart rate (r = 0.28, P < 0.0001) and mean blood pressure (r = −0.29, P < 0.0001). The association of PPA with body fat was also significant in a multiple linear regression model. Age was an independent predictor of PPA and analysis of study subjects subdivided into two groups, those <50 years and those >50 years showed that body fatness correlated inversely and significantly with PPA in individuals both younger and older than 50 years (r = −0.44, P < 0.0001, r = −0.37, P < 0.0001 respectively). Augmentation pressure was also associated significantly with percentage of body fat in both subgroups (r = 0.48, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.49, P < 0.0001 respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study performed on healthy subjects showed that pulse pressure amplification is related to body fatness over a wide age range. Percentage body fat is significantly associated with augmentation pressure, a component of central pulse pressure. PMID:22008022

  20. Changes in fat intake, body fat composition and intra-abdominal fat after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heesook; Jeong, Gui Ae; Cho, Gyu Seok; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Soonkyung

    2014-07-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the effective treatment alternative conducted over the lifetime for reducing weight in patients with clinically morbid obesity. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, including decreases in blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure as well as increase in mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. But patients undergoing bariatric surgery have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications as reported in several studies. Thus, with an increasing number of severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the multidisciplinary healthcare system will need to be managed continuously. Many nutrition support specialists will need to become familiar with the metabolic consequences for the frequent monitoring of nutrition status of the patients. South Korea has a very short history with bariatric surgery, and relatively few studies have been conducted on bariatric surgery. Therefore, the objective of this report was to compare the nutrient intake, weight loss, body fat composition, and visceral fat before and after the bariatric surgery.

  1. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  2. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  3. Body fat mass, body fat distribution, and pubertal development: a longitudinal study of physical and hormonal sexual maturation of girls.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, C M; Thijssen, J H; Bruning, P F; Van den Brande, J L; Zonderland, M L; Erich, W B

    1992-08-01

    The rate at which girls progress through the stages of puberty in relation to body fat mass and body fat distribution and its relation to their hormonal profiles was studied. Sixty-eight schoolgirls participated in a longitudinal study during 3 yr. The girls were divided into subgroups with increasing skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio. They were also grouped depending on Tanner's breast development classification (M2 and M3). The age at M2 was only marginally correlated with the menarcheal age, but the age at M2 and the time interval from that age to menarche was negatively correlated. Age at the onset of puberty was not related to body fat mass or distribution. The rate of pubertal development after pubertal stage M3 was negatively related to the body fat mass. Age at M2 was only correlated with estrone (E1), while the rate of pubertal development was associated with higher FSH, E1, estradiol (E2), the fraction of E2 that was not bound to sex-hormone-binding globulin (non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound E2) and androstenedione plasma levels at the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution, rather than body fat mass was related to the total and the non-sex-hormone-binding globulin bound plasma levels of E2 and testosterone at the onset of puberty. Changes in body fat distribution in early female puberty were chiefly related to the waist circumferences. We found no evidence that body fat mass or body fat distribution triggers the onset of puberty. Body fat distribution was related to early pubertal endocrine activity. Body fat mass was negatively related to the rate of pubertal development toward menarche, but no clear indications for an endocrine-related process is found. We conclude that onset of puberty and menarche are not parallel pubertal events, and that early pubertal plasma E1, E2 and androstenedione levels are predictors for the rate of pubertal development toward menarche. We propose that the control of the onset of puberty and maturation of the

  4. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but determinants of breast density in young women remain largely unknown. Methods Associations of height, adiposity and body fat distribution with percentage dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 174 healthy women, 25 to 29 years old. Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Associations were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models. All tests of statistical significance are two-sided. Results Height was significantly positively associated with %DBV but not ADBV; for each standard deviation (SD) increase in height, %DBV increased by 18.7% in adjusted models. In contrast, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution were significantly inversely associated with %DBV; a SD increase in body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, waist circumference and the android:gynoid fat mass ratio (A:G ratio) was each associated significantly with a 44.4 to 47.0% decrease in %DBV after adjustment for childhood BMI and other covariates. Although associations were weaker than for %DBV, all measures of adiposity and body fat distribution also were significantly inversely associated with ADBV before adjustment for childhood BMI. After adjustment for childhood BMI, however, only the DXA measures of percentage fat mass and A:G ratio remained significant; a SD increase in each was associated with a 13.8 to 19.6% decrease in ADBV. In mutually adjusted analysis, the percentage fat mass and the A:G ratio remained significantly inversely associated with %DBV, but only the A:G ratio was significantly associated with ADBV; a SD increase in the A:G ratio was associated with an 18.5% decrease in ADBV. Conclusion Total adiposity and body fat distribution are independently inversely associated with

  5. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV). Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032). There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049). The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034) and percentage of central fat (p=0.039) compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751). Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess. PMID:24676194

  6. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  7. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  8. Yeast hydrolysate reduces body fat of dietary obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, K M; Chang, U J; Kang, D H; Kim, J M; Choi, Y M; Suh, H J

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the antiobesity effect of the yeast hydrolysate (DNF) on the body weight, body fat and plasma lipids levels of high-fat fed rats. The weight gain of the HF (high fat diet) (162.58 +/- 6.68 g) was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of DNF-1, DNF-2, (high fat diet with DNF of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight, respectively) and control groups (143.19 +/- 7.33 g, 139.20 +/- 8.36 g, 130.23 +/- 8.02 g, respectively). The wet weight of the epididymal fat and the perirenal fat pads of the DNF-1, DNF-2 and control groups were reduced significantly (p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) increase of HDL-cholesterol level of the DNF-2 and control groups was observed. However, there was no significant difference between DNF-1 and DNF-2. It was also found that the triacylglycerol (TG) levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the DNF-2 group from that of the HF, but there was no significant (p < 0.05) difference between DNF-1 and DNF-2.

  9. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  10. The use of body mass index for measurement of fat mass in children is highly dependant on abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    El Taguri, A; Dabbas-Tyan, M; Goulet, O; Ricour, C

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between body fat and body mass index (BMI) in a multiethnic population of obese children. BMI z-scores were compared to DEXA measures of whole body composition and regional fat distribution. Fat mass index (FMI) was best predicted by the equation: 1/[(0.159- 0.013 x percentile of total abdominal fat)- (0.01 x BMI z-score)], where percentile of abdominal fat ranges from 1 to 5. Predicted FMI had high agreement with FMI measured by DEXA. There were no detectable differences in this relation between different ethnic groups. Both BMI and abdominal fat should be used as a proxy to determine adiposity.

  11. Skinfold Estimates of Body Fat in Major League Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A E

    1981-10-01

    In brief: One hundred and thirty-seven major league baseball players and 32 coaches were tested for body composition, and comparisons were made among positions and among teams. Shortstops were the leanest players (9.2% fat), outfielders averaged 9.9%, and pitchers were the fattest (14.7% fat). The players' body composition reflected the movement patterns and defensive requirements of their positions. There were few differences among teams, and in general, the baseball players were comparable to other professional athletes.

  12. Body fat is associated with reduced aortic stiffness until middle age.

    PubMed

    Corden, Ben; Keenan, Niall G; de Marvao, Antonio S M; Dawes, Timothy J W; Decesare, Alain; Diamond, Tamara; Durighel, Giuliana; Hughes, Alun D; Cook, Stuart A; O'Regan, Declan P

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, but the effect of body composition on vascular aging and arterial stiffness remains uncertain. We investigated relationships among body composition, blood pressure, age, and aortic pulse wave velocity in healthy individuals. Pulse wave velocity in the thoracic aorta, an indicator of central arterial stiffness, was measured in 221 volunteers (range, 18-72 years; mean, 40.3±13 years) who had no history of cardiovascular disease using cardiovascular MRI. In univariate analyses, age (r=0.78; P<0.001) and blood pressure (r=0.41; P<0.001) showed a strong positive association with pulse wave velocity. In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, and mean arterial blood pressure, elevated body fat% was associated with reduced aortic stiffness until the age of 50 years, thereafter adiposity had an increasingly positive association with aortic stiffness (β=0.16; P<0.001). Body fat% was positively associated with cardiac output when age, sex, height, and absolute lean mass were adjusted for (β=0.23; P=0.002). These findings suggest that the cardiovascular system of young adults may be capable of adapting to the state of obesity and that an adverse association between body fat and aortic stiffness is only apparent in later life.

  13. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by "the…

  14. Predicting Body Fat Using Data on the BMI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Terence C.

    2005-01-01

    A data set contained in the "Journal of Statistical Education's" data archive provides a way of exploring regression analysis at a variety of teaching levels. An appropriate functional form for the relationship between percentage body fat and the BMI is shown to be the semi-logarithmic, with variation in the BMI accounting for a little over half…

  15. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  16. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  17. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  18. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  19. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  20. Body fat and fat-free mass inter-relationships: Forbes's theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D

    2007-06-01

    A theoretical equation was developed by Forbes that quantifies the fat-free proportion of a weight change as a function of the initial body fat. However, Forbes's equation was strictly valid only for infinitesimal weight changes. Here, I extended Forbes's equation to account for the magnitude and direction of macroscopic body weight changes. The new equation was also re-expressed in terms of an alternative representation of body composition change defined by an energy partitioning parameter called the P-ratio. The predictions of the resulting equations compared favourably with data from human underfeeding and overfeeding experiments and accounted for previously unexplained trends in the data. The magnitude of the body weight change had a relatively weak effect on the predicted body composition changes and the results were very similar to Forbes's original equation for modest weight changes. However, for large weight changes, such as the massive weight losses found in patients following bariatric surgery, Forbes's original equation consistently underestimated the fat-free mass loss, as expected. The new equation that accounts for the magnitude of the weight loss provides better predictions of body composition changes in such patients.

  1. Association of body fat with inflammation in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Andresa Marques; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão, Alceu Afonso; da Costa, José Abrão Cardeal; Chiarello, Paula Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently leads to body weight gain, which appears to be a potential cause of the chronic inflammation frequently present in these patients. The consequences of this inflammation are impaired nutritional status, accelerated atherosclerosis, and increased mortality. To assess the association between inflammation and body fat in female patients treated with PD. Nineteen female patients on PD for at least 6 months with no infectious complications or malignant or acute inflammatory diseases. Nutritional status was determined by measuring weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist (WC), and mid-arm circumferences (MAC), mid-arm muscle area, and tricipital fold (TCF). Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was used to determine body composition. Biochemical evaluation included the determination of serum albumin, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The glucose absorbed from the dialysis solution was quantitated. According to BMI, two patients were classified as malnourished and ten as overweight/obese. Sixteen individuals had high WC measurements and 12 had excess body fat (BF) as measured by BIA. High CRP levels were observed in 12 patients, who had higher WC, MAC, BMI, TCF, and BF measurements compared to non-inflamed patients. Positive associations were detected between CRP and BMI, MAC, WC, and TCF. Associations between BF and CRP suggest that adiposity may be a potent exacerbating factor of inflammation in this population, especially visceral fat. Thus, obesity may be considered to be one more factor responsible for the early atherosclerosis and high cardiovascular mortality observed in these patients.

  2. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    PubMed

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat.

  3. Associations between body fat and vitamin K status in older women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat soluble nutrients are stored in fat tissue. Yet, the association between body fat and vitamin K status is not clear. We examined associations between % body fat (%BF) and 3 circulating measures of vitamin K status [plasma phylloquinone (plasma K1), uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA), uncarboxyla...

  4. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  5. Body fat percentage prediction using intelligent hybrid approaches.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuehjen E

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone's health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector regression (SVR) techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  6. Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Messina, Catherine; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women have shown only weak and inconsistent associations. Given the limitations of such indices, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and risk of incident colorectal cancer. We compared these risk estimates with those obtained using conventional anthropometric measurements (body mass index and waist circumference). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 11,124 postmenopausal women with DXA measurements at baseline and no history of colorectal cancer. After a median follow-up period of 12.9 years, 169 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for the exposures of interest. Neither DXA-derived body fat measures nor anthropometric measures showed significant associations with risk. In view of the limited number of cases, we cannot rule out the existence of weak associations of these measures with risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:23546610

  7. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yuehjen E.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone's health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP), the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR), artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and support vector regression (SVR) techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models. PMID:24723804

  8. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  9. Estimation of body fat in rats by whole-body counting.

    PubMed

    Pommer, A M; Lakshmanan, F L

    1975-07-01

    A method for determining body fat in vivo in rats by whole-body counting of 40K is described. The technique utilizes a Nuclear Chicago Corporation TOBOR system with 5-in thallium-activated sodium iodide crystals. To test the method a regression equation was developed using the 40K counts and body weight of young adult rats weighing 333-788 g; the results were compared with those obtained from the gravimetric determination of fat in the carcass. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.945.

  10. Aerobic fitness determines whole-body fat oxidation rate during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whole-body fat oxidation in endurance-trained (TR) and untrained (UNTR) subjects exercising at different intensities in the heat. On 3 occasions, 10 TR cyclists and 10 UNTR healthy subjects (peak oxygen uptake = 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL·kg-1·min-1; p < 0.05) exercised at 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake in a hot, dry environment (36 °C; 25% relative humidity). To complete the same amount of work in all 3 trials, exercise duration varied (107 ± 4, 63 ± 1, and 45 ± 0 min for 40%, 60%, and 80% peak oxygen uptake, respectively). Substrate oxidation was calculated using indirect calorimetry. Blood samples were collected at the end of exercise to determine plasma epinephrine ([EPI]plasma) and norepinephrine ([NEPI]plasma) concentrations. The maximal rate of fat oxidation was achieved at 60% peak oxygen uptake for the TR group (0.41 ± 0.01 g·min-1) and at 40% peak oxygen uptake for the UNTR group (0.28 ± 0.01 g·min-1). TR subjects oxidized absolutely (g·min-1) and relatively (% of total energy expenditure) more fat than UNTR subjects at 60% and 80% peak oxygen uptake (p < 0.05). At these exercise intensities, TR subjects also had higher [NEPI]plasma concentrations than UNTR subjects (p < 0.05). In the heat, whole-body peak fat oxidation occurs at higher relative exercise intensities in TR than in UNTR subjects (60% vs. 40% peak oxygen uptake). Moreover, TR subjects oxidize more fat than UNTR subjects when exercising at moderate to high intensities (>60% peak oxygen uptake).

  11. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions.

  12. Measures of body fat in South Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, S; Mercuri, M; Anand, S S

    2013-01-01

    Background: South Asian people who originate from the Indian subcontinent have greater percent body fat (%BF) for the same body mass index (BMI) compared with white Caucasians. This has been implicated in their increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is limited information comparing different measures of body fat in this ethnic group. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the correlation of %BF measured by a foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FF-BIA) against the BOD POD, a method of air-displacement plethysmography, and (2) to determine the correlations of simple anthropometric measures, (that is, BMI, body adiposity index (BAI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) against the BOD POD measure of body fat. Methods: Eighty apparently healthy South Asian men and women were recruited from the community, and measurements of height, weight, WC, HC and body composition using Tanita FF-BIA and BOD POD were taken. Results: The mean±s.d. age of participants was 27.78±10.49 years, 42.5% were women, and the mean BMI was 22.68±3.51 kg m−2. The mean body fat (%BF) calculated by FF-BIA and BOD POD was 21.94±7.88% and 26.20±8.47%, respectively. The %BF calculated by FF-BIA was highly correlated with the BOD POD (Pearson's r=0.83, P<0.001), however, FF-BIA underestimated %BF by 4.3%. When anthropometric measures were compared with % BF by BOD POD, the BAI showed the strongest correlation (r=0.74) and the WHR showed the weakest (r=0.33). BAI generally underestimated %BF by 2.6% in comparison with %BF by BOD POD. The correlations of BOD POD with other measures of %BF were much stronger in subjects with a BMI >21 kg m−2 than those with a BMI ⩽21 kg m−2. Conclusion: The FF-BIA and BAI estimates of %BF are highly correlated with that of BOD POD among people of South Asian origin, although both methods somewhat underestimate % BF. Furthermore, their

  13. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65fat and tissue depths measurements to monitor fat reserves in jennies.

  14. Plant Proteins Differently Affect Body Fat Reduction in High-fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohee; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Oran

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of corn gluten (CG), wheat gluten (WG), and soybean protein isolate (SPI), as well as their hydrolysates, on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet. Eight-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=70) were fed a high-fat diet (40% of the calories were fat) for 4 weeks. Rats were then randomly divided into seven groups and were fed isocaloric diets with different protein sources for 8 weeks. The protein sources were casein (control group), intact CG (CG group), CG hydrolysate (CGH group), intact WG (WG group), WG hydrolysate (WGH group), intact SPI (SPI group), and SPI hydrolysate (SPIH group). Body weight gain, adipose tissue weights, lipid profiles in plasma and liver; and hepatic activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase, fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assessed. The CGH group showed significant weight reduction compared with the other groups. Epididymal fat pad and plasma triglycerides in the CGH group were the lowest and were significantly different than those in the control group. FAS activity in the CGH group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. In conclusion, the CGH diet of these experimental animals demonstrated a weight-reducing effect by lowering the adipose tissue weight and by affecting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes.

  15. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  16. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass

    PubMed Central

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. Objectives: In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. Patients and Methods: The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28th days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28th day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. Results: By the 28th day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P < 0.001; -0.36 ± 0.371 kg/m2, P < 0.001; -0.484 ± 0.597 kg, P < 0.001; -0.293 ± 0.486 kg, P = 0.001; -0.054 ± 0.059 kg, P < 0.001, respectively). Protein body mass and calorie intake did not significantly change (-0.049 ± 0.170 kg, P = 0.561; 12.94 ± 760.608 Kcal, P = 0.082 respectively). By 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Conclusions: Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting

  17. Ultrasound as a Tool to Assess Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used effectively to assess body fat for nearly 5 decades, yet this method is not known as well as many other body composition techniques. The purpose of this review is to explain the technical principles of the ultrasound method, explain the procedures for taking a measurement and interpreting the results, evaluate the reliability and validity of this method for measuring subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, highlight the advantages and limitations of ultrasound relative to other body composition methods, consider its utility to clinical populations, and introduce new body composition-specific ultrasound technology. The focus of this review is adipose, although various tissue thicknesses (e.g., muscle and bone) can be measured with ultrasound. Being a portable imaging device that is capable of making fast regional estimates of body composition, ultrasound is an attractive assessment tool in instances when other methods are limited. Furthermore, much of the research suggests that it is reliable, reproducible, and accurate. The biggest limitations appear to be a lack of standardization for the measurement technique and results that are highly dependent on operator proficiency. New ultrasound devices and accompanying software designed specifically for the purpose of body composition assessment might help to minimize these limitations. PMID:24062944

  18. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  19. The Use of Skinfold to Estimate Body Fatness on Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, T. G.

    1987-01-01

    Concern about the body fat of children and its relation to adult obesity has led to the development of standards for assessing children's optimal body fat content. The use of skinfold thickness measures to establish the degree of fatness is described. (MT)

  20. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-01

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  1. Thin or overweight women's fat talk: which is worse for other women's body satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Pick, Cari M

    2014-01-01

    Fat talk is not merely correlated with, but appears to be one of the causes of body dissatisfaction in other women. Moderators of fat talk's deleterious effects, however, have not yet been identified. This experiment tested whether the body type of the fat-talker affects listeners' body satisfaction. Women viewed photos of either noticeably thin or overweight women making either fat talk or positive body statements. Fat talk by thin and overweight women both had a negative impact on women's body satisfaction, but dissatisfaction was highest after exposure to photos of thin women making fat talk statements. Statistically indistinguishable from this latter effect, however, was the negative effect of thin women making positive body statements. Results are considered within a social comparison framework. Theoretical implications for the thin-ideal and fat talk literatures are presented, as are clinical implications for work with clients. PMID:24320716

  2. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  3. Body fat, fat distribution, and psychosocial factors among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bell, R A; Summerson, J H; Spangler, J G; Konen, J C

    1998-01-01

    Diabetes, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, requires lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss). The relations between body mass index, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and psychosocial indicators, such as affect and stress, among 302 diabetic patients from a clinic and a neighborhood health center were analyzed. Data included stress and mood scale responses, body size (height, weight, and WHR) and potential confounders (physical activity, energy intake, and diabetes duration). In univariate analyses, body mass index was positively associated with stress and inversely associated with positive affect only in women. Multiple regression analyses indicated that stress was associated with body mass index and negative mood was associated with the WHR. The findings suggested that stress and affect may be important correlates of body fat among women with Type 2 diabetes, leading to more complications. Healthcare providers can help women with Type 2 diabetes lose weight and lower the risk of cardiovascular disease by recognizing and helping them deal with these psychosocial issues. PMID:9850808

  4. Is an adaptation of Siri's formula for the calculation of body fat percentage from body density in the elderly necessary?

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Weststrate, J A; van der Kooy, K

    1989-08-01

    Using data from the literature on changes in the mineral content, muscle mass and the amount of water in the body during aging, the age-related changes in the chemical composition of the fat-free mass have been calculated. In men the decrease in minerals (bone loss) during aging equals the decrease in protein and water (muscle) in the fat-free mass. As a consequence the chemical composition of the fat-free mass is hardly affected by aging in men. In women, however, the loss of minerals during aging is considerably higher than the decrease in protein and water in the fat-free mass. As a consequence the change in the chemical composition of the fat-free mass in females is remarkable, and therefore in females, the density (kg/l) of the fat-free mass decreases with age. Consequently the body fat percentage calculated from body density with Siri's equation overestimates the real body fat percentage by 2-3 per cent, depending on age. Based on the calculated chemical composition of the fat-free mass at several ages, and its calculated theoretical density, Siri's equation has been adapted. In females but not in men the adapted formulas give a more valid estimate of the body fat percentage calculated from body density compared to Siri's formula.

  5. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  6. Partitioning of respiratory mechanical impedance by absolute and differential body plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Peslin, R; Duvivier, C

    1999-11-01

    We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of partitioning total respiratory impedance (Zrs) into its airway (Zaw) and tissular (Zti) components by measuring alveolar gas compression (Vpl) plethysmographically during pressure oscillations at the airway opening (Peslin et al.). The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate an alternative approach: the measurement of Zrs and of the transfer function (FTF) between airway flow and body surface flow obtained by absolute body plethysmography. The two approaches are theoretically equivalent, provided thermal and other artifacts are properly eliminated. Zrs and Vpl (method 1) and Zrs and FTF (method 2) were measured in 11 healthy subjects from 4 to 29 Hz, using a pressure-type and a flow-type plethysmograph, respectively. Inspired gas was conditioned to body temperature and pressure, saturated with water vapor in both instances to minimize thermal factors. Zaw and Zti spectra computed from both sets of data were quite similar in shape. Neither airway resistance nor tissue compliance differed significantly; tissue resistance, however, was about 14% lower with method 1, which may be due to imperfect gas conditioning. The reproducibility of the data was similar with the two approaches. We conclude that absolute body plethysmography is as reliable as differential body plethysmography to partition Zrs. PMID:10582419

  7. Effect of Physical Activity on BMI and Percent Body Fat of Chinese Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Frank H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of regular physical activity on body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat of Chinese girls grouped by age and physical activity patterns. Measurements of skinfold, height, and weight, and BMI calculations, found differences in BMI and percent body fat between active and inactive girls. (SM)

  8. First direct body fat content measurement during pregnancy using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Hormoz; Kramer, John K G; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no direct and reliable methods to measure the body fat content of women during pregnancy. Estimates of fat accretion can significantly affect calculations of energy requirements. We report here the first direct measurement of determining the body fat content of two women during pregnancy using the Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) method. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy was shown to provide comparable results to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. These latter methods, even though very reliable to measure body fat levels, cannot be used to measure the body fat of women during pregnancy because of health concerns, while FT-NIR poses no health risk. The FT-NIR results showed the percent body fat remained relatively constant throughout pregnancy, but fat mass and fat free mass increased. Fat mass followed an S curve with a maximum increase between 15 to 25 weeks of gestation that was only detected by repeated measurements using the FT-NIR technique. These results demonstrate the value of the FT-NIR method to directly measure the fat content of pregnant women in minutes instead of relying on indirect calculations or taking measurements before and after pregnancy to track gestational fat mass accretion.

  9. Capsaicin and Related Food Ingredients Reducing Body Fat Through the Activation of TRP and Brown Fat Thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of sympathetically activated adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis, thereby being involved in the regulation of energy balance and body fatness. Recent radionuclide imaging studies have revealed the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure and contributes to cold-induced increase in whole-body energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT is lower in older and obese individuals. The inverse relationship between the BAT activity and body fatness suggests that BAT, because of its energy dissipating activity, is protective against body fat accumulation. In fact, repeated cold exposure recruits BAT in association with increased energy expenditure and decreased body fatness. The stimulatory effects of cold are mediated through the activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, most of which are also chemesthetic receptors for various naturally occurring substances including herbal plants and food ingredients. Capsaicin and its analog capsinoids, representative agonists of TRPV1, mimic the effects of cold to decrease body fatness through the activation and recruitment of BAT. The well-known antiobesity effect of green tea catechins is also attributable to the activation of the sympathetic nerve and BAT system. Thus, BAT is a promising target for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans.

  10. Relationship Between Body Fat and Physical Fitness in Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Steed, Carly L; Krull, Benjamin R; Morgan, Amy L; Tucker, Robin M; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2016-09-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), including timed push-ups, sit-ups, and run, assesses physical performance for the Army. Percent body fat is estimated using height and circumference measurements. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the accuracy of height and circumference measurements to other, more accepted, body fat assessment methods and (b) determine the relationships between body composition and APFT results. Participants included Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets (n = 11 males, 2 females, 21.6 ± 3.5 years) from a midwestern university). At one visit, percent body fat was assessed using height and circumference measurements, air-displacement plethysmography, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. APFT results were provided by the ROTC director. All assessment methods for percent body fat were strongly associated (r ≥ 0.7, p < 0.01), implying that height and circumference measurement is a practical tool to estimate percent body fat of ROTC cadets. Total APFT score was not associated with any body fat assessment method. Push-up number was negatively associated with percent body fat by all assessment methods (r ≥ -0.8, p = 0.001), although run time was positively associated (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.05). This suggests that percent body fat may be an important variable in determining or improving cardiovascular and muscular endurance, but not APFT performance.

  11. Relationship Between Body Fat and Physical Fitness in Army ROTC Cadets.

    PubMed

    Steed, Carly L; Krull, Benjamin R; Morgan, Amy L; Tucker, Robin M; Ludy, Mary-Jon

    2016-09-01

    The Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), including timed push-ups, sit-ups, and run, assesses physical performance for the Army. Percent body fat is estimated using height and circumference measurements. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the accuracy of height and circumference measurements to other, more accepted, body fat assessment methods and (b) determine the relationships between body composition and APFT results. Participants included Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets (n = 11 males, 2 females, 21.6 ± 3.5 years) from a midwestern university). At one visit, percent body fat was assessed using height and circumference measurements, air-displacement plethysmography, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. APFT results were provided by the ROTC director. All assessment methods for percent body fat were strongly associated (r ≥ 0.7, p < 0.01), implying that height and circumference measurement is a practical tool to estimate percent body fat of ROTC cadets. Total APFT score was not associated with any body fat assessment method. Push-up number was negatively associated with percent body fat by all assessment methods (r ≥ -0.8, p = 0.001), although run time was positively associated (r ≥ 0.6, p < 0.05). This suggests that percent body fat may be an important variable in determining or improving cardiovascular and muscular endurance, but not APFT performance. PMID:27612345

  12. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  13. Reliability of field methods for estimating body fat.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Barnes, Jeremy T; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Isaacs, Melissa N; Pujol, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    When health professionals measure the fitness levels of clients, body composition is usually estimated. In practice, the reliability of the measurement may be more important than the actual validity, as reliability determines how much change is needed to be considered meaningful. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of two bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices (in athlete and non-athlete mode) and compare that to 3-site skinfold (SKF) readings. Twenty-one college students attended the laboratory on two occasions and had their measurements taken in the following order: body mass, height, SKF, Tanita body fat-350 (BF-350) and Omron HBF-306C. There were no significant pairwise differences between Visit 1 and Visit 2 for any of the estimates (P>0.05). The Pearson product correlations ranged from r = 0.933 for HBF-350 in the athlete mode (A) to r = 0.994 for SKF. The ICC's ranged from 0.93 for HBF-350(A) to 0.992 for SKF, and the MD's ranged from 1.8% for SKF to 5.1% for BF-350(A). The current study found that SKF and HBF-306C(A) were the most reliable (<2%) methods of estimating BF%, with the other methods (BF-350, BF-350(A), HBF-306C) producing minimal differences greater than 2%. In conclusion, the SKF method presented with the best reliability because of its low minimal difference, suggesting this method may be the best field method to track changes over time if you have an experienced tester. However, if technical error is a concern, the practitioner may use the HBF-306C(A) because it had a minimal difference value comparable to SKF. PMID:23701358

  14. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  15. A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Percent Body Fat on Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkett, Lee N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were…

  16. Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Bredlau, Carl; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Mueller, Manfred; Shen, Wei; Gallagher, Dympna; Maeda, Yuna; McDougall, Andrew; Peterson, Courtney M.; Ravussin, Eric; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a new geometrical index that combines height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) and relate this index to total and visceral body fat. Design and Methods Subject data were pooled from three databases that contained demographic, anthropometric, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured fat mass, and magnetic resonance imaging measured visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume. Two elliptical models of the human body were developed. Body roundness was calculated from the model using a well-established constant arising from the theory. Regression models based on eccentricity and other variables were used to predict % body fat and % VAT. Results A body roundness index (BRI) was derived to quantify the individual body shape in a height-independent manner. Body roundness slightly improved predictions of % body fat and % VAT compared to the traditional metrics of body mass index (BMI), WC, or HC. On this basis, healthy body roundness ranges were established. An automated graphical program simulating study results was placed at http://www.pbrc.edu/bodyroundness. Conclusions Body roundness index, a new shape measure, is a predictor of % body fat and % VAT and can be applied as a visual tool for health status evaluations. PMID:23519954

  17. The relationships between fat talk, body dissatisfaction, and drive for thinness: perceived stress as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Warren, Cortney S; Holland, Samuel; Billings, Hilary; Parker, Alexa

    2012-06-01

    Although body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness are commonplace in college-aged women, their relationships with fat talk and stress are understudied. This study examined (a) whether fat talk predicts body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness and (b) whether stress moderates these relationships. Results from self-report questionnaires completed by 121 female college students revealed that fat talk and perceived stress were significantly positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Although fat talk was a significant independent predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, stress moderated these relationships such that they were stronger at lower stress levels. Although contrary to predictions, these results are logical when means are considered. Results suggest that fat talk positively predicts body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in students with relatively lower stress levels, but does not for students under high stress because mean levels of these constructs are all already high.

  18. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued. PMID:26389928

  19. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  20. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  1. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  2. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P < 0.001) but weak (r = 0.39) correlation between BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group. PMID:23606949

  3. Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Anna K; DiGennaro, Joe; Lanman, Cynthia; Spangler, Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) provides a readily available technique that can be used by both veterinary professionals and owners to assess the body condition of cats, and diagnose overweight or underweight conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate a five-point BCS system with half-point delineations using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Four evaluators (a veterinarian, veterinary technician, trained scorer and untrained scorer) assessed 133 neutered adult cats. For all scorers, BCS score was more strongly correlated with percent body fat than with body weight. Percent body fat increased by approximately 7% within each step increase in BCS. The veterinarian had the strongest correlation coefficient between BCS and percent fat (r = 0.80). Mean body fat in cats classified as being in ideal body condition was 12 and 19%, for 3.0 and 3.5 BCS, respectively. Within BCS category, male cats were significantly heavier in body weight than females within the same assigned BCS category. However, DXA-measured percent body fat did not differ significantly between male and female cats within BCS category, as assigned by the veterinarian (P >0.13). Conversely, when assessed by others, mean percent body fat within BCS category was lower in males than females for cats classified as being overweight (BCS >4.0). The results of this study show that using a BCS system that has been validated within a range of normal weight to moderately overweight cats can help to differentiate between lean cats and cats that may not be excessively overweight, but that still carry a higher proportion of body fat.

  4. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  5. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  6. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education.

  7. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. PMID:27111437

  8. Which measure of body fat distribution is best for epidemiologic research?

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Wear, M L; Hanis, C L; Emerson, J B; Barton, S A; Hewett-Emmett, D; Schull, W J

    1991-05-01

    Multivariate associations were sought between risk factor levels (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures) and two sets of anthropometric variables (four circumferences and six skinfolds) to select a set of anthropometric indicators of body fat distribution that correlate most highly with risk of disease. Subjects were men (n = 285) and women (n = 672) from a study of gallbladder disease in a Mexican American population in Starr County, Texas, 1985-1986. The canonical correlations showed that circumferences (0.49-0.61) and skinfolds (0.42-0.60) were equally well correlated to risk factor levels independently of sex and age. Weights from the canonical analyses suggest that measurements at or above the waist and on the lower limb (thigh) are most heavily loaded toward risk (waist = highest risk; thigh = lowest risk). The simplest and most reliable index of body fat distribution for both sexes is the ratio of waist to thigh circumferences. The more commonly used waist/hip ratio proved more valid in women, but not in men. Simple skinfold indices of body fat distribution were more poorly correlated to risk factor levels than the corresponding circumference ratios. In women, body mass index and waist circumference by themselves did as well as body fat distribution indices in explaining variation in risk factors, suggesting the involvement of visceral fat in the body fat/body fat distribution disease relation. PMID:2028976

  9. The body that does not diminish itself: fat acceptance in Israel's lesbian queer communities.

    PubMed

    Maor, Maya

    2012-01-01

    This article follows Charlotte Cooper's call to widen fat studies scholarship to contexts outside the United States, and Adrianne Hill's call to locate historically specific connections between lesbian communities and promotion of fat acceptance. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with Jewish-Israeli fat women. Through the development of their ability to appreciate their fat body and the fat bodies of other women, participants employed a mixture of disparate feminist-lesbian and queer discourses, in a similar, albeit not identical manner to the one used in the U.S. context. One of the major differences is that queer/lesbian communities in Israel are not in contact with the Israeli fat acceptance movement.

  10. The body that does not diminish itself: fat acceptance in Israel's lesbian queer communities.

    PubMed

    Maor, Maya

    2012-01-01

    This article follows Charlotte Cooper's call to widen fat studies scholarship to contexts outside the United States, and Adrianne Hill's call to locate historically specific connections between lesbian communities and promotion of fat acceptance. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with Jewish-Israeli fat women. Through the development of their ability to appreciate their fat body and the fat bodies of other women, participants employed a mixture of disparate feminist-lesbian and queer discourses, in a similar, albeit not identical manner to the one used in the U.S. context. One of the major differences is that queer/lesbian communities in Israel are not in contact with the Israeli fat acceptance movement. PMID:22455341

  11. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves

    PubMed Central

    Alapati, Anitha; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy Patrapalle; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-01-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854). PMID:20195058

  12. Development of the body condition score system in Murrah buffaloes: validation through ultrasonic assessment of body fat reserves.

    PubMed

    Alapati, Anitha; Kapa, Sarjan Rao; Jeepalyam, Suresh; Rangappa, Srinivasa Moorthy; Yemireddy, Kotilinga Reddy

    2010-03-01

    The body condition score (BCS) system is a subjective scoring method of evaluating the energy reserves of dairy animals to provide better understanding of biological relationships between body fat, milk production and reproduction. This method helps in adopting the optimum management practices to derive maximum production and maintain optimum health of the livestock. In this study, a new BCS system was developed for Murrah buffaloes. The skeletal check points were identified by studying the anatomical features and amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. The scores were assigned from 1 to 5 based on the amount of fat reserves in slaughtered animals. A score of 1 represents least and 5 represents most amount of fat. The skeletal check points identified were ordered based on the amount of carcass fat reserves and scores assigned to prepare a preliminary BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.25 increments. The BCS chart was further modified by eliminating the skeletal check points at which the fat reserves were less evident on palpation in most of the buffaloes and a new BCS chart on a 1 to 5 scale at 0.5 increments examining eight skeletal check points was developed. The new BCS system developed was tested for precision in 10 buffaloes for each point of the 1-5 scale by ultrasonographic measurements of body fat reserves. Ultrasonographic measurements showed that as the BCS increased, the amount of fat reserves also increased (p < 0.01), indicating that the BCS adequately reflected the amount of actual fat reserves. BCS was significantly correlated (r = 0.860) with the carcass fat reserves as well as the ultrasonographic fat reserves (r = 0.854). PMID:20195058

  13. [Development of skin moisture and body fat measurement system for mobile application].

    PubMed

    Huang, Naihan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Congzheng; Dong, Zhongfei

    2014-03-01

    Integrating physiological parameters measurement into mobile devices is a development tendency of mobile healthcare. Measurement methods for skin moisture and body fat content are studied in this paper. Electrodes are designed for easy integration into mobile devices, and can be embedded in the cover of the mobile phone. Experiments were conducted to obtain a fast and easy measurement method. The results of evaluation show that the measurement system can achieve the same accuracy as commercial products (with correlation above 0.9 and root mean squared error below 4%) in skin moisture and body fat content measurement. Measurement of local-area body fat content showed a nearly linear positive correlation between local-area body fat content and local-area body impedance.

  14. LOCATION OF BODY FAT AMONG WOMEN WHO ACCURATELY OR INACCURATELY PERCEIVE THEIR WEIGHT STATUS.

    PubMed

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated location of body fat, with specific focus on abdominal fat, among normal weight and overweight women who accurately or inaccurately perceived their weight status. Young, adult women (N = 120; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.2) were asked to classify their weight status using the Self-Classified Weight subscale from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Actual weight status was operationalized via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Overweight women who thought they were normal weight had an average of 19 pounds more fat than normal weight women with 1.5 pounds of excess abdominal fat. Interventions to raise awareness among overweight women unaware of their fat level are warranted. However, these interventions should balance consideration of potential detriments to body image among these women. PMID:26474442

  15. Apiology: royal secrets in the queen's fat body.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

    2011-07-12

    Royalactin, a component of royal jelly, induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Surprisingly, royalactin has a similar effect on growth in fruit flies, highlighting many unexpected features of growth regulation by the insect fat tissue.

  16. The Role of Body Fat and Fat Distribution in Hypertension Risk in Urban Black South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Nigel J.; Jaff, Nicole G.; Kengne, Andre P.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries are disproportionately affected by hypertension, with Black women being at greater risk, possibly due to differences in body fat distribution. The objectives of this study were: (1) To examine how different measures of body composition are associated with blood pressure (BP) and incident hypertension; (2) to determine the association between baseline or change in body composition, and hypertension; and (3) to determine which body composition measure best predicts hypertension in Black South African women. The sample comprised 478 non-hypertensive women, aged 29–53 years. Body fat and BP were assessed at baseline and 8.3 years later. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n = 273) and anthropometry. Hypertension was diagnosed based on a systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mmHg, or medication use at follow-up. All body composition measures increased (p<0.0001) between baseline and follow-up. SBP and DBP increased by ≥20%, resulting in a 57.1% cumulative incidence of hypertension. Both DXA- and anthropometric-derived measures of body composition were significantly associated with BP, explaining 3–5% of the variance. Baseline BP was the most important predictor of hypertension (adjusted OR: 98–123%). Measures of central adiposity were associated with greater odds (50–65%) of hypertension than total adiposity (44–45%). Only change in anthropometric-derived central fat mass predicted hypertension (adjusted OR: 32–40%). This study highlights that body composition is not a major determinant of hypertension in the sample of black African women. DXA measures of body composition do not add to hypertension prediction beyond anthropometry, which is especially relevant for African populations globally, taking into account the severely resource limited setting found in these communities. PMID:27171011

  17. Argument for the need of investigation of the relationship between body fatness and experimental pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Astita, Rehab A; Tashani, Osama A; Sharp, Duncan; Johnson, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we argue about the need for an extensive investigation of the relationship between body fatness and fat distribution and experimental pain to explore the factors that might contribute to the increased prevalence of pain conditions in obese individuals. PMID:26085491

  18. Body Fat Assessment: A Comparison of Visual Estimation and Skinfold Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterner, Thomas G.; Burke, Edmund J.

    1986-01-01

    This study compared skinfold measurements and visual estimation as methods of measuring percent body fat against underwater weighing, using a sample of 71 males. The results suggest some individuals can visually estimate percent fat about as accurately as skinfold measures do. (MT)

  19. Body fat distribution and perception of desirable female body shape by young black men and women.

    PubMed

    Singh, D

    1994-11-01

    The relation between body fat distribution as measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and perception of desirable female body shape was investigated in college-age black men and women. Subjects judged attractiveness, various personal qualities, and desirability for long-term relationships of 12 line drawings of female figures that represented three body weight categories (normal, underweight, and overweight) and four levels of WHRs (0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0). Judgments of attractiveness and desirability for long-term relationships were affected by body weight and the size of the WHR. Both male and female subjects ranked normal weight figures with 0.7 and 0.8 WHR as more attractive and desirable for long-term relationships; neither underweight nor overweight figures, irrespective of WHR size, were assigned high ranking for these variables. These findings do not support the notion that black young men and women find overweight female figures as desirable and attractive. PMID:7833963

  20. Role of Fat Body Lipogenesis in Protection against the Effects of Caloric Overload in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Laura Palanker; Fink, Jill L.; Ramachandran, Prasanna Venkatesh; Patterson, Bruce W.; Okunade, Adewole L.; Maier, Ezekiel; Brent, Michael R.; Turk, John; Baranski, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila fat body is a liver- and adipose-like tissue that stores fat and serves as a detoxifying and immune responsive organ. We have previously shown that a high sugar diet leads to elevated hemolymph glucose and systemic insulin resistance in developing larvae and adults. Here, we used stable isotope tracer feeding to demonstrate that rearing larvae on high sugar diets impaired the synthesis of esterified fatty acids from dietary glucose. Fat body lipid profiling revealed changes in both carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acid substituents, particularly in stored triglycerides. We tested the role of the fat body in larval tolerance of caloric excess. Our experiments demonstrated that lipogenesis was necessary for animals to tolerate high sugar feeding as tissue-specific loss of orthologs of carbohydrate response element-binding protein or stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 resulted in lethality on high sugar diets. By contrast, increasing the fat content of the fat body by knockdown of king-tubby was associated with reduced hyperglycemia and improved growth and tolerance of high sugar diets. Our work supports a critical role for the fat body and the Drosophila carbohydrate response element-binding protein ortholog in metabolic homeostasis in Drosophila. PMID:23355467

  1. Body fatness and its social and lifestyle determinants in young working males from Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the degree to which general body fatness variation, presented by body mass index (BMI), the sum of the three skinfold thicknesses (TST) (triceps, subscapular, abdominal) and percentage of body fat (%FAT), can be explained by socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle. The cross-sectional, population-based survey was of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. Objective anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis, the results of motor fitness tests and social and lifestyle data from a questionnaire were analysed. The independent variables were: age, socioeconomic status (birthplace, place of residence until the age of 14, social class, educational level and the type of work done) and lifestyle elements (smoking habits, dietary habits, family obesity resemblance, sport activity in the past, leisure time physical activity and level of motor fitness). Three separate full models were created using stepwise straightforward regression with BMI, TST and %FAT as dependent variables. The highest autonomous influence on BMI and %FAT was ascribed to age and family obesity resemblance, whereas variation in TST was explained by level of motor fitness, age, city as a place of residence until the age of 14 and family obesity resemblance. Although the analysed variables explained only from 8% (BMI) to 13% (TST) of body fatness variation, indicating at the same time that most variations are explained by other variables, the impact of lifestyle family-shared factors on body fatness seems to be significant.

  2. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet. PMID:22034228

  3. Body Fat Measurement: Weighing the Pros and Cons of Electrical Impedance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Heyward L.

    1985-01-01

    Research technologists have developed electrical impedance units in response to demand for a convenient and reliable method of measuring body fat. Accuracy of impedance measures versus calipers and underwater weighing are discussed. (MT)

  4. Moulting hormone, juvenile hormone and the ultrastructure of the fat body of adult Sarcophaga bullata (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Stoppie, P; Briers, T; Huybrechts, R; De Loof, A

    1981-01-01

    In the ovoviviparous fly, Sarcophaga bullata, vitellogenesis in cyclic; a process reflected in ultrastructural changes in the fat body cells and oenocytes. At eclosion the larval fat body has not yet completely disappeared. During vitellogenesis the fat body cells are specialized for intensive protein synthesis showing a very extensive RER and numerous invaginations of the plasma membrane. These features disappear when the eggs descend into the oviducts to complete embryogenesis. The predominant feature of the oenocytes is their very prominent SER. The fat body cells of the males are never as specialized for protein synthesis as those of the females. Feeding of ecdysterone to males for 3 or more days induces a rather extensive subcellular apparatus for protein synthesis, i.e., invaginations of the plasma membrane and an extensive RER. Juvenile hormone is completely ineffective in this respect. Both ecdysterone and juvenile hormone have pronounced but different effects on the oenocytes of males.

  5. Circumference-estimated percent body fat vs. weight-height indices: relationships to physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Conway, T L; Cronan, T A; Peterson, K A

    1989-05-01

    This study examined whether percent body fat estimated from a simple circumference technique was more strongly associated with physical fitness than commonly used weight-height indices. Participants included 5,710 Navy men and 477 Navy women. Physical fitness measures included a 1.5-mile run, sit-ups test, sit-reach flexibility test, and an average fitness score. Circumference-estimated percent body fat was more strongly correlated with physical fitness than were any of the weight-height indices. Although the overall pattern of associations was similar for men and women, correlations were stronger for men. Circumference-estimated percent body fat may be more strongly associated with physical fitness because it assesses actual body fat more reliably than weight-height indices.

  6. Plasma ghrelin is positively associated with body fat, liver fat and milk fat content but not with feed intake of dairy cows after parturition.

    PubMed

    Börner, Sabina; Derno, Michael; Hacke, Sandra; Kautzsch, Ulrike; Schäff, Christine; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto; Hammon, Harald M; Röntgen, Monika; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa; Tuchscherer, Armin; Kuhla, Björn

    2013-02-01

    Ghrelin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone that is present in blood mostly in a non-posttranslationally modified form, with a minor proportion acylated at Ser(3). Both ghrelin forms were initially assigned a role in the control of food intake but there is accumulating evidence for their involvement in fat allocation and utilization. We investigated changes in the ghrelin system in dairy cows, exhibiting differences in body fat mobilization and fatty liver, from late pregnancy to early lactation. Sixteen dairy cows underwent liver biopsy and were retrospectively grouped based on high (H) or low (L) liver fat content post-partum. Both groups had a comparable feed intake in week -6 (before parturition) and week 2 (after parturition). Only before parturition was preprandial total ghrelin concentration higher in L than in H cows and only after parturition was the basal plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids higher in H than in L cows. Both before and after parturition, H cows had higher preprandial plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin, a higher acyl:total ghrelin ratio, lower plasma triacylglyceride concentrations and a lower respiratory quotient compared with L cows. These group differences could not be attributed to an allelic variant of the acyl ghrelin receptor. Rather, the ratio of acyl:total ghrelin correlated with several aspects of fat metabolism and with respiratory quotient but not with feed intake. These results show that endogenous ghrelin forms are associated with fat allocation, fatty liver, and utilization of fat during the periparturient period.

  7. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate obesity classifications from body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). A total of 451 overweight/obese active duty military personnel completed all three assessments. Most were obese (men, 81%; women, 98%) using National...

  8. Can alternating lower body negative and positive pressure during exercise alter regional body fat distribution or skin appearance?

    PubMed

    Löberbauer-Purer, Elisabeth; Meyer, Nanna L; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Haudum, Judith; Kässmann, Helmut; Müller, Erich

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity, with and without lower body pressure, leads to increased regional fat loss in the lower extremities of overweight females. Eighty-six obese women with a female phenotype were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (C), diet only (D), diet plus exercise (DE) or diet, exercise and lower body pressure intervention (DEP). The three treatment groups followed the same diet, the two exercise groups (DE and DEP) additionally followed an endurance training program of 30 min of cycling at 50%VO(2)max three times per week with or without lower body pressure. Body composition and fat distribution were assessed by DXA. Body size circumference measurements were recorded as well as subjective ratings of cellulite and skin appearance. As expected, all test groups (D, DE, DEP) showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in total body mass and fat mass. DXA revealed significant differences between the experimental groups and C. The DEP group also lost significantly more body mass and fat mass when compared with D, while no significant difference was observed between the other groups. A similar pattern was seen for circumference measurement data. A significant perceived improvement was made by the DEP group when compared with C, D and DE groups for skin condition and also between the DEP versus C and D groups for cellulite. The combination of diet and exercise is successful for weight reduction. The additional application of lower body pressure especially affects skin appearance.

  9. Influence of regular exercise on body fat and eating patterns of patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-05-18

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%-170% vs. IC-Con 29%-52%) and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex -2.1%-1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%-10%). IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%-10% vs. -0.6%-1.4%). Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.

  10. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees.

  11. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52%) and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%). IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%). Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification. PMID:25993298

  12. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  13. Insights into the Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) fat body transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Cristina Soares; Serrão, José Eduardo; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Amaral, Isabel Marques Rodrigues; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Maranhão, Andréa Queiroz; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The insect fat body is a multifunctional organ analogous to the vertebrate liver. The fat body is involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, regulation of environmental stress, production of immunity regulator-like proteins in cells and protein storage. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in fat body physiology in stingless bees. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome of the fat body from the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. In silico analysis of a set of cDNA library sequences yielded 1728 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 997 high-quality sequences that were assembled into 29 contigs and 117 singlets. The BLAST X tool showed that 86% of the ESTs shared similarity with Apis mellifera (honeybee) genes. The M. scutellaris fat body ESTs encoded proteins with roles in numerous physiological processes, including anti-oxidation, phosphorylation, metabolism, detoxification, transmembrane transport, intracellular transport, cell proliferation, protein hydrolysis and protein synthesis. This is the first report to describe a transcriptomic analysis of specific organs of M. scutellaris. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological role of the fat body in stingless bees. PMID:23885214

  14. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal–specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.—Arik, A. J., Hun, L. V., Quicke, K., Piatt, M., Ziegler, R., Scaraffia, P. Y., Badgandi H., Riehle, M. A. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. PMID:25550465

  15. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (<30%; normal body fat ratio, NFR) and high (≥ 30%; excessive body fat ratio, EFR) proportions of body fat. Energy and the intake of many nutrients and foods did not significantly differ between the two groups, but the EFR group consumed significantly less saturated fatty acid, sugar and confectionery. Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios.

  16. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P < 0.05) at the end of study in rats fed HP-W or HP-S vs. control diet. The cumulative food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P < 0.01). Further, HP-W fed rats exhibited lower N(2) free RQ values than did control and HP-S groups (P < 0.01). Plasma concentrations of total GLP-1 were higher in HP-W and HP-S vs. control group (P < 0.05), whereas plasma CCK, PYY, and leptin did not differ among the three groups. In conclusion, although dietary HP-W and HP-S each decrease body fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  17. Effects of covert subject actions on percent body fat by air-displacement plethsymography.

    PubMed

    Tegenkamp, Michelle H; Clark, R Randall; Schoeller, Dale A; Landry, Greg L

    2011-07-01

    Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) is used for estimation of body composition, however, some individuals, such as athletes in weight classification sports, may use covert methods during ADP testing to alter their apparent percent body fat. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of covert subject actions on percent body fat measured by ADP. Subjects underwent body composition analysis in the Bod Pod following the standard procedure using the manufacturer's guidelines. The subjects then underwent 8 more measurements while performing the following intentional manipulations: 4 breathing patterns altering lung volume, foot movement to disrupt air, hand cupping to trap air, and heat and cold exposure before entering the chamber. Increasing and decreasing lung volume during thoracic volume measurement and during body density measurement altered the percent body fat assessment (p < 0.001). High lung volume during thoracic gas measures overestimated fat by 3.7 ± 2.1 percentage points. Lowered lung volume during body volume measures overestimated body fat by an additional 2.2 ± 2.1 percentage points. The heat and cold exposure, tapping, and cupping treatments provided similar estimates of percent body fat when compared with the standard condition. These results demonstrate the subjects were able to covertly change their estimated ADP body composition value by altering breathing when compared with the standard condition. We recommend that sports conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, and technicians administering ADP should be aware of the potential effects of these covert actions. The individual responsible for administering ADP should remain vigilant during testing to detect deliberate altered breathing patterns by athletes in an effort to gain a competitive advantage by manipulating their body composition assessment.

  18. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. METHODS: The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1kg/m², WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. PMID:25649384

  19. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  20. The prediction of lean body mass and fat mass from arm anthropometry at diagnosis in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Colin; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Young, Andrea; Barr, Ronald D

    2013-10-01

    Maintenance of adequate nutrition is important in the care of children with cancer. In clinical practice, determination of nutritional status can be accomplished with measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, DXA is seldom available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. This study sought to provide predictive equations for lean body mass and fat mass, measured by DXA, on the basis of simple arm anthropometry providing measures of mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness in a population (N=99) of children diagnosed with cancer. Such equations were derived successfully with the inclusion of absolute body weight, the body weight Z-score, and the predicted whole-body bone mineral content on the basis of age and sex. Attempted validation in a small sample (N=7) of children who completed therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed disparities reflective of the prevalence of obesity in such survivors. Further validation must be undertaken in large samples of children with a variety of malignant diseases to assess the robustness of the equations predictive of body composition.

  1. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  2. The impact of body fat on three dimensional motion of the paediatric foot during walking.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Ryan; Morrison, Stewart C; Bassett, Paul; Drechsler, Wendy I; Cramp, Mary C

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is commonly associated with a pes planus foot type and altered lower limb joint function during walking. However, limited information has been reported on dynamic intersegment foot motion with the level of obesity in children. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between intersegment foot motion during gait and body fat in boys age 7-11 years. Fat mass was measured in fifty-five boys using air displacement plethysmography. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted on the right foot of each participant using the 3DFoot model to capture angular motion of the shank, calcaneus, midfoot and metatarsals. Two multivariate statistical techniques were employed; principle component analysis reduced the multidimensional nature of gait analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis accounted for potential confounding factors. Higher fat mass predicted greater plantarflexion of the calcaneus during the first half and end of stance phase and at the end of swing phase. Greater abduction of the calcaneus throughout stance and swing was predicted by greater fat mass. At the midfoot, higher fat mass predicted greater dorsiflexion and eversion throughout the gait cycle. The findings present novel information on the relationships between intersegment angular motion of the foot and body fat in young boys. The data indicates a more pronated foot type in boys with greater body fat. These findings have clinical implications for pes planus and a predisposition for pain and discomfort during weight bearing activities potentially reducing motivation in obese children to be physically active. PMID:27004650

  3. Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis.

  4. Shotgun proteomic analysis of the fat body during metamorphosis of domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Yang, Huijuan; Zhou, Zhonghua; Zhang, Huarong; Chen, Ming; Li, Jianying; Ma, Yingying; Zhong, Boxiong

    2010-05-01

    Protein expression profiles in the fat bodies of larval, pupal, and moth stages of silkworm were determined using shotgun proteomics and MS sequencing. We identified 138, 217, and 86 proteins from the larval, pupal and moth stages, respectively, of which 12 were shared by the 3 stages. There were 92, 150, and 45 specific proteins identified in the larval, pupal and moth stages, respectively, of which 17, 68, and 9 had functional annotations. Among the specific proteins identified in moth fat body, sex-specific storage-protein 1 precursor and chorion protein B8 were unique to the moth stage, indicating that the moth stage fat body is more important for adult sexual characteristics. Many ribosomal proteins (L23, L4, L5, P2, S10, S11, S15A and S3) were found in pupal fat bodies, whereas only three (L14, S20, and S7) and none were identified in larval and moth fat bodies, respectively. Twenty-three metabolic enzymes were identified in the pupal stage, while only four and two were identified in the larval and moth stages, respectively. In addition, an important protein, gloverin2, was only identified in larval fat bodies. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the proteins specific to the three stages linked them to the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process categories. The most diverse GO functional classes were involved by the relatively less specific proteins identified in larva. GO analysis of the proteins shared among the three stages showed that the pupa and moth stages shared the most similar protein functions in the fat body.

  5. Tissue nonautonomous effects of fat body methionine metabolism on imaginal disc repair in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Soshiro; Obata, Fumiaki; Zhang, Liu; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki

    2016-02-16

    Regulatory mechanisms for tissue repair and regeneration within damaged tissue have been extensively studied. However, the systemic regulation of tissue repair remains poorly understood. To elucidate tissue nonautonomous control of repair process, it is essential to induce local damage, independent of genetic manipulations in uninjured parts of the body. Herein, we develop a system in Drosophila for spatiotemporal tissue injury using a temperature-sensitive form of diphtheria toxin A domain driven by the Q system to study factors contributing to imaginal disc repair. Using this technique, we demonstrate that methionine metabolism in the fat body, a counterpart of mammalian liver and adipose tissue, supports the repair processes of wing discs. Local injury to wing discs decreases methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, whereas it increases S-adenosylhomocysteine in the fat body. Fat body-specific genetic manipulation of methionine metabolism results in defective disc repair but does not affect normal wing development. Our data indicate the contribution of tissue interactions to tissue repair in Drosophila, as local damage to wing discs influences fat body metabolism, and proper control of methionine metabolism in the fat body, in turn, affects wing regeneration.

  6. Tissue nonautonomous effects of fat body methionine metabolism on imaginal disc repair in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kashio, Soshiro; Obata, Fumiaki; Zhang, Liu; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory mechanisms for tissue repair and regeneration within damaged tissue have been extensively studied. However, the systemic regulation of tissue repair remains poorly understood. To elucidate tissue nonautonomous control of repair process, it is essential to induce local damage, independent of genetic manipulations in uninjured parts of the body. Herein, we develop a system in Drosophila for spatiotemporal tissue injury using a temperature-sensitive form of diphtheria toxin A domain driven by the Q system to study factors contributing to imaginal disc repair. Using this technique, we demonstrate that methionine metabolism in the fat body, a counterpart of mammalian liver and adipose tissue, supports the repair processes of wing discs. Local injury to wing discs decreases methionine and S-adenosylmethionine, whereas it increases S-adenosylhomocysteine in the fat body. Fat body-specific genetic manipulation of methionine metabolism results in defective disc repair but does not affect normal wing development. Our data indicate the contribution of tissue interactions to tissue repair in Drosophila, as local damage to wing discs influences fat body metabolism, and proper control of methionine metabolism in the fat body, in turn, affects wing regeneration. PMID:26831070

  7. [Centripetal distribution of body fat, overweight and cardiorespiratory fitness: association with insulin sensitivity and metabolic alterations].

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Luciano T; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; de Oliveira, Jair Aparecido; Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate associations between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and serum lipid-lipoproteins, blood pressure and the index Homa-IR of insulin resistance, adjusting for indicators of overweight and cardiorespiratory fitness. Eighty-nine voluntaries were analyzed (44 men and 45 women). The centripetal distribution of the body fat was analyzed through waist circumference (CC) and the overweight by the body mass index (BMI). The cardiorespiratory fitness was followed by the estimate VO(2)max by test of walking. After adjusted for BMI values were found significant coefficient of correlation between CC and levels of blood pressure and ApoB in men, and between CC and index Homa-IR and triglycerides in women. After adjusted for VO(2)max values were verified significant correlations between CC and ApoB and index Homa-IR in men, and between CC and index Homa-IR in women. In conclusion, depending on the sex, the quantity and distribution of the body fat can present different actions in the insulin resistance and associated dysfunctions. The cardiorespiratory fitness per se seems not to contribute on the minimization of the association between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and the index Homa-IR; but presents a considerable impact on the association between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and the lipid metabolism and the levels of blood pressure, mainly in men.

  8. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Thomas E.; Heo, Moonseong; Choi, Lydia; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Kamensky, Victor; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kabat, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65), and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk. PMID:23690776

  9. Body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rohan, Thomas E; Heo, Moonseong; Choi, Lydia; Datta, Mridul; Freudenheim, Jo L; Kamensky, Victor; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Qi, Lihong; Thomson, Cynthia A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kabat, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk. PMID:23690776

  10. Serum osteopontin concentration is decreased by exercise-induced fat loss but is not correlated with body fat percentage in obese humans.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Ji, Hye-In; Chang, Kyung Ja; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Jeong, In-Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Soo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the extent to which fat mass contributes to serum osteopontin (OPN) concentration, we investigated whether serum OPN levels are decreased by exercise-induced fat mass loss and whether they are associated with body fat percentage in obese humans. Twenty‑three female college students were recruited to participate in an 8‑week body weight control program. Body composition [body weight, soft lean mass, body fat mass, body fat percentage, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI)] were assessed prior to and following the program. Serum lipid profiles and serum adiponectin, leptin and osteopontin levels were measured from serum collected prior to and following the program. To understand the effect of fat mass loss on the serum levels of adipokine, which is mainly produced in adipose tissue, the leptin and adiponectin levels were also measured prior to and following the program. Serum leptin levels (mean ± standard error of the mean) decreased significantly following the program (from 9.82±0.98 to 7.23±0.67 ng/ml) and were closely correlated with body fat percentage. In addition, serum adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with body fat percentage, while serum adiponectin levels were not significantly altered. By contrast, serum OPN levels decreased significantly following the program (from 16.03±2.34 to 10.65±1.22 ng/ml). However, serum OPN levels were not correlated with body fat percentage, suggesting that serum OPN levels are controlled by several other factors in humans. In conclusion, a high expression of OPN in adipose tissues may not be correlated with serum OPN levels in obese humans. Thus, tissues or physiological factors other than fat mass may have a greater contribution to the serum OPN levels.

  11. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  12. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) and exhibited a smaller mean difference from fat% (-5.2 vs -7.6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) indicating better agreement. In men, however, BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01) with a smaller mean difference from fat% (-3.0 vs -2.2 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p < .01). Finally, BAI did not accurately predict fat% in people with a fat% below 15%. BAI provides valid estimation of body adiposity in an older adult population; however, BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages. PMID:24158764

  13. To Be Fat or Thin? Social Representations of the Body among Adolescent Female Students in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…

  14. Body fat standards and individual physical readiness in a randomized Army sample: screening weights, methods of fat assessment, and linkage to physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Karl E; Leu, John R

    2002-12-01

    Body fat standards have been used by the military services since the early 1980s to prevent obesity and motivate good fitness habits. The Army Weight Control Program has continued to undergo evaluation and incorporate improvements based on emerging scientific findings. Recently drafted revisions of Department of Defense-wide procedures address issues of consistency and validity raised by external oversight groups. This study evaluated the impact of three proposed refinements of the Army Weight Control Program. Anthropometric measurements and fitness test performance were obtained in a randomized sample of 1,038 male and 347 nonpregnant female soldiers at three Army posts. Of this sample, 11% of men and 17% of women were overweight and overfat; 6.3 and 9.8%, respectively, were currently on the Army Weight Control Program. Screening weight tables that ensure women are not inappropriately striving to meet weights more stringent than "healthy" weight (i.e., body mass index < 25 kg/m2) still correctly identified all women for evaluation for the age-specific body fat standards. Body fat estimation using more valid DoD body fat equations that include an abdominal circumference for women reduced the number of female soldiers currently classified as exceeding fat standards, coincidentally resulting in a comparable prevalence of male and female soldiers over the fat standards (12%). A body fat allowance for young soldiers who scored very well on the physical fitness test could have benefited one-fourth of the soldiers exceeding fat standards and acknowledges biological variability in body fat thresholds. Whereas this linkage may motivate fitness habits, it complicates enforcement of reasonably achievable body fat standards. The proposed changes in fat screening and measurement methods are appropriate, but the impact to health and physical readiness of the Force cannot be accurately predicted or measured because of the absence of comprehensive baseline data and tracking

  15. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  16. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  17. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  18. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  19. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable.

  20. Comparison of two field methods for estimating body fat in different spanish dance disciplines.

    PubMed

    Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Marfell-Jones, Mike; Alacid, Fernando; Artero Orta, Pedro; Correas-Gómez, Lorena; Santonja Medina, Fernando; Carnero, Elvis A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate percentage body fat (%BF) differences in three Spanish dance disciplines and to compare skinfold and bioelectrical impedance predictions of body fat percentage in the same sample. Seventy-six female dancers, divided into three groups, Classical (n=23), Spanish (n=29) and Flamenco (n=24), were measured using skinfold measurements at four sites: triceps, subscapular, biceps and iliac crest, and whole body multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The skinfold measures were used to predict body fat percentage via Durnin and Womersley's and Segal, Sun and Yannakoulia equations by BIA. Differences in percent fat mass between groups (Classical, Spanish and Flamenco) were tested by using repeated measures analysis (ANOVA). Also, Pearson's product-moment correlations were performed on the body fat percentage values obtained using both methods. In addition, Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement, between anthropometric and BIA methods. Repeated measures analysis of variance did not found differences in %BF between modalities (p<0.05). Fat percentage correlations ranged from r= 0.57 to r=0.97 (all, p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed differences between BIA Yannakoulia as a reference method with BIA Segal (-0.35 ± 2.32%, 95%CI: -0.89to 0.18, p=0.38), with BIA Sun (-0.73 ± 2.3%, 95%CI: -1.27 to -0.20, p=0.014) and Durnin-Womersley (-2.65 ± 2,48%, 95%CI: -3.22 to -2.07, p<0.0001). It was concluded that body fat percentage estimates by BIA compared with skinfold method were systematically different in young adult female ballet dancers, having a tendency to produce underestimations as %BF increased with Segal and Durnin-Womersley equations compared to Yannakoulia, concluding that these methods are not interchangeable. PMID:25238839

  1. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  2. Body fat in lean and overweight women estimated by six methods.

    PubMed

    McNeill, G; Fowler, P A; Maughan, R J; McGaw, B A; Fuller, M F; Gvozdanovic, D; Gvozdanovic, S

    1991-03-01

    Body fat content of seven lean women (body mass index (BMI) 20.6 (SD 1.8) kg/m2) and seven overweight women (BMI 31.1 (SD 3.3) kg/m2) was estimated by six different methods: underwater weighing (UWW), body-water dilution (BWD), whole-body counting (40K), skinfold thickness (SFT), bioelectrical impedance (BEI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using UWW as the reference method, the differences between percentage fat by each other method and the percentage fat by UWW were calculated for each subject. The mean difference was lowest for SFT and highest for BWD. MRI showed the lowest variability in individual results, and 40K the highest. 40K and BWD methods used in combination gave better agreement with UWW results than either 40K or BWD methods alone. There was a weak negative correlation between the difference from the UWW results and percentage fat in the SFT measurements, but not in the BWD, 40K, BEI or MRI measurements, suggesting that for these methods the assumptions involved produced no greater inaccuracy in the overweight women than in the lean women. In all subjects the BEI offered little improvement over the traditional SFT measurements. The agreement between MRI and UWW estimates in both lean and overweight women suggests that MRI may be a satisfactory substitute for the more established methods of body fat estimation in adult women.

  3. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  4. Robust automatic measurement of 3D scanned models for the human body fat estimation.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Andrea; Lovato, Christian; Piscitelli, Francesco; Milanese, Chiara; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic tool for estimating geometrical parameters from 3-D human scans independent on pose and robustly against the topological noise. It is based on an automatic segmentation of body parts exploiting curve skeleton processing and ad hoc heuristics able to remove problems due to different acquisition poses and body types. The software is able to locate body trunk and limbs, detect their directions, and compute parameters like volumes, areas, girths, and lengths. Experimental results demonstrate that measurements provided by our system on 3-D body scans of normal and overweight subjects acquired in different poses are highly correlated with the body fat estimates obtained on the same subjects with dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. In particular, maximal lengths and girths, not requiring precise localization of anatomical landmarks, demonstrate a good correlation (up to 96%) with the body fat and trunk fat. Regression models based on our automatic measurements can be used to predict body fat values reasonably well.

  5. The relationship between body fat and respiratory function in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Tim J T; McLachlan, Christene R; Sears, Malcolm R; Poulton, Richie; Hancox, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between adiposity and respiratory function is poorly understood. Most studies investigating this have used indirect measures of body fat and few have assessed how changes in adiposity influence lung function.Body fat measured by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index, waist circumference, spirometry, body plethysmography and transfer factor were measured at ages 32 and 38 years in 361 non-smoking, non-asthmatic participants from a population-based birth cohort.Higher percentage body fat was associated with lower spirometric and plethysmographic lung volumes, but not with airflow obstruction, or transfer factor at 32 years. Changes in adiposity between ages 32 and 38 years were inversely associated with changes in lung volumes. These associations were generally stronger in men than women, but an association between increasing adiposity and lower airway function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity) was only found in women. Similar associations were found for body mass index and waist circumference.Higher percentage body fat is associated with lower lung volumes. Direct and indirect measures of adiposity had similar associations with lung function. Adiposity had a greater effect on lung volumes in men than women but was associated with airway function only in women. There was little evidence that adiposity influenced transfer factor. PMID:27471202

  6. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    PubMed

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed. PMID:17336794

  7. Body Fatness at Young Ages and Risk of Breast Cancer Throughout Life

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Heather J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Willett, Walter C.

    2010-01-01

    Body fatness at young ages may be related to breast cancer risk independently of adult adiposity. The authors conducted a prospective analysis among 188,860 women (7,582 breast cancer cases) in the Nurses’ Health Study (1988–2004) and Nurses’ Health Study II (1989–2005) who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 years using a 9-level pictogram (level 1: most lean; level 9: most overweight). Body fatness at young ages was inversely associated with risk of both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (per 1-unit increase in adolescent body fatness, relative risk (RR) = 0.88 and RR = 0.91, respectively; Ptrend < 0.0001). Among all women, the RR for adolescent body fatness of level 6.5 or higher versus level 1 was 0.57 (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.90; Ptrend < 0.0001) and was unaffected by adjustment for current body mass index. The association was stronger for women with birth weights under 8.5 pounds (<3.9 kg) than for women with birth weights of 8.5 pounds or more (≥3.9 kg) (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.89 and RR = 0.94, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.04) and stronger for estrogen receptor-negative tumors than for estrogen receptor-positive tumors (per 1-unit increase, RR = 0.86 and RR = 0.92, respectively; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). Body fatness at young ages has a strong and independent inverse relation to breast cancer risk throughout life. PMID:20460303

  8. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered.

  9. Contributions of body fat and effort in the 5K run: age and body weight handicap.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Laubach, Lloyd L

    2008-09-01

    The 5K handicap (5KH), designed to eliminate the body weight (BW) and age biases inherent in the 5K run time (RT), yields an adjusted RT (RTadj) that can be compared between runners of different BW and age. As hypothesized in a validation study, however, not all BW bias may be removed, because of the influences of body fatness (BF) and effort (run speed; essentially the inverse as measured by rating of perceived exertion (RPE)). This study's purpose was to determine the effects of BF and RPE on BW bias in the 5KH. For 99 male runners in a regional 5K race (age = 43.9 +/- 12.1 years; BW = 83.4 +/- 12.9 kg), BF was determined via sum of three skinfolds just before the race. RPE, on the 20-point Borg scale, was used to assess overall race effort on race completion. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a new adjusted RT (NRTadj, the RTadj corrected for BF and RPE), which was computed for each runner and then correlated with BW to determine bias. Indicative of slight bias, BW was correlated with RTadj (r = 0.220, p = 0.029). Both BF (p = 0.00002) and RPE (p = 0.0005) were significant, independent predictors of RTadj. NRTadj was not significantly correlated with BW (r = 0.051, p = 0.61), but BF explained 90%, and RPE explained only 6%, of the remaining BW bias evidenced in the 5KH. The previous finding that the 5KH does not remove all BW bias is apparently accounted for by BF and not RPE. Because no handicap should be awarded for higher BF, this finding suggests that the 5KH, for men, appropriately adjusts for the age and BW vs. RT biases previously noted.

  10. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

    PubMed

    Volek, Js; Sharman, Mj; Gómez, Al; Judelson, DA; Rubin, Mr; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, Dn; Kraemer, Wj

    2004-11-08

    VLCK diet in men and women. Absolute REE (kcal/day) was decreased with both diets as expected, but REE expressed relative to body mass (kcal/kg), was better maintained on the VLCK diet for men only. Individual responses clearly show the majority of men and women experience greater weight and fat loss on a VLCK than a LF diet. CONCLUSION: This study shows a clear benefit of a VLCK over LF diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a VLCK diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation. These data provide additional support for the concept of metabolic advantage with diets representing extremes in macronutrient distribution.

  11. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    PubMed Central

    Volek, JS; Sharman, MJ; Gómez, AL; Judelson, DA; Rubin, MR; Watson, G; Sokmen, B; Silvestre, R; French, DN; Kraemer, WJ

    2004-01-01

    men and women. Absolute REE (kcal/day) was decreased with both diets as expected, but REE expressed relative to body mass (kcal/kg), was better maintained on the VLCK diet for men only. Individual responses clearly show the majority of men and women experience greater weight and fat loss on a VLCK than a LF diet. Conclusion This study shows a clear benefit of a VLCK over LF diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a VLCK diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation. These data provide additional support for the concept of metabolic advantage with diets representing extremes in macronutrient distribution. PMID:15533250

  12. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  13. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A.Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. Methods One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’ covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P<0.001), and fat mass decreased by 1.5±1.1 kg (P<0.001). Skeletal muscle mass and total body water remained unchanged (P>0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, P<0.001). Conclusion Cycling 600 km at ∼23 km/h led to a decrease in fat mass and in all skinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold. PMID:23785571

  14. Body Fat Composition Assessment Using Analytic Morphomics Predicts Infectious Complications After Bowel Resection in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Waljee, Akbar K.; Day, Nicholas M.; Bergmans, Carrie L.; Zahn, Katelin M.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Su, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decisions between medical and surgical management of Crohn's disease (CD) incorporate risk assessments for potential complications of each therapy. Analytic morphomics is a novel method of image analysis providing quantifiable measurements of body tissue composition, characterizing body fat more comprehensively than body mass index alone. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with postoperative complications in CD, incorporating fat composition analysis using analytic morphomics. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adults undergoing bowel resection for CD between 2004 and 2011 at a single center. Computed tomography obtained within 30 days prior to surgery underwent morphomic analysis for fat characterization. Postoperative infectious complications were defined as the need for a postoperative abdominal drain, intravenous antibiotics, or reoperation within 30 days. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to generate a prediction model of infectious complications. Results: A total of 269 subjects met selection criteria; 27% incurred postoperative infectious complications. Bivariate analysis showed hemoglobin, albumin, surgical urgency, high-dose prednisone use, and subcutaneous-to-visceral fat volume distribution as predictors of complications. Body mass index, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies, and immunomodulator use were not predictors of complication. Multivariate modeling demonstrated a c-statistic of 0.77 and a negative predictive value of 81.1% with surgical urgency (odds ratio = 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.46–6.02; P = 0.004), subcutaneous-to-visceral fat distribution (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–3.19; P = 0.006), and hemoglobin (odds ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55–0.85; P = 0.001) as predictors of infectious complication. Conclusions: Fat subtype and distribution are predictive of postoperative infectious complications

  15. Adipokines, hormones related to body composition, and insulin resistance in HIV fat redistribution syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking these alterations. Our aim was to evaluate adipocyte-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, PAI-1) and ghrelin plasma levels and their relationship with IR in HIV-infected patients according to the presence of lipodystrophy and fat redistribution. Methods Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR, body composition by DXA and CT, and adipokines were evaluated in 217 HIV-infected patients on cART and 74 controls. Fat mass ratio defined lipodystrophy (L-FMR) was defined as the ratio of the percentage of the trunk fat mass to the percentage of the lower limb fat mass by DXA. Patient’s fat redistribution was classified into 4 different groups according the presence or absence of either clinical lipoatrophy or abdominal prominence: no lipodystrophy, isolated central fat accumulation (ICFA), isolated lipoatrophy and mixed forms (MXF). The associations between adipokines levels and anthropometric, metabolic and body composition were estimated by Spearman correlation. Results Leptin levels were lower in patients with FMR-L and isolated lipoatrophy, and higher in those with ICFA and MXF. Positive correlations were found between leptin and body fat (total, trunk, leg, arm fat evaluated by DXA, and total, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and VAT/SAT ratio evaluated by CT) regardless of FMR-L, and with HOMA-IR only in patients with FMR-L. Adiponectin correlated negatively with VAT, and its mean levels were lower in patients with ICFA and higher in those with no lipodystrophy. Resistin was not correlated with adipose tissue but positively correlated with HOMA-IR in FMR-L patients. PAI-1 levels were higher in MXF-patients and their levels were positively correlated with VAT in those with FMR-L. Ghrelin was higher in HIV

  16. Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks resistance training in combination with either a regular diet (Ex) or a low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (Lc+Ex) in overweight women on body weight and body composition. Methods 18 untrained women between 20 and 40 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg*m-2 were randomly assigned into the Ex or Lc+Ex group. Both groups performed 60-100 min of varied resistance exercise twice weekly. Dietary estimates were based on two 4-day weighed records. Body composition was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and glucose. Results 16 subjects were included in the analyses. Percentage of energy (En%) from carbohydrates, fat and protein was 6, 66, and 22 respectively in the (Lc+Ex) group and 41, 34, 17 in the Ex group. Mean weight change (pre-post) was -5.6 ± 2.6 kg in Lc+Ex; (p < 0.001) and 0.8 ± 1.5 kg in Ex; (p = 0.175). The Lc+Ex group lost 5.6 ± 2.9 kg of fat mass (p = 0.001) with no significant change in lean body mass (LBM), while the Ex group gained 1.6 ± 1.8 kg of LBM (p = 0.045) with no significant change in fat mass (p = 0.059). Fasting blood lipids and blood glucose were not significantly affected by the interventions. Conclusion Resistance exercise in combination with a ketogenic diet may reduce body fat without significantly changing LBM, while resistance exercise on a regular diet may increase LBM in without significantly affecting fat mass. Fasting blood lipids do not seem to be negatively influenced by the combination of resistance exercise and a low carbohydrate diet. PMID:20196854

  17. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  18. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  19. Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis C virus liver steatosis

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; López-Prieto, Javier; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Pelazas-González, Ricardo; Alemán-Valls, M Remedios; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; de-la-Vega-Prieto, M José; Gómez-Rodríguez, M Angeles; Martín-González, Candelaria; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify patients with or without liver steatosis and its severity in treatment-naïve patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We included 56 HCV infected patients, and assessed the amount of liver fat by histomorphometry, and its relationships with fat and lean mass at different parts of the body (by densitometry), hormones [insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)], adipokines (resistin, adiponectin, leptin), and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6). RESULTS: Although the intensity of liver steatosis is related to trunk fat mass and HOMA, 33% of patients showed no liver steatosis, and this finding was not related to body mass index or genotype. Besides trunk fat mass, no other factor was related to the presence or not of liver steatosis, or to the intensity of it, by multivariate analysis. Lean mass was not related to liver steatosis. Adiponectin levels were lower among patients. No differences were observed in leptin and resistin. CONCLUSION: Steatosis in HCV infection is common (67.2%), and closely related to trunk fat, and insulin resistance, but not with leg fat mass or adipokines. PMID:26783423

  20. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  1. Comparison of Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and Body Mass Index (BMI) with Estimations of % Body Fat in Clinically Severe Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Atalayer, Deniz; Flancbaum, Louis; Gibson, Charlisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height1.5 -18]), has been proposed as an alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI, and each of them with laboratory measures of body fat-derived from bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in clinically severe obese (CSO) participants. Nineteen pre-bariatric surgery CSO, non-diabetic women were recruited (age=32.6±7.7 SD; BMI=46.5±9.0 kg/m2). Anthropometrics and body fat percentage (% fat) were determined from BIA, ADP, and DXA. Scatter plots with lines of equality and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare BAI and BMI with % fat derived from BIA, ADP, and DXA. BAI and BMI correlated highly with each other (r=0.90, p<0.001). Both BAI and BMI correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP. BAI, however, did not correlate significantly with % fat from DXA (r=0.42, p=0.08) whereas BMI did (r=0.65, p=0.003). BMI was also the single best predictor of % fat from both BIA (r2=0.80, p<0.001) and ADP (r2=0.65, p<0.001). The regression analysis showed that the standard error of the estimate (SEE) or residual error around the regression lines was greater for BAI comparisons than for BMI comparisons with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Consistent with this, the Bland and Altman plots indicated wider 95% confidence intervals for BAI difference comparisons than for BMI difference comparisons with their respective means with BIA, ADP, and DXA. Thus, BAI does not appear to be an appropriate proxy for BMI in clinically severe obese (CSO) women. PMID:23592658

  2. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  3. The utility of fat mass index vs. body mass index and percentage of body fat in the screening of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been well documented that obesity is closely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Although body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used method to assess overweightness and obesity, this method has been criticized because BMI does not always reflect true body fatness, which may be better evaluated by assessment of body fat and fat-free mass. The objective of this study was to investigate the best indicator to predict the presence of MetS among fat mass index, BMI and percentage of body fat (BF %) and determine its optimal cut-off value in the screening of MetS in practice. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1698 subjects (aged 20–79 years) who participated in the annual health check-ups was employed. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Sex-specific FMI quartiles were defined as follows: Q1: <4.39, Q2:4.39- < 5.65, Q3:5.65- < 7.03, Q4:≥7.03,in men; and Q1:<5.25, Q2:5.25- < 6.33, Q3:6.33- < 7.93,Q4:≥7.93, in women. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The association between FMI quartiles and MetS was assessed using Binary logistic regression. Receiver operating curve(ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cutoff points for BMI,BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve(AUC),sensitivity and specificity in men and women. Results The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for the presence of MetS in the highest FMI quartile versus lowest quartile were 79.143(21.243-294.852) for men( P < 0.01) and 52.039(4.144-653.436) for women( P < 0.01) after adjusting age, BMI, BF%, TC, LDL, CRP, smoking status and exercise status, and the odds ratios were 9.166(2.157-38.952) for men( P < 0.01) and 25.574(1.945-336.228) for women( P < 0.05) when WC was also added into the adjustment. It was determined that BMI values of 27.45 and 23.85 kg/m2, BF% of 23.95% and 31.35% and FMI of 7

  4. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  5. Subject Positioning in the BOD POD® Only Marginally Affects Measurement of Body Volume and Estimation of Percent Body Fat in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Methods Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m2) were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a ‘forward bent’ position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. Results Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05) higher in the ‘straight’ position compared to the ‘bent’ position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = −71±211 ml) was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05) and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05) lower than in the straight position respectively. Conclusion Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (in)precision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest.The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin. PMID:22461887

  6. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Armanini, D; De Palo, C B; Mattarello, M J; Spinella, P; Zaccaria, M; Ermolao, A; Palermo, M; Fiore, C; Sartorato, P; Francini-Pesenti, F; Karbowiak, I

    2003-07-01

    The history of licorice, as a medicinal plant, is very old and has been used in many societies throughout the millennia. The active principle, glycyrrhetinic acid, is responsible for sodium retention and hypertension, which is the most common side-effect. We show an effect of licorice in reducing body fat mass. We studied 15 normal-weight subjects (7 males, age 22-26 yr, and 8 females, age 21-26 yr), who consumed for 2 months 3.5 g a day of a commercial preparation of licorice. Body fat mass (BFM, expressed as percentage of total body weight, by skinfold thickness and by bioelectrical impedance analysis, BIA) and extracellular water (ECW, percentage of total body water, by BIA) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) did not change. ECW increased (males: 41.8+/-2.0 before vs 47.0+/-2.3 after, p<0.001; females: 48.2+/-1.4 before vs 49.4+/-2.1 after, p<0.05). BFM was reduced by licorice: (male: before 12.0+/-2.1 vs after 10.8+/-2.9%, p<0.02; female: before 24.9+/-5.1 vs after 22.1+/-5.4, p<0.02); plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone were suppressed. Licorice was able to reduce body fat mass and to suppress aldosterone, without any change in BMI. Since the subjects were consuming the same amount of calories during the study, we suggest that licorice can reduce fat by inhibiting 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 at the level of fat cells. PMID:14594116

  7. Effect of very high-fat diets on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status in the obese.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Frederick F

    2005-11-01

    Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest in the effect of dietary fat on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets. Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has substantially different effects on lipoproteins. Saturated fat raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but has unfavorable effects on total cholesterol, and has been associated with increased cardiovascular events. In contrast, unsaturated fats, and particularly omega-3 fatty acids, have the combined benefits of lowering serum cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein, as well as favorable effects on insulin resistance and inflammation; they also lower cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Although current national guidelines modestly liberalize unsaturated fat consumption, important questions still remain about the optimal percentage of unsaturated fats in the diet. PMID:16255998

  8. Effect of very high-fat diets on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status in the obese.

    PubMed

    Samaha, Frederick F

    2005-11-01

    Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States, despite reduced fat intake, there has been increasing interest in the effect of dietary fat on body weight, lipoproteins, and glycemic status. Despite predictions from epidemiologic and physiologic studies, recent prospective trials have demonstrated equivalent weight loss on high-fat versus low-fat diets. Nevertheless, the type of dietary fat consumed has substantially different effects on lipoproteins. Saturated fat raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but has unfavorable effects on total cholesterol, and has been associated with increased cardiovascular events. In contrast, unsaturated fats, and particularly omega-3 fatty acids, have the combined benefits of lowering serum cholesterol and raising high-density lipoprotein, as well as favorable effects on insulin resistance and inflammation; they also lower cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Although current national guidelines modestly liberalize unsaturated fat consumption, important questions still remain about the optimal percentage of unsaturated fats in the diet.

  9. Tall men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

    PubMed

    Özener, Bariş

    2010-12-01

    A symmetrical body may signal the ability of an individual to cope with developmental perturbations and may thus be considered a 'health certificate'. It is known that symmetrical men are considered more attractive by women and that their reproductive success is higher. This study examined the associations between measures of body structure and fluctuating asymmetry in young Turkish men. Weight, height, and bioelectrical impedance were measured in a sample of 250 men residing in Ankara (mean age=18.4, SD=0.6), and body mass index was calculated. Fluctuating asymmetry was measured using hand length, hand width, elbow width, wrist width, knee width, ankle width, foot length, foot width, ear length, and ear width. According to the obtained findings, there is a negative linear relationship between composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA) and height, and a positive quadratic relationship between CFA and fat mass. These results might indicate that the tall Turkish men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

  10. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

  11. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  12. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.

  13. Relationship between percent body fat and menstrual patterns in athletes and nonathletes.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, M D; MacVicar, M G; Harlan, J

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between body fat percentage and menstrual patterns was examined in a longitudinal study of 25 collegiate athletes and 41 college-aged nonathletic control subjects. The athletes were training in gymnastics, figure skating, synchronized swimming, volleyball, or track. Data were collected each month concerning cycle, flow length, weight, and skinfold thicknesses (iliac crest, triceps, and subscapular). Height was determined once. Body fat percentage was estimated using the Sloan and Weir (1970) nomogram. Total energy expenditure was estimated for athletes according to sport. Mean body fat percentages of controls and athletes differed significantly, t = 4.4, p less than .01, but no significant difference was found in cycle length, F = 3.3, p = .078. Multiple regression analysis revealed no clear relationship between length of menstrual cycle and height, weight, skinfold thickness, or total energy expenditure. No significant relationship existed between body fat percentage and menstrual cycle length as tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. This study confirmed that menstrual phenomena cannot be defined as normal or pathologic by rhythmic occurrence alone. Rather, an individual's menstrual cycle length may be more suitably evaluated according to a multivariable continuum of menstrual patterns. PMID:3640348

  14. Percent Body Fat Prediction Equations for 8 to 17 year old American Children

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Truesdale, Kimberly P.; Cuttler, Leona; Robinson, Thomas N.; Roberts, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Percent body fat equations are usually developed in specific populations and have low generalizability. Objectives To use a nationally representative sample of the American youth population (8–17 years old) from the 1999–2004 NHANES data to develop gender-specific percent body fat equations. Methods Percent body fat equations were developed for girls and boys using information on weight, height, waist circumference, triceps skinfolds, age, race/ethnicity, and menses status compared to dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Terms were selected using forward and backward selection in regression models and in a 2/3 development sample and were cross-validated in the remaining sample. Final coefficients were estimated in the full sample. Results Final equations included 10 terms in girls and 8 terms in boys including interactions with age and race/ethnicity. In the cross-validation sample the adjusted R2 was 0.818 and the root mean squared error (RMSE) was 2.758 in girls. Comparable estimates in boys were 0.893 and 2.525. Systematic bias was not detected in the estimates by race/ethnicity or by BMI categories. Conclusion Gender-specific percent body fat equations were developed in youth with a strong potential for generalizability and utilization by other investigators studying adiposity-related issues in youth. PMID:23670857

  15. Frequency of exercise for body fat loss: a controlled, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Willis, F Buck; Smith, Forrest M; Willis, Adele P

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in body fat mass of previously sedentary, deconditioned subjects who began following the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation in frequency of exercise. Ninety subjects of both sexes were recruited; ages ranged from 22 to 74 (mean 37.5 +/- 13) years. Subjects were prescribed exercise of 4 times a week, 30 minutes of continuous exercise, for 8 weeks. Eighty subjects completed the 8-week study and were categorized based on voluntary compliance: control (no exercise); exercise less than 2 times/week; exercise 3 to 4 times/week; exercise 4 or more times/week. Body fat mass was the dependent variable in this study, as measured by air displacement plethysmography, and data analysis was accomplished with a repeated measures analysis of variance. There was a significant change in body fat mass in this study, but the only significant difference between groups was for the group that exercised 4 or more times/week, (p = 0.004). Adherence to the U.S. Surgeon General's Guidelines for frequency of exercising 4 times per week for 30 minutes was effective in reducing subjects' body fat mass in this study.

  16. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  17. Validity of deuterium oxide dilution for the measurement of body fat among Singaporeans.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg-Yap, Mabel; Deurenberg, Paul

    2002-09-01

    Body fat percent (BF%) was measured in 108 adult Chinese, 76 Malays, and 107 Indians in Singapore by densitometry, deuterium oxide dilution (hydrometry), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and a chemical four-compartment model (BF%4c). The hydration of the fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated. Subjects ranged in age from 18 to 69 years and their body mass index ranged from 16 to 40 kg/m2. BF%4c for the various subgroups were: Chinese females (33.5 +/- 7.5%), Chinese males (24.4 +/- 6.1%), Malay females (37.8 +/- 6.3%), Malay males (26.0 +/- 7.6%), Indian females (38.2 +/- 7.0%) and Indian males (28.1 +/- 5.5%). Biases were found between BF%4c and BF% measured by 2-compartment models (hydrometry, densitometry, DXA), with systematic underestimation by DXA and densitometry. On a group level hydrometry had the lowest bias while DXA gave the highest bias. When validated against BF%4c, 2-compartment models were found to be unsuitable for accurate measures of body fat due to high biases at the individual level and the violation of assumptions of constant hydration of FFM and density FFM among the ethnic groups. On a group level the best 2-compartment model for measuring body fat was found to be hydrometry. PMID:12362808

  18. Determining BMI cut points based on excess percent body fat in US children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current cut points for overweight were derived statistically from BMI distribution. The study aimed at determining age-, gender-, and ethnic-specific BMI cut points based on excess body fat in US children and adolescents aged 8-17 years, who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examinat...

  19. Teaching Concepts of Body Fatness while Skinfold Testing: An Experimental Test of Different Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, James R.; Parker, Melissa A.

    1994-01-01

    Study examined whether body fatness and weight control knowledge could be learned by students while they completed skinfold testing. Students received information on the subject in different manners while undergoing skinfold testing, then completed a knowledge test. Students who received instruction during measurement scored higher than control…

  20. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  1. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  2. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children. PMID:21736824

  3. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  4. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  5. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  6. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  7. Nuclear Immunolocalization of Hexamerins in the Fat Body of Metamorphosing Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Hexamerins are storage proteins with primordial functions in insect metamorphosis. They are actively secreted by the larval fat body and stored in the hemolymph. During metamorphosis, they return to the fat body to be processed. For decades, these proteins were thought to exclusively function as an amino acid source for tissue reconstruction during the non-feeding pupal and pharate adult stages and, in some species, for egg production. Recently, new findings have linked the hexamerins to caste polyphenism and gonad development in social insects. To explore the roles of hexamerins during the honey bee metamorphosis, we used specific antibodies in expression analysis by western blot, in situ immunolocalization by confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vivo injections to lower their endogenous levels. Our expression analysis highlighted the changing expression patterns in the fat body and hemolymph during development, which is consistent with the temporal dynamics of hexamerin secretion, storage and depletion. Confocal microscopy showed hexamerin expression in the cytoplasm of both types of fat body cells, trophocytes and oenocytes. Notably, hexamerin foci were also found in the nuclei of these cells, thus confirming our western blot analysis of fat body nuclear-enriched fractions. We also observed that the decrease in soluble hexamerins in antibody-treated pharate adults led to a precocious adult ecdysis, perhaps in response to the lack (or decrease) in hexamerin-derived amino acids. Taken together, these findings indicate that hexamerins have other functions in addition to their well-established role as amino acid sources for development. PMID:26466725

  8. Seasonal Dynamics in the Chemistry and Structure of the Fat Bodies of Bumblebee Queens.

    PubMed

    Votavová, Alena; Tomčala, Aleš; Kofroňová, Edita; Kudzejová, Michaela; Šobotník, Jan; Jiroš, Pavel; Komzáková, Olga; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Insects' fat bodies are responsible for nutrient storage and for a significant part of intermediary metabolism. Thus, it can be expected that the structure and content of the fat body will adaptively change, if an insect is going through different life stages. Bumblebee queens belong to such insects as they dramatically change their physiology several times over their lives in relation to their solitary overwintering, independent colony foundation stage, and during the colony life-cycle ending in the senescent stage. Here, we report on changes in the ultrastructure and lipid composition of the peripheral fat body of Bombus terrestris queens in relation to seasonal changes in the queens' activity. Six life stages are defined and evaluated in particular: pharate, callow, before and after hibernation, egg-laying, and senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fat body contained two main cell types-adipocytes and oenocytes. Only adipocytes reveal important changes related to the life phase, and mostly the ration between inclusion and cytoplasm volume varies among particular stages. Both electron microscopy and chemical analyses of lipids highlighted seasonal variability in the quantity of the stored lipids, which peaked prior to hibernation. Triacylglycerols appeared to be the main energy source during hibernation, while the amount of glycogen before and after hibernation remained unchanged. In addition, we observed that the representation of some fatty acids within the triacylglycerols change during the queen's life. Last but not least, we show that fat body cell membranes do not undergo substantial changes concerning phospholipid composition in relation to overwintering. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cold-adaptation strategy of bumblebee queens is more likely to be based on polyol accumulation than on the restructuring of lipid membranes. PMID:26559946

  9. Seasonal Dynamics in the Chemistry and Structure of the Fat Bodies of Bumblebee Queens

    PubMed Central

    Votavová, Alena; Tomčala, Aleš; Kofroňová, Edita; Kudzejová, Michaela; Šobotník, Jan; Jiroš, Pavel; Komzáková, Olga; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Insects’ fat bodies are responsible for nutrient storage and for a significant part of intermediary metabolism. Thus, it can be expected that the structure and content of the fat body will adaptively change, if an insect is going through different life stages. Bumblebee queens belong to such insects as they dramatically change their physiology several times over their lives in relation to their solitary overwintering, independent colony foundation stage, and during the colony life-cycle ending in the senescent stage. Here, we report on changes in the ultrastructure and lipid composition of the peripheral fat body of Bombus terrestris queens in relation to seasonal changes in the queens’ activity. Six life stages are defined and evaluated in particular: pharate, callow, before and after hibernation, egg-laying, and senescence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the fat body contained two main cell types–adipocytes and oenocytes. Only adipocytes reveal important changes related to the life phase, and mostly the ration between inclusion and cytoplasm volume varies among particular stages. Both electron microscopy and chemical analyses of lipids highlighted seasonal variability in the quantity of the stored lipids, which peaked prior to hibernation. Triacylglycerols appeared to be the main energy source during hibernation, while the amount of glycogen before and after hibernation remained unchanged. In addition, we observed that the representation of some fatty acids within the triacylglycerols change during the queen’s life. Last but not least, we show that fat body cell membranes do not undergo substantial changes concerning phospholipid composition in relation to overwintering. This finding supports the hypothesis that the cold-adaptation strategy of bumblebee queens is more likely to be based on polyol accumulation than on the restructuring of lipid membranes. PMID:26559946

  10. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  11. Total body potassium fat free weight and maximal aerobic power in children with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Davies, C T; von Döbeln, W; Fohlin, L; Freyschuss, U; Thorén, C

    1978-03-01

    Body composition and aerobic work performance have been studied in 5 boys and 10 girls suffering from anorexia nervosa. The average ages of the two groups of children were 15.4 (boys) and 15.2 (girls) years respectively. Measurements of body composition included height, weight (W), body potassium (40K), skinfold thickness (SFT) at triceps and subscapularis, blood volume (BV) and femoral condylar and radioulnar breadths. From these measurements estimates of fat free weight (FFW), skeletal weight (S) and lean body mass (LBM) were made. Work performance was assessed by measurement of the maximal aerobic power (VO2 max). The patients had lost on average 26% of their former body weight. The boys had on average greater than 7% of their body weight as fat compared with greater than 9% in the girls. However, the loss of weight was not solely due to loss of body fat, but could also be ascribed to a decrease in soft fatfree tissue. LBM or FFW could be estimated as well from SFT as from 40k. vo2 max averaged 1.43 1/min (35.1 ml/kg/min) in the anorexic boys and 1.24 l/min (33.2 ml/kg/min) in the girls and was associated with FFW and LBM. However, VO2 max was lower in relation to LBM than in healthy children of the same age. Thus it was suggested that the emaciation in anorexia is directly attributable to loss of both fat and muscle and accounts in part for the reduction of aerobic power observed. However, an important factor may be the debilitating effect of starvation on the patient, particularly in its advanced and later stages, which reduces his/her level of habitual physical activity.

  12. Roles of subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining ability to stabilize body temperature in water.

    PubMed

    Hayward, M G; Keatinge, W R

    1981-11-01

    1. The lowest water temperature in which different young adults could stabilize body temperature was found to vary from 32 degrees C to less than 12 degrees C, because of large differences in both total body insulation and metabolic heat production. 2. Total body insulation per unit surface area, in the coldest water allowing stability, was quite closely determined by mean subcutaneous fat thickness measured ultrasonically (r = 0.92), regardless of differences in distribution of this fat between men and women. 3. Reactive individuals developed high metabolic rates, and often rather high insulations in relation to fat thickness, which enabled them to stabilize their body temperatures in water more than 10 degrees C colder than was possible for less reactive individuals of similar fat thickness. 4. Measurements of heat flux, after stabilization in the coldest water possible, showed that the trunk was the main site of heat loss and that over half of the internal insulation there could be accounted for by subcutaneous fat; by contrast, fat could account for less than a third of higher insulations found in muscular parts of the limbs, and for less than 3% of very high insulations in the hands and feet. 5. After stabilization of body temperature at rest in the coldest possible water, exercise reduced internal insulation only in muscular parts of the limbs. Exercise also increased heat loss elsewhere by exposing skin of protected regions such as flexural surfaces of joints. During exercise total heat production increased rather more than heat loss in unreactive subjects, but less than loss in subjects whose heat production had already risen to a high level when they were at rest in cold water. 6. In warm (37 degrees C) water, tissue insulations were lower and much more uniform between subjects and between different body regions than in the cold. Even in the warm, however, insulations remained rather higher in fat than thin subjects, higher at rest than during exercise

  13. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm) were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P < 0.005, SEE = 29.7 cm2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2), where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology. PMID:22074269

  14. Relationship between body weight and level of fat supplementation on fatty acid digestion in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Plascencia, A; Mendoza, G D; Vásquez, C; Zinn, R A

    2003-11-01

    Eight Holstein steers with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a split-plot design experiment to evaluate the interaction of body weight (175 vs. 370 kg) and level of fat supplementation (0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow grease) on characteristics of digestion and feeding value of fat in finishing diets. Dry matter intake was restricted to 2% of BW. There were no interactions between BW and level of fat supplementation (P > 0.10) on ruminal or total-tract digestion. Level of supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) ruminal digestion of OM and NDF, and increased (linear, P < 0.05) ruminal N efficiency. There were no treatment effects (P > 0.10) on postruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and N. There tended to be an interaction (P < 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal starch digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation increased postruminal digestion of starch in heavier steers but did not affect starch digestion in lighter steers. There were no interactions (P > 0.10) between BW and level of fat supplementation on postruminal fatty acid digestion. Increasing level of fat supplementation decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal fatty acid digestion, which was due to a decreased (linear, P < 0.01) postruminal digestion of C16:0 and C18:0. Supplemental fat decreased (linear, P < 0.01) total-tract digestion of OM and NDF. The estimated NEm (Mcal/kg) of yellow grease averaged (linear, P < 0.01) 6.02, 5.70, and 5.06 for the 3, 6, and 9% of level supplementation, respectively. We conclude that intestinal fatty acid digestion (FAD, %) is a predictable function (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.01) of total fatty acid intake per unit body weight (FAI, g/kg BW): FAD = 87.560 - 8.591FAI. Depressions in fatty acid digestion with increasing level of intake were due primarily to decreased intestinal absorption of palmitic and stearic acid. Level of fatty acids intake did not appreciably affect intestinal absorption of unsaturated fatty acid. Changes

  15. Obesity, body fat distribution, and blood pressure in Nigerian and African-American men and women.

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Campbell, L. L.; Wing, R.; Ukoli, F. A.; Janney, C. A.; Nwankwo, M. U.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a study that assesses body fat distribution patterns in Nigerian and African-American males and females and determines the association between body fat distribution patterns and blood pressure in young adults of differing geographical and ethnic backgrounds. The study population was comprised of 275 African Americans (92 males and 183 females) and 282 Nigerians (219 males and 63 females). The mean ages for the African-American males and females were 18.7 and 18.9 years, respectively, compared with 21 and 19.2 years for the Nigerian males and females. African Americans were more likely to be obese and overweight compared with their Nigerian counterparts. However, there were no significant differences between the two ethnic groups within gender for body fat distribution patterns based on waist-to-hip ratio. Despite being leaner, the Nigerians had higher diastolic blood pressures than the African Americans. There were no significant associations observed between blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio for either the Nigerian or the African-American males or females, and body mass index was associated consistently with blood pressure only among the African Americans. These findings suggest that body mass index, a general indicator of obesity, is a better correlate of blood pressure than the waist-to-hip ratio among African Americans. PMID:8151724

  16. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Macarulla, M Teresa; Portillo, María P; Rodríguez, Víctor M

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is known to have an antiobesogenic effect because it mimics energy restriction. However, hardly any evidence exists concerning the combined effects of RSV and energy restriction on body fat reduction. So, the aim of the present study was to determine whether RSV increases body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks to obtain a diet-induced obesity model. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25%) without or with RSV supplementation (30 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. Final body weight, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissues weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were assessed. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities, as well as their genetic expressions, were measured in white adipose tissue. Final body weight, white adipose tissue weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and insulin were reduced in both groups, but no differences were found among them. FAS, ACC, and LPL activities and expressions were also similar in both groups. These results suggest a lack of any adjuvant effect of RSV on energy restriction for obesity treatment purposes.

  17. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%–27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  18. Some determinants of body weight, subcutaneous fat, and fat distribution in 25-64 year old Swiss urban men and woman.

    PubMed

    Puig, T; Marti, B; Rickenbach, M; Dai, S F; Casacuberta, C; Wietlisbach, V; Gutzwiller, F

    1990-01-01

    Data from a predominantly urban sample of 116 men and 130 women aged 25-64 years and collected in 1984/85 as a part of the Swiss WHO MONICA project, were analysed cross-sectionally to study the interrelationship between relative weight, subcutaneous fat and fat distribution, as well as the dependence of these anthropometric characteristics on behavioral and sociodemographic factors. Skinfold thicknesses were found to increase with age almost linearly in women, while in men they increased only before age 40 to 45. Subcutaneous fat was, but fat distribution was not, highly correlated with relative weight in both sexes. Alcohol consumption, healthy dietary habits (inversely), and exercise (inversely) were all significantly related to subcutaneous fat in men, while the relatively strongest predictors of female skinfold thicknesses were smoking (inversely), coffee consumption, and education (inversely). In multivariate analysis, environmental factors explained up to 10% of skinfold variance in male subjects and between 10 and 15% in females. Fat distribution was more influenced by environmental factors in men (about 8% of explained variance) than in women (about 4%). In men, truncal fat depended more on lifestyle that did upper arm fat, with smoking (directly) and exercise (inversely) being relatively most predictive of abdominal fat. We conclude that, although relative weight, subcutaneous fat, and fat distribution correlate intra-individually, they are not equivalent and interchangeable anthropometric characteristics. This is reflected by the varying associations of the three fatness indicators with age and environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, and education. Gender seems to be an important modifying factor of environment-body fat-associations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  20. Heat transfer to deep tissue: the effect of body fat and heating modality.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S; Laymon, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the thermal transfer characteristics of the skin in relation to body composition as assessed by the ability of water immersion and hot and cold packs with different thicknesses of towels layers to heat or cool deep tissue. Two sets of experiments were conducted to determine the interrelationships between body fat content and muscle temperature after immersion of the limb in water or the application of hot and cold packs. In the first series of experiments, subjects immersed their lower body in water at 42, 37, 34, 27, 24 and 0 degrees C for 20 minutes. Muscle temperature was measured in the skin above and in the belly of the quadriceps and medial gastrocnemius muscles by a thermistor on the skin and one implanted with a 20-gauge needle 25 mm below and perpendicular to the skin. To see the effect of circulation, a series was conducted with the circulation occluded. In the second series, hot or cold packs were used with different thicknesses of towel layers. The muscle temperature after immersion in water approached that of the packs within approximately 20 minutes. In contrast, when hot and cold packs were used with various thickness of towels ranging from 2 to 10 mm in thickness, the change in muscle temperature was much less and it was still changing at the end of a 20 minute period. Subjects with high body fat changed their deep tissue temperatures much more slowly with a time constant nearly double that of the thin subjects with all modalities. Even after water immersion, if the body fat exceeded 25% of the subject's weight, 20 min of immersion was not enough to either warm the muscle or cool it down substantially. Cold packs and hot packs were very ineffective in changing muscle temperature under these same conditions. Body fat plays a major role, as did limb blood flow in controlling the movement of heat across the limb.

  1. Impact of body fat distribution on neoadjuvant chemotherapy outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Sangai, Takafumi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Junta; Hayama, Shouko; Ishigami, Emi; Masuda, Takahito; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is known to decrease the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) against breast cancer; however, the relationship between actual body composition and NAC outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of body composition on NAC outcomes. A total of 172 advanced breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition parameters including abdominal circumference (AC), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle area (SMA) were calculated using computed tomography volume-analyzing software. VFA/SFA ratio was used to evaluate visceral obesity. The associations of body composition parameters with pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival were analyzed. AC, SFA, and VFA were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (all P < 0.05; r = 0.82, r = 0.71, and r = 0.78, respectively). AC, SFA, and VFA increased significantly and SMA decreased significantly after menopause (all P < 0.05). VFA/SFA ratio increased significantly after menopause, even though BMI remained unchanged. Body composition parameters were not associated with pCR. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was significantly worse in the high VFA group than in the low VFA group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the high VFA group, postmenopausal patients had significantly shorter DDFS than premenopausal patients (P < 0.05). VFA was independently associated with DDFS in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High visceral fat is associated with worse NAC outcomes in breast cancer patients, especially postmenopausal patients. Interventions targeting visceral fat accumulation will likely improve NAC outcomes. PMID:26626021

  2. Low energy availability and low body fat of female gymnasts before an international competition.

    PubMed

    Silva, M R G; Paiva, T

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate dietary intake and body composition of elite rhythmic gymnastics (RG) athletes prior to a competition event. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts (18.7 ± 2.9 years old) of high performance level, with 36.6 ± 7.6 h of training/week were evaluated in order to collect training and competition data, medical and gynaecological history, detailed dietary intake and body composition before an international competition. The majority of the participants (n = 40; 59.7%) had already menstruated, but age of menarche was delayed (15.3 ± 1.3 years) and all revealed menstrual irregularities. Gymnasts' body mass (48.4 ± 4.9 kg) and body mass index (BMI; 17.4 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were below the normal for age, and height (1.66 ± 0.05 m) was normal or even slightly above normal for age. Body fat was 9.0 ± 2.0% with no significant differences between age strata. Gymnasts exhibited low energy availability (EA; 31.5 ± 11.9 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day). The average carbohydrate and protein intakes were 5.1 ± 2.3 g/kg/day and 1.6 ± 04 g/kg/day, which correspond to 51.4 ± 7.2% and 16.9 ± 3.4% of total energy intakes, respectively; average fat contribution was 33.0 ± 5.3%. Low intakes of pantothenic acid, folate and vitamins D, E and K and of minerals, including calcium, iron and magnesium were reported. Intakes of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamins A, B-6, B-12, C and manganese and zinc were above-adequate (P < 0.05). Low EA, low body fat and micronutrient deficiencies are common among RG. PMID:25318582

  3. Parental obesity and overweight affect the body-fat accumulation in the offspring: the possible effect of a high-fat diet through epigenetic inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Suzuki, M

    2006-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adults has been rising continually, as has the prevalence of childhood obesity, and a large number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between parental obesity and childhood obesity. In this paper, we review the effect of diet, the intrauterine environment, and the genetic inheritance on obesity. We described a study in detail that used experimental animals as a model to investigate the effect of a parental high-fat diet on body-fat accumulation in their offspring. Fertilized eggs were transplanted in that study, and body-fat accumulation in the offspring of the parents fed a high-fat diet was found to be greater than in the offspring of the parents fed a low-fat diet, even when the experimental conditions were the same in the intrauterine and subsequent environment. The results suggested that a parental high-fat diet before intrauterine developmental stage may increase body-fat accumulation in the offspring. We discuss the possibility that parental diet may influence the lifelong health of offspring and epigenetic inheritance may be occurred.

  4. Defining Body Fatness in Adolescents: A Proposal of the Afad-A Classification

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, María del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Body mass index (BMI) shows several limitations as indicator of fatness. Using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard 2007 on the same dataset yielded widely different rates. At higher levels, BMI and the BMI cut-offs may be help in informing a clinical judgement, but at levels near the norm additional criteria may be needed. This study compares the prevalence of overweight and obesity using IOTF and WHO-2007 references and interprets body composition by comparing measures of BMI and body fatness (fat mass index, FMI; and waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) among an adolescent population. Methods and Results A random sample (n = 1231) of adolescent population (12–17 years old) was interviewed. Weight, height, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds were used to calculate BMI, FMI, and WHtR. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 12.3% and 15.4% (WHO standards) and 18.6% and 6.1% (IOTF definition). Despite that IOTF cut-offs misclassified less often than WHO standards, BMI categories were combined with FMI and WHtR resulting in the Adiposity & Fat Distribution for adolescents (AFAD-A) classification, which identified the following groups normal-weight normal-fat (73.2%), normal-weight overfat (2.1%), overweight normal-fat (6.7%), overweight overfat (11.9%) and obesity (6.1%), and also classified overweight at risk and obese adolescents into type-I (9.5% and 1.3%, respectively) and type-II (2.3% and 4.9%, respectively) depending if they had or not abdominal fatness. Conclusions There are differences between IOTF and WHO-2007 international references and there is a misclassification when adiposity is considered. The BMI limitations, especially for overweight identification, could be reduced by adding an estimate of both adiposity (FMI) and fat distribution (WHtR). The AFAD-A classification could be useful in clinical and population health to identify overfat adolescent and those

  5. Lipid profile, BMI, body fat distribution, and aerobic fitness in men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, A; Di Daniele, N; Ceccobelli, M; Ficara, A; Girasoli, C; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    Obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance are wellknown components of metabolic syndrome and are associated to increased cardiovascular morbidity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, body fat distribution, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors. A total of 22 untrained subjects affected by one or more features of metabolic syndrome and without clinical history of cardiovascular disease were studied. Nondiabetic subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test for glucose and insulin measurement; fasting glucose and insulin were measured in diabetic patients. Complete lipid profile, thyroid hormones, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in all subjects. Basal energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured using a K4 analyzer. Cardiorespiratory fitness ( VO(2max)/kg) was assessed using a treadmill graded exercise test. Peak aerobic capacity ( VO(2max)/kg) was predicted by body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity index, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ( p<0.001). A significant relationship was found between cardiorespiratory fitness ( VO(2max)/kg) and body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity index, and LDL cholesterol ( r=0.60, p<0.05; r=0.66, p<0.01 and r=0.54, p<0.05, respectively). Data demonstrated that aerobic fitness is related to metabolic parameters and to body fat distribution, and suggest that its modification may improve well-known predictors of coronary artery disease.

  6. The regulation of body fat distribution and the modulation of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Cases, J A; Barzilai, N

    2000-11-01

    Body fat distribution may determine insulin resistance and its metabolic syndrome in humans, independent of obesity. Surgical removal of visceral fat (VF) in obese rats was associated with decreased leptin plasma levels and its gene expression in subcutaneous fat (SC). Chronic leptin treatment to rats decreased VF specifically supporting the role of leptin in determining fat distribution. Surgical removal of selected VF provided direct evidence of improved in vivo insulin action on hepatic glucose production (HGP) by over 2-fold vs sham-operated control. The impact of decreased VF on improved in vivo insulin action was further supported by obtaining similar decreases in VF by treating rats with leptin (Lep), beta3-aderenoreceptor agonist, or by severe caloric restriction (CR). All these three interventions improved insulin action on the modulation of HGP and were mostly attributed to preservation of hepatic glycogen stores. Because free fatty acids (FFA) plasma levels were unchanged, this effect may not be mediated portally by substrates. Improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis was demonstrated only in Lep. These data suggest that VF is a major determinant of hepatic insulin action. In obese rats, the ability of leptin to prevent visceral adiposity and its own expression is attenuated. Thus, the failure of leptin to regulate fat distribution and its own secretion suggest that 'leptin resistance' may be a pathologic feature in obesity.

  7. Sex differences in the contributions of visceral and total body fat to blood pressure in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pausova, Zdenka; Mahboubi, Amel; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomas

    2012-03-01

    Excess body fat deposited viscerally rather than elsewhere in the body is associated with higher risk for hypertension; this relationship is stronger in men than in women. Here we investigated whether similar sex dimorphism exists already in adolescence. A population-based sample of adolescent boys (n=237) and girls (n=262), age 12 to 18 years, was studied. Total body fat (TBF) was assessed with multifrequency bioelectrical impedance, and visceral fat (VF) was quantified with MRI. Blood pressure (BP) was measured beat by beat during an hour-long protocol, including supine, standing, sitting, mental stress, and poststress sections. Multivariate mixed-model analysis was used to assess the relative contributions of TBF and VF to BP during these sections. In boys, BP was strongly positively associated with VF (P<0.0001), whereas it was less strongly and negatively associated with TBF (P=0.004); these relationships did not substantially vary during the protocol. In contrast, in girls, BP was strongly positively associated with TBF (P=0.0006), whereas it was not associated with VF (P=0.08); the relationship with TBF varied during the protocol and was most apparent during mental stress (TBF*section interaction: P=0.002). Furthermore, when waist circumference was included in multivariate models instead of VF, it was not associated with BP in either sex; this indicates that waist circumference may not be an appropriate surrogate for VF. Thus, in adolescence, adiposity-related BP elevation is driven mainly by visceral fat in males and by fat deposited elsewhere in females. This dimorphism suggests sex-specific mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension and the need for sex-specific criteria of its prevention.

  8. Role of body fat distribution in the decline in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with age.

    PubMed

    Coon, P J; Rogus, E M; Drinkwater, D; Muller, D C; Goldberg, A P

    1992-10-01

    The relationships of body composition and physical fitness [maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max)] to the decline in insulin sensitivity with age were examined in healthy older (47-73 yr; n = 36) and young (19-36 yr; n = 13) men. In 18 older men with normal glucose tolerance (OGTT), glucose disposal rates (M) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps correlated negatively with the waist to hip ratio (WHR; r = -0.77; P < .001) and percent body fat (r = -0.46; P < 0.05) and positively with VO2max (r = 0.54; P < 0.05), but not with age. Similar relationships existed in the 36 older men with a spectrum of OGTT responses; however, only WHR was independently related to M (r2 = 0.32; P < 0.01). In the older men with normal OGTT, M (mean +/- SEM, 7.88 +/- 0.43 mg/kg fat-free mass.min) was not different from that in the young men (8.56 +/- 0.47; P = NS). Furthermore, in older and young men with normal OGTT matched for WHR, percent fat, or VO2max, glucose disposal was comparable at sequential 15-min intervals during the clamp and in its relationship to insulin concentrations at the tissue level (multicompartmental analysis). In contrast, despite higher steady state plasma insulin levels during the clamp, M was significantly lower in the older men with a higher WHR, greater percent fat, lower VO2max, or impaired OGTT. Thus, in healthy older men up to the age of 73 yr, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance are affected primarily by the regional body fat distribution, not age, obesity, or VO2max.

  9. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  10. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF BODY FAT IN OBESE PATIENTS PREOPERATIVELY FOR BARIATRIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    FERNANDEZ, Mônica; TOIMIL, Rosana Farah; RASSLAN, Zied; ILIAS, Elias Jirjoss; GRADINAR, Ana Lúcia Torloni; MALHEIROS, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The study of body composition in patient candidates for bariatric surgery is directly related to the increase and distribution of body fat in the development of cardiovascular disease. Aim: To correlate anthropometric indicators and bioelectrical impedance in the assessment of body fat in female candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study of 88 women. The weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference data were evaluated in the anthropometric analysis. The body fat was determinate by bioelectrical impedance conducted according to the manufacturer´s recommended technique with a specific severe obesity formula. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the average waist circumference and body mass index for better analysis of the results. Results: The group had a mean age of 39.7 years (±7.2), average weight of 125.6 kg (±16.2), mean body mass index of 48.7 kg/m2 (±6.4) and the mean waist circumference 137.6 cm (±12.4). Negative and significant relationship between BMI values waist circumference and resistance obtained by bioelectrical impedance ​​were found. By analyzing the two groups the mean BMI and waist circumference, a significant relationship was observed, ie, the higher the degree of obesity less resistance was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. The higher is the obesity the lower is value found for resistance. Conclusion: The increase of anthropometric indicators (BMI and waist circumference) determined reduction in resistance and reactance obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis in obese women candidates to bariatric surgery. PMID:27683778

  12. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-12-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults.

  13. Postnatal Stress in Mice: Effects on Body Fat, Plasma Lipids, Glucose and Insulin.

    PubMed

    d'Amore, A; Caiola, S; Maroccia, E; Loizzo, A

    2000-01-01

    Mice pups were exposed to stressful stimuli everyday during the first 3 weeks of life. Body weight, food intake and spontaneous locomotor activity, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, glucose and insulin basal levels, as well as epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume were measured in stressed and control animals. Results indicated that postnatal stressful manipulations induced an increase in body weight, epididymal fat pad weight and its cell volume, as well as in insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides plasma levels, at 4 months of age. No significant changes in food consumption, locomotor activity and phospholipids plasma levels were found. Present data suggest that early stressful manipulations may induce residual effects on lipid and glucid metabolism. PMID:27414054

  14. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Obesity, body fatness and cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Annie S; Key, Timothy J; Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Cecchini, Michele; Berrino, Franco; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Espina, Carolina; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    It is estimated that over half the population of the European Union (EU) is overweight or obese due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and energy intake; this is related to an obesogenic environment of sociocultural, economic and marketing challenges to the control of body weight. Excess body fat is associated with nine cancer sites - oesophagus, colorectum, gall bladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney and prostate (advanced) - and 4-38% of these cancers (depending on site and gender) can be attributed to overweight/obesity status. Metabolic alterations which accompany excess body weight are accompanied by increased levels of inflammation, insulin, oestrogens and other hormonal factors. There are some indications that intentional weight loss is associated with reduced cancer incidence (notably in postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancers). Excess body weight is also a risk factor for several other diseases, including diabetes and heart disease, and is related to higher risk of premature death. In reviewing the current evidence related to excess body fat and cancer, the European Code against Cancer Nutrition Working Group has developed the following recommendation: 'Take action to be a healthy body weight'. PMID:26205840

  15. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  16. Latitudinal patterns in phenotypic plasticity: the case of seasonal flexibility in lizards' fat body size.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Álvaro J; Naya, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Several studies published over the last years suggest that the ability of many species to cope with global change will be closely related to the current amount of plasticity for fitness-related traits. Thus, disentangling general patterns in phenotypic flexibility, which could be then included in models aimed to predict changes in species distribution, represent a central goal in the current ecological agenda. The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) could be considered a timely and promising hypothesis since it provides an explicit link between climatic and geographic variables and phenotypic plasticity. Specifically, the CVH states that as the range of climatic fluctuation experienced by terrestrial animals increases with latitude, individuals at higher latitudes should present greater levels of phenotypic flexibility. Within this framework, here we evaluate the existence of latitudinal patterns in fat body size flexibility--estimated as the difference between maximum and minimum fat body size values observed throughout a year--for 59 lizard species, comprising the first evaluation of the CVH for a trait, other than thermic or metabolic characters, in ectothermic species. Conventional and phylogenetic analyses indicated a positive relationship between fat body size flexibility and latitude, and also between flexibility and temperature variability indexes. Together with previous findings our results suggest that: (1) latitudinal pattern for fitness-related traits, other than thermal characters, are beginning to emerge; (2) latitude is usually a better predictor of phenotypic plasticity than putative climatic variables; (3) hemispheric differences in climatic variability appears to be correlated with hemispheric differences in phenotypic plasticity.

  17. Alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides.

    PubMed

    Alves, Stênio Nunes; Serrão, José Eduardo; Melo, Alan Lane

    2010-08-01

    This study describes morphological alterations in the fat body and midgut of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae following exposure to different insecticides. To this end, both third and fourth instars of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were exposed for 30 and 60 min to organophosphate (50 ppb), pyrethroids (20 and 30 ppb), and avermectin derivates (1.5 and 54 ppb). Following incubation, pH measurements of the larvae gut were recorded. The fat body and midgut were also analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy. These studies demonstrate a decrease in the pH of the larvae anterior midgut following exposure to all of the tested insecticides. Histochemical tests revealed a strong reaction for neutral lipids in the control group and a marked decrease in the group exposed to cypermethrin. Furthermore, a weak reaction with acidic lipids in larvae exposed to deltamethrin, temephos, ivermectin and abamectin was also observed. Insecticide-exposed larvae also exhibited cytoplasm granule differences, relative to control larvae. Finally, we noted a small reduction in microvilli size in the apex of digestive cells, although vesicles were found to be present. The destructive changes in the larvae were very similar regardless of the type of insecticide analyzed. These data suggest that alterations in the fat body and midgut are a common response to cellular intoxication.

  18. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M.W.; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex SF; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor VA; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Zhao, Jing Hua; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John RB; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco JC; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, DC; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter EH; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin NA; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth JF; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25673412

  19. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J; Pers, Tune H; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M W; Buchkovich, Martin L; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Roman, Tamara S; Drong, Alexander W; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feitosa, Mary F; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B; Caspersen, Ida H; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Mooijaart, Simon P; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V A; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G; Hedman, Åsa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R B; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J C; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Palmer, Lyle J; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schwarz, Peter E H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Staessen, Jan A; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Adair, Linda S; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Richard S; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Assimes, Themistocles L; Berndt, Sonja I; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; Groop, Leif C; Hunter, David J; Kaplan, Robert C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Willer, Cristen J; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Zillikens, M Carola; McCarthy, Mark I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M; Loos, Ruth J F; Cupples, L Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-02-12

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

  20. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy. PMID:22912402

  1. Thin and fat cows, and the nonlinear genetic relationship between body condition score and fertility.

    PubMed

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Bittante, G

    2013-10-01

    Thin and fat cows are often credited for low fertility, but body condition score (BCS) has been traditionally treated as a linear trait when genetic correlations with reproductive performance have been estimated. The aims of this study were to assess genetic parameters for fertility, production, and body condition traits in the Brown Swiss population reared in the Alps (Bolzano-Bozen Province, Italy), and to investigate the possible nonlinearity among BCS and other traits by analyzing fat and thin cows. Records of BCS measured on a 5-point scale were preadjusted for year-season and days in milk at scoring, and were considered positive (1) for fat cows if they exceeded the value of 1 residual standard deviation or null (0) otherwise, whereas positive values for thin cows were imputed to records below -1 residual standard deviation. Fertility indicators measured on first- and second-parity cows were interval from parturition to first service, interval from first service to conception, interval from parturition to conception, number of inseminations to conception, conception at first service, and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first service. Production traits were peak milk yield, lactation milk yield, and lactation length. Data were from 1,413 herds and included 16,324 records of BCS, fertility, and production for first-parity, and 10,086 fertility records for second-parity cows. Animals calved from 2002 to 2007 and were progeny of 420 artificial insemination bulls. Genetic parameters for the aforementioned traits were obtained under univariate and bivariate threshold and censored linear sire models implemented in a Bayesian framework. Posterior means of heritabilities for BCS, fat cows, and thin cows were 0.141, 0.122, and 0.115, respectively. Genetic correlations of body condition traits with contemporary production were moderate to high and were between -0.556 and 0.623. Body condition score was moderately related to fertility in first (-0.280 to 0.497) and second

  2. Relation of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene polymorphism to fat mass content and body mass index in obese children.

    PubMed

    Pyrzak, Beata; Wisniewska, Alicja; Majcher, Anna; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Demkow, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Fat mass content, fat distribution, and fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been reported among a broad spectrum of genetic variation connected with body weight. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the T/A rs9939609 polymorphism of the FTO gene may influence obesity and metabolic indices in children. A 160 children were examined (136 obese and 24 non-obese). The anthropometric measurements and calculations included: height, weight, waist and hip circumference, sum of the thickness of 3 and 10 skin folds, % of fat content, % FAT- BIA , % LBM-BIA. BMI, SDS of BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and HOMA-IR were analyzed and the blood pressure were measured. The rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was genotyped by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain- reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the mean concentrations of TC, TG, LDLC, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher, and HDL was lower in the obese than in non-obese children. The presence of TT, but not AA alleles, related to the percentage of fat content, BMI, and z-score of BMI. None of the other anthropometric indices did differ between the children with gene polymorphism and wild homozygous. In conclusion, rs9939609 polymorphism in the fat-mass and obesity-associated gene is associated with BMI and the percent of fat content in children.

  3. Absolute accuracy of the Cyberware WB4 whole-body scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daanen, Hein A. M.; Taylor, Stacie E.; Brunsman, Matthew A.; Nurre, Joseph H.

    1997-03-01

    The Cyberware WB4 whole body scanner is one of the first scanning systems in the world that generates a high resolution data set of the outer surface of the human body. The Computerized Anthropometric Research and Design (CARD) Laboratory of Wright-Patterson AFB intends to use the scanner to enable quick and reliable acquisition of anthropometric data. For this purpose, a validation study was initiated to check the accuracy, reliability and errors of the system. A calibration object, consisting of two boxes and a cylinder, was scanned in several locations in the scanning space. The object dimensions in the resulting scans compared favorably to the actual dimensions of the calibration object.

  4. ‘To[o] much eating stifles the child’: fat bodies and reproduction in early modern England†

    PubMed Central

    Toulalan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This article examines associations between fat bodies and reproductive dysfunction that were prevalent in medical, midwifery and other literature in early modern England. In a period when fertility and successful reproduction were regarded as hugely important for social, economic and political stability such associations further contributed to negative attitudes towards fat bodies that were fuelled by connection with the vices of sloth and gluttony. Fat bodies were categorized as inherently, constitutionally, less sexual and reproductively successful. Consequently they were perceived as unhealthy and unfit for their primary purpose once they had reached sexual maturity: marriage and the production of children. PMID:25960608

  5. Estimation of whole body fat from appendicular soft tissue from peripheral quantitative computed tomography in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vinson R.; Blew, Rob M.; Farr, Josh N.; Tomas, Rita; Lohman, Timothy G.; Going, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Assess the utility of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) for estimating whole body fat in adolescent girls. Research Methods and Procedures Our sample included 458 girls (aged 10.7 ± 1.1y, mean BMI = 18.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) who had DXA scans for whole body percent fat (DXA %Fat). Soft tissue analysis of pQCT scans provided thigh and calf subcutaneous percent fat and thigh and calf muscle density (muscle fat content surrogates). Anthropometric variables included weight, height and BMI. Indices of maturity included age and maturity offset. The total sample was split into validation (VS; n = 304) and cross-validation (CS; n = 154) samples. Linear regression was used to develop prediction equations for estimating DXA %Fat from anthropometric variables and pQCT-derived soft tissue components in VS and the best prediction equation was applied to CS. Results Thigh and calf SFA %Fat were positively correlated with DXA %Fat (r = 0.84 to 0.85; p <0.001) and thigh and calf muscle densities were inversely related to DXA %Fat (r = −0.30 to −0.44; p < 0.001). The best equation for estimating %Fat included thigh and calf SFA %Fat and thigh and calf muscle density (adj. R2 = 0.90; SEE = 2.7%). Bland-Altman analysis in CS showed accurate estimates of percent fat (adj. R2 = 0.89; SEE = 2.7%) with no bias. Discussion Peripheral QCT derived indices of adiposity can be used to accurately estimate whole body percent fat in adolescent girls. PMID:25147482

  6. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  7. Percent body fat estimations in college men using field and laboratory methods: A three-compartment model approach

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Smith, Abbie E; Roberts, Michael D; Ryan, Eric D; Dalbo, Vincent J; Lockwood, Chris M; Walter, Ashley A; Cramer, Joel T; Beck, Travis W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2008-01-01

    Background Methods used to estimate percent body fat can be classified as a laboratory or field technique. However, the validity of these methods compared to multiple-compartment models has not been fully established. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of field and laboratory methods for estimating percent fat (%fat) in healthy college-age men compared to the Siri three-compartment model (3C). Methods Thirty-one Caucasian men (22.5 ± 2.7 yrs; 175.6 ± 6.3 cm; 76.4 ± 10.3 kg) had their %fat estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using the BodyGram™ computer program (BIA-AK) and population-specific equation (BIA-Lohman), near-infrared interactance (NIR) (Futrex® 6100/XL), four circumference-based military equations [Marine Corps (MC), Navy and Air Force (NAF), Army (A), and Friedl], air-displacement plethysmography (BP), and hydrostatic weighing (HW). Results All circumference-based military equations (MC = 4.7% fat, NAF = 5.2% fat, A = 4.7% fat, Friedl = 4.7% fat) along with NIR (NIR = 5.1% fat) produced an unacceptable total error (TE). Both laboratory methods produced acceptable TE values (HW = 2.5% fat; BP = 2.7% fat). The BIA-AK, and BIA-Lohman field methods produced acceptable TE values (2.1% fat). A significant difference was observed for the MC and NAF equations compared to both the 3C model and HW (p < 0.006). Conclusion Results indicate that the BP and HW are valid laboratory methods when compared to the 3C model to estimate %fat in college-age Caucasian men. When the use of a laboratory method is not feasible, BIA-AK, and BIA-Lohman are acceptable field methods to estimate %fat in this population. PMID:18426582

  8. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  9. Body fat and racial genetic admixture are associated with aerobic fitness levels in a multiethnic pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Willig, Amanda L; Hunter, Gary R; Casazza, Krista; Heimburger, Douglas C; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R

    2011-11-01

    Aerobic fitness and adiposity are each independently associated with health outcomes among children, although the relationship between these two variables is unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate (i) the association of adiposity with aerobic fitness using objectively measured levels of percent body fat, compared to BMI as a percentile proxy for adiposity while controlling for genetic admixture, and (ii) the congruence of BMI categories with high and low body fat categories of objectively measured percent body fat. Participants were 232 African-American (AA), European-American (EA), and Hispanic-American (HA) children aged 7-12 years (Tanner stage <3). Aerobic fitness was measured via a submaximal indirect calorimetry treadmill test (VO(2-170)), and physical activity levels with accelerometry. Genetic admixture estimates were obtained using 140 genetic ancestry informative markers to estimate European, African, and Amerindian admixture. Fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children were classified into a low body fat group (<25% in males, <30% in females) or a high body fat group based on their percent body fat; children were also categorized according to BMI percentile. Children in the low body fat group had significantly higher aerobic fitness (P < 0.05) regardless of BMI percentile classification. Higher African genetic admixture was associated with lower aerobic fitness (P < 0.05), while physical activity was positively associated with fitness (P < 0.01). In conclusion, aerobic fitness levels differ by percent body fat and genetic admixture irrespective of BMI classification, and such differences should be taken into account when evaluating outcomes of health interventions.

  10. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI. PMID:26718229

  11. Relation of Body's Lean Mass, Fat Mass, and Body Mass Index With Submaximal Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vivek K; Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Lavie, Carl J; Sui, Xuemei; Demello, Madison; Blair, Steven N

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association of body composition and body mass index (BMI) with submaximal systolic blood pressure (SSBP) among young adult men. The analysis included 211 men with BMI between 20 and 35 kg/m(2). Total lean mass and fat mass were measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry and lean mass percentage was calculated from the total lean mass. Fat mass index (FMI) and BMI were calculated using height and weight (total fat mass and total weight, respectively) measurements. SSBP was measured at each stage of a graded exercise test. Quintiles of lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI were created with quintile 1 the lowest and quintile 5 the highest lean mass percentage, FMI, and BMI. Compared with men in lean mass percentage quintile 1, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5 at 6, 8, and 10 minutes. Compared with men in FMI quintile 5, those in quintiles 2, 3, and 4 had significantly lower SSBP, whereas there was no significant difference in SSBP between quintile 1 and 5. SSBP among men in lean mass percentage quintile 5 and FMI quintile 1 were still less than lean mass percentage quintile 1 and FMI quintile 5, respectively. There were no significant differences in SSBP across BMI quintiles 1 to 4 but a significantly higher SSBP in quintile 5 compared with quintiles 1 to 4. In conclusion, there was a J-curve pattern between SSBP and components of body composition, whereas, a linear relation between SSBP and BMI.

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese children123

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Natalie M; Watras, Abigail C; Carrel, Aaron L; Allen, David B; McVean, Jennifer J; Clark, Robert R; O'Brien, Abigail R; O'Shea, Marianne; Scott, Corey E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a supplemental dietary fatty acid that decreases fat mass accretion in young animals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine CLA's efficacy with regard to change in fat and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) in children. Design: We conducted a 7 ± 0.5-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CLA in 62 prepubertal children aged 6–10 y who were overweight or obese but otherwise healthy. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d of 80% CLA (50:50 cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers) or placebo in chocolate milk. Results: Fifty-three subjects completed the trial (n = 28 in the CLA group, n = 25 in the placebo group). CLA attenuated the increase in BMI (0.5 ± 0.8) compared with placebo (1.1 ± 1.1) (P = 0.05). The percentage change in body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was smaller (P = 0.001) in the CLA group (−0.5 ± 2.1%) than in the placebo group (1.3 ± 1.8%). The change in abdominal body fat as a percentage of total body weight was smaller (P = 0.02) in the CLA group (−0.09 ± 0.9%) than in the placebo group (0.43 ± 0.6%). There were no significant changes in plasma glucose, insulin, or LDL cholesterol between groups. Plasma HDL cholesterol decreased significantly more (P = 0.05) in the CLA group (−5.1 ± 7.3 mg/dL) than in the placebo group (−0.7 ± 8 mg/dL). Bone mineral accretion was lower (P = 0.04) in the CLA group (0.05 ± 0.03 kg) than in the placebo group (0.07 ± 0.03 kg). Reported gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions: CLA supplementation for 7 ± 0.5 mo decreased body fatness in 6–10-y-old children who were overweight or obese but did not improve plasma lipids or glucose and decreased HDL more than in the placebo group. Long-term investigation of the safety and efficacy of CLA supplementation in children is recommended. PMID:20200257

  13. The relationship of weight-height indices of obesity to body fat content.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Zumoff, B

    1992-12-01

    The measurement called desirable body weight (DBW) was derived by actuaries to indicate that weight which is associated with the lowest mortality. Percent deviation from DBW has become a standard measure of fatness. A different obesity index, body mass index (BMI), is weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. Many workers consider both measures inferior to the measurement of body fat content (BFC). We compared the three measures of fatness in 40 men aged 18-50 and 48 women aged 21-47, ranging from nonobese to extremely obese. Total BFC was determined by isotope dilution of 3H-labeled water. DBWs used were those listed in the US Air Force Examination Manual of 1971; these approximate the midpoint of the range of medium-frame values in the 1959 Metropolitan Life Insurance Tables, but have the advantage of providing a single value for each height. We found nearly perfect correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between BMI and percent deviation from DBW in both men and women ranging from 14% below to 305% above DBW. Correlations between percent deviation from DBW and total BFC were extremely high: 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.94 (p < 0.001) for the women, essentially the same as correlations between BMI and BFC, which were 0.96 (p < 0.001) for the men and 0.95 (p < 0.001) for the women. It appears that the two technically simple weight-height indices, BMI and percent deviation from DBW, give just as accurate a measurement of fatness as the technically complex measurement of total BFC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1460187

  14. Voglibose administration regulates body weight and energy intake in high fat-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Do, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taeon; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Ji Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-17

    We tested whether long-term administration of voglibose (VO) prevents diet induced obesity in addition to hypoglycemic effects in high fat fed mice and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which voglibose exerts its weight lowering effect. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with the control diet (CTL), high-fat diet (HFD) or the HFD with VO supplementations. Blood lipid profile, plasma leptin levels and hepatic triglyceride content, as well as expressions of genes involved in appetite and mitochondrial function were examined. The results showed that VO significantly reduced body weight, fat mass and energy intakes in high fat fed mice. VO showed improved metabolic profiles including blood glucose, triglyceride and free fatty acid. Elevated levels of plasma leptin in HFD were significantly reduced with the VO, furthermore, VO modulated the hypothalamic expressions of leptin receptors and appetite related genes. VO showed the upregulated expressions of PGC-1 in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In conclusion, VO may exert antiobesity properties through reductions in energy intake and improvement in mitochondrial function, indicating that VO has potential therapeutic use in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related complications.

  15. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  16. Body fat mass reduction and up-regulation of uncoupling protein by novel lipolysis-promoting plant extract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinobu; Satou, Mayumi; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Yoshizuka, Naonobu; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Takema, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    We have found natural products exhibiting lipolysis-promoting activity in subcutaneous adipocytes, which are less sensitive to hormones than visceral adipocytes. The activities and a action mechanisms of a novel plant extract of Cirsium oligophyllum (CE) were investigated in isolated adipocytes from rat subcutaneous fat, and its fat-reducing effects by peroral administration and topical application were evaluated in vivo. CE-induced lipolysis was synergistically enhanced by caffeine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and was reduced by propranolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist. The peroral administration of 10% CE solution to Wistar rats for 32 days reduced body weight gain, subcutaneous, and visceral fat weights by 6.6, 26.2, and 3.0%, respectively, as compared to the control group. By the topical application of 2% of this extract to rats for 7 days, weight of subcutaneous fat in the treated skin was reduced by 23.2%. This fat mass reduction was accompanied by the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP), a principal thermogenic mitochondrial molecule related to energy dissipating, in subcutaneous fat and UCP3 in skin except for the fat layer. These results indicate that CE promotes lipolysis via a mechanism involving the beta adrenergic receptor, and affects the body fat mass. This fat reduction may be partially due to UCP up-regulation in the skin including subcutaneous fat. This is the first report showing that repeated lipolysis promotion through CE administration may be beneficial for the systematic suppression of body fat accumulation or the control of fat distribution in obesity.

  17. The acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body metabolic flexibility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Joo, J; Cox, C C; Kindred, E D; Lashinger, L M; Young, M E; Bray, M S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both circadian disruption and timing of feeding have important roles in the development of metabolic disease. Despite growing acceptance that the timing of food consumption has long-term impact on metabolic homeostasis, little is known regarding the immediate influence on whole body metabolism, or the mechanisms involved. We aimed to examine the acute effects of time-of-day-dependent high fat feeding on whole body substrate metabolism and metabolic plasticity, and to determine the potential contribution of the adipocyte circadian clock. Methods: Mice were fed a regimen of 4-h meal at the beginning and end of the dark (waking) cycle, separated by 4 h of fasting. Daily experimental conditions consisted of either an early very high fat or high fat (EVHF or EHF, 60 or 45% kcals from fat, respectively) or late (LVHF or LHF) meal, paired with a low fat (LF, 10% kcals from fat) meal. Metabolic parameters, glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were assessed. To determine the role of the adipocyte circadian clock, an aP2-CLOCK mutant (ACM) mouse model was used. Results: Mice in the EVHF or EHF groups showed a 13.2 or 8.84 higher percentage of caloric intake from fat and had a 0.013 or 0.026 lower daily average respiratory exchange ratio, respectively, compared with mice eating the opposite feeding regime. Changes in glucose tolerance, body fat composition and weight were not significant at the end of the 9-day restricted feeding period. ACM mice did not exhibit different metabolic responses to the feeding regimes compared with wild-type littermates. Circadian clock disruption did not influence the short-term response to timed feeding. Conclusions: Both the total fat composition of diet and the timing of fat intake may differentially mediate the effect of timed feeding on substrate metabolism, but may not induce acute changes in metabolic flexibility. PMID:27133618

  18. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  19. Methodological factors and the prediction of body fat in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Lohman, T G; Pollock, M L; Slaughter, M H; Brandon, L J; Boileau, R A

    1984-01-01

    The effect of skinfold caliper, investigator technique, and various skinfold prediction equations on estimates of body fatness was investigated using college-age female basketball players. Four skinfold calipers, four investigators, and five prediction equations from the literature were selected for study. Skinfolds were obtained on 16 athletes for each of five sites by all four investigators using each caliper. Triceps and subscapular skinfolds showed less variation among investigators (mean differences of 1-4 mm) as compared to suprailiac, abdomen, and thigh skinfolds (mean differences of up to 5-6 mm). Differences among investigators were less using the Harpenden and Holtain than for the Lange and Adipometer calipers. All three sources of variation--caliper, investigator, and prediction equation--contributed significantly to the variability in estimates of mean fat content of this sample, which ranged from 14.1-28.1% depending on which of the 80 caliper-investigator-prediction equation combinations (four calipers, four investigators, and five equations) was used. Using any one prediction equation, the range in mean percent fat due to the 16 caliper-investigator combinations was 7%. The results illustrate the need for standardization of skinfold sites, caliper, and prediction equations for reliable estimation of body composition in a specific population.

  20. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  1. Irisin plasma concentration in PCOS and healthy subjects is related to body fat content and android fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Pukajło, Katarzyna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Kolackov, Katarzyna; Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, Justyna; Bolanowski, Marek; Milewicz, Andrzej; Daroszewski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipo-myokine, cleaved and secreted from the protein FNDC5 in response to physical activity, has been postulated to induce the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and to mediate the beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of factors leading to impaired energy homeostasis, affects a significant proportion of subjects suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Ir plasma concentrations and metabolic disturbances. The study group consisted of 179 PCOS patients and a population of 122 healthy controls (both groups aged 25-35 years). A subset of 90 subjects with MS was isolated. A positive association between Ir plasma level and MS in the whole group and in controls was found. In subjects with high adipose body content (>40%), Ir was higher than in lean persons (<30%). Our results showed a significant positive association between Ir concentration and android type of adipose tissue in the whole study group and in the control group. Understanding the role of Ir in increased energy expenditure may lead to the development of new therapeutics for obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  2. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schrijvers, Jenna K.; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  3. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status. PMID:27472358

  4. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  5. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Jenna K; McNaughton, Sarah A; Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-07-26

    Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE) women, participating in the women's EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements) study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16-45 years) (n = 231) completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured height (cm) and weight (kg); body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod). Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012) and BMI (p = 0.016) were positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern. BF% (p = 0.016) was positively associated with the "energy-dense meat" pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  6. Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women.

    PubMed

    Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Sagredos, Angelos

    2003-08-01

    Animal studies have suggested that CLA, a natural component of meat and dairy products, may confer beneficial effects on health. However, human studies using supplementation with CLA have produced contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on human body fat, serum leptin, and serum lipids, as well as the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum lipids classes. Sixteen young healthy nonobese sedentary women received 2.1 g of CLA (divided equally between the cis,trans-9,11 and trans,cis-10,12 isomers) daily for 45 d and placebo for 45 d in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Body fat was estimated (by measurement of skinfold thickness at 10 sites), and blood was sampled at the beginning, middle, and end of the entire intervention period; an additional blood sample was obtained 2 wk thereafter. No significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, or protein intake existed between the CLA and placebo intake periods. No significant differences were found in body fat or serum leptin, TAG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase between CLA and placebo. The CLA isomer content of serum TAG, phospholipids, and total lipids increased 2-5 times with CLA supplementation (P < 0.05). In contrast, the CLA content of cholesteryl esters did not change significantly. The period of 2 wk after the end of CLA supplementation was sufficient for its washout from serum lipids. These data indicate that supplementation with 2.1 g of CLA daily for 45 d increased its levels in blood but had no effect on body composition or the lipidemic profile of nonobese women.

  7. Energy absorption, lean body mass, and total body fat changes during 5 weeks of continuous bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, Jean M.; Evans, Harlan; Kuo, Mike C.; Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the body composition changes due to inactivity was examined together with the question of whether these changes are secondary to changes in energy absorption. Volunteers were 15 healthy males who lived on a metabolic research ward under close staff supervision for 11 weeks. Subjects were ambulatory during the first six weeks and remained in continuous bed rest for the last five weeks of the study. Six male volunteers (age 24-61 years) were selected for body composition measurements. Nine different male volunteers (age 21-50 years) were selected for energy absorption measurements. The volunteers were fed weighed conventional foods on a constant 7-d rotation menu. The average daily caloric content was 2,592 kcal. Comparing the five weeks of continuous bed rest with the previous six weeks of ambulation, it was observed that there was no change in energy absorption or total body weight during bed rest, but a significant decrease in lean body mass and a significant increase in total body fat (p less than 0.05).

  8. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  9. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  10. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.

  11. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  12. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices.

  13. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Figley, Chase R.; Asem, Judith S. A.; Levenbaum, Erica L.; Courtney, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition—i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)—with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  14. Pubertal alterations in growth and body composition. V. Energy expenditure, adiposity, and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, J N; Clark, P A; Walter, K; Patrie, J; Weltman, A; Rogol, A D

    2000-12-01

    We determined whether activity energy expenditure (AEE, from doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry) or physical activity [7-day physical activity recall (PAR)] was more related to adiposity and the validity of PAR estimated total energy expenditure (TEE(PAR)) in prepubertal and pubertal boys (n = 14 and 15) and girls (n = 13 and 18). AEE, but not physical activity hours, was inversely related to fat mass (FM) after accounting for the fat-free mass, maturation, and age (partial r = -0.35, P < or = 0.01). From forward stepwise regression, pubertal maturation, AEE, and gender predicted FM (r(2) = 0.36). Abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were not related to AEE or activity hours after partial correlation with FM, maturation, and age. When assuming one metabolic equivalent (MET) equals 1 kcal. kg body wt(-1). h(-1), TEE(PAR) underestimated TEE from doubly labeled water (TEE bias) by 555 kcal/day +/- 2 SD limits of agreement of 913 kcal/day. The measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) was >1 kcal. kg body wt(-1). h(-1) and remained so until 16 yr of age. TEE bias was reduced when setting 1 MET equal to the measured (bias = 60 +/- 51 kcal/day) or predicted (bias = 53 +/- 50 kcal/day) BMR but was not consistent for an individual child (+/- 2 SD limits of agreement of 784 and 764 kcal/day, respectively) or across all maturation groups. After BMR was corrected, TEE bias remained greatest in the prepubertal girls. In conclusion, in children and adolescents, FM is more strongly related to AEE than activity time, and AEE, pubertal maturation, and gender explain 36% of the variance in FM. PAR should not be used to determine TEE of individual children and adolescents in a research setting but may have utility in large population-based pediatric studies, if an appropriate MET value is used to convert physical activity data to TEE data.

  15. Personal best time, percent body fat, and training are differently associated with race time for male and female ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average amount of weekly training, and best time in an Ironman triathlon. For male athletes, percent body fat (r2 = 0.57, p < .001) was related to total race time but not average weekly training. For women, percent body fat showed no association with total race time; howeven average weekly training volume was related to total race time (r = .43, p < .01). Percent body fat and average weekly training were not correlated in either gender Speed in training was not associated with race performance in either gender. For men (r2 = .56, p < .001) and women (r2 = .45, p < .05), personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was related to total race time. We concluded that percent body fat was related to race performance in male athletes and to average weekly training in female athletes. Personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was associated with total race time for both male and female athletes.

  16. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael; Emek, Sinan C; Albertsson, Per-Ake; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

  17. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  18. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  19. Accuracy of a digital skinfold system for measuring skinfold thickness and estimating body fat.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Teresa F; Restivo, Maria Teresa; Guerra, Rita S; Marques, Elisa; Chousal, Maria F; Mota, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    The use of skinfold thickness measurements to evaluate the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue and to predict body fat has recognised advantages. However, the different types of skinfold calliper available present limitations that make them unattractive and perhaps less used in daily practice. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and functionality of a new digital skinfold system, the Liposoft 2008+Adipsmeter V0 (LA), for measuring skinfold thickness and determining body fat proportion (%BF). Skinfold thickness measurements made by the LA were compared with those obtained with a Harpenden (H) calliper from two samples of adults (n 45) and older adults (n 56) in a university-based cross-sectional study. A comparison was also conducted between estimated %BF from skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bland and Altman plots show that skinfolds measured by the LA and H calliper are in high agreement, with a mean difference of 0·3 (95% CI -3·1, 3·4) mm. In regard to the %BF estimated from LA and H skinfolds measurement, the LA produced a similar approximation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry %BF, with a mean difference of 0·2 (95% CI -0·8, 1·2) %, compared with %BF obtained with the H calliper. The LA system is an accurate instrumentation and represents an innovation in the evaluation of skinfold thickness and body composition based on anthropometric measurement.

  20. Torso, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a novel role in the larval fat body in regulating insulin signaling and body growth.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Woo; Han, Gangsik; Yun, Hyun Myoung; Lee, Gang Jun; Hyun, Seogang

    2016-08-01

    Torso is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose localized activation at the termini of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by its ligand, Trunk. Recent studies have unveiled a second function of Torso in the larval prothoracic gland (PG) as the receptor for the prothoracicotropic hormone, which triggers pupariation. As such, inhibition of Torso in the PG prolongs the larval growth period, thereby increasing the final pupa size. Here, we report that Torso also acts in the larval fat body, regulating body size in a manner opposite from that of Torso in PG. We confirmed the expression of torso mRNA in the larval fat body and its reduction by RNA interference (RNAi). Fat body-specific knockdown of torso, by either of the two independent RNAi transgenes, significantly decreased the final pupal size. We found that torso knockdown suppresses insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the fat body, as confirmed by repression of Akt and S6K. Notably, the decrease in insulin/TOR signaling and decrease of pupal size induced by the knockdown of torso were rescued by the expression of a constitutively active form of the insulin receptor or by the knockdown of FOXO. Our study revealed a novel role for Torso in the fat body with respect to regulation of insulin/TOR signaling and body size. This finding exemplifies the contrasting effects of the same gene expressed in two different organs on organismal physiology. PMID:27126913

  1. Differences in mitochondrial DNA inheritance and function align with body conformation in genetically lean and fat sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, B A; Loughnan, R; Hickford, J; Young, I R; St John, J C; Clarke, I

    2015-05-01

    Body weight and adiposity are determined by the balance between energy intake, energy expenditure, and nutrient deposition. We have identified differences in appetite-regulating peptides in sheep selectively bred to be either lean or fat, wherein gene expression for orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone are elevated in the lean group. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms leading to differences in body composition in the lean and fat lines remains unknown. We measured postprandial temperature in adipose tissue and muscle to ascertain whether a difference in thermogenesis is associated with the difference in body composition in genetically lean (n = 8) and fat (n = 12) ewes. Body weight was higher (P < 0.01) but percent fat mass was lower (P < 0.001) in the lean group. The percent lean mass was similar in lean and fat groups. Animals received intracerebroventricular cannulae and temperature probes implanted into the retroperitoneal fat and the hind-limb skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis). Animals were meal fed (1100-1600 h) to entrain postprandial thermogenesis. Food intake was similar between lean and fat animals. Postprandial thermogenesis was greater (P < 0.05) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of lean animals but not in skeletal muscle. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin reduced (P< 0.05) food intake by an equal extent in both groups. Postprandial expression of UCP1 mRNA was greater (P < 0.05) in retroperitoneal fat of lean animals, with similar UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial genome sequencing indicated haplotypic clustering in lean and fat animals within both the encoding and nonencoding regions. This demonstrates that differences in body composition may be underpinned by differences in thermogenesis, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, thermogenic differences may be associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, suggesting a strong genetic component inherited through the maternal lineage.

  2. Programmed autophagy in the fat body of Aedes aegypti is required to maintain egg maturation cycles.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Bart; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy plays a pivotal role by allowing cells to recycle cellular components under conditions of stress, starvation, development and cancer. In this work, we have demonstrated that programmed autophagy in the mosquito fat body plays a critical role in maintaining of developmental switches required for normal progression of gonadotrophic cycles. Mosquitoes must feed on vertebrate blood for their egg development, with each gonadotrophic cycle being tightly coupled to a separate blood meal. As a consequence, some mosquito species are vectors of pathogens that cause devastating diseases in humans and domestic animals, most importantly malaria and Dengue fever. Hence, deciphering mechanisms to control egg developmental cycles is of paramount importance for devising novel approaches for mosquito control. Central to egg development is vitellogenesis, the production of yolk protein precursors in the fat body, the tissue analogous to a vertebrate liver, and their subsequent specific accumulation in developing oocytes. During each egg developmental cycle, the fat body undergoes a developmental program that includes previtellogenic build-up of biosynthetic machinery, intense production of yolk protein precursors, and termination of vitellogenesis. The importance of autophagy for termination of vitellogenesis was confirmed by RNA interference (RNAi) depletions of several autophagic genes (ATGs), which inhibited autophagy and resulted in untimely hyper activation of TOR and prolonged production of the major yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vg). RNAi depletion of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) demonstrated its activating role of autophagy. Depletion of the autophagic genes and of EcR led to inhibition of the competence factor, betaFTZ-F1, which is required for ecdysone-mediated developmental transitions. Moreover, autophagy-incompetent female mosquitoes were unable to complete the second reproductive cycle and exhibited retardation and abnormalities in egg maturation. Thus

  3. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA). Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA), in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female), aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p<0.001) and female (r=0.87, p <001), while the lowest were in the waist/thigh also for both: male group (r=0.58, p<0.001) and female group (r=0.03, p=0.86). The other indices also showed significant positive correlation with DEXA. Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS. PMID:23031203

  4. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass.

  5. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g−1 body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  6. The endocannabinoid anandamide during lactation increases body fat content and CB1 receptor levels in mice adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, C A; Castillo, V A; Llanos, M N

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate energy balance; thus, their premature activation may result in altered physiology of tissues involved in such a function. Activation of CB1R mainly occurs after binding to the endocannabinoid Anandamide (AEA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AEA treatment during lactation on epididymal and body fat content, in addition to CB1R protein level at weaning. With this purpose, male mice pups were orally treated with AEA (20 μg g(-1) body weight) or vehicle during lactation. Mice (21 days old) were killed and epididymal fat was extracted to evaluate its amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels by western blot analysis. Total body fat percentage was also evaluated. Anandamide-treated mice showed an increased body fat content at 21 and 150 days of age. Moreover, epididymal adipose tissue amount, adipocyte size and CB1R protein levels were higher in the AEA-treated group. This in vivo study shows for the first time that a progressive increase in body fat accumulation can be programmed in early stages of life by oral treatment with the endocannabinoid AEA, a fact associated with an increased amount of epididymal fat pads and a higher expression of CB1R in this tissue. PMID:26098446

  7. Agreement in Body Fat Estimates between a Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Skinfold Thicknesses in African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas; Williams, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI), or the ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters, is widely used to determine the presence or absence of overweight and obesity in adults. Although many consider BMI an acceptable clinical surrogate of body fatness, it does not differentiate between fat and fat-free tissues. Thus, children and…

  8. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Schellart, Nico A M; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P; van Hulst, Rob A

    2013-03-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded by a blood compartment in series, nitrogen tensions and loads were calculated with a 40 min/3.1 bar (absolute) profile. Compared with Haldanian models, the new model showed a substantial delay in N2 uptake and (especially) release. One hour after surfacing, an increase of 14-28% in BF resulted in a whole body increase of the N2 load of 51%, but in only 15% in the blood compartment. This would result in an increase in the bubble grade of only 0.01 Kisman-Masurel (KM) units at the scale near KM = I-. This outcome was tested indirectly by a dry dive simulation (air breathing) with 53 male divers with a small range in age and Vo2max to suppress multicollinearity. BF was determined with the four-skinfold method. Precordial Doppler bubble grades determined at 40, 80, 120, and 160 min after surfacing were used to calculate the Kisman Integrated Severity Score and were also transformed to the logarithm of the number of bubbles/cm(2) (logB). The highest of the four scores yielded logB = -1.78, equivalent to KM = I-. All statistical outcomes of partial correlations with BF were nonsignificant. These results support the model outcomes. Although this and our previous study suggest that BF does not influence venous gas embolism (Schellart NAM, van Rees Vellinga TP, van Dijk FH, Sterk W. Aviat Space Environ Med 83: 951-957, 2012), more studies with different profiles under various conditions are needed to establish whether BF remains (together with age and Vo2max) a basic physical characteristic or will become less important for the medical examination and for risk assessment.

  9. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans.

  10. Neural adaptation to thin and fat bodies in the fusiform body area and middle occipital gyrus: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Dennis; Rudolf, Anne K; Brandi, Marie-Luise; Untch, Karl-Heinz; Grabhorn, Ralph; Hampel, Harald; Mohr, Harald M

    2013-12-01

    Visual perception can be strongly biased due to exposure to specific stimuli in the environment, often causing neural adaptation and visual aftereffects. In this study, we investigated whether adaptation to certain body shapes biases the perception of the own body shape. Furthermore, we aimed to evoke neural adaptation to certain body shapes. Participants completed a behavioral experiment (n = 14) to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to demonstratively thin or fat pictures of their own bodies. The same stimuli were used in a second experiment (n = 16) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation. In the behavioral experiment, after adapting to a thin picture of the own body participants also judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. The fusiform body area (FBA) and the right middle occipital gyrus (rMOG) show neural adaptation to specific body shapes while the extrastriate body area (EBA) bilaterally does not. The rMOG cluster is highly selective for bodies and perhaps body parts. The findings of the behavioral experiment support the existence of a perceptual body shape aftereffect, resulting from a specific adaptation to thin and fat pictures of one's own body. The fMRI results imply that body shape adaptation occurs in the FBA and the rMOG. The role of the EBA in body shape processing remains unclear. The results are also discussed in the light of clinical body image disturbances.

  11. Association of common JAK2 variants with body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dongliang; Gooljar, Sakina B; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Collins, Laura J; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2007-01-01

    The leptin signal is transduced via the JAK2-STAT3 pathway at the leptin receptor. JAK2 also phosphorylates IRS, integral to insulin and leptin action and is required for optimum ABCA1-dependent transport of lipids from cells to apoA-I. We hypothesised that common variation in the JAK2 gene may be associated with body fat, insulin sensitivity and modulation of the serum lipid profile in the general population. Ten tagging SNPs spanning the gene were genotyped in 2760 Caucasian female twin subjects (mean age 47.3±12.6 years) from the St Thomas' UK Adult Twin Registry (Twins UK). Minor allele frequencies were between 0.170 and 0.464. The major allele of rs7849191 was associated with higher central fat (P=0.030), % central fat (P=0.014) and waist circumference (P=0.027) and the major allele of rs3780378 with higher serum apoA (P=0.026), total cholesterol (P=0.014) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.012) and lower triglyceride (P=0.023). However, no associations were significant at a level which took account of multiple testing. Although JAK2 is a critical element in leptin and insulin signalling and has a role in cellular cholesterol transport, we failed to establish associations of common SNPs with relevant phenotypes in this human study. PMID:18239666

  12. Characterization of genetic and lifestyle factors for determining variation in body mass index, fat mass, percentage of fat mass, and lean mass.

    PubMed

    Deng, H W; Lai, D B; Conway, T; Li, J; Xu, F H; Davies, K M; Recker, R R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we simultaneously characterized genetic and lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption) in determining variation in body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of fat mass (PFM), and lean mass while adjusting for the effects of age and sex. Six hundred fifty-eight Caucasian individuals from 48 pedigrees were studied for BMI. Among these individuals, 289 from 38 pedigrees were studied for fat mass, PFM, and lean mass measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After adjusting for age, sex, and lifestyle factors, the heritabilities (h(2)) of BMI, fat mass, PFM, and lean mass ranged from 0.52 to 0.57 with associated standard errors ranging from 0.09 to 0.14. After accounting for significant sex and age effects, exercise had significant effects for all the phenotypes studied, and the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption were not significant. Therefore, significant proportions of variation in BMI, fat mass, PFM, and lean mass were under genetic control, and exercise had a significant effect in reducing BMI, fat mass, and PFM and in increasing lean mass. This study warrants further genetic linkage analyses to search for genes for the obesity-related phenotypes measured by DXA in our population.

  13. The Effects of Diet Composition on Body Fat and Hepatic Steatosis in an Animal (Peromyscus californicus) Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Caldwell, Stephen; Coyle, Kathryn; Bush, Eugene; Atkinson, Richard; Joers, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine body composition, total fat content, fat distribution, and serum leptin concentration in hyperlipidemic (high responder, HR) and normolipidemic (low responder, LR) California mice (Peromyscus californicus). In our initial experiments, we sought to determine whether differences in regional fat storage were associated with hyperlipidemia in this species. To further characterize the hepatic steatosis in the mice, we performed 2 additional experiments by using a diet containing 45% of energy as fat. The body fat content of mice fed a low fat-diet (12.3% energy as fat) was higher than that of mice fed a moderate-fat diet (25.8% energy as fat). Total body fat did not differ between HR and LR mice. There was no significant difference between intraabdominal, gonadal, or inguinal fat pad weights. Liver weights of HR mice fed the moderate-fat diet were higher than those of LR mice fed the same diet, and the moderate-fat diet was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Mice fed the 45% diet had higher histologic score for steatosis but very little inflammatory response. Chemical analysis indicated increased lipid in the livers of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with those fed the low-fat diet. HR and LR mice had similar serum leptin concentrations. California mice develop NAFL without excess fat accumulation elsewhere. NAFL was influenced by genetic and dietary factors. These mice may be a naturally occuring model of partial lipodystrophy. PMID:21819679

  14. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Mutoh, Michihiro; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Kotera, Ken; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Muramatsu, Yukio; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis.

  15. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with body fat abnormalities in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients may be at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, and lipodystrophy is generally associated with proatherogenic metabolic disturbances. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a surrogate marker for atherosclerosis and it has been shown to be an independent risk factor for CV disease. Our objective was to evaluate cIMT in HIV-infected patients on combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) with and without lipodystrophy defined by fat mass ratio (L-FMR), and to determine the association of lipodystrophy and visceral obesity [(visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume and VAT/SAT ratio, objectively evaluated by CT scan] with cIMT. Methods Cross-sectional study of 199 HIV-infected patients. Body composition by DXA and abdominal CT, lipids, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, and cIMT by ultrasonography were performed. L-FMR was defined as the ratio of the percentage of trunk fat mass to the percentage of lower limb fat mass by DXA. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Spearman correlation coefficients were estimated to study the association between cIMT and clinical and metabolic characteristics. Means of cIMT, adjusted for age, were calculated, using generalized linear models. Results L-FMR was present in 41.2% of patients and cIMT was higher in these patients [0.81 (0.24) vs. 0.76 (0.25); p = 0.037)]. Lipodystrophic patients had higher VAT and VAT/SAT ratio and lower SAT. cIMT was associated with lipodystrophy evaluated by FMR, trunk fat, total abdominal fat, VAT and VAT/SAT ratio. No association was observed between cIMT and leg fat mass. Using generalized linear models, cIMT means were adjusted for age and no significant differences remained after this adjustment. The adjusted mean of cIMT was 0.787 (95% CI: 0.751-0.823) in patients without lipodystrophy, and 0.775 (95% CI: 0.732-0.817) in those with lipodystrophy (p = 0.671). Conclusions

  16. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percentage body fat in a heterogeneous group of adult humans.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Zimmerman, S L; Miller, W C; Hildebrandt, L; Hammer, R L; Fernhall, B

    2001-08-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to compare estimations of percentage body fat (%fat) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a heterogeneous (age and %fat) sample of the population. Of secondary importance was to determine whether there were differences between the two methods among lean (n = 32), average (n = 34) and overweight (n = 29) subsets of this sample. A total of 95 adults (men 27, women 68) ranging in age from 18-52 years volunteered for this study. Test-retest reliability for %fat ADP (n = 16) was 0.99 with a technical error of 0.75%fat and a coefficient of variation of 3.4%fat. Mean body density using ADP [1.048 (SD 0.016) g.ml-1] was not significantly different when compared to HW [1.049 (SD 0.017) g.ml-1], which corresponded to a non-significant difference in %fat [22.5 (SD 7.3)% ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 7.6)% HW]. Regression analysis provided the equation: %fat HW = 0.9121%fat ADP + 1.5123; r = 0.88, SEE = 3.6, which did not differ significantly from the line of identity. Data for the subsets revealed a significant overestimation of %fat ADP [16.4 (SD 4.8)%] compared to HW [14.1 (SD 3.2)%] (P = 0.001) for lean individuals while no difference was found in the average [21.9 (SD 4.4)%fat ADP compared to 22.0 (SD 3.4)%fat HW] or overweight [29.9 (SD 5.5)%fat ADP compared to 30.8 (SD 4.1)%fat HW] subsets. Measuring %fat by ADP is a highly reliable method and valid when compared to HW for a heterogeneous sample of adults. The ADP method requires little expertise to operate, is quick to perform, and may be more accommodating for certain individuals compared to HW. However, in this study ADP was less valid for lean individuals. Further investigation is warranted to determine the bias of this method for subsets of the population which may be outside the average range of %fat (men 15.4%-22.0%, women 18.4%-28.5%).

  17. Percent body fat estimations in college women using field and laboratory methods: a three-compartment model approach

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jordan R; Hull, Holly R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Teramoto, Masaru; Karabulut, Murat; Roberts, Michael D; Ryan, Eric D; Kim, So Jung; Dalbo, Vincent J; Walter, Ashley A; Smith, Abbie T; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2007-01-01

    Background Methods used to estimate percent body fat can be classified as a laboratory or field technique. However, the validity of these methods compared to multiple-compartment models has not been fully established. This investigation sought to determine the validity of field and laboratory methods for estimating percent fat (%fat) in healthy college-age women compared to the Siri three-compartment model (3C). Methods Thirty Caucasian women (21.1 ± 1.5 yrs; 164.8 ± 4.7 cm; 61.2 ± 6.8 kg) had their %fat estimated by BIA using the BodyGram™ computer program (BIA-AK) and population-specific equation (BIA-Lohman), NIR (Futrex® 6100/XL), a quadratic (SF3JPW) and linear (SF3WB) skinfold equation, air-displacement plethysmography (BP), and hydrostatic weighing (HW). Results All methods produced acceptable total error (TE) values compared to the 3C model. Both laboratory methods produced similar TE values (HW, TE = 2.4%fat; BP, TE = 2.3%fat) when compared to the 3C model, though a significant constant error (CE) was detected for HW (1.5%fat, p ≤ 0.006). The field methods produced acceptable TE values ranging from 1.8 – 3.8 %fat. BIA-AK (TE = 1.8%fat) yielded the lowest TE among the field methods, while BIA-Lohman (TE = 2.1%fat) and NIR (TE = 2.7%fat) produced lower TE values than both skinfold equations (TE > 2.7%fat) compared to the 3C model. Additionally, the SF3JPW %fat estimation equation resulted in a significant CE (2.6%fat, p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion Data suggest that the BP and HW are valid laboratory methods when compared to the 3C model to estimate %fat in college-age Caucasian women. When the use of a laboratory method is not feasible, NIR, BIA-AK, BIA-Lohman, SF3JPW, and SF3WB are acceptable field methods to estimate %fat in this population. PMID:17988393

  18. Role of heart rate in the relation between regional body fat and subendocardial viability ratio in women.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Hadri, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) is a measure of left ventricular function, specifically; it is an index of myocardial perfusion relative to left ventricular workload. Women have lower SEVR than men, partly due to a faster resting heart rate that reduces diastolic time (i.e., time for myocardial perfusion). It is unclear if body fat relates to SEVR, thus the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between body fat and SEVR in women. Twenty-eight middle-aged (31-45 years) and 31 older (60-80 years) women were examined. Radial artery applanation tonometry was used to calculate SEVR from a synthesized central aortic pressure wave. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition including fat in the trunk, legs, android and gynoid regions. Body fat was not related (P>.05) with SEVR in older women. In middle-aged women, all measures of regional fat were correlated with heart rate (range, r=.49-.59, P≤.01) and SEVR (range, r=.43-.53, P≤.01). Android-to-gynoid ratio was identified as the strongest predictor (r(2) =-.26, P<.01) of SEVR among measures of regional fat. Middle-aged women with lower android-to-gynoid fat ratio had higher SEVR (1.96±0.33 vs 1.66±0.20, P=.009) than women with higher fat ratio, even after adjusting for age, height, daily physical activity, and aortic mean pressure (P=.02). Adjusting for heart rate or diastolic time abolished the difference in SEVR between groups (1.80±0.09 vs 1.82±0.09, P=.56). These results suggest that middle-aged women with a greater distribution of fat in the abdomen have poorer left ventricular function that is dependent on the negative influence of heart rate on diastolic time.

  19. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  20. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  1. Influence of Serum Leptin on Weight and Body Fat Growth in Children at High Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Agarwal, Neha; Roberts, Mary D.; Han, Joan C.; Theim, Kelly R.; Vexler, Albert; Troendle, James; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine serum leptin prospectively as a predictor of weight and body fat growth in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that leptin measurements would be positively associated with increased growth of adipose tissue because children with high baseline leptin for their body fat mass have greater leptin resistance and thus would have greater susceptibility to weight gain. Methods Children ages 6–12 yr at high risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight were recruited from 1996–2004. Growth in body mass index (BMI) was studied in 197 children, and growth in total body fat mass was examined in 149 children over an average follow-up interval of 4.4 yr (range, 1–8 yr). Longitudinal analyses accounted for sex, race, socioeconomic status, initial body composition, age, skeletal age, and physical activity and included all available interim visits for each individual so that a total of 982 subject visits were included in the analysis. Results At baseline, 43% of children studied were overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile); during follow-up, an additional 14% became overweight. Independent of initial body composition, baseline leptin was a statistically significant positive predictor of increased BMI (P = 0.0147) and increased total body fat mass (P < 0.007). Conclusions High serum leptin, independent of body fat, may be an indicator of increased leptin resistance, which predisposes children at high risk for adult obesity to somewhat greater growth in weight and body fat during childhood. PMID:17179198

  2. Accuracy of field methods in assessing body fat in collegiate baseball players.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Wray, Mandy E; Wilson, Jacob M; Barnes, Jeremy T; Kearney, Monica L; Pujol, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    When assessing the fitness levels of athletes, body composition is usually estimated, as it may play a role in athletic performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skinfold (SKF) methods compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in Division 1 collegiate baseball players (n = 35). The results of this study indicate that the field methods investigated were not valid compared with DXA for estimating %BF. In conclusion, this study does not support the use of the TBF-350, HBF-306, HBF-500, or SKF thickness for estimating %BF in collegiate baseball players. The reliability of these BIA devices remains unknown; therefore, it is currently uncertain if they may be used to track changes over time.

  3. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4–10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race. PMID:23951544

  4. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (P<0.001). Metabolic parameters conferred differential impact by race, such that, a positive association for BMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  5. Nighttime snacking reduces whole body fat oxidation and increases LDL cholesterol in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Masanobu; Masumoto, Ayumi; Naito, Yuri; Kiuchi, Kahori; Yoshimoto, Yayoi; Matsumoto, Mai; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Jun; Ikemoto, Shinji

    2013-01-15

    The increase in obesity and lipid disorders in industrialized countries may be due to irregular eating patterns. Few studies have investigated the effects of nighttime snacking on energy metabolism. We examined the effects of nighttime snacking for 13 days on energy metabolism. Eleven healthy women (means ± SD; age: 23 ± 1 yr; body mass index: 20.6 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) participated in this randomized crossover trial for a 13-day intervention period. Subjects consumed a specified snack (192.4 ± 18.3 kcal) either during the daytime (10:00) or the night time (23:00) for 13 days. On day 14, energy metabolism was measured in a respiratory chamber without snack consumption. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed on day 15. Relative to daytime snacking, nighttime snacking significantly decreased fat oxidation (daytime snacking: 52.0 ± 13.6 g/day; nighttime snacking: 45.8 ± 14.0 g/day; P = 0.02) and tended to increase the respiratory quotient (daytime snacking: 0.878 ± 0.022; nighttime snacking: 0.888 ± 0.021; P = 0.09). The frequency of snack intake and energy intake, body weight, and energy expenditure were not affected. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol significantly increased after nighttime snacking (152 ± 26 mg/dl and 161 ± 29 mg/dl; P = 0.03 and 76 ± 20 mg/dl and 83 ± 24 mg/dl; P = 0.01, respectively), but glucose and insulin levels after the glucose load were not affected. Nighttime snacking increased total and LDL cholesterol and reduced fat oxidation, suggesting that eating at night changes fat metabolism and increases the risk of obesity.

  6. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body

    PubMed Central

    Tian, J. H.; Hu, J. S.; Li, F. C.; Ni, M.; Li, Y. Y.; Wang, B. B.; Xu, K. Z.; Shen, W. D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01), 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism. PMID:27185267

  7. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on nutrition metabolism in silkworm fat body.

    PubMed

    Tian, J H; Hu, J S; Li, F C; Ni, M; Li, Y Y; Wang, B B; Xu, K Z; Shen, W D; Li, B

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect with a fat body that plays a crucial role in the storage and transfer of nutrients. It is also known that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) can improve feed efficiency and promote silk protein synthesis in the silkworm. In this study, we profiled gene expression in the silkworm fat body after TiO2 NP treatment, validated the major RNA-seq findings, and determined the contents of trehalose and triglyceride, the activity of lipase, and the amount of total proteins. RNA-seq analysis revealed that TiO2 NP treatment caused significant expression changes in 341 genes (P≤0.01), 138 of which were upregulated while the other 203 were downregulated. The expression levels of two target genes in the insulin signaling pathway and two protein metabolism-related target genes, three lipid metabolism-associated target genes, two carbohydrate metabolism related target genes and expression levels of seven heat shock protein genes were increased, and that of threonine dehydratase gene and fatty acid transport protein gene were decreased. The RNA-seq results of 16 genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The lipase activity, content of trehalose, and amount of total proteins were elevated by 3.86-fold, 1.34-fold, and 1.21-fold, respectively, and the content of triglyceride was decreased by 0.94-fold after TiO2 NP treatment. These results indicated that TiO2 NPs activated the insulin signaling pathway, promoted the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate, and improved nutrition metabolism. Our study provides new support for the understanding of the beneficial effect of TiO2 NPs on silkworm nutrient metabolism. PMID:27185267

  8. Constitutive activation of Drosophila CncC transcription factor reduces lipid formation in the fat body.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Rezaul; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the vertebrate stress-response transcription factors Nrf1 and Nrf2 are involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of Nrf1-and Nrf2-mediated lipid metabolism remain unclear. To elucidate the precise roles of Nrfs in this process, we analyzed the physiological role of CncC in lipid metabolism as a Drosophila model for vertebrate Nrf1 and Nrf2. We first examined whether CncC activity is repressed under physiological conditions through a species-conserved NHB1 (N-terminal homology box 1) domain, similar to that observed for Nrf1. Deletion of the NHB1 domain (CncCΔN) led to CncC-mediated rough-eye phenotypes and the induced expression of the CncC target gene gstD1 both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, we decided to explore how CncCΔN overexpression affects the formation of the fat body, which is the major lipid storage organ. Intriguingly, CncCΔN caused a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride (TG) levels in the fat body compared to wild type. We found that CncCΔN induced a number of genes related to innate immunity that might have an effect on the regulation of cellular lipid storage. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory mechanism of CncC and its role in lipid homeostasis.

  9. A dual function for Deep orange in programmed autophagy in the Drosophila melanogaster fat body

    SciTech Connect

    Lindmo, Karine; Simonsen, Anne; Brech, Andreas; Finley, Kim; Rusten, Tor Erik; Stenmark, Harald . E-mail: stenmark@ulrik.uio.no

    2006-07-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm by way of autophagy is essential for cellular amino acid homeostasis and for tissue remodeling. In insects such as Drosophila, autophagy is developmentally upregulated in the larval fat body prior to metamorphosis. Here, autophagy is induced by the hormone ecdysone through down-regulation of the autophagy-suppressive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. In yeast, Vps18 and other members of the HOPS complex have been found essential for autophagic degradation. In Drosophila, the Vps18 homologue Deep orange (Dor) has previously been shown to mediate fusion of multivesicular endosomes with lysosomes. A requirement of Dor for ecdysone-mediated chromosome puffing has also been reported. In the present report, we have tested the hypothesis that Dor may control programmed autophagy at the level of ecdysone signaling as well as by mediating autophagosome-to-lysosome fusion. We show that dor mutants are defective in programmed autophagy and provide evidence that autophagy is blocked at two levels. First, PI3K activity was not down-regulated correctly in dor larvae, which correlated with a decrease in ecdysone reporter activity. The down-regulation of PI3K activity was restored by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae. Second, neither exogenous ecdysone nor overexpression of PTEN, a silencer of PI3K signaling, restored fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes in the fat body of dor mutants. These results indicate that Dor controls autophagy indirectly, via ecdysone signaling, as well as directly, via autolysosomal fusion.

  10. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randhir; Randhawa, S. N. S.; Randhawa, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS) and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT) in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD), close up dry (CUD) and fresh (F). BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period. PMID:27047087

  11. Histopathological changes in the perivisceral fat body of Rhinocricus padbergi (Diplopoda, Spirobolida) triggered by biosolids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Annelise; Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Righetto Neto, Nilton; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Human activities generate a great amount of sewage daily, which is dumped into the sewer system. After sewage-treatment processes, sewage sludge is generated. Such byproduct can be treated by different methods; the result of treatment is a stabilized compost of reduced pathogenicity that has a similar inorganic chemical composition to the raw sewage sludge. After such pretreatment, sewage sludge is called a biosolids, and it can be used in agriculture. In this contest, the present study evaluated the effects of a sample of biosolids on the perivisceral fat body of a diplopod. These invertebrates are soil organisms that play an important role in the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, and as a consequence, they are in contact with xenobiotics present in this environmental compartment. Special emphasis is given on the interpretation of the effects of complex mixtures in target organs of diplopods. A semiquantitative analysis for the evaluation of histopathological changes in the perivisceral fat body was proposed. The sample-induced histopathological and ultrastructural changes in individuals exposed to it, and the severity of the effects was positively related to the exposure time, resulting in the deaths of exposed individuals after 90 days. Thus, the results indicate the need for caution in the use of biosolids as well as the need for improving waste management techniques, so they will produce environmentally innocuous final products. PMID:26396012

  12. Fat bodies and thin bodies. Cultural, biomedical and market discourses on obesity.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Arnaiz, Mabel

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the question of why dieting, health, and the care of the body have come to play such a central role in our daily lives, and explores the relationship of these practices to the emergence of obesity as a social and health problem. Messages urging people to regulate their food intake and get more exercise in order to avoid obesity conflict with warnings that anorexia and bulimia are among the possible consequences of overly strict diets and excessive physical activity. The relationship between diet, beauty and health has been appropriated and re-elaborated as a marketing strategy with wide-ranging cultural consequences. "Being on a diet" is no longer only a matter of biology, nutrition, medicine or science; it is also about culture, politics and society. PMID:20540979

  13. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A.; Dar, Tariq A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001) as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018). Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027) as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029), with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001) of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.003), waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03), total body fat (P = 0.003), plasma glucose (P < 0.001), leptin levels (P = 0.013), and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03) at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities. PMID:27042412

  14. Prediction of fat-free mass and percentage of body fat in neonates using bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometric measures: validation against the PEA POD.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Barbara E; Storm van Leeuwen, Anne-Martine; Carberry, Angela E; Fitzgerald, Erin C; Callaway, Leonie K; Colditz, Paul B; Ward, Leigh C

    2012-05-01

    Accurate assessment of neonatal body composition is essential to studies investigating neonatal nutrition or developmental origins of obesity. Bioelectrical impedance analysis or bioimpedance analysis is inexpensive, non-invasive and portable, and is widely used in adults for the assessment of body composition. There are currently no prediction algorithms using bioimpedance analysis in neonates that have been directly validated against measurements of fat-free mass (FFM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of bioimpedance analysis for the estimation of FFM and percentage of body fat over the first 4 months of life in healthy infants born at term, and to compare these with estimations based on anthropometric measurements (weight and length) and with skinfolds. The present study was an observational study in seventy-seven infants. Body fat content of infants was assessed at birth, 6 weeks, 3 and 4·5 months of age by air displacement plethysmography, using the PEA POD body composition system. Bioimpedance analysis was performed at the same time and the data were used to develop and test prediction equations for FFM. The combination of weight+sex+length predicted FFM, with a bias of < 100 g and limits of agreement of 6-13 %. Before 3 months of age, bioimpedance analysis did not improve the prediction of FFM or body fat. At 3 and 4·5 months, the inclusion of impedance in prediction algorithms resulted in small improvements in prediction of FFM, reducing the bias to < 50 g and limits of agreement to < 9 %. Skinfold measurements performed poorly at all ages.

  15. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P < .005) to DEXA total and abdominal fat and MRI visceral fat in both genders. Log IAUPGH was inversely related to visceral fat in women (P < .005) and men (P < .0001), but was not significantly related to total fat in either gender. In women, log IAUPGH was related inversely to total and LDL cholesterol and positively to HDL cholesterol (P < .008). In men, log IAUPGH was inversely related to total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < .005). In women, HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P < .005). In men, triglycerides were positively related (P < .001) to the WHR and DEXA abdominal and MRI visceral fat. Multivariate regression revealed log IAUPGH, but not DEXA total body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P < .001 for women and P = .01 for men) and LDL (P < .007 and P = .05) cholesterol in both sexes and of HDL cholesterol (P < .005) and triglycerides (P < .03) in women. Log IAUPGH, but not DEXA abdominal fat, was related to total (P < .005 and P < .03) and LDL (P < .03 and P = .05) cholesterol in both genders and to HDL in women (P < .05). Log IAUPGH, but not

  16. No Change of Body Mass, Fat Mass, and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Ultraendurance Swimmers after 12 Hours of Swimming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Kaul, Rene; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated whether ultraendurance swimmers suffer a change of body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, and specific gravity of urine during a 12-hr swim in 12 male Caucasian ultraswimmers. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of urine samples before and after the race was performed to detect alanine, lactate, and…

  17. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  18. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  19. Association between body fat composition and blood pressure level among secondary school adolescents in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mushengezi, Brighton; Chillo, Pilly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excess body fat and high blood pressure (BP) are important risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and both may have their roots of occurrence in childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed at determining the association between body fat composition and BP level among adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 5 randomly selected secondary schools within Dar es Salaam was conducted between June and November 2013. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information on demographic characteristics and other cardiovascular risk factors. BP, height, weight and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Body fat was assessed by skinfold thickness and categorized as underfat, healthy, overfat or obese according to World Health Organization definitions. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 90th percentile for age, height and gender of the adolescent. Results The study included 582 adolescents (mean age 16.5±1.8 years, 52.1% boys). The proportion of adolescents with overfat or obesity was 22.2%. Systolic, diastolic and combined hypertension was present in 17.5%, 5.5%, and 4.0% respectively. In the total population mean body fat percent correlated positively with diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) but not with systolic BP. In multivariate analysis body mass index (β=0.21, p=0.008) and waist circumference (β=0.12, p=0.049), but not body fat percentage (β=-0.09, p=0.399) independently predicted higher MAP. Conclusion Body mass index predicts BP level better than body fat composition and should be used as a measure of increased risk for hypertension among adolescents. PMID:25918567

  20. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W.; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Ellis, Jaclyn C.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Strom, Sara S.; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Sun, Yan V.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W. Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Britton, Angela F.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V.; Becker, Diane M.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Burke, Gregory L.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Evans, Michele K.; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M.; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0×10−6 were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10−8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10−8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5×10−8; RREB1: p = 5.7×10−8). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce

  1. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L; Taylor, Kira C; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ellis, Jaclyn C; Vitolins, Mara Z; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J; Nalls, Michael A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Strom, Sara S; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S; Sun, Yan V; Mosley, Thomas H; Yanek, Lisa R; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Britton, Angela F; Zonderman, Alan B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, Joann E; Kuller, Lewis H; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Johnson, Karen C; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M; Palmer, Julie R; Haiman, Christopher A; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V; Becker, Diane M; Bielak, Lawrence F; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A; Grant, Struan F A; Burke, Gregory L; Patel, Sanjay R; Schreiner, Pamela J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S; Rotimi, Charles N; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B; Reiner, Alexander P; Cupples, L Adrienne; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  2. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; P< .001). The liver iron concentration of the HL group was similar to that of the LL group, which was about 30% higher than that of the HH group (74.2, 72.7, and 55.7 μg/g in the LL, HL, and HH groups, respectively; P< .05). Duodenal cytochrome b messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were higher in the HL group than in the HH group. Although bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) mRNA levels showed no significant differences in the liver, duodenal Bmp6 mRNA levels were significantly lower in the HH group compared with the LL and HL groups. Liver Smad1/5 proteins were differentially activated: the HH group had significantly less phosphorylated Smads than did the LL and HL groups. Our data demonstrate that hepatic iron storage levels are closely related to body adiposity, and reducing body fat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage.

  3. Lower hepatic iron storage associated with obesity in mice can be restored by decreasing body fat mass through feeding a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hak; Wu, Dayong; Smith, Donald; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Han, Sung Nim

    2016-09-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been reported to result in low hepatic iron storage. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that these obesity-related changes in hepatic iron status could be reversed by decreasing adiposity by feeding a low-fat diet. Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to 3 groups: the LL group was fed a control diet for 31 weeks, the HH group was fed a HFD for 31 weeks, and the HL group was fed the HFD for 15 weeks and then switched to the control diet for 16 weeks. The fat mass of the HL group decreased by 3.2 g from the 14th to the 30th weeks. Fat mass was significantly different among the groups (11.4, 15.8, and 37.5 g in the LL, HH, and HL groups, respectively; P< .001). The liver iron concentration of the HL group was similar to that of the LL group, which was about 30% higher than that of the HH group (74.2, 72.7, and 55.7 μg/g in the LL, HL, and HH groups, respectively; P< .05). Duodenal cytochrome b messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were higher in the HL group than in the HH group. Although bone morphogenetic protein 6 (Bmp6) mRNA levels showed no significant differences in the liver, duodenal Bmp6 mRNA levels were significantly lower in the HH group compared with the LL and HL groups. Liver Smad1/5 proteins were differentially activated: the HH group had significantly less phosphorylated Smads than did the LL and HL groups. Our data demonstrate that hepatic iron storage levels are closely related to body adiposity, and reducing body fat mass through feeding a lower-fat diet to HFD-induced obese mice restores liver iron storage. PMID:27632915

  4. An integrated serotonin and octopamine neuronal circuit directs the release of an endocrine signal to control C. elegans body fat.

    PubMed

    Noble, Tallie; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an ancient and conserved neuromodulator of energy balance. Despite its importance, the neural circuits and molecular mechanisms underlying 5-HT-mediated control of body fat remain poorly understood. Here, we decipher the serotonergic neural circuit for body fat loss in C. elegans and show that the effects of 5-HT require signaling from octopamine, the invertebrate analog of adrenaline, to sustain body fat loss. Our results provide a potential molecular explanation for the long-observed potent effects of combined serotonergic and adrenergic weight loss drugs. In metabolic tissues, we find that the conserved regulatory adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1 drives serotonergic fat loss. We show that the serotonergic chloride channel MOD-1 relays a long-range endocrine signal from C. elegans body cavity neurons to control distal ATGL-1 function, via the nuclear receptor NHR-76. Our findings establish a conserved neuroendocrine axis operated by neural serotonergic and adrenergic-like signaling to regulate body fat.

  5. An Integrated Serotonin and Octopamine Neuronal Circuit Directs The Release of An Endocrine Signal to Control C. elegans Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Tallie; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an ancient and conserved neuromodulator of energy balance. Despite its importance, the neural circuits and molecular mechanisms underlying 5-HT-mediated control of body fat remain poorly understood. Here we decipher the serotonergic neural circuit for body fat loss in C. elegans and show that the effects of 5-HT require signaling from octopamine, the invertebrate analog of adrenaline, to sustain body fat loss. Our results provide a potential molecular explanation for the long-observed potent effects of combined serotonergic and adrenergic weight loss drugs. In metabolic tissues we find that the conserved regulatory adipocyte triglyceride lipase ATGL-1 drives serotonergic fat loss. We show that the serotonergic chloride channel MOD-1 relays a long-range endocrine signal via C. elegans body cavity neurons to control distal ATGL-1 function, via the nuclear receptor NHR-76. Our findings establish a conserved neuroendocrine axis operated by neural serotonergic and adrenergic-like signaling, to regulate body fat. PMID:24120942

  6. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  7. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise. PMID:21878735

  8. Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (<0.30). In conclusion, this school-based EM programs had modest beneficial effects on changes in percent body fat. Addition of a classroom/internet program to the environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children. PMID:22402733

  9. Comparison of DEXA and QMR for Assessing Fat and Lean Body Mass in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Colette N.; Kauffman, Tricia G.; Cooney, Paula T.; Ramseur, Keshia R.; Brown, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several techniques used to measure body composition in experimental models including dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). DEXA/QMR data have been compared in mice, but have not been compared previously in rats. The goal of this study was to compare DEXA and QMR data in rats. We used rats that varied by sex, diet, and age, in addition we compared dissected samples containing subcutaneous (pelt) or visceral fat (carcass). The data means were compared by focusing on the differences between DEXA/QMR data using a series of scatter plots without assuming that either method is more accurate as suggested by Bland and Altman. DEXA/QMR data did not agree sufficiently in carcass or pelt FM or in pelt LBM. The variation observed within these groups suggests that DEXA and QMR measurements are not comparable. Carcass LBM in young rats did yield comparable data once the data for middle-aged rats was removed. The variation in our data may be a result of different direct and indirect measures that DEXA and QMR technologies use to quantify FM and LBM. DEXA measures FM and estimates fat-free mass. In contrast, QMR uses separate equations of magnetic resonance to measure FM, LBM, total body water and free water. We found that QMR overestimated body mass in our middle-aged rats, and this increased the variation between methods. Our goal was to evaluate the precision of DEXA/QMR data in rats to determine if they agree sufficiently to allow direct comparison of data between methods. However DEXA and QMR did not yield the same estimates of FM or LBM for the majority of our samples. PMID:21167190

  10. Hypothalamic Npy mRNA is correlated with increased wheel running and decreased body fat in calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Speichinger, Katherine R; Manier, Jacob B; Younger, Kyle M; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    The neuro-molecular mechanisms that regulate the relationship between physical activity level, energy homeostasis regulation, and body fat are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mRNAs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) related to energy homeostasis, wheel running distance, and body fat in ad lib (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR) growing rats. We hypothesized that changes in select mRNAs (Pomc, Cart, Agrp, Npy, Lepr, Insr, Mc4r, Ampk, Sirt1, Sirt3) in CR would be associated with decreases in body fat percentage and increased wheel running behavior. Male Wistar rats were given access to voluntary running wheels at 4 weeks of age and randomized into AL (n=8) and CR (70% of AL; n=7) groups at 5 weeks of age until study termination at 12 weeks of age. Body composition, serum leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, and ARC mRNA expression in AL and CR rats were assessed and correlated with week-12 running distance to examine potential relationships that may exist. By 12 weeks of age, wheel running was increased ∼3.3-fold (p=0.03) while body fat percentage was ∼2-fold lower in CR compared to AL (p=0.001). Compared to AL, ARC Npy mRNA expression was ∼2-fold greater in CR (p=0.02), while Lepr, Insr, Ampk, and Sirt1 mRNA were additionally increased in CR (p<0.05). Significant correlations existed between ARC Npy mRNA levels versus week-12 wheel running distance (r=0.81, p=0.03), body fat (r=-0.93, p<0.01), and between body fat and wheel running (r=-0.83, p=0.02) in CR, but not in AL. These results reveal possible mechanisms by which fat-brain crosstalk may influence physical activity during energy deficit. These data suggest that below a 'threshold' fat content, body fat may drive activity levels, potentially through hypothalamic Npy action.

  11. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  12. Fasted Exercise and Increased Dietary Protein Reduces Body Fat and Improves Strength in Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G; Pritchard, P P; Papageorgiou, C; Phillips, S; Kumar, P; Langan-Evans, C; Routledge, H; Owens, D J; Morton, J P; Close, G L

    2015-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of a diet and exercise intervention in jockeys on body composition, metabolism, bone and mental health. 10 jockeys followed an individually prescribed 6-wk diet (Carbohydrate=2.5-3.5 g/kg, Protein=2.5 g/kg, Fat=1.0 g/kg). Body mass (59.2±4.6 vs. 57.6±4.5 kg), fat mass (7.5±3.5 vs. 6.2±2.6) and body fat (13.1±5.9 vs. 11.5±4.9%) all decreased (P<0.05) from pre to post-intervention whilst lean mass (47.1±5.3 vs. 47.0±5.5 kg) was maintained (P=0.80). RMR (1703±329 vs. 1975±313 kcal.d(-1)), VO2max (3.8±0.8 vs. 4.1±0.7 L/min(- 1)) chest strength (65±11 vs. 71±13 kg), leg strength (160±28 vs. 175±29 kg) and jumping height (40±6 vs. 48±5 cm) significantly increased (P<0.05). Bone health (DXA) did not change (P>0.05) at hip (-1.04±1.29 vs. - 0.76±0.71) or lumbar sites (-1.32±0.76 vs. - 1.31±0.77). Psychometrics (GHQ-12 and EAT-26) remained unchanged (10.3±4.3 vs. 8.9±3.8 and 14.8±9.6 vs. 11.0±5.6, P>0.05, respectively). This approach represents a marked difference from jockeys' habitual weight-making that largely involves dehydration and food deprivation.

  13. [Nuclear techniques in nutrition: assessment of body fat and intake of human milk in breast-fed infants].

    PubMed

    Pallaro, Anabel; Tarducci, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The application of nuclear techniques in the area of nutrition is safe because they use stable isotopes. The deuterium dilution method is used in body composition and human milk intake analysis. It is a reference method for body fat and validates inexpensive tools because of its accuracy, simplicity of application in individuals and population and the background of its usefulness in adults and children as an evaluation tool in clinical and health programs. It is a non-invasive technique as it uses saliva, which facilitates the assessment in pediatric populations. Changes in body fat are associated with non-communicable diseases; moreover, normal weight individuals with high fat deposition were reported. Furthermore, this technique is the only accurate way to determine whether infants are exclusively breast-fed and validate conventional methods based on surveys to mothers.

  14. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity. PMID:26489044

  15. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum HDL cholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p<0.05). Serum and hepatic total cholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat. PMID:26761869

  16. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients–carbohydrate, lipid, or protein–resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance. PMID:26741692

  17. 20-hydroxyecdysone mediates fat body arylphorin regulation during development of rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica.

    PubMed

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-01-10

    Arylphorin hexamerins are one of the major insect storage proteins involved in diverse functions during metamorphosis. However, their regulation during development is not elucidated so far. In the present study, we documented 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-mediated regulation of arylphorin expression in the fat body of the stored grain pest, Corcyra cephalonica. Based on the differential developmental expression and 20E-induced transcriptional as well as translational level alterations of arylphorin, we isolated the 5' upstream region of the gene to analyze regulatory motifs. Promoter motif analysis revealed the presence of ecdysone response element (ERE). Transient transfection studies showed the functionality of the ERE. Enzyme mobility shift experiments with radiolabelled, cold and mutated probes indicate ERE-nuclear factor binding. This study is the first to report transcriptional regulation of arylphorins by 20E in lepdopteran insect species.

  18. Physical Activity and Bone Health in Schoolchildren: The Mediating Role of Fitness and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Costoso, Ana; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, although the role of percent body fat (%BF) and fitness as confounders or mediators in this relationship remains uncertain. Objective To examine whether the association between PA and bone mineral content (BMC) is mediated by %BF and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods In this cross sectional study, BMC, total %BF (by DXA), vigorous PA (VPA), CRF, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8–11 years). ANCOVA was used to test differences in BMC by %BF, CRF and VPA, controlling for different sets of confounders. Simple mediation analyses and serial multiple mediation analyses were fitted to examine whether the relationship between PA and BMC is mediated by %BF and fitness. Results Children with high %BF had higher total body BMC than their peers after controlling for all sets of confounders. Children with good CRF or VPA had significantly less total body BMC after controlling for age and sex but in children with good CRF this inverse relation disappeared after adjusting by %BF. %BF and CRF both act as a full mediator in the association between VPA and BMC, after inclusion of the potential confounders in the models. Conclusion Fitness and %BF seem to have a mediator role on the relationship between physical activity and bone mass. PMID:25915941

  19. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  20. Anthropometric estimations of percent body fat in NCAA Division I female athletes: a 4-compartment model validation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jordan R; Tobkin, Sarah E; Smith, Abbie E; Lockwood, Chris M; Walter, Ashley A; Cramer, Joel T; Beck, Travis W; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2009-07-01

    Anthropometric equations, based on 2-compartment models, have been routinely used to estimate body composition in female college athletes; however, these equations are not without error. In an attempt to decrease the error associated with anthropometric equations, updated equations were developed using multiple-compartment models, although the validity of these equations has not yet been established. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the validity of the updated anthropometric equations and compare them with previously validated generalized equations for estimating percent fat (%fat) in female athletes. Twenty-nine white female NCAA Division I athletes (20 +/- 1 years) volunteered to have their %fat estimated using anthropometric measurements. Skinfold equations included generalized and updated equations and a height and weight-based equation. %fat values were compared with a criterion 4-compartment model. All equations produced low total error (TE) (< or =3.38%fat) and SEE values (< or =2.97%fat) and high r values (r > or = 0.78). The 2 updated skinfold equations produced the highest constant error (CE) values, but the tightest limits of agreement (< or = -1.58 +/- 4.86%fat; CE +/- 2SD) compared with the 3 generalized Jackson et al. equations (< or =0.92 +/- 5.34%fat), whereas the limits of agreement for the height and weight-based equation (+/- 6.00%fat) were the widest. Compared with the updated skinfold equations, the generalized Jackson et al. skinfold equations produced nearly identical TE values. Results suggest that the updated skinfold equations are valid but not superior to the generalized Jackson et al. equations, and the height and weight-based equation of Fornetti et al. is not recommended due to the large individual error in this population. Additionally, more than 3 skinfold sites did not improve %fat values. Therefore, the Jackson et al. sum of 3 skinfold equation is the suggested skinfold equation in the white female NCAA

  1. Canine Body Composition Quantification using 3 Tesla Fat-Water MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Aliya; Kullberg, Joel; Berglund, Johan; Malmberg, Filip; Coate, Katie C.; Williams, Phillip E.; Cherrington, Alan D.; Avison, Malcolm J.; Welch, E. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that a whole-body fat-water MRI (FWMRI) protocol acquired at 3 Tesla combined with semi-automated image analysis techniques enables precise volume and mass quantification of adipose, lean and bone tissue depots that agree with static scale mass and scale mass changes in the context of a longitudinal study of large-breed dogs placed on an obesogenic high-fat, high-fructose diet. Materials and Methods Six healthy adult male dogs were scanned twice, at weeks 0 (baseline) and 4, of the dietary regiment. FWMRI-derived volumes of adipose tissue (total, visceral, and subcutaneous), lean tissue, and cortical bone were quantified using a semi-automated approach. Volumes were converted to masses using published tissue densities. Results FWMRI-derived total mass corresponds with scale mass with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.931 (95% confidence interval = [0.813, 0.975]), and slope and intercept values of 1.12 and −2.23 kg respectively. Visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue masses increased significantly from weeks 0 to 4, while neither cortical bone nor lean tissue masses changed significantly. This is evidenced by a mean percent change of 70.2% for visceral, 67.0% for subcutaneous, and 67.1% for total adipose tissue. Conclusion FWMRI can precisely quantify and map body composition with respect to adipose, lean and bone tissue depots. The described approach provides a valuable tool to examine the role of distinct tissue depots in an established animal model of human metabolic disease. PMID:23596090

  2. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  3. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P < 0.004). d-ROM levels were significantly lower in vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P < 0.011). Additionally, total cholesterol levels in the vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.018). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 101.36 ± 23.57 mg/dL and 120.60 ± 34.62 mg/dL (P < 0.005) in the vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores. PMID:22586505

  4. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  5. The relevance of increased fat oxidation for body-weight management: metabolic inflexibility in the predisposition to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A

    2011-10-01

    Cells, tissues and organisms have the ability to rapidly switch substrate oxidation from carbohydrate to fat in response to changes in nutrient intake, and to changes in energy demands, environmental cues and internal signals. In healthy, metabolically normal individuals, substrate switching occurs rapidly and completely; in other words, substrate switching is 'flexible'. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that a blunted substrate switching from low- to high-fat oxidation exists in obese individuals, as well as in pre-obese and post-obese, and that this 'metabolic inflexibility' may be a genetically determined trait. A decreased fat oxidation can lead to a positive energy balance under conditions of high-fat feeding, due to depletion of glycogen stores that stimulates appetite and energy intake through glucostatic and glucogenostatic mechanisms, e.g. hepatic sensing of glycogen stores. Several genetic polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified that are associated with low-fat oxidation rates and metabolic inflexibility, and genetic identification of susceptible individuals may lead to personalized prevention of weight gain using fat oxidation stimulants ('fat burners') in the future. PMID:21692967

  6. Normal weight adiposity in a Swedish population: how well is cardiovascular risk associated with excess body fat captured by BMI?

    PubMed Central

    Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Mehlig, Kirsten; Subramoney, Sreevidya; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to examine how well body mass index (BMI) reflects cardiovascular risk associated with excess adiposity in a Swedish population by examining the association between body fat, BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total of 3,010 adults participated. Normal weight adiposity was defined as the combination of BMI < 25 kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥35% for women and ≥25% for men. Associations with blood pressure, blood lipids, apolipoproteins and C‐reactive protein were analysed in age‐adjusted regression models. Results The majority of the individuals with overweight and obesity were correctly classified to adiposity, while a wide range of body fat was observed among the normal weight subjects. In total, 9% of the participants were categorised as normal weight with adiposity. Compared with the normal weight leanness group, participants with normal weight adiposity had higher levels of serum triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, C‐reactive protein, apolipoptotein B and the apolipoprotein B/A‐I ratio. In normal weight men, adiposity was also associated with higher blood pressure and lower high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Higher percentage of body fat was associated with less favourable risk factor profile even in subjects who were normal weight. Thus, it might be relevant to screen for metabolic risk factors in the upper end of the normal weight category.

  7. Body Fat Mass Assessment: A Comparison between an Ultrasound-Based Device and a Discovery A Model of DXA

    PubMed Central

    Pineau, Jean-Claude; Lalys, Loïc; Pellegrini, Massimo; Battistini, Nino Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine measurement of body composition by ultrasound compared with a reference technique:dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We evaluated the accuracy of a portable ultrasound-based device in estimating total body fat mass with those assessed by DXA in adult. Methods. Body fat mass has been estimated using a portable ultrasound-based device in comparison with a contemporary reference DXA apparatus: the Hologic Discovery A. Anthropometric data has been assessed in order to maximize the output of the software associated with the ultrasound-based device. A cross-validation between ultrasound technique (US) and DXA was developed in this study. Total body fat mass estimated by ultrasound was compared with this DXA model in a sample of 83 women and 41 men. Results. Ultrasound technique (US) of body fat (BF) was better correlated with DXA in both women (r2 = 0.97, P < 0.01) and men (r2 = 0.92, P < 0.01) with standard errors of estimates (SEE) being 2.1 kg and 2.2 kg, respectively. Conclusion. The use of a portable device based on a US produced a very accurate BF estimate in relation to DXA reference technique. As DXA absorptiometry techniques are not interchangeable, the use of our ultrasound-based device needs to be recalibrated on a more contemporary DXA. PMID:24575315

  8. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  9. Circadian rhythm of plasma leptin levels in upper and lower body obese women: influence of body fat distribution and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Langendonk, J G; Pijl, H; Toornvliet, A C; Burggraaf, J; Frölich, M; Schoemaker, R C; Doornbos, J; Cohen, A F; Meinders, A E

    1998-05-01

    Plasma leptin concentrations were measured every 20 min for 24 h in eight normal weight women and in eight upper body and eight lower body obese women matched for body mass index. The circadian rhythm of leptin, which could mathematically be described by a cosine, was characterized by an acrophase just after midnight in all subjects. The amplitude of a cosine fit as well as the average 24-h leptin concentration were increased by 280% and 420%, respectively, in obese compared to normal weight women. All characteristics of leptin concentration profiles were similar in upper body and lower body obese women, except for a significantly higher amplitude in the lower body obese group. Visceral and sc body fat depots were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in all three groups. Average 24-h leptin concentrations were strongly correlated with sc fat (r = 0.84), whereas visceral fat was not an independent predictor of the plasma leptin level. A loss of 50% of the overweight was associated with a 55% decrease in the average 24-h leptin concentrations in obese women (95% confidence interval, 12.3, 26.6), whereas the characteristics of the circadian rhythm of leptin remained unchanged. Finally, it was observed that a fasting plasma leptin concentration is not an acceptable indicator of the average leptin concentration over 24 h. PMID:9589680

  10. Inverse Relationship between the Inflammatory Marker Pentraxin-3, Fat Body Mass, and Abdominal Obesity in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Tetsu; Rashid Qureshi, Abdul; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Carrero, Karin; Sjöberg, Bodil; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) belongs to the same pentraxin superfamily of acute-phase reactants as C-reactive protein (CRP). Abdominal fat accumulation in ESRD is considered a chronic inflammatory state, but the relationship of PTX3 to this phenomenon is unknown. This study assesses plausible associations between PTX3 and surrogates of fat mass deposits in dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Circulating levels of PTX3, CRP, and IL-6 were cross-sectionally analyzed in relation to anthropometric and nutritional surrogate markers of fat tissue in two cohorts comprising 156 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) and 216 incident dialysis patients. Results In both cohorts, PTX3 was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat body mass index (FBMI) derived from anthropometrics and leptin, whereas there was a positive association with adiponectin. In prevalent HD patients, those with larger waist circumference (above gender-specific median values) had lower PTX3, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels. This was also true in multivariate analyses. In both cohorts, multivariate regression analyses showed that PTX3 was negatively and CRP (or IL-6) was positively associated with FBMI. Conclusions Although CRP and IL-6 were directly associated with body fat, PTX3 levels showed negative correlations with surrogates of adipose tissue in two independent cohorts of ESRD patients. Understanding the underlying reasons behind these opposite associations may have clinical relevance given the survival advantage described for obese patients on dialysis. PMID:22157708

  11. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue.

  12. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  13. Fine Mapping of the Body Fat QTL on Human Chromosome 1q43

    PubMed Central

    Aissani, Brahim; Wiener, Howard W.; Zhang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Evidence for linkage and association of obesity-related quantitative traits to chromosome 1q43 has been reported in the Quebec Family Study (QFS) and in populations of Caribbean Hispanic ancestries yet no specific candidate locus has been replicated to date. Methods Using a set of 1,902 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 525 African American (AA) and 391 European American (EA) women enrolled in the NIEHS uterine fibroid study (NIEHS-UFS), we generated a fine association map for the body mass index (BMI) across a 2.3 megabase-long interval delimited by RGS7 (regulator of G-protein signaling 7) and PLD5 (Phospholipase D, member 5). Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models were fitted to the data to evaluate the association in race-stratified analyses and meta-analysis. Results The strongest associations were observed in a recessive genetic model and peaked in the 3’ end of RGS7 at intronic rs261802 variant in the AA group (p = 1.0 x 10−4) and in meta-analysis of AA and EA samples (p = 9.0 x 10−5). In the EA group, moderate associations peaked at rs6429264 (p = 2.0 x 10−3) in the 2 Kb upstream sequence of RGS7. In the reference populations for the European ancestry in the 1,000 genomes project, rs6429264 occurs in strong linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.94) with rs1341467, the strongest candidate SNP for total body fat in QFS that failed genotyping in the present study. Additionally we report moderate associations at the 3’ end of PLD5 in meta-analysis (3.2 x 10−4 ≤ p ≤ 5.8 x 10−4). Conclusion We report replication data suggesting that RGS7, a gene abundantly expressed in the brain, might be a putative body fat QTL on human chromosome 1q43. Future genetic and functional studies are required to substantiate our observations and to potentially link them to the neurobehavioral phenotypes associated with the RGS7 region. PMID:27111224

  14. Thermogenesis is involved in the body-fat lowering effects of resveratrol in rats.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Miranda, Jonatan; Macarulla, M Teresa; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P

    2013-11-15

    The effect of resveratrol on thermogenesis in skeletal muscle and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was investigated. Rats were fed an obesogenic diet supplemented with resveratrol (30mg/kg/day) or not supplemented for 6weeks. Resveratrol intake led to increased gene expression of mitochondrial-transcription-factor-A (TFAM), mitochondrial-protein-cytochrome-C-oxidase subunit-2 (COX2), sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) and proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator1-α (PGC-1α) in IBAT and increased UCP1protein expression; however, peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-α (PPARα) expression remained unchanged. In gastrocnemius muscle, resveratrol increased the gene expression of TFAM and COX2; however, no changes were observed in levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α and PPARβ/δ. Acetylated-PGC-1α was decreased in the resveratrol-treated group, indicating a higher level of activation, and a significant increase of UCP3 protein expression was observed in this group. The increases in UCP protein expression in two important thermogenic tissues after resveratrol treatment may contribute to increased whole-body energy dissipation, which may help to better understand the body-fat lowering effect of this polyphenol.

  15. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9–19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents. PMID:26167491

  16. Cortisol reactivity, delay discounting and percent body fat in Chinese urban young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingyun; Tao, Fangbiao; Hou, Fangli; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Sun, Ying; Xu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shaojun; Zhao, Yuqiu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the relation of cortisol reactivity, delay discounting and percent body fat (PBF) in adolescents aged 12-13 years (N=87), and evaluate the delay discounting as potential components in models of adolescent obesity. Anthropometry and body composition measurements were assessed in adolescents. The cortisol reactivity to Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) and delay discounting were measured. The result showed increased cortisol reactivity and greater delay discounting were associated with higher PBF in girls. Structural equation modeling supported greater delay discounting as a mediator of relations between increased cortisol reactivity and PBF in adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model indicated that cortisol reactivity is linked to PBF through delay discounting, thereby supporting a significant indirect relationship. The direct relationship between increased cortisol reactivity and higher PBF was significant in a model that did not include delay discounting, and was still significant in the mediation model that included delay discounting. This study provides the first evidence that greater delay discounting may partially account for the relationship of hyperactivity of the HPA-axis and higher PBF in girls.

  17. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  18. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein: an adipokine modulator of body fat mass?

    PubMed

    Bing, C; Mracek, T; Gao, D; Trayhurn, P

    2010-11-01

    The importance of white adipose tissue in the control of energy balance is now firmly recognized. In addition to fuel storage, adipocytes secrete an array of proteins factors (adipokines), which regulate multiple physiological and metabolic processes as well as influence body fat accumulation. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a lipid mobilizing factor initially characterized as a tumor product associated with cachexia, has recently been identified as a novel adipokine. Although the exact role of ZAG in adipose tissue remains to be clarified, there is evidence that ZAG expression appears to be inversely related to adiposity, being upregulated in cachexia whereas reduced in obesity. Investigations on the regulation of ZAG give insights into its potential function in adipose tissue with a link to lipid mobilization and an anti-inflammatory action. Recent work shows that ZAG stimulates adiponectin secretion by human adipocytes. Data from genetic studies suggest that ZAG may be a candidate gene for body weight regulation; this is supported by the demonstration that ZAG-knockout mice are susceptible to weight gain, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing ZAG exhibit weight loss. The present review summarizes these new perspectives of ZAG and the potential mechanisms by which it might modulate adipose tissue mass and function.

  19. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms.

  20. Age-associated de-repression of retrotransposons in the Drosophila fat body, its potential cause and consequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Danqing; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain transposable elements (TE) that can move into new locations upon activation. Since uncontrolled transposition of TEs, including the retrotransposons and DNA transposons, can lead to DNA breaks and genomic instability, multiple mechanisms, including heterochromatin-mediated repression, have evolved to repress TE activation. Studies in model organisms have shown that TEs become activated upon aging as a result of age-associated deregulation of heterochromatin. Considering that different organisms or cell types may undergo distinct heterochromatin changes upon aging, it is important to identify pathways that lead to TE activation in specific tissues and cell types. Through deep sequencing of isolated RNAs, we report an increased expression of many retrotransposons in the old Drosophila fat body, an organ equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. This de-repression correlates with an increased number of DNA damage foci and decreased level of Drosophila lamin-B in the old fat body cells. Depletion of the Drosophila lamin-B in the young or larval fat body results in a reduction of heterochromatin and a corresponding increase in retrotransposon expression and DNA damage. Further manipulations of lamin-B and retrotransposon expression suggest a role of the nuclear lamina in maintaining the genome integrity of the Drosophila fat body by repressing retrotransposons.

  1. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents. PMID:23762051

  2. Body fat equations and electrical bioimpedance values in prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Faria, Franciane Rocha; Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Cecon, Roberta Stofeles; Barbosa Júnior, Djalma Adão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Cecon, Paulo Roberto; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1) and overweight group (G2). The percentage of body fat (% BF) was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.001), insulin, and HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5) was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5) and (9) was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5) was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

  3. Redundant cis-acting elements control expression of the Drosophila affinidisjuncta Adh gene in the larval fat body.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, R W; Hu, J; Brennan, M D

    1994-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene in the Hawaiian species of fruit fly, Drosophila affinidisjuncta, like the Adh genes from all Drosophila species analyzed, is expressed at high levels in the larval fat body via a larval-specific promoter. To identify the cis-acting elements involved in this highly conserved aspect of Adh gene expression, deleted D. affinidisjuncta genes were introduced into D. melanogaster by somatic transformation. Unlike previously described methods, this transformation system allows analysis of Adh gene expression specifically in the larval fat body. The arrangement of sequences influencing expression of the proximal promoter of this gene in the larval fat body differs markedly from that described for the Adh gene from the distant relative, D. melanogaster. Multiple redundant elements dispersed 5' and 3' to the gene, only some of which map to regions carrying evolutionarily conserved sequences, affect expression in the fat body. D. affinidisjuncta employs a novel mode of Adh gene regulation in which the proximal promoter is influenced by sequences having roles in expression of the distal promoter. This gene is also unique in that far upstream sequences can compensate for loss of sequences within 200 bp of the proximal RNA start site. Furthermore, expression is influenced in an unusual, context-dependent manner by a naturally-occurring 3' duplication of the proximal promoter--a feature found only in Hawaiian species. Images PMID:8165141

  4. Edin Expression in the Fat Body Is Required in the Defense Against Parasitic Wasps in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Anderl, Ines; Vesala, Laura; Hultmark, Dan; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2015-05-01

    The cellular immune response against parasitoid wasps in Drosophila involves the activation, mobilization, proliferation and differentiation of different blood cell types. Here, we have assessed the role of Edin (elevated during infection) in the immune response against the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The expression of edin was induced within hours after a wasp infection in larval fat bodies. Using tissue-specific RNAi, we show that Edin is an important determinant of the encapsulation response. Although edin expression in the fat body was required for the larvae to mount a normal encapsulation response, it was dispensable in hemocytes. Edin expression in the fat body was not required for lamellocyte differentiation, but it was needed for the increase in plasmatocyte numbers and for the release of sessile hemocytes into the hemolymph. We conclude that edin expression in the fat body affects the outcome of a wasp infection by regulating the increase of plasmatocyte numbers and the mobilization of sessile hemocytes in Drosophila larvae.

  5. [Intracranial fat bodies and their potential effect on brain composition and behaviour in domestic ducks with feather crests (3 case studies)].

    PubMed

    Cnotka, J; Frahm, H D; Rehkämper, G

    2006-01-01

    Intracranial fat tissue was found in the brains of three crested ducks. The three ducks differed in the size of their crest and in the volume and the location of the fat body within their brains. The duck with the large crest showed a fat body which counts for 19 % of its brain volume. Due to this fat accumulation, brain structures, mainly the cerebellum, were moved laterally. This duck had serious problems in motor coordination. Fat body of the second duck with a middle sized crest was situated in neostriatum and constituted 0,6 % of total brain volume. Additionally this duck displayed an encephalocele. The last duck did show a small crest. Its fat body was found in the area of the tentorium cerebelli and made up 17 % of its brain volume. The later two ducks were not hampered behaviourally.

  6. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  7. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Measuring Changes in Body Water and Percent Fat After Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Widen, Elizabeth M.; Strain, Gladys; King, Wendy C.; Yu, Wenwen; Lin, Susan; Goodpaster, Bret; Thornton, John; Courcoulas, Anita; Pomp, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have validated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following bariatric surgery. Methods We examined agreement of BIA (Tanita 310) measures of total body water (TBW) and percent body fat (%fat) before (T0) and 12 months (T12) after bariatric surgery, and change between T0 and T12 with reference measures: deuterium oxide dilution for TBW and three-compartment model (3C) for %fat in a subset of participants (n=50) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2. Results T0 to T12 median (IQR) change in deuterium TBW and 3C %fat was −6.4 L (6.4 L) and −14.8 % (13.4 %), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between deuterium and BIA determined TBW [median (IQR) difference: T0 −0.1 L (7.1 L), p=0.75; T12 0.2 L (5.7 L), p=0.35; Δ 0.35 L(6.3 L), p=1.0]. Compared with 3C, BIA underestimated %fat at T0 and T12 [T0 −3.3 (5.6), p<0.001; T12 −1.7 (5.2), p=0.04] but not change [0.7 (8.2), p=0.38]. Except for %fat change, Bland-Altman plots indicated no proportional bias. However, 95 % limits of agreement were wide (TBW 15–22 L, %fat 19–20 %). Conclusions BIA may be appropriate for evaluating group level response among severely obese adults. However, clinically meaningful differences in the accuracy of BIA between individuals exist. PMID:24464517

  8. Increased muscle fatty acid oxidation in dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schäff, C; Börner, S; Hacke, S; Kautzsch, U; Sauerwein, H; Spachmann, S K; Schweigel-Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Kuhla, B

    2013-10-01

    The beginning of lactation requires huge metabolic adaptations to meet increased energy demands for milk production of dairy cows. One of the adaptations is the mobilization of body reserves mainly from adipose tissue as reflected by increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. The capacity of the liver for complete oxidation of NEFA is limited, leading to an increased formation of ketone bodies, reesterification, and accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. As the skeletal muscle also may oxidize fatty acids, it may help to decrease the fatty acid load on the liver. To test this hypothesis, 19 German Holstein cows were weekly blood sampled from 7 wk before until 5 wk after parturition to analyze plasma NEFA concentrations. Liver biopsies were obtained at d 3, 18, and 30 after parturition and, based on the mean liver fat content, cows were grouped to the 10 highest (HI) and 9 lowest (LO). In addition, muscle biopsies were obtained at d -17, 3, and 30 relative to parturition and used to quantify mRNA abundance of genes involved in fatty acid degradation. Plasma NEFA concentrations peaked after parturition and were 1.5-fold higher in HI than LO cows. Muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α and β mRNA was upregulated in early lactation. The mRNA abundance of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) increased in early lactation and was higher in HI than in LO cows, whereas the abundance of PPARA continuously decreased after parturition. The mRNA abundance of muscle PPARD, uncoupling protein 3, and the β-oxidative enzymes 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA was greatest at d 3 after parturition, whereas the abundance of PPARγ coactivator 1α decreased after parturition. Our results indicate that around parturition, oxidation of fatty acids in skeletal muscle is highly activated, which may contribute to diminish the fatty acid load on the liver. The

  9. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life. PMID:27040581

  10. Milk fat globule membrane coating of large lipid droplets in the diet of young mice prevents body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Baars, Annemarie; Oosting, Annemarie; Engels, Eefje; Kegler, Diane; Kodde, Andrea; Schipper, Lidewij; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.

  11. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT–PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism. PMID:26310458

  12. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-08-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism.

  13. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p < 0.01), while the energy intake was not significantly different. Quercetin supplementation lowered hepatic lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p < 0.01). (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance serum lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  14. Body fat distribution in men and women of the Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey of the United States: associations with behavioural variables.

    PubMed

    Georges, E; Mueller, W H; Wear, M L

    1993-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a biological risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. There are known genetic factors influencing body fat distribution, but variation in this characteristic is also attributable to human behavioural and socioeconomic variables such as social class. Björntorp has proposed that these associations may be due to a series of physiological responses to psychosocial stress, most prominently chronic stimulation of the adrenal-cortical system. This system is known to affect body fat distribution. Elsewhere we have shown that general socioeconomic status is related to body fat distribution in men and women of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) of the United States. In this paper we explore the relationship with those behavioural variables available from the HHANES which could hypothetically serve as indicators of psychosocial stress: smoking, drinking and depression. For both sexes in all Hispanic ethnic groups except Puerto Rican men, as socioeconomic status declined, subcutaneous fat became more centrally distributed. This relationship continued to be significant after controlling for the behavioural variables. A positive relationship was also found between smoking and central body fat distribution which was independent of socioeconomic status. This relationship was statistically significant for all subsamples except Cuban-American women. No consistent relationships were found between body fat distribution, drinking and depression. The data support the hypothesis that body fat distribution may be linked to the social stress of low socioeconomic status, independent of the behavioural factors tested.

  15. The Effect of Mannan Oligosaccharide Supplementation on Body Weight Gain and Fat Accrual in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel L.; Nagy, Tim R.; Wilson, Landon S.; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or Mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction mimetic in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat “western” type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n=24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured non-invasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean±s.d.; CON: 293.69±10.53g, MOS: 288.10±11.82g; p=0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21±2.31g, MOS: 25.28±1.49g; p=0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72±0.90g, MOS: 4.82±0.83g; p=0.69) or visceral fat (CON: 1.048±0.276g, MOS: 1.004±0.247g; p=0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a calorie restriction mimetic or body composition enhancer. PMID:19798073

  16. Body fat composition and occurrence of kidney stones in hypercalciuric children.

    PubMed

    Ayoob, Rose; Wang, Wei; Schwaderer, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    In the last 10 years, the incidence of kidney stones has increased in the pediatric population, and this rise has been paralleled by a significant increase in pediatric obesity rates in the USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate percentage body fat (%BF) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in hypercalciuric children with and without kidney stones. A retrospective chart review was performed on children with idiopathic hypercalciuria based on a 24-h urine calcium excretion of >4 mg/kg/day or >200 mg/day who had undergone DXA scanning. Patients were then classified by sex and by %BF (3 categories; normal: <27% girls, <21% boys; at risk for obesity: 27-36% girls, 21-30% boys; obese: >36% girls, >30% boys). The 2003-2004 NHANES data were used as a control. Fifty patients (24 males) were analyzed, of whom 26% were assessed as having a normal %BF, 44% as being at risk for obesity, and 30% as being obese. Children with an increased %BF had a significantly higher occurrence of kidney stones (p = 0.03) than those with a normal %BF. No significant differences were noted in 24-h urine chemistries between the groups. In conclusion, an increased %BF was associated with an increased occurrence of kidney stones in children with idiopathic hypercalciuria. PMID:21660645

  17. Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  18. exo-Brevicomin biosynthesis in the fat body of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-02-01

    exo-Brevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. It also has been found in other insects and even in the African elephant. Despite its significance, little is known about its biosynthesis. In order to fill this gap and to identify new molecular targets for potential pest management methods, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of cell cultures and in vitro assays of various D. ponderosae tissues with exo-brevicomin intermediates, analogs, and inhibitors. We confirmed that exo-brevicomin was synthesized by "unfed" males after emerging from the brood tree. Furthermore, in contrast to the paradigm established for biosynthesis of monoterpenoid pheromone components in bark beetles, exo-brevicomin was produced in the fat body, and not in the anterior midgut. The first committed step involves decarboxylation or decarbonylation of ω-3-decenoic acid, which is derived from a longer-chain precursor via β-oxidation, to (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol. This secondary alcohol is converted to the known precursor, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and further epoxidized by a cytochrome P450 to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one. The keto-epoxide is stable at physiological pH, suggesting that its final cyclization to form exo-brevicomin is enzyme-catalyzed. exo-Brevicomin production is unusual in that tissue not derived from ectoderm apparently is involved. PMID:24532213

  19. The relationship of internalized racism to body fat distribution and insulin resistance among African adolescent youth.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Earle C; Tull, Eugene S; Fraser, Henry S; Mutunhu, Nyasha R; Sobers, Natasha; Niles, Elisa

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of internalized racism (INR) and hostility to body fat distribution and insulin resistance in black adolescent children age 14-16 years on the Caribbean island of Barbados. Questionnaire data on psychosocial variables and anthropometric measurements, together with a fasting blood sample, were obtained from 53 low-birthweight and 119 normal-birthweight adolescents. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Spearman correlation analyses showed that both INR (r = 0.244) and hostility (r = 0.204) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with waist circumference in girls but not boys. Among girls, age- and birthweight-adjusted mean levels of BMI and waist circumference were greater for those with high levels of INR and hostility compared to those with low levels of both variables. In multiple logistic regression analyses, a high INR remained independently associated [odds ratio = 3.30 (95% CI = 1.30-8.36); p = 0.012] with having an elevated HOMA value in models that included age, income, birthweight, hostility, physical activity and family history of diabetes. The results of the current study show that the positive relationship between INR and metabolic health risk seen in African-Caribbean adults also exists in African Caribbean adolescent youth independent of birthweight.

  20. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Larry A.; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D.; Bailey, Bruce W.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women. PMID:25710041

  1. exo-Brevicomin biosynthesis in the fat body of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae.

    PubMed

    Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Nguyen, Trang T; Liu, Xibei; Jeffrey, Christopher; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2014-02-01

    exo-Brevicomin (exo-7-ethyl-5-methyl-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane) is an important semiochemical for a number of beetle species, including the highly destructive mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. It also has been found in other insects and even in the African elephant. Despite its significance, little is known about its biosynthesis. In order to fill this gap and to identify new molecular targets for potential pest management methods, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of cell cultures and in vitro assays of various D. ponderosae tissues with exo-brevicomin intermediates, analogs, and inhibitors. We confirmed that exo-brevicomin was synthesized by "unfed" males after emerging from the brood tree. Furthermore, in contrast to the paradigm established for biosynthesis of monoterpenoid pheromone components in bark beetles, exo-brevicomin was produced in the fat body, and not in the anterior midgut. The first committed step involves decarboxylation or decarbonylation of ω-3-decenoic acid, which is derived from a longer-chain precursor via β-oxidation, to (Z)-6-nonen-2-ol. This secondary alcohol is converted to the known precursor, (Z)-6-nonen-2-one, and further epoxidized by a cytochrome P450 to 6,7-epoxynonan-2-one. The keto-epoxide is stable at physiological pH, suggesting that its final cyclization to form exo-brevicomin is enzyme-catalyzed. exo-Brevicomin production is unusual in that tissue not derived from ectoderm apparently is involved.

  2. Socioeconomic and lifestyle determinants of body fat distribution in young working males from Cracow, Poland.

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of explanation of the central adiposity variation, presented by waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and the sum of the three trunk skinfold thicknesses (subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac) (TTS) through the socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle. The material included cross-sectional population-based research of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. Objective anthropometric measurements, the results of motor fitness tests, and social and lifestyle data from a questionnaire were analyzed. The independent variables were: age, SES (the birthplace, place of residence until the age of 14, social class, educational level, and the type of work done), and lifestyle elements (smoking habits, dietary habits, family obesity resemblance, sport activity in the past, leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and the level of motor fitness). Three separate full models were created using stepwise straightforward regression with WC, WHR, and TTS as dependent variables. The highest autonomous influence on WC was ascribed to age, level of motor fitness, and family obesity resemblance. Variation in WHR was explained by age, level of motor fitness, upper-middle class, LTPA, and village as the birthplace. Level of motor fitness, place of residence until the age of 14 (city), age, smoking fewer than 20 cigarettes a day, and family obesity resemblance had greatest influence on TTS. The findings indicated the importance, besides age, of lifestyle elements connected with motor fitness and LTPA in determining body fat distribution in young working males.

  3. Near infrared reactance for the estimation of body fatness in regularly exercising individuals.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Lambert, M I; Micklesfield, L K; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C L; Savides, L; Claassen, A; Lambert, E V

    2013-07-01

    Near infrared reactance (NIR) is used to measure body fat percentage (BF%), but there is little data on its use in non-obese, regularly exercising individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the limits of agreement between NIR compared to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the measurement of BF% in 2 cohorts of regularly exercising individuals. BF% was measured using DXA and NIR in a regular exercising (≥3 sessions/week), healthy active cohort (HA; n=57), and in a regularly exercising and resistance trained (≥2 sessions/week) cohort (RT; n=59). The RT cohort had lower BF% than the HA cohort (15.3±5.5% and 25.8±7.1%, P<0.001). In the HA and RT cohorts, NIR BF% was associated with DXA BF% (R2=0.72, SEE=3.7, p<0.001 and R2=0.50, SEE=4.1 p<0.001, respectively). In the HA cohort, NIR tended to under-predict BF% (mean difference: - 1.3%; 95% limits of agreement (LOA); - 8.8 to 6.2%) whereas in the RT cohort, NIR tended to over-predict BF% compared to DXA (mean difference: 1.1; 95% LOA; - 8.1 to 10.3%). In conclusion, NIR and DXA yield similar average BF% measurements in 2 cohorts of non-obese regularly exercising individuals. However, the rather broad LOA of NIR need to be considered when using NIR to screen for overweight and obesity, or measure and track changes in body composition.

  4. Optimal body fat percentage cut-offs for obesity in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wang, Chen; Bao, Yuqian; Peng, Liangpu; Gu, Huilin; Jia, Weiping

    2012-04-01

    Obesity results in an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Body fat percentage (BF%) is a common index of body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity to predict MetS and T2DM in Chinese adults. The baseline study group comprised 3916 Chinese adults (age 30-70 years of age); 2033 subjects without MetS or T2DM were followed up for a maximum of 5.5 years. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the association between obesity at baseline defined by BF% and newly developed MetS and T2DM. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (23.9 ± 6.1% vs 33.5 ± 7.1%, respectively; P < 0.01). For men, the optimal BF% cut-offs for the prediction of MetS and T2DM were 25.45% and 26.65%, respectively; for women, the corresponding values were 34.95% and 36.55%. Subjects with high BF% (≥ 25% in men; ≥ 35% in women) had higher risks of incident MetS or T2DM than those with low BF% (< 25% in men; < 35% in women). The relative risks were 3.43 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.59-4.54) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.85-4.60), respectively. The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of MetS and T2DM in Chinese men and women were around 25% and 35%, respectively.

  5. Overweight in trained subjects - are we looking at wrong numbers? (Body mass index compared with body fat percentage in estimating overweight in athletes.).

    PubMed

    Mazic, Sanja; Djelic, Marina; Suzic, Jelena; Suzic, Slavica; Dekleva, Milica; Radovanovic, Dragan; Scepanovic, Ljiljana; Starcevic, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as an index of obesity in adults. In trained population, individual with low body fat could be classified as overweight by BMI. To evaluate this problem, the purposes of this study were to determine the BMI and body fat percentage (BF%) of trained and untrained subjects and to evaluate the accuracy of BMI classification (> or =25 kg.m(-2)) as a prediction of overweight/obesity in trained subjects. The total number of 299 trained (basketball players) and 179 untrained male subjects participated in this study. Body height and body mass were measured; BMI was calculated for all subjects. BF% was determined via Tanita bioimpedance body composition analyzer. BMI >or = 25 kg.m(-2) and BF% > 20% were used to define overweight. There was no significant age differences. Body mass, height (p < 0.01) and BMI (p < 0.05) were significantly higher, although BF% was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in trained group when compared to untrained. Eighty-five trained subjects had a BMI of 25 or higher, indicating overweight. Of these, only three individuls had excess BF%. The results of the present study suggest that a BMI > or = 25 kg.m(-2) is not an accurate predictor of overweight in trained subjects.

  6. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  7. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  8. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat. PMID:25715692

  9. Validating skinfold thickness as a proxy to estimate total body fat in wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica) using the mass of dissected adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Wolfgang P J; Gunathilake, K A Sunil

    2015-06-01

    Skinfold thickness (SFT) has been used often in non-human primates and humans as a proxy to estimate fatness (% body fat). We intended to validate the relation between SFT (in recently deceased specimens) and the mass of adipose tissue as determined from dissection of fresh carcasses of wild toque macaques (Macaca sinica). In adult male and female toque macaques body composition is normally 2% adipose tissue. Calipers for measuring SFT were suitable for measuring only some subcutaneous deposits of adipose tissue but were not suitable for measuring large fat deposits within the body cavity or minor intermuscular ones. The anatomical distribution of 13 different adipose deposits, in different body regions (subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and intermuscular) and their proportional size differences, were consistent in this species (as in other primates), though varying in total mass among individuals. These consistent allometric relationships were fundamental for estimating fatness of different body regions based on SFT. The best fit statistically significant correlations and regressions with the known masses of dissectible adipose tissue were evident between the SFT means of the seven sites measured, as well as with a single point on the abdomen anterior to the umbilicus. SFT related to total fat mass and intra-abdominal fat mass in curvilinear regressions and to subcutaneous fat mass in a linear relationship. To adjust for differences in body size among individuals, and to circumvent intangible variations in total body mass allocated, for example to the gastro-intestinal contents, dissected fat mass was estimated per unit body size (length of crown-rump)(3). SFT had greater coefficients of correlation and regressions with this Fat Mass Index (g/dm(3)) than with Percent Body Fat.

  10. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats. PMID:23909905

  11. Carrying a biological "backpack": Quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Covill, Guy A H; Eves, Frank F

    2016-03-01

    The apparent steepness of hills and stairs is overestimated in explicit perception. These overestimations are malleable in that when physiological resources are compromised, apparent steepness is further overestimated. An alternative explanation of these experimental findings attributes them to demand characteristics. This article tests the relationship between estimated steepness and naturally occurring differences in body composition. A quasi-experimental field study revealed more exaggerated reports of staircase steepness in overweight than in healthy-weight participants in a situation where experimental demand would be an implausible explanation for any differences. A longitudinal follow-up study used dual X-ray absorptiometry to objectively measure participants' body composition at the beginning and end of a weight-loss program (N = 52). At baseline, higher levels of body fat were associated with steeper explicit estimates of staircase steepness. At follow-up, changes in body fat were associated with changes in estimated steepness such that a loss of fat mass co-occurred with shallower estimates. Discussion focuses on the malleability of perceived steepness at an individual level and the implication of these findings for the debate surrounding "embodied" models of perception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414167

  12. Loss of body weight and fat and improved lipid profiles in obese rats fed apple pomace or apple juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver morphology, and adipocyte size were measured. Body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, epididymal adipocyte size, and lesion scores were significantly lower and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and brown adipose tissue weights were significantly higher in the AP and AC groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, atherogenic indices in the AP and AC groups were significantly lower than in the HFD group. These results indicate that supplementing apple products such as AP and AC may help suppress body weight and WAT gain, as well as improve lipid profiles in diet-induced obese rats.

  13. Evaluation of the body composition and fat distribution in long-term users of hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Perrone, G; Liu, Y; Capri, O; Critelli, C; Barillaro, F; Galoppi, P; Zichella, L

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the body composition and fat distribution in long-term users of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). 18 healthy menopausal women, long-term users of HRT (transdermal estradiol 50 microg continuously administered and 10 mg/day of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 12 days/month) and 18 healthy menopausal women, who had never used HRT were included in the study. Age, menopausal age, parity, weight and height (body mass index, weight/height2), and lifestyle habits were similar. Waist and hip circumference, body composition and waist/hip ratio were measured and the results were analyzed. No significant difference was demonstrated in fat and water percentage, and waist/hip ratio. Nevertheless, the waist circumference of long-term HRT users was significantly lower than that of non-users. In conclusion, abdominal fat in long-term HRT users is lower than that of non-users of similar age, menopausal age and body mass index.

  14. Optical body fat measurement might contribute to the search for a predictor of type-2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafeit, Erwin; Horejsi, Renate; Sudi, Karl; Berg, Aloys; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Moeller, Reinhard

    2001-10-01

    The optical device LIPOMETER allows for non-invasive, quick, precise and safe determination of subcutaneous fat distribution, so-called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Previously we showed how the high-dimensional SAT-Top information of women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and a health control group can be analysed and represented in low-dimensional plots by applying special artificial neural networks (ANNs). Three top-down sorted subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments were determined (upper trunk, lower trunk, legs). NIDDM women provided significantly higher upper trunk obesity and significantly lower leg obesity (apple type), as compared with their healthy control group. Now we apply those ANN results on SAT-Top measurements of young and healthy women, comparing their individual subcutaneous fat pattern to the body fat distribution of NIDDM women and to the normal fat development of healthy women. Some of these young and healthy women provide a subcutaneous fat distribution very similar to the SAT-Top results of NIDDM women, which might increase their risk for this disease later in life.

  15. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  16. Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and learning relative to an isocaloric glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Rendeiro, Catarina; Masnik, Ashley M; Mun, Jonathan G; Du, Kristy; Clark, Diana; Dilger, Ryan N; Dilger, Anna C; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-04-20

    Recent evidence suggests that fructose consumption is associated with weight gain, fat deposition and impaired cognitive function. However it is unclear whether the detrimental effects are caused by fructose itself or by the concurrent increase in overall energy intake. In the present study we examine the impact of a fructose diet relative to an isocaloric glucose diet in the absence of overfeeding, using a mouse model that mimics fructose intake in the top percentile of the USA population (18% energy). Following 77 days of supplementation, changes in body weight (BW), body fat, physical activity, cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis were assessed. Despite the fact that no differences in calorie intake were observed between groups, the fructose animals displayed significantly increased BW, liver mass and fat mass in comparison to the glucose group. This was further accompanied by a significant reduction in physical activity in the fructose animals. Conversely, no differences were detected in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive/motor performance as measured by object recognition, fear conditioning and rotorod tasks. The present study suggests that fructose per se, in the absence of excess energy intake, increases fat deposition and BW potentially by reducing physical activity, without impacting hippocampal neurogenesis or cognitive function.

  17. The Two-Component Model for Calculating Total Body Fat from Body Density: An Evaluation in Healthy Women before, during and after Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2014-01-01

    A possibility to assess body composition during pregnancy is often important. Estimating body density (DB) and use the two-component model (2CM) to calculate total body fat (TBF) represents an option. However, this approach has been insufficiently evaluated during pregnancy. We evaluated the 2CM, and estimated fat-free mass (FFM) density and variability in 17 healthy women before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32, and 2 weeks postpartum based on DB (underwater weighing), total body water (deuterium dilution) and body weight, assessed on these four occasions. TBF, calculated using the 2CM and published FFM density (TBF2CM), was compared to reference estimates obtained using the three-component model (TBF3CM). TBF2CM minus TBF3CM (mean ± 2SD) was −1.63 ± 5.67 (p = 0.031), −1.39 ± 7.75 (p = 0.16), −0.38 ± 4.44 (p = 0.49) and −1.39 ± 5.22 (p = 0.043) % before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum, respectively. The effect of pregnancy on the variability of FFM density was larger in gestational week 14 than in gestational week 32. The 2CM, based on DB and published FFM density, assessed body composition as accurately in gestational week 32 as in non-pregnant adults. Corresponding values in gestational week 14 were slightly less accurate than those obtained before pregnancy. PMID:25526240

  18. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally. Methods Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week), elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years) with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23) which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz) three sessions in 14 days or an “active” control group (n=23). Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates. Results After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary end-points of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025) and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038). Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033), while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050). With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010). Conclusion In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the parameters of sarcopenia and regional fat accumulation. Further, considering the good acceptance of this technology by

  19. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator.

  20. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator. PMID:19278855

  1. Increased body fat in mice with a targeted mutation of the paternally expressed imprinted gene Peg3.

    PubMed

    Curley, J P; Pinnock, S B; Dickson, S L; Thresher, R; Miyoshi, N; Surani, M A; Keverne, E B

    2005-08-01

    Peg3 encodes a C2H2 type zinc finger protein that is implicated in a novel physiological pathway regulating core body temperature, feeding behavior, and obesity in mice. Peg3+/- mutant mice develop an excess of abdominal, subcutaneous, and intra-scapular fat, despite a lifetime of lower food intake than wild-type animals. However, they start life with reduced fat reserves and are slower to enter puberty. These mice maintain a lower core body temperature, fail to respond to a cold challenge, and have lower metabolic activity as measured by oxygen consumption. Plasma leptin levels are significantly higher than in wild types, and Peg3+/- mice appear to have developed leptin resistance. Administration of exogenous leptin resulted in a significant reduction in food intake in wild-type mice that was not observed in Peg3+/- mutants. This mutation, which is strongly expressed in hypothalamic tissue during development, has the capacity to regulate multiple events relating to energy homeostasis.

  2. "You better not leave me shaming!": Conditional indirect effect analyses of anti-fat attitudes, body shame, and fat talk as a function of self-compassion in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Fiery, Mallory F; Jafari, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation provided a theoretically-driven analysis testing whether body shame helped account for the predicted positive associations between explicit weight bias in the form of possessing anti-fat attitudes (i.e., dislike, fear of fat, and willpower beliefs) and engaging in fat talk among 309 weight-diverse college women. We also evaluated whether self-compassion served as a protective factor in these relationships. Robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures adjusted for body mass index (BMI) revealed stronger indirect and conditional indirect effects for dislike and fear of fat attitudes and weaker, marginal effects for the models inclusive of willpower beliefs. In general, the indirect effect of anti-fat attitudes on fat talk via body shame declined with increasing levels of self-compassion. Our preliminary findings may point to useful process variables to target in mitigating the impact of endorsing anti-fat prejudice on fat talk in college women and may help clarify who is at higher risk. PMID:27236471

  3. "You better not leave me shaming!": Conditional indirect effect analyses of anti-fat attitudes, body shame, and fat talk as a function of self-compassion in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Fiery, Mallory F; Jafari, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation provided a theoretically-driven analysis testing whether body shame helped account for the predicted positive associations between explicit weight bias in the form of possessing anti-fat attitudes (i.e., dislike, fear of fat, and willpower beliefs) and engaging in fat talk among 309 weight-diverse college women. We also evaluated whether self-compassion served as a protective factor in these relationships. Robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures adjusted for body mass index (BMI) revealed stronger indirect and conditional indirect effects for dislike and fear of fat attitudes and weaker, marginal effects for the models inclusive of willpower beliefs. In general, the indirect effect of anti-fat attitudes on fat talk via body shame declined with increasing levels of self-compassion. Our preliminary findings may point to useful process variables to target in mitigating the impact of endorsing anti-fat prejudice on fat talk in college women and may help clarify who is at higher risk.

  4. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P < .01). The high-fat diet increased body weight (P < .01) in OVX mice and nonsignificantly decreased BV/TV (P = .08) and Conn.D (P = .10). Despite having similar serum estradiol concentrations and higher body weight, OVX mice consuming the high-fat diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

  5. Overexpression and functional characterization of an Aspergillus niger phytase in the fat body of transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hanfu; Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Yuancheng; Ma, Sanyuan; Beneš, Helen; Xia, QingYou

    2014-08-01

    In a previous study, we isolated 1,119 bp of upstream promoter sequence from Bmlp3, a gene encoding a member of the silkworm 30 K storage protein family, and demonstrated that it was sufficient to direct fat body-specific expression of a reporter gene in a transgenic silkworm, thus highlighting the potential use of this promoter for both functional genomics research and biotechnology applications. To test whether the Bmlp3 promoter can be used to produce recombinant proteins in the fat body of silkworm pupae, we generated a transgenic line of Bombyx mori which harbors a codon-optimized Aspergillus niger phytase gene (phyA) under the control of the Bmlp3 promoter. Here we show that the Bmlp3 promoter drives high levels of phyA expression in the fat body, and that the recombinant phyA protein is highly active (99.05 and 54.80 U/g in fat body extracts and fresh pupa, respectively). We also show that the recombinant phyA has two optimum pH ranges (1.5-2.0 and 5.5-6.0), and two optimum temperatures (55 and 37 °C). The activity of recombinant phyA was lost after high-temperature drying, but treating with boiling water was less harmful, its residual activity was approximately 84% of the level observed in untreated samples. These results offer an opportunity not only for better utilization of large amounts of silkworm pupae generated during silk production, but also provide a novel method for mass production of low-cost recombinant phytase using transgenic silkworms.

  6. Activation of the lipid droplet controls the rate of lipolysis of triglycerides in the insect fat body.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh T; Soulages, Jose L; Hariharasundaram, Balaji; Arrese, Estela L

    2005-06-17

    The hydrolysis of triglyceride (TG) stored in the lipid droplets of the insect fat body is under hormonal regulation by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH), which triggers a rapid activation cAMP-dependent kinase cascade (protein kinase A (PKA)). The role of phosphorylation on two components of the lipolytic process, the TG-lipase and the lipid droplet, was investigated in fat body adipocytes. The activity of purified TG-lipase determined using in vivo TG-radiolabeled lipid droplets was unaffected by the phosphorylation of the lipase. However, the activity of purified lipase was 2.4-fold higher against lipid droplets isolated from hormone-stimulated fat bodies than against lipid droplets isolated from unstimulated tissue. In vivo stimulation of lipolysis promotes a rapid phosphorylation of a lipid droplet protein with an apparent mass of 42-44 kDa. This protein was identified as "Lipid Storage Droplet Protein 1" (Lsdp1). In vivo phosphorylation of this protein reached a peak approximately 10 min after the injection of AKH. Supporting a role of Lsdp1 in lipolysis, maximum TG-lipase activity was also observed with lipid droplets isolated 10 min after hormonal stimulation. The activation of lipolysis was reconstituted in vitro using purified insect PKA and TG-lipase and lipid droplets. In vitro phosphorylation of lipid droplets catalyzed by PKA enhanced the phosphorylation of Lsdp1 and the lipolytic rate of the lipase, demonstrating a prominent role PKA and protein phosphorylation on the activation of the lipid droplets. AKH-induced changes in the properties of the substrate do not promote a tight association of the lipase with the lipid droplets. It is concluded that the lipolysis in fat body adipocytes is controlled by the activation of the lipid droplet. This activation is achieved by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the lipid droplet. Lsdp1 is the main target of PKA, suggesting that this protein is a major player in the activation of lipolysis in insects.

  7. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response.

  8. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of the mosquito Aedes aegypti fat body: effects of aging and diet type

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Serrão, José Eduardo; Ramalho-Ortigão, José Marcelo; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue world wide and a major vector of urban yellow fever. Despite its epidemiological importance, not much is known regarding cellular and structural changes in the fat body in this mosquito. Here, we applied light and transmission electron microscopies in order to investigate structural changes in the fat body of three groups of A. aegypti females: newly emerged, 18-day-old sugar-fed, and 18-day-old blood-fed. The fat body consists of a layer of cells attached to the abdomen integument, formed by trophocytes and oenocytes. Trophocytes are strongly positive for carbohydrates, while oenocytes are strongly positive for proteins and lipids. Ultrastructural analyses of trophocytes from newly emerged and 18-day-old blood-fed indicate that these cells are rich in glycogen and free ribosomes. Many lipid droplets and protein granules, which are broken down after the blood meal, are also detected. In 18-day-old sugar-fed, trophocytes display a disorganized cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets, and reduced numbers of free ribosomes, glycogen, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and mitochondria. Following a blood meal, the RER and mitochondria display enlarged sizes, suggestive of increased activity. In regards to oenocytes, these cells display an electron-dense cytoplasm and plasma membrane infoldings facing the hemolymph. As the A. aegypti female ages, trophocyte and oenocyte cell nuclei become larger but decrease in diameter after blood feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophocytes and oenocytes remodeling is likely involved in functional changes of fat body that take place during aging and following a blood meal in A. aegypti females. PMID:21509905

  9. Allosteric regulation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity of fat body and flight muscle from the bloodsucking bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gutemberg G; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Atella, Georgia C; Silva-Neto, Mario A C; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2007-03-01

    6-Phosphofructo-1-kinase (phosphofructokinase; PFK) activity from Rhodnius prolixus, a haematophagous insect which is usually a poor flyer, was measured and compared in two metabolically active tissues - flight muscle and fat body. The activity of this important regulatory glycolytic enzyme was much more pronounced in muscle (15.1 +/- 1.4 U/mg) than in fat body extracts (3.6+/-0.4 U/mg), although the latter presented higher levels of enzyme per protein content, as measured by western-blotting. Muscle extracts are more responsible than fat body to ATP and fructose 6-phosphate, both substrates of PFK. Allosteric regulation exerted by different effectors such as ADP, AMP and fructose 2,6-phosphate presented a singular pattern for each tissue. Optimal pH (8.0-8.5) and sensitivity to pH variation was very similar, and citrate was unable to inhibit PFK activity in both extracts. Our results suggest the existence of a particular PFK activity for each tissue, with regulatory patterns that are consistent with their physiological roles.

  10. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT < 30%; n=19, 10 female/9 male, age = 43 +/- 10 y); and (3) an inactive control group (C, n=17, 5 female/12 male, age 43 +/- 11 y). RC+BD resulted in more favorable changes (P < 0.01) in percent body fat (-15.8% vs. -6.9%) and abdominal fat (-15.6% vs. -7.5%) compared to C+TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals. PMID:17136940

  11. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huijuan; Wang, Xiangqing; Pan, Hui; Dai, Yufei; Li, Naishi; Wang, Linjie; Yang, Hongbo; Gong, Fengying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Safflower yellow (SY) is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation, and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: HFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg−1) daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT), and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies. Results: The administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P < 0.05). IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1), PKB protein kinase (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1) in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9- , 2.8- , 3.3- , and 5.9-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0-folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: SY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The

  12. Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Francis B; Wall, Benjamin T; Marimuthu, Kanagaraj; Shannon, Chris E; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Macdonald, Ian A; Greenhaff, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Twelve weeks of daily l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding in humans increases skeletal muscle total carnitine content, and prevents body mass accrual associated with carbohydrate feeding alone. Here we determined the influence of l-carnitine and carbohydrate feeding on energy metabolism, body fat mass and muscle expression of fuel metabolism genes. Twelve males exercised at 50% maximal oxygen consumption for 30 min once before and once after 12 weeks of twice daily feeding of 80 g carbohydrate (Control, n= 6) or 1.36 g l-carnitine + 80 g carbohydrate (Carnitine, n= 6). Maximal carnitine palmitolytransferase 1 (CPT1) activity remained similar in both groups over 12 weeks. However, whereas muscle total carnitine, long-chain acyl-CoA and whole-body energy expenditure did not change over 12 weeks in Control, they increased in Carnitine by 20%, 200% and 6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, body mass and whole-body fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) increased over 12 weeks in Control by 1.9 and 1.8 kg, respectively (P < 0.05), but did not change in Carnitine. Seventy-three of 187 genes relating to fuel metabolism were upregulated in Carnitine vs. Control after 12 weeks, with ‘insulin signalling’, ‘peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling’ and ‘fatty acid metabolism’ as the three most enriched pathways in gene functional analysis. In conclusion, increasing muscle total carnitine in healthy humans can modulate muscle metabolism, energy expenditure and body composition over a prolonged period, which is entirely consistent with a carnitine-mediated increase in muscle long-chain acyl-group translocation via CPT1. Implications to health warrant further investigation, particularly in obese individuals who have a reduced reliance on muscle fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise. PMID:23818692

  13. Effects of body condition score at calving on indicators of fat and protein mobilization of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Pires, J A A; Delavaud, C; Faulconnier, Y; Pomiès, D; Chilliard, Y

    2013-10-01

    The objective was to study the effects of body condition score (BCS) at calving on dairy performance, indicators of fat and protein mobilization, and metabolic and hormonal profiles during the periparturient period of Holstein-Friesian cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows were classed according to their BCS (0 to 5 scale) before calving as low (BCS ≤ 2.5; n=9), medium (2.75 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5; n=10), and high (BCS ≥ 3.75; n=9), corresponding to a mean of 2.33, 3.13, and 4.17 points of BCS, and preceding calving intervals of 362, 433, and 640 d, respectively. Cows received the same diets based on preserved grass to allow ad libitum feed intake throughout the study, and lactation diet contained 30% of concentrate (dry-matter basis). Measurements and sampling were performed between wk -4 and 7 relative to calving. No significant effects were observed of BCS group on dry matter intake (kg/d), milk yield, BCS loss, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. The high-BCS group had the lowest postpartum energy balance and the greatest plasma concentrations of leptin prepartum, nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum, insulin-like growth factor 1, and milk fat content. Milk fat yield was greater for the high- than the low-BCS group (1,681 vs. 1,417 g/d). Low-BCS cows had the greatest concentration of medium-chain fatty acids (e.g., sum of 10:0 to 15:0, and 16:0), and the lowest concentration and secretion of preformed fatty acids (e.g., cis-9 18:1) in milk fat. Milk protein secretion was lowest in the low-BCS group, averaging 924, 1,051, and 1,009 g/d for low-, medium-, and high-BCS groups, respectively. Plasma 3-methylhistidine was greater in wk 1 and 2 postpartum compared with other time points, indicating mobilization of muscle protein. Plasma creatinine tended to be lower and the 3-methylhistidine: creatinine ratio was greater in low- compared with medium- and high-BCS cows, suggesting less muscle mass but more intense mobilization of muscle

  14. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery.

  15. Physical activity and dietary fat as determinants of body mass index in a cross-sectional corelational design.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, Omondi D; Ayado, Othuon L O; Mbagaya, Grace M

    2009-04-01

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of overweight/obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI . The purpose of this article is to present the prediction power of physical activity and dietary fat intake on BMI of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The studyadopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 120 lecturers who participated in the study. Data collection was conducted through questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist, 24-hour food recall, anthropometrics measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis of data involved the use of bivariate correlation and linear regression. A significant inverse association occurred between BMI and minutes spent in moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (R2=0.096, F=13.616, beta=-3.22, t=-3.69, N=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). In conclusion, physical activity was a significant predictor to BMI and on the contrary no significant impact was caused by dietary fat intake. Therefore, we still need further investigations on the effect of physical activity and dietary fat on BMI and risk factors associated poor diet should take priority.

  16. Vascularization of Air Sinuses and Fat Bodies in the Head of the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): Morphological Implications on Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Costidis, Alex; Rommel, Sentiel A.

    2012-01-01

    Cetaceans have long been considered capable of limiting diving-induced nitrogen absorption and subsequent decompression sickness through a series of behavioral, anatomical, and physiological adaptations. Recent studies however suggest that in some situations these adaptive mechanisms might be overcome, resulting in lethal and sublethal injuries. Perhaps most relevant to this discussion is the finding of intravascular gas and fat emboli in mass-stranded beaked whales. Although the source of the gas emboli has as yet to been ascertained, preliminary findings suggest nitrogen is the primary component. Since nitrogen gas embolus formation in divers is linked to nitrogen saturation, it seems premature to dismiss similar pathogenic mechanisms in breath-hold diving cetaceans. Due to the various anatomical adaptations in cetacean lungs, the pulmonary system is thought of as an unlikely site of significant nitrogen absorption. The accessory sinus system on the ventral head of odontocete cetaceans contains a sizeable volume of air that is exposed to the changing hydrostatic pressures during a dive, and is intimately associated with vasculature potentially capable of absorbing nitrogen through its walls. The source of the fat emboli has also remained elusive. Most mammalian fat deposits are considered poorly vascularized and therefore unlikely sites of intravascular introduction of lipid, although cetacean blubber may not be as poorly vascularized as previously thought. We present new data on the vasculature of air sinuses and acoustic fat bodies in the head of bottlenose dolphins and compare it to published accounts. We show that the mandibular fat bodies and accessory sinus system are associated with extensive venous plexuses and suggest potential physiological and pathological implications. PMID:22969724

  17. Whole-body fat oxidation increases more by prior exercise than overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Andersson Hall, Ulrika; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body fat oxidation kinetics after prior exercise with overnight fasting in elite endurance athletes. Thirteen highly trained athletes (9 men and 4 women; maximal oxygen uptake: 66 ± 1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 identical submaximal incremental tests on a cycle ergometer using a cross-over design. A control test (CON) was performed 3 h after a standardized breakfast, a fasting test (FAST) 12 h after a standardized evening meal, and a postexercise test (EXER) after standardized breakfast, endurance exercise, and 2 h fasting recovery. The test consisted of 3 min each at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80% of maximal oxygen uptake and fat oxidation rates were measured through indirect calorimetry. During CON, maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.51 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) compared with 0.69 ± 0.04 g·min(-1) in FAST (P < 0.01), and 0.89 ± 0.05 g·min(-1) in EXER (P < 0.01). Across all intensities, EXER was significantly higher than FAST and FAST was higher than CON (P < 0.01). Blood insulin levels were lower and free fatty acid and cortisol levels were higher at the start of EXER compared with CON and FAST (P < 0.05). Plasma nuclear magnetic resonance-metabolomics showed similar changes in both EXER and FAST, including increased levels of fatty acids and succinate. In conclusion, prior exercise significantly increases whole-body fat oxidation during submaximal exercise compared with overnight fasting. Already high rates of maximal fat oxidation in elite endurance athletes were increased by approximately 75% after prior exercise and fasting recovery. PMID:26988766

  18. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  19. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  20. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Subjects/Methods: Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Results: Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R2=0.751, P<0.001). Conclusions: During pregnancy, adipose tissue morphology and function change comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance. PMID:26563815

  1. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  2. Early life body fatness and risk of colorectal cancer in US women and men – results from two large cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Colditz, Graham A.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Nimptsch, Katharina; Ogino, Shuji; Wei, Esther K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between body fatness before adulthood and later risk of colorectal cancer remains unclear. We hypothesized that, independent of adult body fatness, early life body fatness would be associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer. Methods We assessed body fatness during childhood and adolescence using a validated 9-level somatotype and inquired body weight in young adulthood in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used Cox proportional hazard regression modeling to estimate relative risks (RRs, 95% CIs) adjusting for adult body mass index (BMI) and other known colorectal cancer risk factors. Results We identified 2,100 incident colorectal cancer cases (1,292 in women and 808 in men) during 22 years of follow-up. Among women, the RR(95% CI) for childhood body fatness of level 5 or higher versus level 1 was 1.28(1.04-1.58, p-trend=0.08) and for adolescent body fatness, it was 1.27(1.01-1.60, p-trend = 0.23). The corresponding RRs for men were 1.04(0.82-1.31, p-trend=0.48) and 0.98(0.75-1.27, p-trend=0.20), respectively. Results were generally similar across anatomic subsites within the colorectum. Additionally, the RRs comparing BMI categories ≥ 27.5 to < 19 kg/m2 were 1.44(1.06-1.95, at age 18, p-trend=0.009) for women and 1.18(0.84-1.65, at age 21, p-trend=0.57) for men. Conclusion Increased body fatness in early life, independent of adult obesity, might be a risk factor for colorectal cancer in women, but we observed a weaker association in men. Impact Our findings support the growing evidence that early life body fatness affects the risk of colorectal cancer many decades later. PMID:25777804

  3. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  4. [Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Fefelova, Yu A; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Sergeeva, E Yu

    2016-01-01

    211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method. of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (p<0.034) and carbohydrate consumption in the objects with euriplastic and subathletic somatotypes (p<0.046). The most significant of the findings is the absence of veracious differences in daily energy consumption between the cohorts with different somatotypes with statistically considerable, differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well 'as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes. PMID:27455598

  5. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  6. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exercise is considered as one of the most effective means of countering symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MS) such as obesity and hyperglycemia. Rodent models of forced or voluntary exercise are often used to study the mechanisms of MS and type 2 diabetes. However, there is little known on the impact of genetic strain on the metabolic response to exercise. We studied the effects of housing rats with running wheels (RW) for 65 days compared to sedentary (SED) housing in five female rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE), Wistar (WIS), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). Key parameters measured were total distance run, body composition, food consumption, motor activity, ventilatory responses by plethysmography, and resting metabolic rate (MR). WKY and SHR ran significantly more than the WIS, LE, and SD strains. Running-induced reduction in body fat was affected by strain but not by distance run. LE's lost 6% fat after 21 d of running whereas WKY's lost 2% fat but ran 40% more than LE's. LE and WIS lost body weight while the SHR and WKY strains gained weight during running. Food intake with RW was markedly increased in SHR, WIS, and WKY while LE and SD showed modest increases. Exploratory motor activity was reduced sharply by RW in all but the SD strain. Ventilatory parameters were primarily altered by RW in the SHR, WKY, and WIS strains. MR was unaffected by RW. In an overall ranking of physiological and behavioral responses to RW, the SD strain was considered the least responsive whereas the WIS was scored as most responsive. In terms of RW-induced fat loss, the LE strain appears to be the most ideal. These results should be useful in the future selection of rat models to study benefits of volitional exercise.

  7. Association of dietary energy density in childhood with age and body fatness at the onset of the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Günther, Anke L B; Stahl, Lisa J; Buyken, Anette E; Kroke, Anja

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of pre-pubertal dietary energy density (ED) with both age and body fatness at the start of the pubertal growth spurt (age at take-off, ATO). Analyses included 219 DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study participants with sufficient height measurements to estimate ATO who provided 3 d weighed dietary records at baseline, i.e. 2 and 3 years before ATO (mean age 6·9 (SD 1·2) years). Mean energy intakes and amounts of foods/drinks consumed at baseline were derived from the records. ED (kJ/g) was calculated based on (1) all foods and drinks (ED_all), (2) foods and energy-containing drinks (ED_energy), (3) foods and milk as a drink, but no other beverages (ED_milk) and (4) foods only, solid or liquid (ED_food). Using multiple regression analyses, the association between the ED variables and ATO was investigated. Furthermore, Z-scores of BMI and fat mass index (FMI) at ATO were considered as outcomes to reflect body fatness at puberty onset. The results showed that ED at baseline was not associated with ATO, regardless of the ED method used. For example, mean ATO in the lowest v. highest tertile of ED_food was 9·3 (95 % CI 9·0, 9·5) v. 9·4 (95 % CI 9·1, 9·7) years, P(trend) = 0·8 (adjusted for sex, maternal age, birth weight, dietary protein, dietary fibre, baseline BMI Z-score). Similarly, ED was not independently associated with BMI or FMI Z-score at ATO (P(trend) = 0·3-0·9). In conclusion, dietary ED in childhood did not influence timing or body fatness at ATO in this cohort of healthy, free-living children. PMID:21736806

  8. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A; Nie, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  9. Identification, expression and variation of the GNPDA2 gene, and its association with body weight and fatness traits in chicken

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Zhang, Huan; Li, Weimin; Liang, Sisi; Jebessa, Endashaw; Abdalla, Bahareldin A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The GNPDA2 (glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2) gene is a member of Glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) deaminase subfamily, which encoded an allosteric enzyme of GlcN6P. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that variations of human GNPDA2 are associated with body mass index and obesity risk, but its function and metabolic implications remain to be elucidated.The object of this study was to characterize the gene structure, expression, and biological functions of GNPDA2 in chickens. Methods. Variant transcripts of chicken GNPDA2 and their expression were investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) system and real-time quantitative PCR technology. We detected the GNPDA2 expression in hypothalamic, adipose, and liver tissue of Xinghua chickens with fasting and high-glucose-fat diet treatments, and performed association analysis of variations of GNPDA2 with productive traits in chicken. The function of GNPDA2 was further studied by overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA) methods in chicken preadipocytes. Results.Four chicken GNPDA2 transcripts (cGNPDA2-a∼cGNPDA2-d) were identified in this study. The complete transcript GNPDA2-a was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat), hypothalamus, and duodenum. In fasting chickens, the mRNA level of GNPDA2 was decreased by 58.8% (P < 0.05) in hypothalamus, and returned to normal level after refeeding. Chicken fed a high-glucose-fat diet increased GNPDA2 gene expression about 2-fold higher in adipose tissue (P < 0.05) than that in the control (fed a basal diet), but decreased its expression in hypothalamus. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the GNPDA2 gene were significantly associated with body weight and a number of fatness traits in chicken (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our findings indicated that the GNPDA2 gene has a potential role in the regulation of body weight, fat and energy metabolism in chickens. PMID:27326383

  10. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  11. Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls.

    PubMed

    Nassis, George P; Papantakou, Katerina; Skenderi, Katerina; Triandafillopoulou, Maria; Kavouras, Stavros A; Yannakoulia, Mary; Chrousos, George P; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls. Nineteen overweight and obese girls (mean +/- SD: age, 13.1+/-1.8 years; body mass index, 26.8+/-3.9 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance; n=15), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, insulin-like growth factor-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 serum levels, and blood lipids and lipoproteins were assessed before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 18.8% (P<.05) as a result of training. The area under the insulin concentration curve (insulin area under the curve) decreased by 23.3% (12781.7+/-7454.2 vs 9799.0+/-4918.6 microU.min/mL before and after intervention, respectively; P=.03). Insulin sensitivity was improved without changes in body weight (pre-intervention, 67.9+/-14.5 kg; post-intervention, 68.3+/-14.0 kg) or percent body fat (pre-intervention, 41.4% +/- 4.8%; post-intervention, 40.7%+/-5.2%). The lower limb fat-free mass increased by 6.2% (P<.01) as a result of training, and changes in lower limb fat-free mass were correlated with changes in the insulin area under the curve (r= -.68; P< .01). Serum adiponectin, IL-6, and CRP concentrations did not change (pre-intervention vs post-intervention: adiponectin, 9.57+/-3.01 vs 9.08+/-2.32 microg/mL; IL-6, 1.67+/-1.29 vs 1.65+/-1.25 pg/mL, CRP, 3.21+/-2.48 vs 2.73+/-1.88 mg/L) whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 was lower after training (pre-intervention, 453.8 +/- 159.3 ng/mL; post-intervention, 403.2+/- 155.1 ng/mL; P<.05). In conclusion, 12 weeks of aerobic training improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese girls without change in body weight, percent body fat, and circulating

  12. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  13. Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Breneman, Charity B; Tucker, Larry

    2013-07-28

    The present study was conducted to determine the association between fibre intake and insulin resistance in 264 women using a cross-sectional design. Insulin resistance was indexed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (US formula: fasting insulin (μU/ml) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/405 international formula: fasting glucose (mmol/l) × fasting insulin (μU/l)/22.5). Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records. Fibre was expressed as g/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using the BOD POD, and physical activity (PA) was ascertained using Actigraph accelerometers (Health One Technology) worn for seven consecutive days. Women with high total fibre intakes (F= 4·58, P= 0·0332) or high soluble fibre intakes (F= 7·97, P= 0·0051) had significantly less insulin resistance than their counterparts. Participants with high insoluble fibre intakes did not differ from their counterparts (F= 0·7, P= 0·6875). Adjusting for either PA or BF% weakened the relationships significantly. Controlling for BF% nullified the total fibre–HOMA-IR link (F= 1·96, P= 0·1631) and attenuated the association between soluble fibre and HOMA-IR by 32 % (F= 6·86, P= 0·0094). To create dichotomous variables, fibre intake and HOMA-IR were each divided into two categories using the median (low and high). In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0·52 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women. Part of this association is a function of differences in PA and BF%.

  14. Endocrine control of TAG lipase in the fat body of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Lutz; Gäde, Gerd

    2006-10-01

    Aspects of the role and activation of the enzyme triacylglycerol lipase (TAG lipase) in the fat body of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria were investigated. TAG lipase is under the hormonal control of the three endogenous adipokinetic peptides of the migratory locust, Locmi-AKH-I, Locmi-AKH-II and Locmi-AKH-III. Injection of low doses (5-10 pmol) of each peptide causes an increase in lipase activity. The activation of lipase is time dependent: an elevated activity was recorded 15 min after injection of 10 pmol Locmi-AKH-I and maximum activation was reached after 45-60 min. The activation of TAG lipase is also dose-dependent. Doses of 2 pmol of each Locmi-AKH had no effect, whereas 5 pmol caused a significant activation. Maximum activation is reached with a dose of 10 pmol. Analogues of the second messengers cAMP (cpt-cAMP) and IP(3) (F-IP(3)) both activate the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase whereas only cpt-cAMP, but not F-IP(3), activates TAG lipase; cpt-cAMP elevates the lipid levels in the haemolymph. Activation of lipase is specific to the three endogenous AKH peptides: 5 pmol of the endogenous peptide Locmi-HrTH and 10 pmol of corazonin failed to activate lipase. High doses of octopamine did not activate lipase nor did they elevate the lipid concentration in the haemolymph. TAG lipase is stimulated by flight activity but activation is slower than that of glycogen phosphorylase: after 30 min of flight or after 5 min of flight plus 1h of subsequent rest, activity of TAG lipase is increased, but not immediately after 5 min of flight. In contrast, glycogen phosphorylase is activated significantly after 5 min of flight. These activation patterns of the two enzymes mirror-image the concentration of their substrates in the haemolymph: there is a significant decrease in the concentration of carbohydrates after 5 min of flight, whereas no change of the concentration of lipids can be measured after such short time of flight activity; however, a subsequent rest

  15. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions.

  16. The relation of body fat distribution, as assessed by six girth measurements, to diabetes mellitus in women.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, D S; Rimm, A A

    1989-01-01

    Independently of the amount of adipose tissue, certain patterns of fat distribution increase the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Although the ratio of waist to hip (WHR) circumferences has been consistently related to diabetes mellitus, it is possible that only two measures do not completely characterize fat topography. The current study, therefore, examines the cross-sectional relation of six girths (waist, hip, neck, bust, wrist, and ankle) to diabetes mellitus in 43,595 women. As compared with non-diabetics, Quetelet index (kg/m2) and all circumferences were elevated among diabetics. Stratified analyses showed that WHR, and waist, neck, and bust girths were consistently related to diabetes independently of the degree of overweight. As estimated from a logistic regression model that simultaneously controlled for age and all anthropometric variables, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was positively related to Quetelet index, and to the waist, bust, and neck girths, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.4 to 2.6. However, diabetes was inversely related to hip (OR = 0.61) and ankle (OR = 0.73) girths; p less than 0.005 for each association. Although cross-sectional in nature, these results suggest that an adverse body fat distribution is not limited to the abdominal region, but that a relative preponderance of adipose tissue in various regions of the upper body is associated with diabetes mellitus in women. PMID:2786346

  17. Body Image and Anti-Fat Attitudes: An Experimental Study Using a Haptic Virtual Reality Environment to Replicate Human Touch.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Line; Roy-Vaillancourt, Mélina; Chebbi, Brahim; Bouchard, Stéphane; Daoust, Michael; Dénommée, Jessica; Thorpe, Moriah

    2016-02-01

    It is well documented that anti-fat attitudes influence the interactions individuals have with overweight people. However, testing attitudes through self-report measures is challenging. In the present study, we explore the use of a haptic virtual reality environment to physically interact with overweight virtual human (VH). We verify the hypothesis that duration and strength of virtual touch vary according to the characteristics of VH in ways similar to those encountered from interaction with real people in anti-fat attitude studies. A group of 61 participants were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions involving giving a virtual hug to a female or a male VH of either normal or overweight. We found significant associations between body image satisfaction and anti-fat attitudes and sex differences on these measures. We also found a significant interaction effect of the sex of the participants, sex of the VH, and the body size of the VH. Female participants hugged longer the overweight female VH than overweight male VH. Male participants hugged longer the normal-weight VH than the overweight VH. We conclude that virtual touch is a promising method of measuring attitudes, emotion and social interactions. PMID:26741706

  18. The Effect of an Acute After-School Exercise Bout on Percentage of Body Fat Using Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreacci, Joseph L.; Dixon, Curt B.; Rompolski, Krista; VanGorden, Kelly M.

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, easy to administer, and relatively inexpensive method of evaluating body composition. Due to the ease of operation, interest in using BIA to estimate percentage of body fat (%BF) has grown, especially in settings where body composition assessments are often performed without the benefit of…

  19. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  1. Estimating percentage total body fat and determining subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution with a new noninvasive optical device LIPOMETER.

    PubMed

    Möller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Smolle, Karl Heinz; Pieber, Thomas R.; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Duesse, Martina; Huemer, Christian; Sudi, Karl; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    2000-03-01

    A newly developed optical device was applied to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness of 20 healthy women and 18 healthy men at specified body sites. These measurements were used to derive equations to estimate percentage total body fat (TBF%). Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) was employed as a reference method; caliper techniques and measurements of absorbances of infrared light in fat versus lean tissue were also compared. The LIPOMETER results show good agreement with TOBEC data (r = 0.96). The technique allows the precise determination of the distribution of SAT thickness at specified body sites. The method also permits the construction of profiles of SAT thicknesses, e.g., the profiles are significantly different between women and men. Based on the normal profiles of healthy subjects, patients with proven type-2 diabetes mellitus were also evaluated. The patients showed significantly different profiles. By linear discriminant analysis, classification functions were extracted with good predictive accuracy classification of subjects according to the presence or absence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The data suggest that measurement of SAT thickness might aid in the diagnosis and/or classification of metabolic disorders. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:221-230, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534019

  2. Analysis of the effects of dietary fat on body and skin lipids of hamsters by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meksiarun, Phiranuphon; Maeda, Yui; Hiroi, Tatsuya; Andriana, Bibin B; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-21

    Raman spectroscopy has previously been applied for studying lipid metabolism. In this study, a ball lens-installed hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP) was used for the noninvasive measurement of skin lipids in hamsters. Our analysis suggested that multi-unsaturated lipids, once converted into a structure containing conjugated double bonds, were oxidized to form peroxides. These results were applied for analyzing lipid metabolism in adipose and skin tissues in hamsters fed tricaprin, saturated medium-chain triglyceride and trilinolein, unsaturated long-chain triglyceride fat diets. Unsaturated lipids formed conjugated structures in skin tissue but not in adipose tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the dietary fat intake correlated strongly with lipid composition in body and skin tissues. Hence, the present results successfully demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy with a BHRP can be a powerful tool for analyzing lipid metabolism. PMID:25920444

  3. Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    PubMed

    Tsurim, Ido; Sapir, Nir; Belmaker, Jonathan; Shanni, Itai; Izhaki, Ido; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Karasov, William H; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-05-01

    Fat accumulation by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water. Birds staging in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water increased their body mass and fat reserves both faster and to a greater extent than birds deprived of water. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments on birds captured during the autumn migration period in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birds' dietary choices and, consequently, feeding and food processing rates, and that the availability of drinking water leads to improved digestion and, therefore, to higher apparent metabolizable energy. Blackcaps were trapped in autumn in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel and transferred to individual cages in the laboratory. Birds were provided with P. atlantica fruit and mealworms, and had either free access to water (controls) or were water-deprived. In experiment 1, in which mealworm availability was restricted, water-deprived birds had a fourfold lower fruit and energy intake rates and, consequently, gained less fat and total mass than control birds. Water availability did not affect food metabolizability. In experiment 2, in which mealworms were provided ad libitum, water availability influenced the birds' diet: water-restricted birds ate more mealworms, while control birds consumed mainly P. atlantica fruit. Further, in experiment 2, fat and mass gain did not differ between the two treatment groups. We conclude that water availability may have important consequences for fat accumulation in migrating birds while they fatten at stopover sites, especially when water-rich food is scarce. Restricted water availability may also impede the blackcap's dietary shift from insectivory to frugivory, a shift probably necessary for successful pre-migratory fattening.

  4. Insulin Stimulates Translocation of Human GLUT4 to the Membrane in Fat Bodies of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Crivat, Georgeta; Lizunov, Vladimir A.; Li, Caroline R.; Stenkula, Karin G.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W.; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in ‘diabetic’ flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to monitor insulin

  5. Am I too fat to be a princess? Examining the effects of popular children's media on young girls' body image.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sharon; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of brief exposure to appearance-related media on young girls' body image. One hundred and twenty-one girls aged 3-6 years old participated. Results indicated that exposure did not affect body dissatisfaction or engagement in appearance-related play behaviours. This is the first empirical study to provide support for previous findings that suggest media exposure does not affect body image in young girls. In contrast to older populations, it is possible that young children may adopt the persona of attractive characters with whom they identify rather than comparing themselves to the characters. Although nearly all girls liked the way they looked, self-report data indicated that nearly one-third of the participants would change something about their physical appearance and nearly half of the girls worried about being fat. Exposure to appearance-related media did not exacerbate concerns.

  6. Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: implications for models of physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Toveé, Martin J; Bateson, Melissa

    2009-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are two widely used anthropometric indices of body shape argued to convey different information about health and fertility. Both indices have also been shown to affect attractiveness ratings of female bodies. However, BMI and WHR are naturally positively correlated, complicating studies designed to identify their relative importance in predicting health and attractiveness outcomes. We show that the correlation between BMI and WHR depends on the assumed model of subcutaneous fat deposition. An additive model, whereby fat is added to the waist and hips at a constant rate, predicts a correlation between BMI and WHR because with increasing fat, the difference between the waist and hips becomes smaller relative to total width. This model is supported by longitudinal and cross-sectional data. We parameterized the function relating WHR to BMI for white UK females of reproductive age, and used this function to statistically decompose body shape into two independent components. We show that judgements of the attractiveness of female bodies are well explained by the component of curvaceousness related to BMI but not by residual curvaceousness. Our findings resolve a long-standing dispute in the attractiveness literature by confirming that although WHR appears to be an important predictor of attractiveness, this is largely explained by the direct effect of total body fat on WHR, thus reinforcing the conclusion that total body fat is the primary determinant of female body shape attractiveness. PMID:19013182

  7. Effects of dietary fat types on body fatness, leptin, and ARC leptin receptor, NPY, and AgRP mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongqin; Storlien, Len H; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2002-06-01

    Some, but not all, fats are obesogenic. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effects of changing type and amount of dietary fats on energy balance, fat deposition, leptin, and leptin-related neural peptides: leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), in C57Bl/6J mice. One week of feeding with a highly saturated fat diet resulted in ~50 and 20% reduction in hypothalamic arcuate NPY and AgRP mRNA levels, respectively, compared with a low-fat or an n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated high-fat (PUFA) diet without change in energy intake, fat mass, plasma leptin levels, and leptin receptor or POMC mRNA. Similar neuropeptide results were seen at 7 wk, but by then epididymal fat mass and plasma leptin levels were significantly elevated in the saturated fat group compared with low-fat controls. In contrast, fat and leptin levels were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group compared with all other groups. At 7 wk, changing the saturated fat group to n-3 PUFA for 4 wk completely reversed the hyperleptinemia and increased adiposity and neuropeptide changes induced by saturated fat. Changing to a low-fat diet was much less effective. In summary, a highly saturated fat diet induces obesity without hyperphagia. A regulatory reduction in NPY and AgRP mRNA levels is unable to effectively counteract this obesogenic drive. Equally high fat diets emphasizing PUFAs may even protect against obesity.

  8. Substitution of saturated with monounsaturated fat in a 4-week diet affects body weight and composition of overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Piers, L S; Walker, Karen Z; Stoney, Rachel M; Soares, Mario J; O'Dea, Kerin

    2003-09-01

    A randomised crossover study of eight overweight or obese men (aged 24-49 years, BMI 25.5-31.3 kg/m(2)), who followed two diets for 4 weeks each, was performed to determine whether substitution of saturated fat with monounsaturated fat affects body weight and composition. Subjects were provided with all food and beverages as modules (selected ad libitum) of constant macronutrient composition, but differing energy content. The % total energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat was 24, 13 and 3 % respectively on the saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich diet and 11, 22 and 7 % respectively on the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet. MUFA accounted for about 80 % of the unsaturated fats consumed on both diets. Body composition, blood pressure, energy expenditure (resting and postprandial metabolic rates, substrate oxidation rate, physical activity), serum lipids, the fatty acid profile of serum cholesteryl esters and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and after each diet period. Significant (P< or =0.05) differences in total cholesterol and the fatty acid composition of serum cholesteryl esters provided evidence of dietary adherence. The men had a lower weight (-2.1 (SE 0.4) kg, P=0.0015) and fat mass (-2.6 (SE 0.6) kg, P=0.0034) at the end of the MUFA-rich diet as compared with values at the end of the SFA-rich diet. No significant differences were detected in energy or fat intake, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation rates or self-reported physical activity. Substituting dietary saturated with unsaturated fat, predominantly MUFA, can induce a small but significant loss of body weight and fat mass without a significant change in total energy or fat intake.

  9. Effects of CH-19 sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, in decreasing the body weight and suppressing body fat accumulation by sympathetic nerve activation in humans.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Inoue, Naohiko; Yazawa, Susumu; Kawada, Teruo; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2006-12-01

    'CH-19 Sweet' is a non-pungent red pepper and enhances the energy expenditure in humans in like manner to the pungent red pepper. We investigated in this study the effects of a repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet for two weeks on the body weight and body fat in humans. Changes in the autonomic nervous activity after ingesting CH-19 Sweet were also measured by a power spectral analysis. We established a new protocol which allows the precise detection of weight change in humans by using fewer subjects. These methods were used to show that the repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet reduced the body weight and suppressed body fat accumulation. Furthermore, the body weight loss due to the repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet was significantly correlated with the sympathetic nervous response after its ingestion. We propose that the repeated intake of CH-19 Sweet reduced the body weight and suppressed body fat accumulation by sympathetic nervous activation in humans.

  10. Leptin as a Marker of Body Fat and Hyperinsulinemia in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Angela M.; Strother, Myra L.; Li, Chaoyang; Kaur, Harsohena; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about obesity and insulin resistance in college students. Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells and has been shown to strongly correlate with both obesity and insulin resistance in children and adults. We investigated associations of leptin with insulin secretion and action in 119 normal-weight students aged 18-24 years. Leptin…

  11. Influence of intense physical activity on energy balance and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Doucet, E

    1999-02-01

    The reduced contribution of physical activity to daily energy expenditure and the accessibility to high-fat foods have put an excessive burden on energy balance, resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world. In this context, fat gain can be seen as a natural adaptation to deal with a fattening lifestyle, since the hormonal adaptations that accompany fat gain favour the readjustment of energy expenditure to energy intake. Intense physical activity would also seem to facilitate the regulation of energy balance, since it increases the energy cost of exercise, increases post-exercise energy expenditure and the potential of skeletal muscles to utilize lipids, and also favours a decrease in post-exercise intake. Moreover, the effects of intense exercise seem to be mediated by an activation of sympathetic nervous system activity that seems to be specific to skeletal muscle. It is also important to manipulate macronutrient composition in order to reduce fat intake, because unhealthy food habits can favour overfeeding and thus overcome the energy deficit caused by regular physical activity. Under free-living conditions, the combination of vigorous activity and healthy food practices can amount to a substantial weight loss which is comparable with that of other non-surgical approaches to treat obesity.

  12. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  13. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  14. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older US men.

    PubMed

    Rimm, E B; Stampfer, M J; Giovannucci, E; Ascherio, A; Spiegelman, D; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C

    1995-06-15

    Obesity, android fat distribution, and other anthropometric measures have been associated with coronary heart disease in long-term prospective studies. However, fluctuations in weight due to age-related hormonal changes and changes in lifestyle practices may bias relative risk estimates over a long follow-up period. The authors prospectively studied the association between body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), waist-to-hip ratio, and height as independent predictors of incident coronary heart disease in a 3-year prospective study among 29,122 US men aged 40-75 years in 1986. The authors documented 420 incident coronary events during the follow-up period. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, short stature, and weight gain since age 21 were associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Among men younger than 65, after adjusting for other coronary risk factors, the relative risk was 1.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.69) for men with BMI of 25-28.9, 2.61 (95% CI 1.54-4.42) for BMI of 29.0-32.9, and 3.44 (95% CI 1.67-7.09) for obese men with BMI > or = 33 compared with lean men with BMI < 23.0. Among men > or = 65 years of age, the association between BMI and risk of coronary heart disease was much weaker. However, in this age group, the waist-to-hip ratio was a much stronger predictor of risk (relative risk = 2.76, 95% CI 1.22-6.23 between extreme quintiles). These results suggest that for younger men, obesity, independent of fat distribution, is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease. For older men, measures of fat distribution may be better than body mass index at predicting risk of coronary disease.

  15. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid-based dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Khanna, Savita; Phillips, Christina; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan K

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem, with about 315 million people worldwide estimated to fall into the WHO-defined obesity categories. Traditional herbal medicines may have some potential in managing obesity. Botanical dietary supplements often contain complex mixtures of phytochemicals that have additive or synergistic interactions. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling. Recently it has been demonstrated that HCA-SX or Super Citrimax, a novel derivative of HCA, is safe when taken orally and that HCA-SX is bioavailable in the human plasma as studied by GC-MS. Although HCA-SX has been observed to be conditionally effective in weight management in experimental animals as well as in humans, its mechanism of action remains to be understood. We sought to determine the effects of low-dose oral HCA-SX on the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. We observed that at doses relevant for human consumption dietary HCA-SX significantly contained body weight growth. This response was associated with lowered abdominal fat leptin expression while plasma leptin levels remained unaffected. Repeated high-density microarray analysis of 9960 genes and ESTs present in the fat tissue identified a small set (approximately 1% of all genes screened) of specific genes sensitive to dietary HCA-SX. Other genes, including vital genes transcribing for mitochondrial/nuclear proteins and which are necessary for fundamental support of the tissue, were not affected by HCA-SX. Under the current experimental conditions, HCA-SX proved to be effective in restricting body weight gain in adult rats. Functional characterization of HCA-SX-sensitive genes revealed that upregulation of genes encoding serotonin receptors represent a distinct effect of

  16. Differential body weight and feeding responses to high-fat diets in rats and mice lacking cholecystokinin 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sheng; Chen, Jie; Behles, R Ryan; Hyun, Jayson; Kopin, Alan S; Moran, Timothy H

    2007-07-01

    Prior data demonstrated differential roles for cholecystokinin (CCK)1 receptors in maintaining energy balance in rats and mice. CCK1 receptor deficiency results in hyperphagia and obesity of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats but not in mice. To ascertain the role of CCK1 receptors in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we compared alterations in food intake, body weight, fat mass, plasma glucose, and leptin levels, and patterns of hypothalamic gene expression in OLETF rats and mice lacking CCK1 receptors in response to a 10-wk exposure to HFD. Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats, OLETF rats on HFD had sustained overconsumption over the 10-wk period. High fat feeding resulted in greater increases in body weight and plasma leptin levels in OLETF than in LETO rats. In situ hybridization determinations revealed that, while HFD reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in both the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of LETO rats, HFD resulted in decreased NPY expression in the Arc but not in the DMH of OLETF rats. In contrast to these results in OLETF rats, HFD increased food intake and induced obesity to an equal degree in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. NPY gene expression was decreased in the Arc in response to HFD, but was not detectable in the DMH in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. Together, these data provide further evidence for differential roles of CCK1 receptors in the controls of food intake and body weight in rats and mice.

  17. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the