Science.gov

Sample records for absolute branching ratios

  1. Measurement of the absolute branching ratio of the K+ →π+π-π+ (γ) decay with the KLOE detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babusci, D.; Balwierz-Pytko, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkeståhl, L.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Curciarello, F.; Czerwiński, E.; Danè, E.; De Leo, V.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; Di Cicco, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Salvo, R.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Fantini, A.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gajos, A.; Gauzzi, P.; Giardina, G.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Heijkenskjöld, L.; Höistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Kamińska, D.; Krzemien, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Loddo, F.; Loffredo, S.; Mandaglio, G.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Mascolo, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Palladino, A.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.; KLOE/KLOE-2 Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The absolute branching ratio of the K+ →π+π-π+ (γ) decay, inclusive of final-state radiation, has been measured using ∼17 million tagged K+ mesons collected with the KLOE detector at DAΦNE, the Frascati ϕ-factory. The result is:

  2. Absolute branching fraction measurements of exclusive D0 semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Phillips, E A; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H

    2005-10-28

    With the first data sample collected by the CLEO-c detector at the psi(3770) resonance we have studied four exclusive semileptonic decays of the D0 meson. Our results include the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement for D0 --> p-e+ve and improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions for D0 decays to K-e+ve, pi-e+ve, and K*-e+ve.

  3. Absolute measurement of hadronic branching fractions of the Ds+ meson.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2008-04-25

    The branching fractions of D(s)(+/-) meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 pb(-1) of e(+)e(-) collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D(s)(+/-) decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D(s)(+)-->K(-)K(+}pi(+))=(5.50+/-0.23+/-0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K(-)K(+)pi(+) decay mode.

  4. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Ds+ Meson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Mehrabyan, S.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sultana, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    The branching fractions of Ds± meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298pb-1 of e+e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight Ds± decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(Ds+→K-K+π+)=(5.50±0.23±0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K-K+π+ decay mode.

  5. Absolute branching fraction measurements of exclusive D+ semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Weaver, K M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J

    2005-10-28

    Using data collected at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, we present improved measurements of the absolute branching fractions of D+decays to K0e+ve, pi0e+ve, K*0e+ve, and p0e+ve, and the first observation and absolute branching fraction measurement of D+ --> omega e+ve. We also report the most precise tests to date of isospin invariance in semileptonic D0 and D+ decays.

  6. ABSOLUTE INTEGRAL CROSS SECTIONS AND PRODUCT BRANCHING RATIOS FOR THE VIBRATIONALLY SELECTED ION-MOLECULE REACTIONS: N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v {sup +} = 0-2) + CH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yuntao; Chang, Yih Chung; Lu Zhou

    Absolute vibrationally selected integral cross sections ({sigma}{sub v+}'s) for the ion-molecule reaction N{sub 2}{sup +}(X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}; v {sup +} = 0-2) + CH{sub 4} have been measured by using the newly developed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) double-quadrupole-double-octopole ion guide apparatus. By employing a novel electric field pulsing scheme to the VUV laser PFI-PI source, we have been able to prepare reactant N{sub 2}{sup +} ions in single-vibrational quantum states with not only high intensity and high purity but also high kinetic energy resolution, allowing integral cross section measurements to be conducted in themore » center-of-mass kinetic energies (E{sub cm}'s) from 0.05 to 10.00 eV. Three primary product channels corresponding to the formations of CH{sub 3}{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} were identified. After correcting for the secondary reactions involving CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 2}{sup +}, we have determined the {sigma}{sub v+} values of the formation of these primary product ions, {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 3}{sup +}), {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 2}{sup +}), and {sigma}{sub v+}(N{sub 2}H{sup +}), and their branching ratios, [{sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 3}{sup +}): {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 2}{sup +}): {sigma}{sub v+}(N{sub 2}H{sup +})]/{sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 3}{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} + N{sub 2}H{sup +}), v {sup +} = 0-2, in the E{sub cm} range of 0.05-10.00 eV, where {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 3}{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} + N{sub 2}H{sup +}) = {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 3}{sup +}) + {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 2}{sup +}) + {sigma}{sub v+}(N{sub 2}H{sup +}). The branching ratios are found to be nearly independent of the v {sup +} state and E{sub cm}. Complex v {sup +}-state and E{sub cm} dependences for {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 3}{sup +}), {sigma}{sub v+}(CH{sub 2}{sup +}), and {sigma}{sub v+}(N{sub 2}H{sup +}) along with vibrational inhibition for the formation of these product ions are

  7. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λ c + → Λ μ + ν μ

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; ...

    2017-01-27

    Here, we report the first measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λ c + → Λμ +ν μ. This measurement is based on a sample of e +e – annihilation data produced at a center-of-mass energy √s = 4.6 GeV, collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. The sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 567 pb –1. The branching fraction is determined to be B(Λ c + → Λμ +ν μ) = (3.49 ± 0.46(stat) ± 0.27(syst))%. In addition, we calculate the ratio B(Λ c + → Λμ +νμ)/B(Λ c + → Λe +ν e)more » to be 0.96 ± 0.16(stat) ± 0.04(syst).« less

  8. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  9. Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.

  10. Electromagnetic Nucleus - Nucleus Cross Sections Using Energy Dependent Branching Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Norbury, John

    2009-11-01

    Energy dependent branching ratios, derived from Weisskopf-Ewing theory, are presented and compared to an energy independent formalism, developed by Norbury, Townsend, and Westfall. The energy dependent branching ratio formalism is more versatile since it allows for not only neutron and proton emission, but also alpha particle, deuteron, helion, and triton emission. A new theoretical method for calculating electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) nucleus - nucleus cross sections, with energy dependent branching ratios, is introduced. Comparisons of photonuclear and nucleus - nucleus cross sections, using energy dependent and independent branching ratios, to experiment are presented. Experimental efforts, by various groups, have focused on measuring cross sections for proton and neutron emission, because proton and neutron emission is generally more probable than heavier particle emission. Consequently, comparisons of energy dependent and independent branching ratios to experiment are made for photoneutron and photoproton cross sections. EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated and compared to experimental data for a variety of projectile, target, and energy combinations. Results indicate that using energy dependent branching ratios yields better estimates.

  11. Improved measurement of the absolute branching fraction of $$D^{+}\\rightarrow \\bar{K}^0 \\mu ^{+}\

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; ...

    2016-07-04

    Here, by analyzing 2.93 fb -1 of data collected at √s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction B(D + → K¯ 0μ +ν μ) = (8.72 ± 0.07 stat. ± 0.18 sys.)%, which is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties but with significantly improved precision. Combining the Particle Data Group values of B(D 0 → K -μ +ν μ), B(D + → K¯ 0e +ν e), and the lifetimes of the D 0 and D + mesons with the value of B(D + → K¯ 0μ +ν μ) measured in this work, wemore » determine the following ratios of partial widths: Γ(D 0 → K -μ +ν μ)/Γ(D + → K¯ 0μ +ν μ) = 0.963 ± 0.044 and Γ(D + → K¯ 0μ +ν μ)/Γ(D + → K¯ 0e +ν e) = 0.988 ± 0.033.« less

  12. Absolute branching fractions of Cabibbo-suppressed D→K Kmacr decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Miyake, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Mehrabyan, S.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sultana, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.

    2008-05-01

    Using 281pb-1 of data collected with the CLEO-c detector at the ψ(3770) resonance, we have studied Cabibbo-suppressed decays of D mesons to final states with two kaons. We present results for the absolute branching fractions of the modes D0→K+K-, D0→KS0KS0, and D+→K+KS0. We measure B(D0→K+K-)=(4.08±0.08±0.09)×10-3, B(D0→KS0KS0)=(1.46±0.32±0.09)×10-4, and B(D+→K+KS0)=(3.14±0.09±0.08)×10-3. We also determine the ratio B(D0→K+K-)/B(D0→π+π-)=2.89±0.05±0.06. For each measurement, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second uncertainty is systematic.

  13. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e}.

    PubMed

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2015-11-27

    We report the first measurement of the absolute branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e}. This measurement is based on 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} annihilation data produced at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV, which is just above the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} threshold. The data were collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage rings. The branching fraction is determined to be B(Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e})=[3.63±0.38(stat)±0.20(syst)]%, representing a significant improvement in precision over the current indirect determination. As the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→Λe^{+}ν_{e} is the benchmark for those of other Λ_{c}^{+} semileptonic channels, our result provides a unique test of different theoretical models, which is the most stringent to date.

  14. Improved Measurement of the π → e ν Branching Ratio

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; ...

    2015-08-01

    A new measurement of the branching ratio R e/μ=Γ(π + → e +ν + π + → e +νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π +→μ+νγ) resulted in R exp e/μ=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10 -4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.

  15. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D0-->K-pi+.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2008-02-08

    We measure the absolute branching fraction for D(0)-->K(-)pi(+) using partial reconstruction of B(0)-->D(*+)Xl(-)nu(l) decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D(*+)-->D(0)pi(+) are used. Based on a data sample of 230 x 10(6) BB pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, we obtain B(D(0)-->K(-)pi(+)) = (4.007+/-0.037+/-0.072)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  16. Half-life of Th232 and the branching ratio of Bi212

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Farley, T.A.; Lazar, N.

    1956-01-01

    The half-life of Th232 has been calculated by determining an absolute gamma-disintegration rate for Tl208 in equilibrium with Th232 for three old thorium nitrate salts and one natural thorite sample. The branching ratio, ??(??+??), for Bi212, a necessary parameter in the calculation, was also measured. The half-life of Th232 was found to be 1.42??1010 years within an estimated error of 5%, which is essentially in agreement with the presently accepted value. The branching ratio, ??(??+??), of Bi212 was found to be 0.362??0.006, about 7.4% higher than the currently accepted value. ?? 1956 The American Physical Society.

  17. Isolation and determination of absolute configurations of insect-produced methyl-branched hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Jan E.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of stereochemistry have been studied extensively for volatile insect pheromones, little is known about the effects of chirality in the nonvolatile methyl-branched hydrocarbons (MBCHs) used by many insects as contact pheromones. MBCHs generally contain one or more chiral centers and so two or more stereoisomeric forms are possible for each structure. However, it is not known whether insects biosynthesize these molecules in high stereoisomeric purity, nor is it known whether insects can distinguish the different stereoisomeric forms of MBCHs. This knowledge gap is due in part to the lack of methods for isolating individual MBCHs from the complex cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends of insects, as well as the difficulty in determining the absolute configurations of the isolated MBCHs. To address these deficiencies, we report a straightforward method for the isolation of individual cuticular hydrocarbons from the complex CHC blend. The method was used to isolate 36 pure MBCHs from 20 species in nine insect orders. The absolute stereochemistries of the purified MBCHs then were determined by digital polarimetry. The absolute configurations of all of the isolated MBCHs were determined to be (R) by comparison with a library of synthesized, enantiomerically pure standards, suggesting that the biosynthetic pathways used to construct MBCHs are highly conserved within the Insecta. The development of a straightforward method for isolation of specific CHCs will enable determination of their functional roles by providing pure compounds for bioassays. PMID:25583471

  18. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions of the Λ_{c}^{+} Baryon.

    PubMed

    Ablikim, M; Achasov, M N; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Baldini Ferroli, R; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Eren, E E; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales Morales, C; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-02-05

    We report the first measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of Λ_{c}^{+} baryon at the Λ_{c}^{+}Λ[over ¯]_{c}^{-} production threshold, in the 30 years since the Λ_{c}^{+} discovery. In total, 12 Cabibbo-favored Λ_{c}^{+} hadronic decay modes are analyzed with a double-tag technique, based on a sample of 567  pb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at sqrt[s]=4.599  GeV recorded with the BESIII detector. A global least-squares fitter is utilized to improve the measured precision. Among the measurements for twelve Λ_{c}^{+} decay modes, the branching fraction for Λ_{c}^{+}→pK^{-}π^{+} is determined to be (5.84±0.27±0.23)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In addition, the measurements of the branching fractions of the other 11 Cabibbo-favored hadronic decay modes are significantly improved.

  19. The d*(2380) dibaryon resonance width and decay branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, A.

    2017-06-01

    Attempts to reproduce theoretically the width Γd* = 80 ± 10 MeV of the I (JP) = 0 (3+)d*(2380) dibaryon resonance established by the WASA-at-COSY Collaboration are discussed. The validity of associating the d*(2380) in quark-based models exclusively with a tightly bound ΔΔ configuration is questioned. The d*(2380) width and decay branching ratios into NNππ, NNπ and NN final states are studied within the Gal-Garcilazo hadronic model in which the d*(2380) is a πNΔ resonance embedded in the NNππ continuum some 80 MeV below the ΔΔ threshold. In particular, predictions are made for the branching ratios of the unobserved yet d* (2380) → NNπ decays which are suppressed in a purely-ΔΔ dibaryon model. A possible connection of the ABC effect observed in the pn →d* → dπ0π0 resonance reaction to the d*(2380) dibaryon is noted.

  20. Establishing Ion Ratio Thresholds Based on Absolute Peak Area for Absolute Protein Quantification using Protein Cleavage Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Loziuk, Philip L.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative mass spectrometry has become central to the field of proteomics and metabolomics. Selected reaction monitoring is a widely used method for the absolute quantification of proteins and metabolites. This method renders high specificity using several product ions measured simultaneously. With growing interest in quantification of molecular species in complex biological samples, confident identification and quantitation has been of particular concern. A method to confirm purity or contamination of product ion spectra has become necessary for achieving accurate and precise quantification. Ion abundance ratio assessments were introduced to alleviate some of these issues. Ion abundance ratios are based on the consistent relative abundance (RA) of specific product ions with respect to the total abundance of all product ions. To date, no standardized method of implementing ion abundance ratios has been established. Thresholds by which product ion contamination is confirmed vary widely and are often arbitrary. This study sought to establish criteria by which the relative abundance of product ions can be evaluated in an absolute quantification experiment. These findings suggest that evaluation of the absolute ion abundance for any given transition is necessary in order to effectively implement RA thresholds. Overall, the variation of the RA value was observed to be relatively constant beyond an absolute threshold ion abundance. Finally, these RA values were observed to fluctuate significantly over a 3 year period, suggesting that these values should be assessed as close as possible to the time at which data is collected for quantification. PMID:25154770

  1. Measurements of absolute branching fractions for D mesons decays into two pseudoscalar mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Bakina, O.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuessner, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K. J.; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Meng, Z. X.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Pitka, A.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rolo, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, L.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    Using a data sample of e+e- collision data with an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb-1 taken at the center-of-mass energy √{s }=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage rings, we measure the absolute branching fractions of the two-body hadronic decays D+→π+π0 , K+π0, π+η , K+η , π+η', K+η', KS0π+, KS0K+, and D0→π+π-, K+K-, K∓π±, KS0π0, KS0η , KS0η'. Our results are consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties. Among them, the branching fractions for D+→π+π0, K+π0, π+η , π+η', KS0π+, KS0K+ and D0→KS0π0, KS0η , KS0η' are determined with improved precision compared to the world average values.

  2. Measurements of absolute branching fractions for D mesons decays into two pseudoscalar mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.

    Using a data sample of e +e - collision data with an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb -1 taken at the center-of-mass energy √s = 3:773 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage rings, we measure the absolute branching fractions of the two-body hadronic decays D + → π⁺π⁰, K⁺π⁰, μ⁺η, K⁺η, π⁺η', K⁺η',more » $$K_s^0$$π⁺, $$K_s^0$$K⁺, and D⁰ → π⁺π⁻, K⁺K⁻, K ∓π ±, $$K_s^0$$π⁰, $$K_s^0$$η, $$K_s^0$$η'. Our results are consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties. Among them, the branching fractions for D⁺ → π⁺π⁰, K⁺π⁰, π⁺η, π⁺η', $$K_s^0$$π⁺, $$K_s^0$$K⁺ and D° → $$K_s^0$$π⁰, $$K_s^0$$η, $$K_s^0$$η' are determined with improved precision compared to the world average values.« less

  3. Measurements of absolute branching fractions for D mesons decays into two pseudoscalar mesons

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; ...

    2018-04-09

    Using a data sample of e +e - collision data with an integrated luminosity of 2.93 fb -1 taken at the center-of-mass energy √s = 3:773 GeV with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII storage rings, we measure the absolute branching fractions of the two-body hadronic decays D + → π⁺π⁰, K⁺π⁰, μ⁺η, K⁺η, π⁺η', K⁺η',more » $$K_s^0$$π⁺, $$K_s^0$$K⁺, and D⁰ → π⁺π⁻, K⁺K⁻, K ∓π ±, $$K_s^0$$π⁰, $$K_s^0$$η, $$K_s^0$$η'. Our results are consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties. Among them, the branching fractions for D⁺ → π⁺π⁰, K⁺π⁰, π⁺η, π⁺η', $$K_s^0$$π⁺, $$K_s^0$$K⁺ and D° → $$K_s^0$$π⁰, $$K_s^0$$η, $$K_s^0$$η' are determined with improved precision compared to the world average values.« less

  4. The branching ratio ω → π ^+π ^- revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanhart, C.; Holz, S.; Kubis, B.; Kupść, A.; Wirzba, A.; Xiao, C. W.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the most recent data for the pion vector form factor in the timelike region, employing a model-independent approach based on dispersion theory. We confirm earlier observations about the inconsistency of different modern high-precision data sets. Excluding the BaBar data, we find an updated value for the isospin-violating branching ratio B(ω → π ^+π ^-) = (1.46± 0.08) × 10^{-2}. As a side result, we also extract an improved value for the pion vector or charge radius, √{< r_V^2rangle } = 0.6603(5)(4) {fm}, where the first uncertainty is statistical as derived from the fit, while the second estimates the possible size of nonuniversal radiative corrections. In addition, we demonstrate that modern high-quality data for the decay η '→ π ^+π ^-γ will allow for an even improved determination of the transition strength ω → π ^+π ^-.

  5. Pressure-Dependent Yields and Product Branching Ratios in the Broadband Photolysis of Chlorine Nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1996-01-01

    The photolysis of chlorine nitrate was studied using broadband flash photolysis coupled with long-path ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Branching ratios for the Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2 product channels were determined from time-dependent measurements of ClO and NO3 concentrations. Yields of the ClO and NO3 products displayed a dependence on the bath gas density and the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse. Product yields decreased with increasing bath gas density regardless of the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse; however, the decrease in product yield was much more pronounced when photolysis was limited to longer wavelengths. For photolysis in a quartz cell (lambda > 200 nm) the yield decreased by a factor of 2 over the pressure 10-100 Torr. In a Pyrex cell (lambda > 300 nm), the yield decreased by a factor of 50 over the same pressure range. When photolysis was limited to lambda > 350 nm, the yield decreased by a factor of 250. Branching ratios for the photolysis channels [ClONO2 + h.nu yields ClO + NO2 (1a) and ClONO2 + h.nu yields Cl + NO3 (lb)] were determined from the relative ClO and NO3 product yields at various pressures. Although the absolute product yield displayed a pressure dependence, the branching between the two channels was independent of pressure. The relative branching ratios (assuming negligible contributions from other channels) are 0.61 +/- 0.20 for channel 1a and 0.39 +/- 0.20 for channel lb for photolysis with lambda > 200 nm and 0.44 +/- 0.08 for channel 1a and 0.56 +/- 0.08 for channel 1b for photolysis with lambda > 300 nm. The implications of these results for the chemistry of the lower stratosphere are discussed.

  6. Ratio measures in leading medical journals: structured review of accessibility of underlying absolute risks

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Lisa M; Dvorin, Evan L; Welch, H Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the accessibility of absolute risk in articles reporting ratio measures in leading medical journals. Design Structured review of abstracts presenting ratio measures. Setting Articles published between 1 June 2003 and 1 May 2004 in Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, Journal of the American Medical Association, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. Participants 222 articles based on study designs in which absolute risks were directly calculable (61 randomised trials, 161 cohort studies). Main outcome measure Accessibility of the absolute risks underlying the first ratio measure in the abstract. Results 68% of articles (150/222) failed to report the underlying absolute risks for the first ratio measure in the abstract (range 55−81% across the journals). Among these articles, about half did report the underlying absolute risks elsewhere in the article (text, table, or figure) but half did not report them anywhere. Absolute risks were more likely to be reported in the abstract for randomised trials compared with cohort studies (62% v 21%; relative risk 3.0, 95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.2) and for studies reporting crude compared with adjusted ratio measures (62% v 21%; relative risk 3.0, 2.1 to 4.3). Conclusion Absolute risks are often not easily accessible in articles reporting ratio measures and sometimes are missing altogether—this lack of accessibility can easily exaggerate readers' perceptions of benefit or harm. PMID:17060338

  7. Precision Gamma-Ray Branching Ratios for Long-Lived Radioactive Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tonchev, Anton

    Many properties of the high-energy-density environments in nuclear weapons tests, advanced laser-fusion experiments, the interior of stars, and other astrophysical bodies must be inferred from the resulting long-lived radioactive nuclei that are produced. These radioactive nuclei are most easily and sensitively identified by studying the characteristic gamma rays emitted during decay. Measuring a number of decays via detection of the characteristic gamma-rays emitted during the gamma-decay (the gamma-ray branching ratio) of the long-lived fission products is one of the most straightforward and reliable ways to determine the number of fissions that occurred in a nuclear weapon test. The fission productsmore » 147Nd, 144Ce, 156Eu, and certain other long-lived isotopes play a crucial role in science-based stockpile stewardship, however, the large uncertainties (about 8%) on the branching ratios measured for these isotopes are currently limiting the usefulness of the existing data [1,2]. We performed highly accurate gamma-ray branching-ratio measurements for a group of high-atomic-number rare earth isotopes to greatly improve the precision and reliability with which the fission yield and reaction products in high-energy-density environments can be determined. We have developed techniques that take advantage of new radioactive-beam facilities, such as DOE's CARIBU located at Argonne National Laboratory, to produce radioactive samples and perform decay spectroscopy measurements. The absolute gamma-ray branching ratios for 147Nd and 144Ce are reduced <2% precision. In addition, high-energy monoenergetic neutron beams from the FN Tandem accelerator in TUNL at Duke University was used to produce 167Tm using the 169Tm(n,3n) reaction. Fourtime improved branching ratio of 167Tm is used now to measure reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons from a burning DT capsule at NIF [10]. This represents the first measurement of RIF neutrons in any laboratory fusion system, and the magnitude

  8. Absolute branching fraction measurements for D+ and D0 inclusive semileptonic decays.

    PubMed

    Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2006-12-22

    We present measurements of the inclusive branching fractions for the decays D+-->Xe+ nu(e) and D0-->Xe+ nu(e), using 281 pb(-1) of data collected on the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector. We find B(D0-->Xe+ nu(e)) = (6.46+/-0.17+/-0.13)% and B(D+-->Xe+ nu(e)) = (16.13+/-0.20+/-0.33)%. Using the known D meson lifetimes, we obtain the ratio Gamma(D+)sl/Gamma(D0)sl = 0.985+/-0.028+/-0.015, confirming isospin invariance at the level of 3%. The positron momentum spectra from D+ and D0 have consistent shapes.

  9. The Near-infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch. II. An Absolute Calibration in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Taylor J.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Seibert, Mark; Beaton, Rachael L.; Hatt, Dylan; Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new empirical JHK absolute calibration of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We use published data from the extensive Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey containing 3.5 million stars, 65,000 of which are red giants that fall within one magnitude of the TRGB. Adopting the TRGB slopes from a companion study of the isolated dwarf galaxy IC 1613, as well as an LMC distance modulus of μ 0 = 18.49 mag from (geometric) detached eclipsing binaries, we derive absolute JHK zero points for the near-infrared TRGB. For a comparison with measurements in the bar alone, we apply the calibrated JHK TRGB to a 500 deg2 area of the 2MASS survey. The TRGB reveals the 3D structure of the LMC with a tilt in the direction perpendicular to the major axis of the bar, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  10. Tables of stark level transition probabilities and branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The transition probabilities which are given in terms of n prime k prime and n k are tabulated. No additional summing or averaging is necessary. The electric quantum number k plays the role of the angular momentum quantum number l in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios between stark levels are also tabulated. Necessary formulas for the transition probabilities and branching ratios are given. Symmetries are discussed and selection rules are given. Some disagreements for some branching ratios are found between the present calculation and the measurement of Mark and Wierl. The transition probability multiplied by the statistical weight of the initial state is called the static intensity J sub S, while the branching ratios are called the dynamic intensity J sub D.

  11. Tables of branching ratios for electric dipole transitions between arbitrary levels of hydrogen-like atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    The branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to the electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and azimuthal quantum numbers n prime l prime, and final principal and azimuthal quantum numbers n l. Average values with respect to l prime are given. The branching ratios not tabulated, including the initial states n prime yields infinity l prime corresponding to the threshold of the continuum, could be obtained by extrapolation.

  12. High-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 26Alm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, P.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G.; Djongolov, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Leach, K. G.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.

    2012-05-01

    A high-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 26Alm was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. An upper limit of ⩽12 ppm at 90% confidence level was found for the second forbidden β+ decay of 26Alm to the 21+ state at 1809 keV in 26Mg. An inclusive upper limit of ⩽15 ppm at 90% confidence level was found when considering all possible nonanalog β+/EC decay branches of 26Alm, resulting in a superallowed branching ratio of 100.0000-0.0015+0%.

  13. Branching ratio of the electromagnetic decay of the Σ+(1385)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, D.; Hicks, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Boiarinov, S.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tkachenko, S.; Vernarsky, B.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2012-03-01

    The CLAS detector was used to obtain the first ever measurement of the electromagnetic decay of the Σ*+(1385) from the reaction γp→K0Σ*+(1385). A real photon beam with a maximum energy of 3.8 GeV was incident on a liquid-hydrogen target, resulting in the photoproduction of the kaon and Σ* hyperon. Kinematic fitting was used to separate the reaction channel from the background processes. The fitting algorithm exploited a new method to kinematically fit neutrons in the CLAS detector, leading to the measured decay widths ratio Σ+(1385)→Σ+γ/Σ+(1385)→Σ+π0=11.95±2.21(stat)-1.21+0.53(sys)% and a deduced partial width of 250.0±56.9(stat)-41.2+34.3(sys)keV. A U-spin symmetry test using the SU(3) flavor-multiplet representation yields predictions for the Σ*+(1385)→Σ+γ and Σ*0(1385)→Λγ partial widths that agree with the experimental measurements.

  14. Internal γ Decay and the Superallowed Branching Ratio for the β+ Emitter Km38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, K. G.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Barton, C.; Bassiachvilli, E.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Newman, O.; Pearson, C. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Savajols, H.; Schumaker, M. A.; Wong, J.

    2008-05-01

    The branching ratio for the superallowed β+ decay of Km38 was measured at TRIUMF’s ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. The M3 internal transition between the isomer and the ground state of Km38 was observed with a branching ratio of 330(43) ppm. A search for the nonanalogue β-decay branch to the first excited 0+ state in Ar38 was also performed and yielded an upper limit of ≤12ppm at 90% C.L. These measurements lead to a revised superallowed branching ratio for Km38 of 99.967(4)%, and increase the Km38 ft value by its entire quoted uncertainty to ft=3052.1(10)s. Implications for tests of the nuclear-structure dependent corrections in superallowed β decays and the extraction of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element Vud are discussed.

  15. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D s 0 * ( 2317 ) ± → π 0 D s ±

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.

    The process e +e - →more » $$D_{s}^*$$ +$$D_{s0}^*$$(2317) - +c.c. is observed for the first time with the data sample of 567 pb -1 collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider at a center-of-mass energy ps = 4.6 GeV. The statistical significance of the D s0(2317) ± signal is 5.8 and the mass is measured to be (2318.3 ± 1.2 ± 1.2) MeV/c 2. The absolute branching fraction B($$D_{s0}^*$$(2317) ± → π 0$$D_s^±$$) is measured as $$1.00_{-0.14}^{+0.00}$$(stat)$$_{-0.14}^{+0.00}$$(syst) for the first time. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.« less

  16. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of Ds0 *(2317 )±→π0Ds±

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; Albrecht, M.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Bakina, O.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chai, J.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, P. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fegan, S.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. G.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, S.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, X. Q.; Heinsius, F. H.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Holtmann, T.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Y.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Khan, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Koch, L.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuemmel, M.; Kuessner, M.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Lavezzi, L.; Leiber, S.; Leithoff, H.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, J. Q.; Li, K. J.; Li, Kang; Li, Ke; Li, Lei; Li, P. L.; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Huihui; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Ke; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Long, Y. F.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Meng, Z. X.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mezzadri, G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Morello, G.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Papenbrock, M.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Pellegrino, J.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Pitka, A.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Richter, M.; Ripka, M.; Rolo, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schnier, C.; Schoenning, K.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, J. J.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Sowa, C.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, L.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. K.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, G. Y.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Tiemens, M.; Tsednee, B.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, Dan; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zongyuan; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, X.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Y. J.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, X. A.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Yang, Yifan; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; You, Z. Y.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    The process e+e-→Ds*+Ds0 *(2317 )-+c .c . is observed for the first time with the data sample of 567 pb-1 collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider at a center-of-mass energy √{s }=4.6 GeV . The statistical significance of the Ds0 *(2317 )± signal is 5.8 σ and the mass is measured to be (2318.3 ±1.2 ±1.2 ) MeV /c2 . The absolute branching fraction B (Ds0 *(2317 )±→π0Ds±) is measured as 1.00-0.14+0.00(stat)-0.14+0.00(syst) for the first time. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  17. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D s 0 * ( 2317 ) ± → π 0 D s ±

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ahmed, S.; ...

    2018-03-01

    The process e +e - →more » $$D_{s}^*$$ +$$D_{s0}^*$$(2317) - +c.c. is observed for the first time with the data sample of 567 pb -1 collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider at a center-of-mass energy ps = 4.6 GeV. The statistical significance of the D s0(2317) ± signal is 5.8 and the mass is measured to be (2318.3 ± 1.2 ± 1.2) MeV/c 2. The absolute branching fraction B($$D_{s0}^*$$(2317) ± → π 0$$D_s^±$$) is measured as $$1.00_{-0.14}^{+0.00}$$(stat)$$_{-0.14}^{+0.00}$$(syst) for the first time. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.« less

  18. Absolute quantitation of intracellular metabolite concentrations by an isotope ratio-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Bryson D; Yuan, Jie; Kimball, Elizabeth H; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    This protocol provides a method for quantitating the intracellular concentrations of endogenous metabolites in cultured cells. The cells are grown in stable isotope-labeled media to near-complete isotopic enrichment and then extracted in organic solvent containing unlabeled internal standards in known concentrations. The ratio of endogenous metabolite to internal standard in the extract is determined using mass spectrometry (MS). The product of this ratio and the unlabeled standard amount equals the amount of endogenous metabolite present in the cells. The cellular concentration of the metabolite can then be calculated on the basis of intracellular volume of the extracted cells. The protocol is exemplified using Escherichia coli and primary human fibroblasts fed uniformly with 13C-labeled carbon sources, with detection of 13C-assimilation by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. It enables absolute quantitation of several dozen metabolites over ~1 week of work. PMID:18714298

  19. Branching ratio to the 803 keV level in 210Poα decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, A.; Weissman, L.; Aviv, O.; Eisen, Y.; Brandis, M.; Paul, M.; Plompen, A.; Tessler, M.; Vaintraub, S.

    2018-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the branching ratio in the α decay of 210Po is important for accurate measurement of the 209Bi(n ,γ )Big210 cross section, the reaction involved in the termination of the astrophysical s process. The branching ratio was determined from independent measurements of α and γ spectra of bismuth samples simultaneously irradiated by neutrons near the core of the Soreq research reactor (IRR1). The branching ratio was found to be (1.15 ±0.09 ) ×10-5 , consistent with the results of several measurements performed six decades ago. As a by-product value the 209Bi(n ,γ )Big210 thermal cross section was measured to be 21.6 ±1.1 mb.

  20. Precision Branching Ratio Measurement for the Superallowed &+circ; Emitter ^62Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, Paul; Svensson, C. E.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Chaffey, A.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Kanungo, R.; Leslie, J. R.; Mattoon, C.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Ressler, J. J.; Sarazin, F.; Savajols, H.

    2007-10-01

    A high-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed &+circ; emitter ^62Ga has been made using the 8π γ-ray spectrometer in conjunction with the SCintillating Electron-Positron Tagging ARray (SCEPTAR) as part of an ongoing experimental program in superallowed Fermi beta decay studies at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, which delivered a high-purity beam of ˜10^4 ^62Ga/s in December 2005. The present work represents the highest statistics measurement of the ^62Ga superallowed branching ratio to date. 25 γ rays emitted following non-superallowed decay branches of ^62Ga have been identified and their intensities determined. These data yield a superallowed branching ratio with 10-4 precision, and our observed branch to the first nonanalogue 0^+ state sets a new upper limit on the isospin-mixing correction δC1^1. By comparing our ft value with the world average Ft, we make stringent tests of the different calculations for the isospin-symmetry-breaking correction δC, which is predicted to be large for ^62Ga.

  1. High-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 74Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, R.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Andreoiu, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2013-10-01

    A high-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of 74Rb was performed at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion-beam facility. The scintillating electron-positron tagging array (SCEPTAR), composed of 10 thin plastic scintillators, was used to detect the emitted β particles; the 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, was used for detecting γ rays that were emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi β+ decays of 74Rb; and the Pentagonal Array of Conversion Electron Spectrometers (PACES), an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was employed for measuring β-delayed conversion electrons. Twenty-three excited states were identified in 74Kr following 8.241(4)×108 detected 74Rb β decays. A total of 58 γ-ray and electron transitions were placed in the decay scheme, allowing the superallowed branching ratio to be determined as B0=99.545(31)%. Combined with previous half-life and Q-value measurements, the superallowed branching ratio measured in this work leads to a superallowed ft value of 3082.8(65) s. Comparisons between this superallowed ft value and the world-average-corrected Ft¯ value, as well as the nonanalog Fermi branching ratios determined in this work, provide guidance for theoretical models of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections in this mass region.

  2. The sensitivity of gas-phase models of dense interstellar clouds to changes in dissociative recombination branching ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, T. J.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.; Herbst, E.

    1988-01-01

    The approach of Bates to the determination of neutral product branching ratios in ion-electron dissociative recombination reactions has been utilized in conjunction with quantum chemical techniques to redetermine branching ratios for a wide variety of important reactions of this class in dense interstellar clouds. The branching ratios have then been used in a pseudo time-dependent model calculation of the gas phase chemistry of a dark cloud resembling TMC-1 and the results compared with an analogous model containing previously used branching ratios. In general, the changes in branching ratios lead to stronger effects on calculated molecular abundances at steady state than at earlier times and often lead to reductions in the calculated abundances of complex molecules. However, at the so-called 'early time' when complex molecule synthesis is most efficient, the abundances of complex molecules are hardly affected by the newly used branching ratios.

  3. Calibration strategies for the determination of stable carbon absolute isotope ratios in a glycine candidate reference material by elemental analyser-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip J H; Malinovsky, Dmitry; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-04-01

    We report a methodology for the determination of the stable carbon absolute isotope ratio of a glycine candidate reference material with natural carbon isotopic composition using EA-IRMS. For the first time, stable carbon absolute isotope ratios have been reported using continuous flow rather than dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Also for the first time, a calibration strategy based on the use of synthetic mixtures gravimetrically prepared from well characterised, highly (13)C-enriched and (13)C-depleted glycines was developed for EA-IRMS calibration and generation of absolute carbon isotope ratio values traceable to the SI through calibration standards of known purity. A second calibration strategy based on converting the more typically determined delta values on the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) scale using literature values for the absolute carbon isotope ratio of VPDB itself was used for comparison. Both calibration approaches provided results consistent with those previously reported for the same natural glycine using MC-ICP-MS; absolute carbon ratios of 10,649 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 24 × 10(-6) and 10,646 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 88 × 10(-6) were obtained, respectively. The absolute carbon isotope ratio of the VPDB standard was found to be 11,115 × 10(-6) with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 27 × 10(-6), which is in excellent agreement with previously published values.

  4. The Asymmetry Parameter and Branching Ratio of Sigma Plus Radiative Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, Maurice Emile

    1992-05-01

    We have measured the asymmetry parameter and branching ratio of themore » $$\\Sigma^+$$ radiative decay. This high statistics experiment (FNAL 761) was performed in the Proton Center charged hyperon beam at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. We find for the asymmetry parameter -0.720 $$\\pm$$ 0.086 $$\\pm$$ 0.045 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. This result is based on a sample of 34754 $$\\pm$$ 212 events. We find a preliminary value for the branching ratio $$Br ( \\Sigma^+ \\to p\\gamma )$$ $$/ Br ( \\Sigma^+ \\to p \\pi^0 )$$ = (2.14 $$\\pm$$ 0.07 $$\\pm$$ 0.11) x $$10^{-3}$$ where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. This result is based on a sample of 31040 $$\\pm$$ 650 events. Both results are in agreement with previous low statistics measurements.« less

  5. Branching-ratio approximation for the self-exciting Hawkes process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a model-independent approximation for the branching ratio of Hawkes self-exciting point processes. Our estimator requires knowing only the mean and variance of the event count in a sufficiently large time window, statistics that are readily obtained from empirical data. The method we propose greatly simplifies the estimation of the Hawkes branching ratio, recently proposed as a proxy for market endogeneity and formerly estimated using numerical likelihood maximization. We employ our method to support recent theoretical and experimental results indicating that the best fitting Hawkes model to describe S&P futures price changes is in fact critical (now and in the recent past) in light of the long memory of financial market activity.

  6. High-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter Ga62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, P.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Chaffey, A.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Mattoon, C. M.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Ressler, J. J.; Sarazin, F.; Savajols, H.; Schumaker, M. A.; Wong, J.

    2008-08-01

    A high-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of Ga62 was performed at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. The 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 high-purity germanium detectors, was employed to detect the γ rays emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi β+ decays of Ga62, and the SCEPTAR plastic scintillator array was used to detect the emitted β particles. Thirty γ rays were identified following Ga62 decay, establishing the superallowed branching ratio to be 99.858(8)%. Combined with the world-average half-life and a recent high-precision Q-value measurement for Ga62, this branching ratio yields an ft value of 3074.3±1.1 s, making Ga62 among the most precisely determined superallowed ft values. Comparison between the superallowed ft value determined in this work and the world-average corrected F tmacr value allows the large nuclear-structure-dependent correction for Ga62 decay to be experimentally determined from the CVC hypothesis to better than 7% of its own value, the most precise experimental determination for any superallowed emitter. These results provide a benchmark for the refinement of the theoretical description of isospin-symmetry breaking in A⩾62 superallowed decays.

  7. Branching ratio and polarization of B→ρ(ω)ρ(ω) decays in perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we calculate the branching ratios, polarization fractions and CP asymmetry parameters of decay modes B→ρ(ω)ρ(ω) in the perturbative QCD approach, which is based on kT factorization. After calculation, we find that the branching ratios of B0→ρ+ρ-, B+→ρ+ρ0, and B+→ρ+ω are at the order of 10-5, and their longitudinal polarization fractions are more than 90%. The above results agree with BaBar’s measurements. We also calculate the branching ratios and polarization fractions of B0→ρ0ρ0, B0→ρ0ω, and B0→ωω decays. We find that their longitudinal polarization fractions are suppressed to 60-80% due to a small color suppressed tree contribution. The dominant penguin and nonfactorization tree contributions equally contribute to the longitudinal and transverse polarization, which will be tested in the future experiments. We predict the CP asymmetry of B0→ρ+ρ- and B+→ρ+ρ0, which will be measured in B factories.

  8. Branching ratios and CP asymmetries of B→ χ _{c1}K(π ) decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhou; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Li-li

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the exclusive nonleptonic decays B→ χ _{c1}K(π ) in the conventional perturbative QCD (PQCD) formalism. The predictions of branching ratios and CP asymmetries are given in detail. We compare our results with available experimental data as well as predictions of other theoretical studies existing in the literature. It seems that the branching ratios of B→ χ _{c1} K are more consistent with data than the earlier analyses. For the Cabibbo-suppressed B_s decays, the branching ratios can reach the order of 10^{-5}, which would be straight forward for experimental observations. The numerical results show that the direct CP asymmetries of the concerned decays are rather small. The mixing-induced CP asymmetry in the B^0→ χ _{c1}K_S is very close to sin {2β }, which suggests that this channel offer an alternative method for measuring the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angle β . The obtained results in the present work could be tested by further experiments in the LHCb and forthcoming Belle II.

  9. Absolute Isotopic Abundance Ratios and the Accuracy of Δ47 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeron, M.; Blamart, D.; Peral, M.; Affek, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion from raw IRMS data to clumped isotope anomalies in CO2 (Δ47) relies on four external parameters: the (13C/12C) ratio of VPDB, the (17O/16O) and (18O/16O) ratios of VSMOW (or VPDB-CO2), and the slope of the triple oxygen isotope line (λ). Here we investigate the influence that these isotopic parameters exert on measured Δ47 values, using real-world data corresponding to 7 months of measurements; simulations based on randomly generated data; precise comparisons between water-equilibrated CO2 samples and between carbonate standards believed to share quasi-identical Δ47 values; reprocessing of two carbonate calibration data sets with different slopes of Δ47 versus T. Using different sets of isotopic parameters generally produces systematic offsets as large as 0.04 ‰ in final Δ47 values. What's more, even using a single set of isotopic parameters can produce intra- and inter-laboratory discrepancies in final Δ47 values, if some of these parameters are inaccurate. Depending on the isotopic compositions of the standards used for conversion to "absolute" values, these errors should correlate strongly with either δ13C or δ18O, or more weakly with both. Based on measurements of samples expected to display identical Δ47 values, such as 25°C water-equilibrated CO2 with different carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, or high-temperature standards ETH-1 and ETH-2, we conclude that the isotopic parameters used so far in most clumped isotope studies produces large, systematic errors controlled by the relative bulk isotopic compositions of samples and standards, which should be one of the key factors responsible for current inter-laboratory discrepancies. By contrast, the isotopic parameters of Brand et al. [2010] appear to yield accurate Δ47 values regardless of bulk isotopic composition. References:Brand, Assonov and Coplen [2010] http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/PAC-REP-09-01-05

  10. Branching ratios, CP asymmetries and polarizations of B→ ψ (2S) V decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhou; Li, Ya; Xiao, Zhen-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We analyze the non-leptonic decays B/B_s→ ψ (2S) V with V=(ρ , ω , K^{*}, φ ) by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Here the branching ratios, the CP asymmetries and the complete set of polarization observables are investigated systematically. Besides the traditional contributions from the factorizable and non-factorizable diagrams at the leading order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) vertex corrections could also provide considerable contributions. The pQCD predictions for the branching ratios of the B_{(s)}→ ψ (2S)K^{*}, ψ (2S)φ decays are consistent with the measured values within errors. As for B→ ψ (2S) ρ , ψ (2S) ω decays, the branching ratios can reach the order of 10^{-5} and could be measured in the LHCb and Belle-II experiments. The numerical results show that the direct CP asymmetries of the considered decays are very small. Thus the observation of any large direct CP asymmetry for these decays will be a signal for new physics. The mixing-induced CP asymmetries in the neutral modes are very close to sin 2β _{(s)}, which suggests that these channels can give a cross-check on the measurement of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angle β and β _s. We find that the longitudinal polarization fractions f_0 are suppressed to ˜ 50% due to the large non-factorizable contributions. The magnitudes and phases of the two transverse amplitudes A_{allel } and A_{\\perp } are roughly equal, which is an indication for the approximate light-quark helicity conservation in these decays. The overall polarization observables of B→ ψ (2S) K^{*0} and B_s→ ψ (2S) φ channels are also in good agreement with the experimental measurements as reported by LHCb and BaBar. Other results can also be tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments.

  11. Measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of D mesons and e+e- -->DD cross sections at Ec.m.=3773 MeV.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Weaver, K M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J

    2005-09-16

    Using 55.8 pb(-1) of e+e- collisions recorded at the psi(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at CESR, we determine absolute hadronic branching fractions of charged and neutral D mesons using a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D0 and six D+ modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D0-->K-pi+)=(3.91+/-0.08+/-0.09)% and B(D+-->K-pi+pi+)=(9.5+/-0.2+/-0.3)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Final state radiation is included in these branching fractions by allowing for additional, unobserved, photons in the final state. Using a determination of the integrated luminosity, we also extract the cross sections sigma(e+e- -->D0D0)=(3.60+/-0.07(+0.07)(-0.05)) nb and sigma(e+e- -->D+D-)=(2.79+/-0.07(+0.10)(-0.04)) nb.

  12. How shear increments affect the flow production branching ratio in CSDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. C.; Diamond, P. H.

    2018-06-01

    The coupling of turbulence-driven azimuthal and axial flows in a linear device absent magnetic shear (Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment) is investigated. In particular, we examine the apportionment of Reynolds power between azimuthal and axial flows, and how the azimuthal flow shear affects axial flow generation and saturation by drift wave turbulence. We study the response of the energy branching ratio, i.e., ratio of axial and azimuthal Reynolds powers, PzR/PyR , to incremental changes of azimuthal and axial flow shears. We show that increasing azimuthal flow shear decreases the energy branching ratio. When axial flow shear increases, this ratio first increases but then decreases to zero. The axial flow shear saturates below the threshold for parallel shear flow instability. The effects of azimuthal flow shear on the generation and saturation of intrinsic axial flows are analyzed. Azimuthal flow shear slows down the modulational growth of the seed axial flow shear, and thus reduces intrinsic axial flow production. Azimuthal flow shear reduces both the residual Reynolds stress (of axial flow, i.e., ΠxzR e s ) and turbulent viscosity ( χzDW ) by the same factor |⟨vy⟩'|-2Δx-2Ln-2ρs2cs2 , where Δx is the distance relative to the reference point where ⟨vy⟩=0 in the plasma frame. Therefore, the stationary state axial flow shear is not affected by azimuthal flow shear to leading order since ⟨vz⟩'˜ΠxzR e s/χzDW .

  13. The puzzle of the CNO isotope ratios in asymptotic giant branch carbon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abia, C.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Domínguez, I.; Straniero, O.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The abundance ratios of the main isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are modified by the CNO-cycle in the stellar interiors. When the different dredge-up events mix the burning material with the envelope, valuable information on the nucleosynthesis and mixing processes can be extracted by measuring these isotope ratios. Aims: Previous determinations of the oxygen isotopic ratios in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars were at odds with the existing theoretical predictions. We aim to redetermine the oxygen ratios in these stars using new spectral analysis tools and further develop discussions on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in order to elucidate this problem. Methods: Oxygen isotopic ratios were derived from spectra in the K-band in a sample of galactic AGB carbon stars of different spectral types and near solar metallicity. Synthetic spectra calculated in local thermodynamic equillibrium (LTE) with spherical carbon-rich atmosphere models and updated molecular line lists were used. The CNO isotope ratios derived in a homogeneous way, were compared with theoretical predictions for low-mass (1.5-3 M⊙) AGB stars computed with the FUNS code assuming extra mixing both during the RGB and AGB phases. Results: For most of the stars the 16O/17O/18O ratios derived are in good agreement with theoretical predictions confirming that, for AGB stars, are established using the values reached after the first dredge-up (FDU) according to the initial stellar mass. This fact, as far as the oxygen isotopic ratios are concerned, leaves little space for the operation of any extra mixing mechanism during the AGB phase. Nevertheless, for a few stars with large 16O/17O/18O, the operation of such a mechanism might be required, although their observed 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios would be difficult to reconcile within this scenario. Furthermore, J-type stars tend to have lower 16O/17O ratios than the normal carbon stars, as already indicated in previous studies

  14. Branching ratios, CP asymmetries and polarizations of $$B\\rightarrow \\psi (2S) V$$ decays

    DOE PAGES

    Rui, Zhou; Li, Ya; Xiao, Zhen -Jun

    2017-09-14

    We analyze the non-leptonic decays B/B s→ψ(2S)V with V=(ρ,ω,K*,Φ) by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Here the branching ratios, the CP asymmetries and the complete set of polarization observables are investigated systematically. Besides the traditional contributions from the factorizable and non-factorizable diagrams at the leading order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) vertex corrections could also provide considerable contributions. The pQCD predictions for the branching ratios of the B (s)→ψ(2S)K*,ψ(2S) decays are consistent with the measured values within errors. As for B→ψ(2S)ρ,ψ(2S)ω decays, the branching ratios can reach the order of 10 –5 and could be measured in the LHCbmore » and Belle-II experiments. The numerical results show that the direct CP asymmetries of the considered decays are very small. Thus the observation of any large direct CP asymmetry for these decays will be a signal for new physics. The mixing-induced CP asymmetries in the neutral modes are very close to sin2β (s), which suggests that these channels can give a cross-check on the measurement of the Cabbibo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) angle β and β s. We find that the longitudinal polarization fractions f 0 are suppressed to ~50% due to the large non-factorizable contributions. The magnitudes and phases of the two transverse amplitudes A∥ and A⊥ are roughly equal, which is an indication for the approximate light-quark helicity conservation in these decays. The overall polarization observables of B→ψ(2S)K* 0 and B s→ψ(2S)Φ channels are also in good agreement with the experimental measurements as reported by LHCb and BaBar. In conclusion, other results can also be tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments.« less

  15. Branching ratios, CP asymmetries and polarizations of $$B\\rightarrow \\psi (2S) V$$ decays

    SciTech Connect

    Rui, Zhou; Li, Ya; Xiao, Zhen -Jun

    We analyze the non-leptonic decays B/B s→ψ(2S)V with V=(ρ,ω,K*,Φ) by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Here the branching ratios, the CP asymmetries and the complete set of polarization observables are investigated systematically. Besides the traditional contributions from the factorizable and non-factorizable diagrams at the leading order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) vertex corrections could also provide considerable contributions. The pQCD predictions for the branching ratios of the B (s)→ψ(2S)K*,ψ(2S) decays are consistent with the measured values within errors. As for B→ψ(2S)ρ,ψ(2S)ω decays, the branching ratios can reach the order of 10 –5 and could be measured in the LHCbmore » and Belle-II experiments. The numerical results show that the direct CP asymmetries of the considered decays are very small. Thus the observation of any large direct CP asymmetry for these decays will be a signal for new physics. The mixing-induced CP asymmetries in the neutral modes are very close to sin2β (s), which suggests that these channels can give a cross-check on the measurement of the Cabbibo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) angle β and β s. We find that the longitudinal polarization fractions f 0 are suppressed to ~50% due to the large non-factorizable contributions. The magnitudes and phases of the two transverse amplitudes A∥ and A⊥ are roughly equal, which is an indication for the approximate light-quark helicity conservation in these decays. The overall polarization observables of B→ψ(2S)K* 0 and B s→ψ(2S)Φ channels are also in good agreement with the experimental measurements as reported by LHCb and BaBar. In conclusion, other results can also be tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments.« less

  16. Fluorescence branching ratios and magnetic tuning of the visible spectrum of SrOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc-Trung; Steimle, Timothy C.; Kozyryev, Ivan; Huang, Meng; McCoy, Anne B.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic tuning of the low rotational levels in the X ˜ 2Σ+ (0,0,0), A ˜ 2Πr (0,0,0), and B ˜ 2Σ+ (0,0,0) electronic states of strontium hydroxide, SrOH, have been experimentally investigated using high resolution optical field-free and Zeeman spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam sample. The observed Zeeman shifts and splittings are successfully modeled using a traditional effective Hamiltonian approach to account for the interaction between the A ˜ 2Πr and B ˜ 2Σ+ states. The determined magnetic g-factors for the X ˜ 2Σ+ , A ˜ 2Πr , and B ˜ 2Σ+ states are compared to those predicted by perturbation theory. The dispersed fluorescence resulting from laser excitation of rotationally resolved branch features of the 000 B ˜ 2Σ+ ← X ˜ 2Σ+ , 000 A ˜ 2Π3/2 ← X ˜ 2Σ+ and 000 A ˜ 2Π1/2 ← X ˜ 2Σ+ transitions have been recorded and analyzed. The measured fluorescence branching ratios are compared with Franck-Condon calculations. The required bending motion wave functions are derived using a discrete variable representation (DVR) method. Implications for laser slowing and magneto-optical trapping experiments for SrOH are described.

  17. a High-Precision Branching-Ratio Measurement for the Superallowed β+ Emitter 74Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, R.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Svensson, C. E.; Wong, J.; Ball, G.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Leslie, J. R.; Andreoiu, C.; Chester, A.; Cross, D.; Starosta, K.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2013-03-01

    Precision measurements of superallowed Fermi beta decay allow for tests of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix (CKM) unitarity, the conserved vector current hypothesis, and the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in nuclei. A high-precision measurement of the branching ratio for the β+ decay of 74Rb has been performed at the Isotope Separator and ACcelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF. The 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 close-packed HPGe detectors, was used to detect gamma rays emitted following the decay of 74Rb. PACES, an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was used to detect emitted conversion electrons, while SCEPTAR, an array of plastic scintillators, was used to detect emitted beta particles. A total of 51γ rays have been identified following the decay of 21 excited states in the daughter nucleus 74Kr.

  18. Knowledge-based probabilistic representations of branching ratios in chemical networks: the case of dissociative recombinations.

    PubMed

    Plessis, Sylvain; Carrasco, Nathalie; Pernot, Pascal

    2010-10-07

    Experimental data about branching ratios for the products of dissociative recombination of polyatomic ions are presently the unique information source available to modelers of natural or laboratory chemical plasmas. Yet, because of limitations in the measurement techniques, data for many ions are incomplete. In particular, the repartition of hydrogen atoms among the fragments of hydrocarbons ions is often not available. A consequence is that proper implementation of dissociative recombination processes in chemical models is difficult, and many models ignore invaluable data. We propose a novel probabilistic approach based on Dirichlet-type distributions, enabling modelers to fully account for the available information. As an application, we consider the production rate of radicals through dissociative recombination in an ionospheric chemistry model of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. We show how the complete scheme of dissociative recombination products derived with our method dramatically affects these rates in comparison with the simplistic H-loss mechanism implemented by default in all recent models.

  19. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi- (in Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  20. First observation of the decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ and measurement of its branching ratio.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2008-01-18

    We report the observation of the exclusive decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ at the 7.5 standard deviation level using 355 pb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. We measure the relative branching ratio B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)/B(B0-->D-Ds+)=1.44(-0.44)(+0.48). Using the world average value for B(B0-->D-Ds+), we find B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)=(9.4(-4.2)(+4.4))x10(-3). This provides a lower bound DeltaGammasCP/Gammas>or=2B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)>1.2x10(-2) at 95% C.L.

  1. A spherical electron cloud hopping model for studying product branching ratios of dissociative recombination.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2008-05-21

    A spherical electron cloud hopping (SECH) model is proposed to study the product branching ratios of dissociative recombination (DR) of polyatomic systems. In this model, the fast electron-captured process is treated as an instantaneous hopping of a cloud of uniform spherical fractional point charges onto a target M+q ion (or molecule). The sum of point charges (-1) simulates the incident electron. The sphere radius is determined by a critical distance (Rc eM) between the incoming electron (e-) and the target, at which the potential energy of the e(-)-M+q system is equal to that of the electron-captured molecule M+q(-1) in a symmetry-allowed electronic state with the same structure as M(+q). During the hopping procedure, the excess energies of electron association reaction are dispersed in the kinetic energies of M+q(-1) atoms to conserve total energy. The kinetic energies are adjusted by linearly adding atomic momenta in the direction of driving forces induced by the scattering electron. The nuclear dynamics of the resultant M+q(-1) molecule are studied by using a direct ab initio dynamics method on the adiabatic potential energy surface of M+q(-1), or together with extra adiabatic surface(s) of M+q(-1). For the latter case, the "fewest switches" surface hopping algorithm of Tully was adapted to deal with the nonadiabaticity in trajectory propagations. The SECH model has been applied to study the DR of both CH+ and H3O+(H2O)2. The theoretical results are consistent with the experiment. It was found that water molecules play an important role in determining the product branching ratios of the molecular cluster ion.

  2. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e + ν e via $$\\bar{K}$$0 → π0 π0

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.

    By analyzing 2.93 fb–1 data collected at the center-of-mass energy with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ →more » $$\\bar{K}$$0 e+νe to be Β(D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e +ν e) = (8.59 ± 0.14 ± 0.21)% using $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 → K 0 s → π 0π 0, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Finally, our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties..« less

  3. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e + ν e via $$\\bar{K}$$0 → π0 π0

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; ...

    2016-11-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb–1 data collected at the center-of-mass energy with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ →more » $$\\bar{K}$$0 e+νe to be Β(D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e +ν e) = (8.59 ± 0.14 ± 0.21)% using $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 → K 0 s → π 0π 0, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Finally, our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties..« less

  4. Measurement of absolute hadronic branching fractions of D mesons and e+e-→DD¯ cross sections at the ψ(3770)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Huang, G. S.; Miller, D. H.; Pavlunin, V.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Pivarski, J.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Schwarthoff, H.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Cawlfield, C.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Kim, D.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Smith, A.; Zweber, P.

    2007-12-01

    Using 281pb-1 of e+e- collisions recorded at the ψ(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at CESR (Cornell Electron Storage Ring), we determine absolute hadronic branching fractions of charged and neutral D mesons using a double tag technique. Among measurements for three D0 and six D+ modes, we obtain reference branching fractions B(D0→K-π+)=(3.891±0.035±0.059±0.035)% and B(D+→K-π+π+)=(9.14±0.10±0.16±0.07)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is all systematic errors other than final-state radiation (FSR), and the third is the systematic uncertainty due to FSR. We include FSR in these branching fractions by allowing for additional unobserved photons in the final state. Using an independent determination of the integrated luminosity, we also extract the cross sections σ(e+e-→D0D¯0)=(3.66±0.03±0.06)nb and σ(e+e-→D+D-)=(2.91±0.03±0.05)nb at a center-of-mass energy, Ecm=3774±1MeV.

  5. Measurements of Absolute Hadronic Branching Fractions and the Decay Constant in D Decays at Cleo-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryd, A.

    2005-04-01

    I report new, preliminary, results from the CLEO-c experiment. The results presented here are based on (57.2±1.7) pb-1 of e+e- collision data taken at √ {s} = 3.77GeV. For the leptonic decay D+ → μ+ν we obtain the branching fraction ℬ(D+ → μ+νν) = (3.5± 1.4±0.6) × 10-4 which allow us to extract the decay constant fD+ = (201 ± 41 ± 17) MeV. We have also measured the hadronic branching fractions ℬ(D0 → K-π+) = (3.92±0.08±0.23)%, ℬ(D0 → K-π+π0) = (14.3±0.3±1.0)%, ℬ(D0 → K-π+π+π-) = (8.1±0.2±0.9)%, ℬ(D+ → K-π+π+) = (9.8±0.4±0.8)%, {B}(D+ -> KS0π ^+) = (1.61 ± 0.08 ± 0.15)%, and the cross section σ (e+ e- -> Dbar {D}) = (0.06 ± 0.13 ± 0.23) nb.

  6. Evaluation of Absolute and Relative Reinforcer Value Using Progressive-Ratio Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Monica T; Borrero, John C; Sy, Jolene R

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated behavior exhibited by individuals with developmental disabilities using progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. High- and low-preference stimuli were determined based on the results of a paired-stimulus preference assessment and were evaluated in subsequent reinforcer and PR assessments using concurrent and single schedules of presentation. In Experiment 1, results showed that for 2 of 3 participants, stimuli determined to be low-preference functioned as reinforcers when evaluated independent of high-preference stimuli. Further, the results from Experiment 2 showed that low-preference stimuli also functioned as reinforcers under gradually increasing PR requirements. Results suggest that for cases in which a high-preference stimulus is unavailable or impractical, the contingent delivery of relatively less preferred stimuli may maintain appropriate behavior, even as schedule requirements increase. PMID:18595283

  7. Determination of product branching ratio of the ClO self-reaction at 298 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, A.; Bauer, D.; Crowley, J. N.; Moortgat, G. K.

    1993-07-01

    The Cl2-sensitized continuous photolysis of O3 mixtures in O2 was investigated at 298 K using time resolved single wavelength and diode array spectroscopy to monitor the decay of O3 and the formation of OClO. Φ-O3 was found to be 4.1±0.4. This value, combined with the determination of the initial rates of OClO formation, allowed the evaluation of the following branching ratios into the three bimolecular disproportionation channels of ClO reactions; k3a/k3 = 0.40 ± 0.08, k3b/k3 = 0.42 ± 0.08 and k3c/k3 = 0.18 ± 0.02 where ClO + ClO → Cl2 + O2 (3a), ClO + ClO → Cl + Cl + O2 (3b) and ClO + ClO → Cl + OClO (3c).

  8. Knowledge-based probabilistic representations of branching ratios in chemical networks: The case of dissociative recombinations

    SciTech Connect

    Plessis, Sylvain; Carrasco, Nathalie; Pernot, Pascal

    Experimental data about branching ratios for the products of dissociative recombination of polyatomic ions are presently the unique information source available to modelers of natural or laboratory chemical plasmas. Yet, because of limitations in the measurement techniques, data for many ions are incomplete. In particular, the repartition of hydrogen atoms among the fragments of hydrocarbons ions is often not available. A consequence is that proper implementation of dissociative recombination processes in chemical models is difficult, and many models ignore invaluable data. We propose a novel probabilistic approach based on Dirichlet-type distributions, enabling modelers to fully account for the available information.more » As an application, we consider the production rate of radicals through dissociative recombination in an ionospheric chemistry model of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. We show how the complete scheme of dissociative recombination products derived with our method dramatically affects these rates in comparison with the simplistic H-loss mechanism implemented by default in all recent models.« less

  9. Shape coexistence from lifetime and branching-ratio measurements in 68,70Ni

    DOE PAGES

    Crider, B. P.; Prokop, C. J.; Liddick, S. N.; ...

    2016-10-15

    Shape coexistence near closed-shell nuclei, whereby states associated with deformed shapes appear at relatively low excitation energy alongside spherical ones, is indicative of the rapid change in structure that can occur with the addition or removal of a few protons or neutrons. Near 68Ni (Z=28, N=40), the identification of shape coexistence hinges on hitherto undetermined transition rates to and from low-energy 0 + states. In 68,70Ni, new lifetimes and branching ratios have been measured. These data enable quantitative descriptions of the 0 + states through the deduced transition rates and serve as sensitive probes for characterizing their nuclear wave functions.more » The results are compared to, and consistent with, large-scale shell-model calculations which predict shape coexistence. With the firm identification of this phenomenon near 68Ni, shape coexistence is now observed in all currently accessible regions of the nuclear chart with closed proton shells and mid-shell neutrons.« less

  10. Channel branching ratios in CH2CN- photodetachment: Rotational structure and vibrational energy redistribution in autodetachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Justin; Wedig, Olivia; Gulania, Sahil; Krylov, Anna I.; Mabbs, Richard

    2017-12-01

    We report photoelectron spectra of CH2CN-, recorded at photon energies between 13 460 and 15 384 cm-1, which show rapid intensity variations in particular detachment channels. The branching ratios for various spectral features reveal rotational structure associated with autodetachment from an intermediate anion state. Calculations using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations reveal the presence of two dipole-bound excited anion states (a singlet and a triplet). The computed oscillator strength for the transition to the singlet dipole-bound state provides an estimate of the autodetachment channel contribution to the total photoelectron yield. Analysis of the different spectral features allows identification of the dipole-bound and neutral vibrational levels involved in the autodetachment processes. For the most part, the autodetachment channels are consistent with the vibrational propensity rule and normal mode expectation. However, examination of the rotational structure shows that autodetachment from the ν3 (v = 1 and v = 2) levels of the dipole-bound state displays behavior counter to the normal mode expectation with the final state vibrational level belonging to a different mode.

  11. High-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β+ emitters at TRIUMF - ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffoley, A. T.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, P.; Grinyer, G. F.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Blank, B.; Bouzomita, H.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G.; Diaz Varela, A.; Djongolov, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Glister, J.; Green, K. L.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Jamieson, D. S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leach, K. G.; Leslie, J. R.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Tardiff, E. R.; Thomas, J. C.; Towner, I. S.; Triambak, S.; Unsworth, C.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2014-03-01

    A program of high-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β emitters is being carried out at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. Recent half-life measurements for the superallowed decays of 14O, 18Ne, and 26Alm, as well as branching-ratio measurements for 26Alm and 74Rb are reported. These results provide demanding tests of the Standard Model and the theoretical isospin symmetry breaking (ISB) corrections in superallowed Fermi β decays.

  12. Measurements of the top quark branching ratios into channels with leptons and quarks with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2015-10-19

    Measurements of the branching ratios of top quark decays into leptons and jets using events with tt¯ (top antitop) pairs are reported. Events were recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The collected data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb⁻¹. As a result, the measured top quark branching ratios agree with the Standard Model predictions within the measurement uncertainties of a few percent.

  13. Measurement of the 169Tm (n ,3 n ) 167Tm cross section and the associated branching ratios in the decay of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, Norman, E. B.; Scielzo, N. D.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thomas, K. J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wang, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    The cross section for the 169Tm(n ,3 n ) 167Tm reaction was measured from 17 to 22 MeV using quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction. This energy range was studied to resolve the discrepancy between previous (n ,3 n ) cross-section measurements. In addition, the absolute γ -ray branching ratios following the electron-capture decay of 167Tm were measured. These results provide more reliable nuclear data for an important diagnostic that is used at the National Ignition Facility to estimate the yield of reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the inertial-confinement-fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules.

  14. Measurements of the absolute branching fractions of B+→Xc c ¯K+ and B+→D¯(*)0π+ at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Iijima, T.; Adachi, I.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Asner, D. M.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Babu, V.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, V.; Barberio, E.; Behera, P.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chang, P.; Cheaib, R.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Cho, K.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Czank, T.; Dash, N.; Di Carlo, S.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gelb, M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Greenwald, D.; Guido, E.; Haba, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; Hedges, M. T.; Hirose, S.; Hou, W.-S.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, M.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jaegle, I.; Jeon, H. B.; Jin, Y.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kaliyar, A. B.; Kang, K. H.; Karyan, G.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Kotchetkov, D.; Križan, P.; Kroeger, R.; Krokovny, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kulasiri, R.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Lee, I. S.; Li, C. H.; Li, L.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lubej, M.; Luo, T.; Masuda, M.; Matsuda, T.; Merola, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Moon, H. K.; Mori, T.; Mussa, R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nath, K. J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nayak, M.; Niiyama, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Ono, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, C.-S.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Paul, S.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pestotnik, R.; Piilonen, L. E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Salehi, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seino, Y.; Senyo, K.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Simon, F.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Starič, M.; Strube, J. F.; Sumihama, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takizawa, M.; Tamponi, U.; Tanida, K.; Tenchini, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uchida, M.; Uehara, S.; Uglov, T.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Urquijo, P.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K. E.; Vorobyev, V.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Watanabe, M.; Watanuki, S.; Widmann, E.; Won, E.; Yamashita, Y.; Ye, H.; Yelton, J.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhukova, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present the measurement of the absolute branching fractions of B+→Xc c ¯K+ and B+→D¯ (*)0π+ decays, using a data sample of 772 ×106 B B ¯ pairs collected at the ϒ (4 S ) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. Here, Xc c ¯ denotes ηc, J /ψ , χc 0, χc 1, ηc(2 S ), ψ (2 S ), ψ (3770 ), X (3872 ), and X (3915 ). We do not observe significant signals for X (3872 ) or X (3915 ) and set the 90% confidence level upper limits at B (B+→X (3872 )K+)<2.6 ×10-4 and B (B+→X (3915 )K+)<2.8 ×10-4 . These represent the most stringent upper limit for B (B+→X (3872 )K+) to date and the first limit for B (B+→X (3915 )K+). The measured branching fractions for ηc and ηc(2 S ) are the most precise to date, B (B+→ηcK+)=(12.0 ±0.8 ±0.7 )×10-4 and B (B+→ηc(2 S )K+)=(4.8 ±1.1 ±0.3 )×10-4 , where the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  15. Absolute Quantification of Human Milk Caseins and the Whey/Casein Ratio during the First Year of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Weber, Darren; Xu, Wei; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Phinney, Brett S; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-11-03

    Whey proteins and caseins in breast milk provide bioactivities and also have different amino acid composition. Accurate determination of these two major protein classes provides a better understanding of human milk composition and function, and further aids in developing improved infant formulas based on bovine whey proteins and caseins. In this study, we implemented a LC-MS/MS quantitative analysis based on iBAQ label-free quantitation, to estimate absolute concentrations of α-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein in human milk samples (n = 88) collected between day 1 and day 360 postpartum. Total protein concentration ranged from 2.03 to 17.52 with a mean of 9.37 ± 3.65 g/L. Casein subunits ranged from 0.04 to 1.68 g/L (α-), 0.04 to 4.42 g/L (β-), and 0.10 to 1.72 g/L (α-), with β-casein having the highest average concentration among the three subunits. Calculated whey/casein ratio ranged from 45:55 to 97:3. Linear regression analyses show significant decreases in total protein, β-casein, κ-casein, total casein, and a significant increase of whey/casein ratio during the course of lactation. Our study presents a novel and accurate quantitative analysis of human milk casein content, demonstrating a lower casein content than earlier believed, which has implications for improved infants formulas.

  16. Absolute intensities for the Q-branch of the 3 nu(sub 2) (-) nu(sub 1) (465.161/cm) band of nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirota, J. Marcos; Reuter, Dennis C.

    1993-01-01

    The absolute intensities of four lines, Q 15-Q 18 in the 03(sup 1)0-10(sup 0)0 band, of N2O have been measured using a tunable diode laser spectrometer at temperatures between 380 and 420 K and pressures between 4 and 15 torr. Even though these transitions are weak and produced only about 2% of absorption at the line center for a pathlength of 52 m, they were measured with a signal to noise ratio of about 20 due to the high sensitivity of the instrument. The band strength derived is 1.03 x 10(exp -24) cm/molec at 296 K.

  17. Tables of Transition Probabilities and Branching Ratios for Electric Dipole Transitions Between Arbitrary Levels of Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and angular momentum quantum number n, lambda, and final principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n, lambda. In table 1, transition probabilities are given for transitions n, lambda, yields n, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In this table, 2 or = n' or = 10, o or = lambda' or = n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. In addition, averages with respect to lambda' and sums with respect to n, and lifetimes are given. In table 2, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields ni, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In these tables, 2 or = n' or = 10, 0 or = lambda', n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. Averages with respect to lambda' are also given. In table 3, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields in lambda, where 1 or = n or = 5, 0 or = lambda or = n-1, n n' or = 15, and 0 or = lambda' or = n(s), where n(s), is the smaller of the two numbers n'-1 and 6. Averages with respect to lambda' are given.

  18. Branching ratios of α-decay to ground and excited states of Fm, Cf, Cm and Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Hosseini, S. S.

    2018-06-01

    We use the well-known Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) barrier penetration probability to calculate α-decay branching ratios for ground and excited states of heavy even-even nuclei of Fermium (248-254Fm), Californium (244-252Cf), Curium (238-248Cm) and Plutonium (234-244Pu) with 94 ≤Zp ≤100. We obtained the branching ratios for the excited states of daughter nucleus by the α-decay energy (Qα), the angular momentum of α-particle (ℓα), and the excitation probability of the daughter nucleus with the excitation energy of state ℓ in the daughter nucleus (i.e. Eℓ*). α-Decay half-lives have been evaluated by using the proximity potential model for the heavy even-even nuclei. We have reported the half-lives and compared the results with the experimental data. The theoretical branching ratios of α-transitions in our calculation are found to agree with the available experimental data well for 0+→ 0+, 0+→ 2+, 0+→ 4+, 0+→ 6+ and 0+ → 8+α-transitions.

  19. (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization via the A2Sigma(+) state of NO - Ionic rotational branching ratios and their intensity dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Rotational branching ratios resulting from the (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of NO via the 0-0 transition of the A-X band for the four possible branches that can be assigned as R(21.5) are explored using calculation performed in the frozen-core approximation at the Hartree-Fock level. The four different branches, of which three are distinctly different in the perturbative limit, have rather different branching ratios. The mixed R12 + Q22(21.5) branch, which is not intense and has the lowest transition energy, appears to give the best agreement with experimental branching ratio for parallel detection. The agreement is less satisfactory for perpendicular detection. Neither the effect of finite-acceptance angle of the photoelectron detector nor high intensities can explain the discrepancy.

  20. Measurement of the 169Tm(n,3n) 167Tm cross section and the associated branching ratios in the decay of 167Tm [Measurement of the 169Tm(n,3n) 167Tm cross section and the branching ratios in the decay of 167Tm

    DOE PAGES

    Champine, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, .; ...

    2016-01-14

    The cross section for the 169Tm(n,3n) 167Tm reaction was measured from 17 to 22 MeV using quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the 2H(d,n) 3He reaction. This energy range was studied to resolve the discrepancy between previous (n,3n) cross-section measurements. In addition, the absolute γ-ray branching ratios following the electron-capture decay of 167Tm were measured. Furthermore, these results provide more reliable nuclear data for an important diagnostic that is used at the National Ignition Facility to estimate the yield of reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the inertial-confinement-fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules.

  1. High-Precision Half-Life and Branching Ratio Measurements for the Superallowed β+ Emitter 26Alm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, P.; Svensson, C. E.; Demand, G. A.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Djongolov, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Leslie, J. R.; Andreoiu, C.; Cross, D.; Austin, R. A. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Williams, S. J.; Triambak, S.

    2013-03-01

    High-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for the superallowed β+ emitter 26Alm were performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. An upper limit of ≤ 15 ppm at 90% C.L. was determined for the sum of all possible non-analogue β+/EC decay branches of 26Alm, yielding a superallowed branching ratio of 100.0000+0-0.0015%. A value of T1/2 = 6:34654(76) s was determined for the 26Alm half-life which is consistent with, but 2.5 times more precise than, the previous world average. Combining these results with world-average measurements yields an ft value of 3037.58(60) s, the most precisely determined for any superallowed emitting nucleus to date. This high-precision ft value for 26Alm provides a new benchmark to refine theoretical models of isospin-symmetry-breaking effects in superallowed β decays.

  2. A measurement of the holographic minimum-observable beam branching ratio in the FERMILAB 15-ft bubble chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Geissler, K.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G. G.; Harris, F. A.; Hawkins, J.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Myatt, G.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Naylor, P.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Sekulin, R. L.; Sewell, S.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Voyvodic, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Williams, W.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.; E-632 Collaboration

    1999-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-foot bubble chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, irradiating a conical volume of ˜1.4 m 3. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of ˜120 μm have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the beam branching ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54±0.21)×10 -7. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

  3. A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.

    1997-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio ofmore » (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.« less

  4. Impact of the branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio and branched-chain amino acid granule therapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kiriyama, Seiki; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Akira; Kitabatake, Shusuke; Yama, Tsuyoki

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported that the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to tyrosine ratio (BTR) is a useful indicator of liver function and BCAA therapy is associated with a decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there has not been sufficient research on the relationship between BTR and the effects of BCAA therapy after initial treatment of HCC. We investigated the impact of BTR and BCAA therapy on survival in patients with HCC. A total of 315 patients with HCC who were treated (n = 66) or not treated (n = 249) with BCAA were enrolled; of these, 66 were selected from each group using propensity score matching. Survival from liver-related mortality was analyzed. In patients who did not receive BCAA therapy (n = 249), multivariate analysis for factors associated with survival indicated that low BTR (≤ 4.4) was independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC (hazard ratio, 1.880; 95% confidence interval, 1.125-3.143; P = 0.016). In addition, among patients selected by propensity score matching (n = 132), multivariate analysis indicated that BCAA therapy was independently associated with good prognosis in patients with HCC (hazard ratio, 0.524; 95% confidence interval, 0.282-0.973; P = 0.041). BTR was not significantly associated with survival. Intervention involving BCAA therapy improved survival in patients with HCC versus untreated controls, regardless of BTR. In addition, low BTR was associated with poor prognosis in patients who did not receive BCAA therapy. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Measurement of Branching Ratios for Non-leptonic Cabibbo-suppressed Decays of the Charmed-Strange Baryon Ξ c +

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez Jauregui, Eric

    2008-08-01

    We studied several Ξ c + decay modes, most of them with a hyperon in the final state, and determined their branching ratios. The data used in this analysis come from the fixed target experiment SELEX, a multi-stage spectrometer with high acceptance for forward interactions, that took data during 1996 and 1997 at Fermilab with 600 GeV=c (mainly Σ -, π -) and 540 GeV/c (mainly p) beams incident on copper and carbon targets. The thesis mainly details the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξ c + → Σ +π -π + and Ξ c + → Σmore » -π +π +. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξ c + → Σ -π +π + are measured to be: Γ(Ξ c + → Σ -π +π +)/Γ(Ξ c + → Ξ -π +π +) = 0.184 ± 0.086. Systematic studies have been performed in order to check the stability of the measurements varying all cuts used in the selection of events over a wide interval and we do not observe evidence of any trend, so the systematic error is negligible in the final results because the quadrature sum of the total error is not affected. The branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λ c + are measured to check the methodology of the analysis. The branching ratio of the decay mode Λ c + → Σ +π -π + is measured relative to Λ c + → pK - π +, while the one of the decay mode Λ c + → Σ -π +π +is relative to Λ c +→ Σ +π -π +, as they have been reported earlier. The results for the control modes are: Γ(Λ c +→ Σ +π -π +)/Γ(Λ c + → pK - π +) = 0.716 ± 0.144 and Γ(Λ c +→ Σ -π +π +)/Γ(Λ c + → Σ +π -π +) = 0.382 ± 0.104. The branching ratio of the decay mode Ξ c + → pK - π + relative to Ξ c + → Ξ -π +π + is considered as another control mode, the measured value is Γ(Ξ c + → pK -π +)/Γ(Ξ c + → Ξ -π +π +) = 0.194 ± 0.054. Systematic studies have been also performed for the control modes and all systematic variations are also small compared to the statistical error

  6. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D+ → K̅0 e+νe via K̅0 → π 0 π 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupsc, A.; Kühn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lü, H. J.; Lü, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lü, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb-1 data collected at the center-of-mass energy with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ → K̅0 e+νe to be ℬ(D + → K̅0 e+νe) = (8.59 ± 0.14 ± 0.21)% using , where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties.. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2009CB825204, 2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (10935007, 11125525, 11235011, 11305180, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, 11475123), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201, U1532101), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) (530-4CDP03), Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (11405046, U1332103), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Resarch Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-SC0012069, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

  7. Precision Branching Ratio Measurement for the Superallowed β+ Emitter Ga62 and Isospin-Symmetry-Breaking Corrections in A≥62 Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, B.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Achtzehn, T.; Albers, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Bricault, P.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D.; Dombsky, M.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Geppert, C.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hanemaayer, V.; Lassen, J.; Lavoie, J. P.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Smith, M. B.; Towner, I. S.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Wendt, K.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    A high-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of Ga62 was performed at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator radioactive ion beam facility. Nineteen γ rays emitted following β+ decay of Ga62 were identified, establishing the dominant superallowed branching ratio to be (99.861±0.011)%. Combined with recent half-life and Q-value measurements, this branching ratio yields a superallowed ft value of 3075.6±1.4s for Ga62 decay. These results demonstrate the feasibility of high-precision superallowed branching ratio measurements in the A≥62 mass region and provide the first stringent tests of the large isospin-symmetry-breaking effects predicted for these decays.

  8. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio value as a potential prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru

    2012-05-07

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) depends on tumor extension as well as hepatic function. Hepatic functional reserve is recognized as a factor affecting survival in the treatment of HCC; the Child-Pugh classification system is the most extensively used method for assessing hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease, using serum albumin level to achieve accurate assessment of the status of protein metabolism. However, insufficient attention has been given to the status of amino acid (AA) metabolism in chronic liver disease and HCC. Fischer's ratio is the molar ratio of branched-chain AAs (BCAAs: leucine, valine, isoleucine) to aromatic AAs (phenylalanine, tyrosine) and is important for assessing liver metabolism, hepatic functional reserve and the severity of liver dysfunction. Although this ratio is difficult to determine in clinical situations, BCAAs/tyrosine molar concentration ratio (BTR) has been proposed as a simpler substitute. BTR correlates with various liver function examinations, including markers of hepatic fibrosis, hepatic blood flow and hepatocyte function, and can thus be considered as reflecting the degree of hepatic impairment. This manuscript examines the literature to clarify whether BTR can serve as a prognostic factor for treatment of HCC.

  9. Measurement of the Branching Ratio of the charmless decay B s → φφ at CDFII

    SciTech Connect

    Di Ruzza, Benedetto

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the charmless B s → φφ decay performed with the CDFII detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Charmless B0 decays currently can be studied only at the Tevatron and represent a field still to be fully explored that offers additional ways to test our present theoretical understanding. The B s → φφ belongs to a particular class of these decays: the B s meson decays into a pair of vector particle and the fi al state is self- conjugate. It can be used to measure the B s decay width difference (ΓΔs), to improve ourmore » understanding about the Cabibbo Kobayashi Maskawa matrix, and to perform tests of decay polarization predictions. The B s → φφ decay proceeds through a b → sss transition and in the Standard Model the dominant process is the b → s “penguin” diagram. The same penguin amplitude is involved in several processes which have shown several discrepancies with the Standard Model predictions, raising considerable attention on the theoretical side and new physics interpretations have been considered to explain the experimental data. To shed light on this experimental and theoretical rather complex scenario, new and more precise measurements are clearly needed in as many interesting channels as possible. The study of B s → φφ channel is an important player in this experimental effort. The B s → φφ decay has been observed for the first time by CDF in 2005 [1] in a data sample of 180 pb -1; eight events have been seen and a first measurement of the Branching Ratio (BR) has been performed. In this thesis we present an update of this measurement with an integrated luminosity of 2.9fb -1. An improvement of a factor 5 compared to the previous Branching Ratio measurement is achieved. In Chap.2 a short introduction on the Standard Model with special emphasis on the electroweak sector is presented. In Chap.3 the Fermilab accelerator complex and the CDFII detector is described. The trigger strategy to select events

  10. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  11. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  12. Uranium isotope ratios of Muonionalusta troilite and complications for the absolute age of the IVA iron meteorite core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennecka, Gregory A.; Amelin, Yuri; Kleine, Thorsten

    2018-05-01

    The crystallization ages of planetary crustal material (given by basaltic meteorites) and planetary cores (given by iron meteorites) provide fiducial marks for the progress of planetary formation, and thus, the absolute ages of these objects fundamentally direct our knowledge and understanding of planet formation and evolution. The lone precise absolute age of planetary core material was previously obtained on troilite inclusions from the IVA iron meteorite Muonionalusta. This previously reported Pb-Pb age of 4565.3 ± 0.1 Ma-assuming a 238U/235U =137.88-only post-dated the start of the Solar System by approximately 2-3 million years, and mandated fast cooling of planetary core material. Since an accurate Pb-Pb age requires a known 238U/235U of the sample, we have measured both 238U/235U and Pb isotopic compositions of troilite inclusions from Muonionalusta. The measured 238U/235U of the samples range from ∼137.84 to as low as ∼137.22, however based on Pb and U systematics, terrestrial contamination appears pervasive and has affected samples to various extents for Pb and U. The cause of the relative 235U excess in one sample does not appear to be from terrestrial contamination or the decay of short-lived 247Cm, but is more likely from fractionation of U isotopes during metal-silicate separation during core formation, exacerbated by the extreme U depletion in the planetary core. Due to limited Pb isotopic variation and terrestrial disturbance, no samples of this study produced useful age information; however the clear divergence from the previously assumed 238U/235U of any troilite in Muonionalusta introduces substantial uncertainty to the previously reported absolute age of the sample without knowledge of the 238U/235U of the sample. Uncertainties associated with U isotope heterogeneity do not allow for definition of a robust age of solidification and cooling for the IVA core. However, one sample of this work-paired with previous work using short

  13. Gas/solid carbon branching ratios in surface-mediated reactions and the incorporation of carbonaceous material into planetesimals

    PubMed Central

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume “filamentous” structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain–grain sticking during low-velocity collisions. PMID:29563766

  14. Gas/Solid Carbon Branching Ratios in Surface Mediated Reactions and the Incorporation of Carbonaceous Material into Planetesimals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99 for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume filamentous structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.

  15. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  16. Study of the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD in e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Li Haibo; Qin Xiaoshuai; Yang Maozhi

    2010-01-01

    Based on the data of BES and Belle, the production of DD in the e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering process is studied in this paper. We analyze the continuum and resonant contributions in the energy region from 3.7 to 4.4 GeV. In the {chi}{sup 2} fit to data, we obtain the resonance parameters of {psi}(3770), the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay by confronting the data to the theoretical formula where both the contributions of the resonances, continuum and interference effects are included. We obtain the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay is 97.2%{+-}8.9%, as well as the branching ratio of {psi}(4040), {psi}(4160){yields}DDmore » decays.« less

  17. Form factors and differential branching ratio of B →K μ+μ- in AdS/QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, S.; Khosravi, R.

    2018-03-01

    The holographic distribution amplitudes (DAs) for the K pseudoscalar meson are derived. For this aim, the light-front wave function (LFWF) of the K meson is extracted within the framework of the anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics (AdS/QCD) correspondence. We consider a momentum-dependent (dynamical) helicity wave function that contains the dynamical spin effects. We use the LFWF to predict the radius and the electromagnetic form factor of the kaon and compare them with the experimental values. Then, the holographic twist-2 DA of K meson ϕK(α ,μ ) is investigated and compared with the result of the light-cone sum rules (LCSR). The transition form factors of the semileptonic B →K ℓ+ℓ- decays are derived from the holographic DAs of the kaon. With the help of these form factors, the differential branching ratio of the B →K μ+μ- on q2 is plotted. A comparison is made between our prediction in AdS/QCD and the results obtained from two models including the LCSR and the lattice QCD as well as the experimental values.

  18. Branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio (BTR) predicts intrahepatic distant recurrence and survival for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Toru; Kubota, Tomoyuki; Horigome, Ryoko; Kimura, Naruhiro; Honda, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    The Child-Pugh classification system is the most widely used system for assessing hepatic functional reserve in HCC treatment. In the Child-Pugh classification system, serum albumin levels are used to accurately assess the status of protein metabolism and nutrition. To date, a lack of attention has been given to amino acid metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether the branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine ratio (BTR) as an indicator of amino acid metabolism can serve as both a prognostic factor for early HCC and a predictive factor for recurrence. We conducted a cohort study of 50 patients with stage I/II HCC enrolled between May 2002 and December 2010. It was investigated whether BTR can serve as both a prognostic factor and a predictive factor for HCC recurrence. Overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with high baseline BTR than in those with low BTR. Multivariate analysis showed that both BTR and serum albumin were prognostic factors, and that BTR was the best predictive factor for recurrence. BTR was a prognostic factor for early HCC and the most predictive factor for intrahepatic distant recurrence and contributing factors for survival.

  19. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A; Illman, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between absolute and relative ratios of glutamate, glutamine and GABA and severity of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaish, Hanoof; Al-Ayadhi, Laila; Bjørklund, Geir; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Urbina, Mauricio A; El-Ansary, Afaf

    2018-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental pathology characterized by an impairment in social interaction, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. Glutamate signaling abnormalities are thought to be considered as major etiological mechanisms leading to ASD. The search for amino-acidic catabolytes related to glutamate in patients with different levels of ASD might help current research to clarify the mechanisms underlying glutamate signaling and its disorders, particularly in relation to ASD. In the present study, plasma levels of the amino acids and their derivatives glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), associated with their relative ratios, were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique in 40 male children with ASD and in 38 age- and gender-matched neurotypical health controls. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to evaluate social cognition, and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used to assess subjects' behaviors. Children with ASD exhibited a significant elevation of plasma GABA and glutamate/glutamine ratio, as well as significantly lower levels of plasma glutamine and glutamate/GABA ratios compared to controls. No significant correlation was found between glutamate levels and the severity of autism, measured by CARS and SRS. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve for GABA compared to other parameters was close to one, indicating its potential use as a biomarker. Glutamine appeared as the best predictive prognostic markers in the present study. The results of the present study indicate a disturbed balance between GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in ASD. The study also indicates that an increased plasma level of GABA can be potentially used as an early diagnostic biomarker for ASD.

  1. Quantitative EEG in Children and Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Comparison of Absolute and Relative Power Spectra and Theta/Beta Ratio.

    PubMed

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) measures have been widely used to document underlying neurophysiological dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although most EEG studies focus on children, there is a growing interest in adults with ADHD too. The aim of this study was to objectively assess and compare the absolute and relative EEG power as well as the theta/beta ratio in children and adults with ADHD. The evaluated sample comprised 30 male children and 30 male adults with ADHD diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. They were compared with 30 boys and 30 male adults matched by age. The mean age (±SD) of the children's group was 9 (±2.44) years and the adult group 35.8 (±8.65) years. EEG was recorded during an eyes-open condition. Spectral analysis of absolute (μV 2 ) and relative power (%) was carried out for 4 frequency bands: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-21 Hz). The findings obtained for ADHD children are increased absolute power of slow waves (theta and delta), whereas adults exhibited no differences compared with normal subjects. For the relative power spectra there were no differences between the ADHD and control groups. Across groups, the children showed greater relative power than the adults in the delta and theta bands, but for the higher frequency bands (alpha and beta) the adults showed more relative power than children. Only ADHD children showed greater theta/beta ratio compared to the normal group. Classification analysis showed that ADHD children could be differentiated from the control group by the absolute theta values and theta/beta ratio at Cz, but this was not the case with ADHD adults. The question that should be further explored is if these differences are mainly due to maturation processes or if there is a core difference in cortical arousal between ADHD children and adults. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  2. A high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism online method for assessing the absolute enantiomeric excess and conversion ratio of asymmetric reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Mingchao; Li, Li; Yin, Dali

    2017-03-01

    Asymmetric reactions often need to be evaluated during the synthesis of chiral compounds. However, traditional evaluation methods require the isolation of the individual enantiomer, which is tedious and time-consuming. Thus, it is desirable to develop simple, practical online detection methods. We developed a method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-electronic circular dichroism (HPLC-ECD) that simultaneously analyzes the material conversion ratio and absolute optical purity of each enantiomer. In particular, only a reverse-phase C18 column instead of a chiral column is required in our method because the ECD measurement provides a g-factor that describes the ratio of each enantiomer in the mixtures. We used our method to analyze the asymmetric hydrosilylation of β-enamino esters, and we discussed the advantage, feasibility, and effectiveness of this new methodology.

  3. Direct Dynamics Simulation of the Thermal 3CH2 + 3O2 Reaction. Rate Constant and Product Branching Ratios.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Sandhiya; Pratihar, Subha; Machado, Francisco B C; Hase, William L

    2018-05-31

    The reaction of 3 CH 2 with 3 O 2 is of fundamental importance in combustion, and the reaction is complex as a result of multiple extremely exothermic product channels. In the present study, direct dynamics simulations were performed to study the reaction on both the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs). The simulations were performed at the UM06/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Trajectories were calculated at a temperature of 300 K, and all reactive trajectories proceeded through the carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH 2 OO, on both the singlet and triplet PESs. The triplet surface leads to only one product channel, H 2 CO + O( 3 P), while the singlet surface leads to eight product channels with their relative importance as CO + H 2 O > CO + OH + H ∼ H 2 CO + O( 1 D) > HCO + OH ∼ CO 2 + H 2 ∼ CO + H 2 + O( 1 D) > CO 2 + H + H > HCO + O( 1 D) + H. The reaction on the singlet PES is barrierless, consistent with experiment, and the total rate constant on the singlet surface is (0.93 ± 0.22) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 in comparison to the recommended experimental rate constant of 3.3 × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . The simulation product yields for the singlet PES are compared with experiment, and the most significant differences are for H, CO 2 , and H 2 O. The reaction on the triplet surface is also barrierless, inconsistent with experiment. A discussion is given of the need for future calculations to address (1) the barrier on the triplet PES for 3 CH 2 + 3 O 2 → 3 CH 2 OO, (2) the temperature dependence of the 3 CH 2 + 3 O 2 reaction rate constant and product branching ratios, and (3) the possible non-RRKM dynamics of the 1 CH 2 OO Criegee intermediate.

  4. Impact of Americium-241 (n,γ) Branching Ratio on SFR Core Reactivity and Spent Fuel Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hiruta, Hikaru; Youinou, Gilles J.; Dixon, Brent W.

    An accurate prediction of core physics and fuel cycle parameters largely depends on the order of details and accuracy in nuclear data taken into account for actual calculations. 241Am is a major gateway nuclide for most of minor actinides and thus important nuclide for core physics and fuel-cycle calculations. The 241Am(n,?) branching ratio (BR) is in fact the energy dependent (see Fig. 1), therefore, it is necessary to taken into account the spectrum effect on the calculation of the average BR for the full-core depletion calculations. Moreover, the accuracy of the BR used in the depletion calculations could significantly influencemore » the core physics performance and post irradiated fuel compositions. The BR of 241Am(n,?) in ENDF/B-VII.0 library is relatively small and flat in thermal energy range, gradually increases within the intermediate energy range, and even becomes larger at the fast energy range. This indicates that the properly collapsed BR for fast reactors could be significantly different from that of thermal reactors. The evaluated BRs are also differ from one evaluation to another. As seen in Table I, average BRs for several evaluated libraries calculated by means of a fast spectrum are similar but have some differences. Most of currently available depletion codes use a pre-determined single value BR for each library. However, ideally it should be determined on-the-fly basis like that of one-group cross sections. These issues provide a strong incentive to investigate the effect of different 241Am(n,?) BRs on core and spent fuel parameters. This paper investigates the impact of the 241Am(n,?) BR on the results of SFR full-core based fuel-cycle calculations. The analysis is performed by gradually increasing the value of BR from 0.15 to 0.25 and studying its impact on the core reactivity and characteristics of SFR spent fuels over extended storage times (~10,000 years).« less

  5. Absolute sulfur isotope amount ratios in two batches of high purity SO2 gas: sulfur isotope reference materials IRMM-2012 and IRMM-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkiers, S.; Ding, T.; Ruße, K.; de Bièvre, P.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2005-04-01

    SI-traceable ("absolute") values have been obtained for sulfur isotope amount ratios n(33S)/n(32S) and n(34S)/n(32S), in two batches of high purity SO2 gas (IRMM-2012 and IRMM-2013). The SO2 gas was converted at IMR-Beijing to Ag2S, then fluorinated to SF6 gas both at IMR-Beijing and at IRMM-Geel. Yields of different conversion methods exceeded 99%. The sulfur amount-of-substance measurements were performed by gas mass spectrometry on SF5+ ions using "IRMM's amount comparator II". These isotope amount ratios were calibrated by means of gravimetrically prepared synthetic mixtures of highly enriched sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S and 34S) in Ag2S form. The ratio values in the SO2 Secondary Measurement Standard are traceable to the SI system. They can be used in the calibration of field sulfur isotope measurements thus making these metrologically traceable to the SI.

  6. Impact of a new wavelength-dependent representation of methane photolysis branching ratios on the modeling of Titan’s atmospheric photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, B.; Peng, Z.; Carrasco, N.; Gauyacq, D.; Lebonnois, S.; Pernot, P.

    2013-03-01

    A new wavelength-dependent model for CH4 photolysis branching ratios is proposed, based on the values measured recently by Gans et al. (Gans, B. et al. [2011]. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 8140-8152). We quantify the impact of this representation on the predictions of a photochemical model of Titan’s atmosphere, on their precision, and compare to earlier representations. Although the observed effects on the mole fraction of the species are small (never larger than 50%), it is possible to draw some recommendations for further studies: (i) the Ly-α branching ratios of Wang et al. (Wang, J.H. et al. [2000]. J. Chem. Phys. 113, 4146-4152) used in recent models overestimate the CH2:CH3 ratio, a factor to which a lot of species are sensitive; (ii) the description of out-of-Ly-α branching ratios by the “100% CH3” scenario has to be avoided, as it can bias significantly the mole fractions of some important species (C3H8); and (iii) complementary experimental data in the 130-140 nm range would be useful to constrain the models in the Ly-α deprived 500-700 km altitude range.

  7. Improving the Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method: Monte Carlo simulations of effects from photon scattering/reflecting in hollow cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method is discussed with the goal of improving the technique. This method of establishing a relative radiometric calibration is important in ongoing research to improve atomic transition probabilities for quantitative spectroscopy in astrophysics and other fields. Specific suggestions are presented along with Monte Carlo simulations of wavelength dependent effects from scattering/reflecting of photons in a hollow cathode.

  8. Prognostic value of baseline absolute lymphocyte concentration and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in dogs with newly diagnosed multi-centric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mutz, M; Boudreaux, B; Kearney, M; Stroda, K; Gaunt, S; Shiomitsu, K

    2015-12-01

    Canine multi-centric B-cell lymphoma shares similarities with diffuse large B-cell (Non-Hodgkin's) lymphoma (NHL) in people. In people with NHL, lymphopenia at diagnosis and first relapse and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N:L) > 3.5 are negative prognostic factors for survival. The objective of this study was to determine if lymphocyte concentration at diagnosis and first relapse and N:L were prognostic for survival in dogs with newly diagnosed multi-centric lymphoma. Medical records of 77 dogs with multi-centric lymphoma treated with a CHOP-based chemotherapy protocol were retrospectively evaluated. Absolute lymphocyte concentration and N:L ratio at presentation of dogs pre-treated with steroids was not significantly different from dogs who had not received steroids. On multivariate analysis, only immunophenotype remained significant for progression-free survival (PFS), whereas no variables remained significant for ST. A prospective study of these haematologic variables is warranted to assess their true significance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oscillation of Branching Ratios Between the D (2 s )+D (1 s ) and the D (2 p )+D (1 s ) Channels in Direct Photodissociation of D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang

    2017-08-01

    The direct photodissociation of D2 at excitation energies above 14.76 eV occurs via two channels, D (2 s )+D (1 s ) and D (2 p )+D (1 s ) . The branching ratios between the two have been measured from the dissociation threshold to 3200 cm-1 above it, and it is found that they show cosine oscillations as a function of the fragment wave vector magnitudes. The oscillation is due to an interference effect and can be simulated using the phase difference between the wave functions of the two channels, analogous to Young's double-slit experiment. By fitting the measured branching ratios, we have determined the depths and widths of the effective spherical potential wells related to the two channels, which are in agreement with the effective depths and widths of the ab initio interaction potentials. The results of this Letter illustrate the importance of the relative phase between the fragments in controlling the branching ratios of the photodissociation channels.

  10. Half-life, branching-ratio, and Q-value measurement for the superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 42}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Souin, J.; Audirac, L.

    2009-09-15

    The half-life, the branching ratio, and the decay Q value of the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 42}Ti were measured in an experiment performed at the JYFLTRAP facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 42}Ti is the heaviest T{sub z}=-1 nucleus for which high-precision measurements of these quantities have been tried. The half-life (T{sub 1/2}=208.14{+-}0.45 ms) and the Q value [Q{sub EC}=7016.83(25) keV] are close to or reach the required precision of about 0.1%. The branching ratio for the superallowed decay branch [BR=47.7(12)%], a by-product of the half-life measurement, does not reach the necessary precision yet. Nonetheless,more » these results allow one to determine the experimental ft value and the corrected Ft value to be 3114(79) and 3122(79) s, respectively.« less

  11. Correlation of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Absolute Neutrophil Count With Outcomes With PD-1 Axis Inhibitors in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zer, Alona; Sung, Mike R; Walia, Preet; Khoja, Leila; Maganti, Manjula; Labbe, Catherine; Shepherd, Frances A; Bradbury, Penelope A; Feld, Ronald; Liu, Geoffrey; Iazzi, Melissa; Zawisza, Dianne; Nouriany, Nazanin; Leighl, Natasha B

    2018-05-08

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) axis inhibitors have become standard therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Response might be delayed and pseudo-progression occasionally occurs in patients who eventually benefit from treatment. Additional markers beyond programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are needed to assist in patient selection, response evaluation, and treatment decisions. The relationship between prospectively collected clinical outcomes (response, disease control rate [DCR], treatment duration, overall survival) and hematologic parameters (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio [NLR], absolute neutrophil count [ANC], and platelet to lymphocyte ratio [PLR]) was explored retrospectively in advanced NSCLC patients treated with PD-1 axis inhibitors at a major cancer center from May 2013 to August 2016. Hematologic parameters at baseline and during treatment (week 2 or 3 and week 8) were included. Of 88 patients treated with PD-1 axis inhibitors, 22 (25%) experienced partial response. Baseline NLR ≤4 was associated with superior DCR (74% vs. 50%; P = .025), treatment duration (P = .037), time to progression (P = .053), and overall survival (P = .019), with no differential association according to PD-L1 tumor expression. Lower NLR and ANC during treatment were also associated with response to treatment (P = .025 and P = .017, respectively), and treatment duration (P = .036 and P = .008). No association was found between baseline PLR and DCR, response, treatment duration, nor overall survival. Baseline NLR ≤4 and lower NLR and ANC during treatment might correlate with disease control and treatment response and should be explored further as potential predictors of treatment benefit in larger studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψτ^{+}ν_{τ})/B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψμ^{+}ν_{μ}).

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Atzeni, M; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bordyuzhin, I; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hu, W; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Keizer, F; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Kress, F; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malecki, B; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepulveda, E S; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, J; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Weisser, C; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, M; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2018-03-23

    A measurement is reported of the ratio of branching fractions R(J/ψ)=B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψτ^{+}ν_{τ})/B(B_{c}^{+}→J/ψμ^{+}ν_{μ}), where the τ^{+} lepton is identified in the decay mode τ^{+}→μ^{+}ν_{μ}ν[over ¯]_{τ}. This analysis uses a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0  fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity recorded with the LHCb experiment at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A signal is found for the decay B_{c}^{+}→J/ψτ^{+}ν_{τ} at a significance of 3 standard deviations corrected for systematic uncertainty, and the ratio of the branching fractions is measured to be R(J/ψ)=0.71±0.17(stat)±0.18(syst). This result lies within 2 standard deviations above the range of central values currently predicted by the standard model.

  13. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions B (Bc+→J /ψ τ+ντ)/B (Bc+→J /ψ μ+νμ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Atzeni, M.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Beranek, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørn, M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Chapman, M. G.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S.-G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hancock, T. H.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P. H.; Hu, W.; Huard, Z. C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Keizer, F.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreps, M.; Kress, F.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, P.-R.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Lisovskyi, V.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; Mackowiak, P.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malecki, B.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombächer, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepulveda, E. S.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, J.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Toriello, F.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Weisser, C.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, M.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A measurement is reported of the ratio of branching fractions R (J /ψ ) =B (Bc+→J /ψ τ+ντ)/B (Bc+→J /ψ μ+νμ) , where the τ+ lepton is identified in the decay mode τ+→μ+νμν¯τ. This analysis uses a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0 fb-1 of integrated luminosity recorded with the LHCb experiment at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A signal is found for the decay Bc+→J /ψ τ+ντ at a significance of 3 standard deviations corrected for systematic uncertainty, and the ratio of the branching fractions is measured to be R (J /ψ ) =0.71 ±0.17 (stat ) ±0.18 (syst ) . This result lies within 2 standard deviations above the range of central values currently predicted by the standard model.

  14. First Observation of the Cabibbo-suppressed Decays Xi+(c) ---> Sigma+ pi- pi+ and Xi+(c) ---> Sigma- pi+ pi+ and Measurement of their Branching Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; /San Luis Potosi U.; Engelfried, J.

    The authors report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. They observe 56 {+-} 13 over a background of 21, and 23 {+-} 7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be B({Xi}{submore » c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.20, and B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.23 {+-} 0.11, respectively. They also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}.« less

  15. Measurement of the branching ratios of D(+) and D(+)(s) hadronic decays to four-body final states containing a K(S).

    PubMed

    Link, J M; Reyes, M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferi, A; de Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramirez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Boschini, M; Caccianiga, B; D'Angelo, P; DiCorato, M; Dini, P; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, A; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Agostino, L; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Segoni, I; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Hernandez, H; Lopez, A M; Mendez, H; Mendez, L; Mirles, A; Montiel, E; Olaya, D; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Rivera, C; Xiong, W; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Cho, K; Handler, T; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2001-10-15

    We have studied hadronic four-body decays of D(+) and D(+)(s) mesons with a K(S) in the final state using data recorded during the 1996-1997 fixed-target run of the Fermilab high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We report a new branching ratio measurement of gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0768+/-0.0041+/-0.0032. We make the first observation of three new decay modes with branching ratios gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0562+/-0.0039+/-0.0040, gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+K-pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0077+/-0.0015+/-0.0009, and gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+)) = 0.586+/-0.052+/-0.043, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  16. Ionic rotational branching ratios in resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization of NO via the A2Sigma(+)(3s sigma) and D2Sigma(+)(3p sigma) states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for the rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra resulting from a (2 + 1) one-color resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of NO via the rotationally clean S21(11.5) and mixed S11(15.5) + R21(15.5) branches of the 0-0 transition in the D-X band. The calculations were done in the fixed-nuclei frozen core approximation. The resulting photoionization spectra, convoluted with a Lorentzian detection function, agree qualitatively with experimental results of Viswanathan et al. (1986) and support their conclusion that the nonspherical nature of the molecular potential creates a substantial l-mixing in the continuum, which in turn leads to the intense Delta N = 0 peak. The rather strong photoelectron energy dependence of the rotational branching ratios of the D 2Sigma(+) S21(11.5) line was investigated and compared to the weak energy dependence of the A 2Sigma(+) R22(21.5) line.

  17. Spectroscopy of the 1/2 2S → 3/2 2P transition in Yb ii: Isotope shifts, hyperfine splitting, and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldker, T.; Fürst, H.; Ewald, N. V.; Joger, J.; Gerritsma, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report on spectroscopic results on the 1/2 2S → 3/2 2P transition in single trapped Yb+ ions. We measure the isotope shifts for all stable Yb+ isotopes except +173Yb, as well as the hyperfine splitting of the 3/2 2P state in +171Yb. Our results are in agreement with previous measurements but are a factor of 5-9 more precise. For the hyperfine constant A (3/2 2P)=875.4 (10 )MHz our results also agree with previous measurements but deviate significantly from theoretical predictions. We present experimental results on the branching ratios for the decay of the 3/2 2P state. We find branching fractions for the decay to the 3/2 2D state and 5/2 2D state of 0.17(1)% and 1.08(5)%, respectively, in rough agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we measured the isotope shifts of the 7/2 2F →1D[5/2 ] 5 /2 transition and determine the hyperfine structure constant for the 1D[5/2 ] 5 /2 state in +171Yb to be A (1D[5/2 ] 5 /2)=-107 (6 ) MHz .

  18. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  19. Measurement of the branching ratio of a rare decay {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} with WASA-at-COSY

    SciTech Connect

    Lalwani, Kavita

    2011-10-24

    In this paper we present the preliminary results on the measurement of the branching ratio of a rare decay {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} with the WASA Detector at COSY. We have used a sample of 10{sup 7}{eta} mesons produced at the COSY ring using the pd{yields}{sup 3}He{eta} reaction close to threshold. We detail the intricate extraction of the signal, which has about 360{+-}70(stat){eta}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} events, from the overwhelming background channels for example {eta}{yields}3{pi}{sup 0}, pd{yields}{sup 3}He 3{pi}{sup 0} and pd{yields}{sup 3}He 2{pi}{sup 0}.

  20. Cross-Section Measurement of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm Reaction and Constraining the Branching Ratio of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, Brian; Gooden, Matthew; Thomas, Keenan; Krishichayan, F.; Norman, Eric; Scielzo, Nick; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner

    2015-10-01

    The cross section of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm reaction has been measured from 17.5 to 21.5 MeV using activation technique. This energy region was chosen to resolve the two different trends of the previous (n,3n) cross section measurements on 169Tm. In addition, the branching ratio of the 207.8 keV γ-ray line stemming from electron capture of 167Tm was measured to be 0.419(16). The result of these measurements provide more accurate diagnostic estimation of the so called reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the internal confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility.

  1. Theoretical temperature-dependent branching ratios and laser thresholds of the 3F4 to 3H6 levels of Tm(3+) in ten garnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filer, Elizabeth D.; Barnes, Norman P.; Morrison, Clyde A.

    1991-01-01

    The calculated energy levels, the branching ratios, and the estimated thresholds for thulium operating on the 3F4 to 3H6 transitions are reported. Garnet materials with the general formula A3B2C3O12 are evaluated. Calculations are performed for the A side under the assumption of D2 symmetry. X-ray data available in the literature are used to evaluate the crystal-field components, A sub nm. Even-n components are employed to calculate the crystal-field splittings within the manifold. Thermal occupation factors are determined in a straightforward manner using a Boltzmann distribution for the respective manifolds. Odd-n components are applied to calculate the transition probabilities for electric field transitions. It is determined that the magnetic dipole contributions to the transition probability are comparable to the electric dipole contributions in some cases. Thresholds as a function of the density of thulium atoms are calculated.

  2. The relationships between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids to ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations with different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Liu, K; Hao, X; Xin, H

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of forage and concentrate (F:C) on ruminal odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) contents and to evaluate the relationships between OBCFA and ruminal fermentation parameters as well as bacterial populations tested by real-time PCR technique. The experimental design was a 3 × 3 Latin square. Three rumen-fistulated dry Holstein cows were fed three rations with different dietary F:C ratios (F:C; 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30). The rumen samples were collected every two hours (0600, 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000, 2200, 2400, 0200 and 0400 h) over three consecutive days in each sampling period. The results showed that rumen OBCFA profiles are significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the dietary F:C ratios. The concentrations of C11:0, C13:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C17:0 and C17:0 were higher in the cows fed dietary F:C ratio of 70:30 than those fed with other two rations. However, the concentrations of anteiso-C15:0, C15:0 and total OBCFA were on the lowest level in the high forage diet. Correlation and regression analysis showed that ruminal OBCFAs had strong relationships with ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial populations. In particular, the iso-fatty acids had potential power to predict butyrate and isoacids metabolized in the rumen, whereas the fatty acids with 17 carbon atoms correlated with ruminal NH 3 -N content. The OBCFA contents have different relationships with fibrolytic and starch bacteria in the rumen. C17:0 and its isomers might be used to predict populations of fibrolytic bacteria. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Absolute Summ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  4. A measurement of the hadronic branching ratio of the W boson to charm and strange quarks using strange hadrons in the final stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallison, Stephen

    A measurement has been made of the partial branching ratio, Rcs, of the W boson into a pair of jets originating from charmed (c) and strange (s) quarks. This was achieved by identifying final state hadrons among the decay products. Events generated using Monte Carlo simulations were used to construct multiplicity distributions for events where the W decays to cs quarks and events where the W decays to non-cs quarks. This was done by counting individually the numbers of K+/-, Ks0 and A candidates in each type of decay. These distributions were used as reference histograms and compared to multiplicity distributions for all hadronic events obtained using OPAL data taken from 1998 to 2000. The information derived from these distributions was used to extract a value of Values of Rcs were measured separately for charged kaons (K+/-), and neutral hadrons (Ks0 + Lambda). The charged kaon analysis was performed twice, once using an artificial neural network and again using a standard cut-based method. The values for the charged kaon and neutral hadron analyses were combined and weighted according to their overall errors. The final value for Rcs was found to be 0.499 +/- 0.060, Where the error represents a combination of the statistical and systematic uncertainties. The measured value of Rcs was used to determine a value for the CKM matrix element |Vcs|. This value was found to be |Vcs| = 0.999 +/- 0.060.

  5. Understanding the branching ratios of {chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{phi}}, {omega}{omega}, {omega}{phi} observed at BES-III

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Dianyong; He Jun; Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000

    In this work, we discuss the contribution of the mesonic loops to the decay rates of {chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{phi}}, {omega}{omega}, which are suppressed by the helicity selection rules and {chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{omega}}, which is a double-Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka forbidden process. We find that the mesonic loop effects naturally explain the clear signals of {chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{phi}}, {omega}{omega} decay modes observed by the BES Collaboration. Moreover, we investigate the effects of the {omega}-{phi} mixing, which may result in the order of magnitude of the branching ratio BR({chi}{sub c1{yields}{omega}{phi}}) being 10{sup -7}. Thus, we are waiting for the accurate measurements of the BR({chi}{sub c1{yields}{omega}{omega}}), BR({chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{phi}}), andmore » BR({chi}{sub c1{yields}{omega}{phi}}), which may be very helpful for testing the long-distant contribution and the {omega}-{phi} mixing in {chi}{sub c1{yields}{phi}{phi}}, {omega}{omega}, {omega}{phi} decays.« less

  6. Absolute spectrum and charge ratio of cosmic ray muons in the energy region from 0.2 GeV to 100 GeV at 600 m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pascale, M. P.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Golden, R. L.; Grimani, C.; Kimbell, B. L.; Stephens, S. A.; Stochaj, S. J.; Webber, W. R.; Basini, G.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of muons in the region from 250 MeV/c to 100 GeV/c using a superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The absolute differential spectrum of muons obtained in this experiment at 600 m above sea level is in good agreement with the previous measurements at sea level. The differential spectrum can be represented by a power law with a varying index, which is consistent with zero below 450 MeV/c and steepens to a value of -2.7 +/- 0.1 between 20 and 100 GeV/c. The integral f1ux of muons measured in this experiment span a very large range of momentum and is in excellent agreement with the earlier results. The positive to negative muon ratio appears to be constant in the entire momentum range covered in this experiment within the errors and the mean value is 1.220 +/- 0.044. The absolute momentum spectrum and the charge ratio measured in this experiment are also consistent with the theoretical expectations. This is the only experiment which covers a wide range of nearly three decades in momentum from a very low momentum.

  7. Analysis of interface crack branching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Mukai, D. J.; Miller, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    A solution is presented for the problem of a finite length crack branching off the interface between two bonded dissimilar isotropic materials. Results are presented in terms of the ratio of the energy release rate of a branched interface crack to the energy release rate of a straight interface crack with the same total length. It is found that this ratio reaches a maximum when the interface crack branches into the softer material. Longer branches tend to have smaller maximum energy release rate ratio angles indicating that all else being equal, a branch crack will tend to turn back parallel to the interface as it grows.

  8. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D + → + K -K +K +; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D + → + K -K +K + duplamente suprimido por cabibbo (in Portuguese)

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D + → + K -K +K + and D + s → + K -K +K +, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D + → + K -K +K + decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D + s → + K -K +K + decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D + mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D + s mass region. The D + →more » + K -K +K + branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10 -4 while the D + → + K -K +K + branching ratio relative to D + s → + K -K +K + is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10 -2.« less

  9. First measurement of the B$$0\\atop{2}$$ semileptonic branching ratio to an orbitally excited d$$**\\atop{s}$$ state, Br(B$$0\\atop{2}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s1}$$(2536)μ +vX)

    SciTech Connect

    Rieger, Jason

    2007-12-08

    In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb -1 collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state Dmore » $$±\\atop{s1}$$(2536)has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 ± 0.6(stat) ± 0.5(syst) MeV/c 2 via the decay mode B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s1}$$(2536)μ +vX followed by D$$±\\atop{s1}$$(2536) → D *±K$$0\\atop{S}$$. By normalizing to the known branching ratio Br($$\\bar{b}$$ → D* - μ +vX) and to the number of reconstructed D* mesons with an associated identified muon, a first-ever measurement is made of the product branching ratio ($$\\bar{b}$$ →} D$$-\\atop{s1}$$(2536)μ +vX) • Br(D$$-\\atop{s1}$$ → D* -K$$0\\atop{S}$$). Assuming that D$$-\\atop{s1}$$(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B$$0\\atop{s}$$, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s1}$$(2536)μ +vX) is made. Comparisons are made with theoretical expectations.« less

  10. Oscillation of Branching Ratios Between the D(2s)+D(1s) and the D(2p)+D(1s) Channels in Direct Photodissociation of D_{2}.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang

    2017-08-04

    The direct photodissociation of D_{2} at excitation energies above 14.76 eV occurs via two channels, D(2s)+D(1s) and D(2p)+D(1s). The branching ratios between the two have been measured from the dissociation threshold to 3200 cm^{-1} above it, and it is found that they show cosine oscillations as a function of the fragment wave vector magnitudes. The oscillation is due to an interference effect and can be simulated using the phase difference between the wave functions of the two channels, analogous to Young's double-slit experiment. By fitting the measured branching ratios, we have determined the depths and widths of the effective spherical potential wells related to the two channels, which are in agreement with the effective depths and widths of the ab initio interaction potentials. The results of this Letter illustrate the importance of the relative phase between the fragments in controlling the branching ratios of the photodissociation channels.

  11. The 238U/235U isotope ratio of the Earth and the solar system: Constrains from a gravimetrically calibrated U double spike and implications for absolute Pb-Pb ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weyer, Stefan; Noordmann, Janine; Brennecka, Greg; Richter, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    The ratio of 238U and 235U, the two primordial U isotopes, has been assumed to be constant on Earth and in the solar system. The commonly accepted value for the 238U/235U ratio, which has been used in Pb-Pb dating for the last ~ 30 years, was 137.88. Within the last few years, it has been shown that 1) there are considerable U isotope variations (~1.3‰) within terrestrial material produced by isotope fractionation during chemical reactions [1-3] and 2) there are even larger isotope variations (at least 3.5‰) in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in meoteorites that define the currently accepted age of the solar system [4]. These findings are dramatic for geochronology, as a known 238U/235U is a requirement for Pb-Pb dating, the most precise dating technique for absolute ages. As 238U/235U variations can greatly affect the reported absolute Pb-Pb age, understanding and accurately measuring variation of the 238U/235U ratio in various materials is critical, With these new findings, the questions also arises of "How well do we know the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system?" and "How accurate can absolute Pb-Pb ages be?" Our results using a gravimetrically calibrated 233U/236U double spike IRMM 3636 [5] indicate that the U standard NBL 950a, which was commonly used to define the excepted "natural" 238U/235U isotope ratio, has a slightly lower 238U/235U of 137.836 ± 0.024. This value is indistinguishable from the U isotope compositions for NBL 960 and NBL112A, which have been determined by several laboratories, also using the newly calibrated U double spike IRMM 3636 [6]. These findings provide new implications about the average U isotope composition of the Earth and the solar system. Basalts display a very tight range of U isotope variations (~0.25-0.32‰ relative to SRM 950a). Their U isotope composition is also very similar to that of chondrites [4], which however appear to show a slightly larger spread. Accepting terrestrial

  12. Branching Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-12-01

    Search processes play key roles in various scientific fields. A widespread and effective search-process scheme, which we term Restart Search, is based on the following restart algorithm: i) set a timer and initiate a search task; ii) if the task was completed before the timer expired, then stop; iii) if the timer expired before the task was completed, then go back to the first step and restart the search process anew. In this paper a branching feature is added to the restart algorithm: at every transition from the algorithm's third step to its first step branching takes place, thus multiplying the search effort. This branching feature yields a search-process scheme which we term Branching Search. The running time of Branching Search is analyzed, closed-form results are established, and these results are compared to the coresponding running-time results of Restart Search.

  13. The 3H(d,gamma) Reaction and the 3 H(d,gamma)/ 3H(d, n) Branching Ratio for Ec.m. 300 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Cody E.

    The 3H(d, gamma)5He reaction and the 3H(d, gamma)/3H(d, n) branching ratio have been measured using a 500-keV pulsed deuteron beam incident on a titanium tritide target of stopping thickness at the Edwards Accelerator Laboratory. The time-of-flight technique has been used to distinguish the gamma-rays from neutrons in the bismuth germinate (BGO) gamma-ray detector. A stilbene scintillator and an NE-213 scintillator have been used to detect the neutrons from the 3H(d, n)alpha reaction using both the pulse-shape discrimination and time-of-flight techniques. A target holder with an ion-implanted silicon detector at a fixed angle of 135° to the beam axis to simultaneously measure alpha-particles as a normalization for the number of neutrons was incorporated to reduce the uncertainty in the neutron yield over the preliminary measurement. The gamma-rays have been measured at laboratory angles of 0°, 4°, 9°, and 15°. Information about the gamma-ray energy distribution for the unbound ground state and first excited state of 5He have been obtained experimentally by comparing the BGO data to Monte Carlo simulations. The reported branching ratios for each angle contain only contributions from the ground-state gamma-ray branch.

  14. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  15. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  16. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$ π +)/Br(B 0 → D - π +) at CDF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Furic, Ivan Kresimir

    The measurement of Bmore » $$0\\atop{s}$$ mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B$$0\\atop{s}$$ oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B$$0\\atop{s}$$ mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$π +)/Br(B 0 → D -π +), which directly influences the number of B$$0\\atop{s}$$ events available for the measurement of B$$0\\atop{s}$$ mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb -1 of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p$$\\bar{p}$$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 ± 11 B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$π + decays at 1153 ± 45 B 0 → D -π + decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$π + decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f s/f d • Br(B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$π +)/Br(B 0 → D -π +) = 0.325 ± 0.046(stat) ± 0.034(syst) ± 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f s/f d = 0.26 ± 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B$$0\\atop{s}$$ → D$$-\\atop{s}$$π +)/Br(B 0 → D -π +) = 1.25 ± 0.18(stat) ± 0.13(syst) ± 0.32(BR) ± 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B$$0\\atop{s}$$ to B 0 production rates, f s/f d.« less

  17. Effects of dietary valine:lysine ratio on the performance, amino acid composition of tissues and mRNA expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism of weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye Tong; Ma, Xiao Kang; Wang, Chun Lin; Yuan, Ming Feng; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) weaned at 28±4 days of age (8.79±0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine:lysine ratios of 50%, 60%, 70%, or 80%. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 6 pigs per pen (3 gilts and 3 barrows) for 28 days. Results Average daily gain increased quadratically (p<0.05), the villous height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum increased linearly (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. The concentrations of plasma α-keto isovaleric and valine increased linearly (p<0.05), plasma aspartate, asparagine and cysteine decreased (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. An increase in SID lysine:valine levels increased mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in the longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Conclusion Using a quadratic model, a SID valine:lysine ratio of 68% was shown to maximize the growth of weaned pigs which is slightly higher than the level recommended by the National Research Council [6]. PMID:28728397

  18. Measurement of the Ratio of the B^{0}→D^{*-}τ^{+}ν_{τ} and B^{0}→D^{*-}μ^{+}ν_{μ} Branching Fractions Using Three-Prong τ-Lepton Decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2018-04-27

    The ratio of branching fractions R(D^{*-})≡B(B^{0}→D^{*-}τ^{+}ν_{τ})/B(B^{0}→D^{*-}μ^{+}ν_{μ}) is measured using a data sample of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3  fb^{-1}. For the first time, R(D^{*-}) is determined using the τ-lepton decays with three charged pions in the final state. The B^{0}→D^{*-}τ^{+}ν_{τ} yield is normalized to that of the B^{0}→D^{*-}π^{+}π^{-}π^{+} mode, providing a measurement of B(B^{0}→D^{*-}τ^{+}ν_{τ})/B(B^{0}→D^{*-}π^{+}π^{-}π^{+})=1.97±0.13±0.18, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The value of B(B^{0}→D^{*-}τ^{+}ν_{τ})=(1.42±0.094±0.129±0.054)% is obtained, where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fraction of the normalization mode. Using the well-measured branching fraction of the B^{0}→D^{*-}μ^{+}ν_{μ} decay, a value of R(D^{*-})=0.291±0.019±0.026±0.013 is established, where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fractions of the normalization and B^{0}→D^{*-}μ^{+}ν_{μ} modes. This measurement is in agreement with the standard model prediction and with previous results.

  19. Measurement of the Ratio of the B0→D*-τ+ντ and B0→D*-μ+νμ Branching Fractions Using Three-Prong τ -Lepton Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Beranek, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørn, M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Chapman, M. G.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S.-G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H.-P.; Demmer, M.; Dendek, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Déléage, N.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; Funk, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Garsed, P. J.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hancock, T. H.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; He, J.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P. H.; Huard, Z. C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jiang, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, P.-R.; Li, T.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; Mackowiak, P.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombächer, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mulder, M.; Mussini, M.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubert, K.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, l.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Toriello, F.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Wark, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The ratio of branching fractions R (D*-)≡B (B0→D*-τ+ντ)/B (B0→D*-μ+νμ) is measured using a data sample of proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1. For the first time, R (D*-) is determined using the τ -lepton decays with three charged pions in the final state. The B0→D*-τ+ντ yield is normalized to that of the B0→D*-π+π-π+ mode, providing a measurement of B (B0→D*-τ+ντ)/B (B0→D*-π+π-π+)=1.97 ±0.13 ±0.18 , where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The value of B (B0→D*-τ+ντ)=(1.42 ±0.094 ±0.129 ±0.054 )% is obtained, where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fraction of the normalization mode. Using the well-measured branching fraction of the B0→D*-μ+νμ decay, a value of R (D*-)=0.291 ±0.019 ±0.026 ±0.013 is established, where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fractions of the normalization and B0→D*-μ+νμ modes. This measurement is in agreement with the standard model prediction and with previous results.

  20. Growth-Environment Dependent Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus Branched-Chain to Straight-Chain Fatty Acid Ratio and Incorporation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Sen, Suranjana; Sirobhushanam, Sirisha; Johnson, Seth R; Song, Yang; Tefft, Ryan; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of membrane glycerolipids is a major determinant of Staphylococcus aureus membrane biophysical properties that impacts key factors in cell physiology including susceptibility to membrane active antimicrobials, pathogenesis, and response to environmental stress. The fatty acids of S. aureus are considered to be a mixture of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs), which increase membrane fluidity, and straight-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that decrease it. The balance of BCFAs and SCFAs in USA300 strain JE2 and strain SH1000 was affected considerably by differences in the conventional laboratory medium in which the strains were grown with media such as Mueller-Hinton broth and Luria broth resulting in high BCFAs and low SCFAs, whereas growth in Tryptic Soy Broth and Brain-Heart Infusion broth led to reduction in BCFAs and an increase in SCFAs. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids (SCUFAs) were not detected. However, when S. aureus was grown ex vivo in serum, the fatty acid composition was radically different with SCUFAs, which increase membrane fluidity, making up a substantial proportion of the total (<25%) with SCFAs (>37%) and BCFAs (>36%) making up the rest. Staphyloxanthin, an additional major membrane lipid component unique to S. aureus, tended to be greater in content in cells with high BCFAs or SCUFAs. Cells with high staphyloxanthin content had a lower membrane fluidity that was attributed to increased production of staphyloxanthin. S. aureus saves energy and carbon by utilizing host fatty acids for part of its total fatty acids when growing in serum, which may impact biophysical properties and pathogenesis given the role of SCUFAs in virulence. The nutritional environment in which S. aureus is grown in vitro or in vivo in an infection is likely to be a major determinant of membrane fatty acid composition.

  1. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972) and 0.389 (0.193–0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845) and 0.376 (0.161–0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945

  2. The Ratio of Dietary Branched-Chain Amino Acids is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Obesity in Young Northern Chinese Adults: An Internet-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2015-11-18

    This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = -0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.

  3. Study of B+/ --> J/psi pi+/- and B+/ -->J/psi K+/- decays: measurement of the ratio of branching fractions and search for direct CP violation.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de laVassière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2004-06-18

    We study B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) and B+/ --> J/psi K+/- decays in a sample of about 89 x 10(6) BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory at SLAC. We observe a signal of 244+/-20 B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) events and determine the ratio B(B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-))/B(B+/ --> J/psi K+/-) to be [5.37+/-0.45(stat)+/-0.11(syst)]%. The charge asymmetries for the B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) and B+/ --> J/psi K+/- decays are determined to be A(pi)=0.123+/-0.085(stat)+/-0.004(syst) and A(K)=0.030+/-0.015(stat)+/-0.006(syst), respectively.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for tokamak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirlet, R.; Schwob, J. L.; Meyer, O.; Vartanian, S.

    2017-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrometer installed on the Tore Supra tokamak has been calibrated in absolute units of brightness in the range 10-340 Å. This has been performed by means of a combination of techniques. The range 10-113 Å was absolutely calibrated by using an ultrasoft-X ray source emitting six spectral lines in this range. The calibration transfer to the range 113-182 Å was performed using the spectral line intensity branching ratio method. The range 182-340 Å was calibrated thanks to radiative-collisional modelling of spectral line intensity ratios. The maximum sensitivity of the spectrometer was found to lie around 100 Å. Around this wavelength, the sensitivity is fairly flat in a 80 Å wide interval. The spatial variations of sensitivity along the detector assembly were also measured. The observed trend is related to the quantum efficiency decrease as the angle of the incoming photon trajectories becomes more grazing.

  7. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  8. OCT angiography by absolute intensity difference applied to normal and diseased human retinas

    PubMed Central

    Ruminski, Daniel; Sikorski, Bartosz L.; Bukowska, Danuta; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Malukiewicz, Grazyna; Bieganowski, Lech; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We compare four optical coherence tomography techniques for noninvasive visualization of microcapillary network in the human retina and murine cortex. We perform phantom studies to investigate contrast-to-noise ratio for angiographic images obtained with each of the algorithm. We show that the computationally simplest absolute intensity difference angiographic OCT algorithm that bases only on two cross-sectional intensity images may be successfully used in clinical study of healthy eyes and eyes with diabetic maculopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. PMID:26309740

  9. Absolute biological needs.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}).

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Geraci, A; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusardi, N; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; 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Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; 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Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zucchelli, S

    2015-09-11

    The branching fraction ratio R(D^{*})≡B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}τ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{τ})/B(B[over ¯]^{0}→D^{*+}μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}) is measured using a sample of proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3.0  fb^{-1} of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The tau lepton is identified in the decay mode τ^{-}→μ^{-}ν[over ¯]_{μ}ν_{τ}. The semitauonic decay is sensitive to contributions from non-standard-model particles that preferentially couple to the third generation of fermions, in particular, Higgs-like charged scalars. A multidimensional fit to kinematic distributions of the candidate B[over ¯]^{0} decays gives R(D^{*})=0.336±0.027(stat)±0.030(syst). This result, which is the first measurement of this quantity at a hadron collider, is 2.1 standard deviations larger than the value expected from lepton universality in the standard model.

  11. Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B -→ D(→ K +π -)K - and B -→ D(→ K +π -)π - decays

    DOE PAGES

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-08-01

    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B -→ D(→ K +π -)K - and B -→ D(→ K +π -)π - decays, sensitive to the CKM phase {gamma}, using data from 7 fb -1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B -→ D(→ K +π -)K - suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K) = [22.0 ± 8.6(stat) ± 2.6(syst)] x 10 -3, R +(K) = [42.6more » ± 13.7(stat) ± 2.8(syst)] x 10 -3, R -(K) = [3.8 ± 10.3(stat) ± 2.7(syst)] x 10 -3 as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K) = -0.82±0.44(stat)±0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B - → D(→ K +π -)π - decay are also reported.« less

  12. A high-efficiency gas target setup for underground experiments, and redetermination of the branching ratio of the 189.5 keV 22Ne(p,γ)23Na resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, F.; Takács, M. P.; Piatti, D.; Mossa, V.; Aliotta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Boeltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Chillery, T.; Ciani, G. F.; Corvisiero, P.; Csedreki, L.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Fiore, E. M.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Kochanek, I.; Lugaro, M.; Marcucci, L. E.; Marigo, P.; Menegazzo, R.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Paticchio, V.; Perrino, R.; Prati, P.; Schiavulli, L.; Stöckel, K.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.; Trezzi, D.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2018-03-01

    The experimental study of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest is greatly facilitated by a low-background, high-luminosity setup. The Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400kV accelerator offers ultra-low cosmic-ray induced background due to its location deep underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (INFN-LNGS), Italy, and high intensity, 250-500μA, proton and α ion beams. In order to fully exploit these features, a high-purity, recirculating gas target system for isotopically enriched gases is coupled to a high-efficiency, six-fold optically segmented bismuth germanate (BGO) γ-ray detector. The beam intensity is measured with a beam calorimeter with constant temperature gradient. Pressure and temperature measurements have been carried out at several positions along the beam path, and the resultant gas density profile has been determined. Calibrated γ-intensity standards and the well-known Ep = 278 keV 14N(p,γ)15O resonance were used to determine the γ-ray detection efficiency and to validate the simulation of the target and detector setup. As an example, the recently measured resonance at Ep = 189.5 keV in the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction has been investigated with high statistics, and the γ-decay branching ratios of the resonance have been determined.

  13. Measurement of the ratios of branching fractions B(B0s --> Ds- pi+ pi+ pi-)/B(B0-->D- pi+ pi+ pi-) and B(B0s --> Ds- pi+)/B(B0-->D- pi+).

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-02-09

    Using 355 pb;{-1} of data collected by the CDF II detector in pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron, we study the fully reconstructed hadronic decays B_{(s)};{0}-->D_{(s)};{-}pi;{+} and B_{(s)};{0}-->D_{(s)};{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-}. We present the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-})/B(B;{0}-->D;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-})=1.05+/-0.10(stat)+/-0.22(syst). We also update our measurement of B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+})/B(B;{0}-->D;{-}pi;{+}) to 1.13+/-0.08(stat)+/-0.23(syst), improving the statistical uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. We find B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+})=[3.8+/-0.3(stat)+/-1.3(syst)]x10;{-3} and B(B_{s};{0}-->D_{s};{-}pi;{+}pi;{+}pi;{-})=[8.4+/-0.8(stat)+/-3.2(syst)]x10;{-3}.

  14. High-level direct-dynamics variational transition state theory calculations including multidimensional tunneling of the thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from methanol by atomic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2011-03-07

    We report a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methanol by atomic hydrogen. The study includes the analysis of thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects. Specifically, we have performed high-level computations at the MC3BB level together with direct dynamics calculations by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the microcanonically optimized multidimensional tunneling (μOMT) transmission coefficient (CVT/μOMT) to study both the CH(3)OH+H→CH(2)OH+H(2) (R1) reaction and the CH(3)OH+H→CH(3)O+H(2) (R2) reaction. The CVT/μOMT calculations show that reaction R1 dominates in the whole range 298≤T (K)≤2500 and that anharmonic effects on the torsional mode about the C-O bond are important, mainly at high temperatures. The activation energy for the total reaction sum of R1 and R2 reactions changes substantially with temperature and, therefore, the use of straight-line Arrhenius plots is not valid. We recommend the use of new expressions for the total R1 + R2 reaction and for the R1 and R2 individual reactions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Absolutely relative or relatively absolute: violations of value invariance in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Andrei R; Moran, Rani; Usher, Marius

    2016-02-01

    Making decisions based on relative rather than absolute information processing is tied to choice optimality via the accumulation of evidence differences and to canonical neural processing via accumulation of evidence ratios. These theoretical frameworks predict invariance of decision latencies to absolute intensities that maintain differences and ratios, respectively. While information about the absolute values of the choice alternatives is not necessary for choosing the best alternative, it may nevertheless hold valuable information about the context of the decision. To test the sensitivity of human decision making to absolute values, we manipulated the intensities of brightness stimuli pairs while preserving either their differences or their ratios. Although asked to choose the brighter alternative relative to the other, participants responded faster to higher absolute values. Thus, our results provide empirical evidence for human sensitivity to task irrelevant absolute values indicating a hard-wired mechanism that precedes executive control. Computational investigations of several modelling architectures reveal two alternative accounts for this phenomenon, which combine absolute and relative processing. One account involves accumulation of differences with activation dependent processing noise and the other emerges from accumulation of absolute values subject to the temporal dynamics of lateral inhibition. The potential adaptive role of such choice mechanisms is discussed.

  16. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful toolmore » to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.« less

  17. Alteration of muscle fiber characteristics and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis in skeletal muscle of growing pigs fed low-protein diets with varying branched-chain amino acid ratios

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Wang, Wenlong; Guo, Qiuping; Wen, Chaoyue; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    There mainly exists four major myosin heavy chains (MyHC) (i.e., I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) in growing pigs. The current study aimed to explore the effects of low-protein diets supplemented with varying branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on muscle fiber characteristics and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis in skeletal muscles. Forty growing pigs (9.85 ± 0.35 kg) were allotted to 5 groups and fed with diets supplemented with varying leucine: isoleucine: valine ratios: 1:0.51:0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1:1:1 (17% CP), 1:0.75:0.75 (17% CP), 1:0.51:0.63 (17% CP), and 1:0.25:0.25 (17% CP), respectively. The skeletal muscles of different muscle fiber composition, that is, longissimus dorsi muscle (LM, a fast-twitch glycolytic muscle), biceps femoris muscle (BM, a mixed slow- and fast-twitch oxido-glycolytic muscle), and psoas major muscle (PM, a slow-twitch oxidative muscle) were collected and analyzed. Results showed that relative to the control group (1:0.51:0.63, 20% CP), the low-protein diets with the leucine: isoleucine: valine ratio ranging from 1:0.75:0.75 to 1:0.25:0.25 especially augmented the mRNA and protein abundance of MyHC I fibers in BM and lowered the mRNA abundance of MyHC IIb particularly in LM (P < 0.05), with a concurrent increase in the activation of AMPK and the mRNA abundance of SIRT and PGC-1α in BM (P < 0.05). The results reveal that low-protein diets supplemented with optimal BCAA ratio, i.e. 1:0.75:0.75-1:0.25:0.25, induce muscle more oxidative especially in oxido-glycolytic skeletal muscle of growing pigs. These effects are likely associated with the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis. PMID:29291007

  18. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  19. Transition state theory thermal rate constants and RRKM-based branching ratios for the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction based on multi-state and multi-reference ab initio calculations of interest for the Titan's chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Scribano, Yohann; Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice

    2012-10-30

    Multireference single and double configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations including Davidson (+Q) or Pople (+P) corrections have been conducted in this work for the reactants, products, and extrema of the doublet ground state potential energy surface involved in the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction. Such highly correlated ab initio calculations are then compared with previous PMP4, CCSD(T), W1, and DFT/B3LYP studies. Large relative differences are observed in particular for the transition state in the entrance channel resolving the disagreement between previous ab initio calculations. We confirm the existence of a small but positive potential barrier (3.86 ± 0.84 kJ mol(-1) (MR-AQCC) and 3.89 kJ mol(-1) (MRCI+P)) in the entrance channel of the title reaction. The correlation is seen to change significantly the energetic position of the two minima and five saddle points of this system together with the dissociation channels but not their relative order. The influence of the electronic correlation into the energetic of the system is clearly demonstrated by the thermal rate constant evaluation and it temperature dependance by means of the transition state theory. Indeed, only MRCI values are able to reproduce the experimental rate constant of the title reaction and its behavior with temperature. Similarly, product branching ratios, evaluated by means of unimolecular RRKM theory, confirm the NH production of Umemoto et al., whereas previous works based on less accurate ab initio calculations failed. We confirm the previous findings that the N((2)D) + CH(4) reaction proceeds via an insertion-dissociation mechanism and that the dominant product channels are CH(2)NH + H and CH(3) + NH. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ratios of dijet production cross sections as a function of the absolute difference in rapidity between jets in proton–proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} = 7\\ \\mathrm{TeV}$$

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; ...

    2012-11-16

    A study of dijet production in proton-proton collisions was performed at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV for jets with pt > 35 GeV and abs(y) < 4.7 using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2010. Events with at least one pair of jets are denoted as 'inclusive'. Events with exactly one pair of jets are called 'exclusive'. The ratio of the cross section of all pairwise combinations of jets to the exclusive dijet cross section as a function of the rapidity difference between jets abs(Delta(y)) is measured for the first time up to abs(Delta(y)) = 9.2. Themore » ratio of the cross section for the pair consisting of the most forward and the most backward jet from the inclusive sample to the exclusive dijet cross section is also presented. The predictions of the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA6 and PYTHIA8 agree with the measurements. In both ratios the HERWIG++ generator exhibits a more pronounced rise versus abs(Delta(y)) than observed in the data. The BFKL-motivated generators CASCADE and HEJ+ARIADNE predict for these ratios a significantly stronger rise than observed.« less

  1. Ratios of dijet production cross sections as a function of the absolute difference in rapidity between jets in proton–proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} = 7\\ \\mathrm{TeV}$$

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.

    A study of dijet production in proton-proton collisions was performed at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV for jets with pt > 35 GeV and abs(y) < 4.7 using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2010. Events with at least one pair of jets are denoted as 'inclusive'. Events with exactly one pair of jets are called 'exclusive'. The ratio of the cross section of all pairwise combinations of jets to the exclusive dijet cross section as a function of the rapidity difference between jets abs(Delta(y)) is measured for the first time up to abs(Delta(y)) = 9.2. Themore » ratio of the cross section for the pair consisting of the most forward and the most backward jet from the inclusive sample to the exclusive dijet cross section is also presented. The predictions of the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA6 and PYTHIA8 agree with the measurements. In both ratios the HERWIG++ generator exhibits a more pronounced rise versus abs(Delta(y)) than observed in the data. The BFKL-motivated generators CASCADE and HEJ+ARIADNE predict for these ratios a significantly stronger rise than observed.« less

  2. Electronic Absolute Cartesian Autocollimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    An electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator performs the same basic optical function as does a conventional all-optical or a conventional electronic autocollimator but differs in the nature of its optical target and the manner in which the position of the image of the target is measured. The term absolute in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of the position measurement, which, unlike in a conventional electronic autocollimator, is based absolutely on the position of the image rather than on an assumed proportionality between the position and the levels of processed analog electronic signals. The term Cartesian in the name of this apparatus reflects the nature of its optical target. Figure 1 depicts the electronic functional blocks of an electronic absolute Cartesian autocollimator along with its basic optical layout, which is the same as that of a conventional autocollimator. Referring first to the optical layout and functions only, this or any autocollimator is used to measure the compound angular deviation of a flat datum mirror with respect to the optical axis of the autocollimator itself. The optical components include an illuminated target, a beam splitter, an objective or collimating lens, and a viewer or detector (described in more detail below) at a viewing plane. The target and the viewing planes are focal planes of the lens. Target light reflected by the datum mirror is imaged on the viewing plane at unit magnification by the collimating lens. If the normal to the datum mirror is parallel to the optical axis of the autocollimator, then the target image is centered on the viewing plane. Any angular deviation of the normal from the optical axis manifests itself as a lateral displacement of the target image from the center. The magnitude of the displacement is proportional to the focal length and to the magnitude (assumed to be small) of the angular deviation. The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the axis about which the

  3. Correcting false positive medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency results from newborn screening; synthesis, purification, and standardization of branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines for use in their selective and accurate absolute quantitation by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Minkler, Paul E; Stoll, Maria S K; Ingalls, Stephen T; Hoppel, Charles L

    2017-04-01

    While selectively quantifying acylcarnitines in thousands of patient samples using UHPLC-MS/MS, we have occasionally observed unidentified branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines. Such observations are not possible using tandem MS methods, which generate pseudo-quantitative acylcarnitine "profiles". Since these "profiles" select for mass alone, they cannot distinguish authentic signal from isobaric and isomeric interferences. For example, some of the samples containing branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines were, in fact, expanded newborn screening false positive "profiles" for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). Using our fast, highly selective, and quantitatively accurate UHPLC-MS/MS acylcarnitine determination method, we corrected the false positive tandem MS results and reported the sample results as normal for octanoylcarnitine (the marker for MCADD). From instances such as these, we decided to further investigate the presence of branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines in patient samples. To accomplish this, we synthesized and chromatographically characterized several branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines (in addition to valproylcarnitine): 2-methylheptanoylcarnitine, 6-methylheptanoylcarnitine, 2,2-dimethylhexanoylcarnitine, 3,3-dimethylhexanoylcarnitine, 3,5-dimethylhexanoylcarnitine, 2-ethylhexanoylcarnitine, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentanoylcarnitine. We then compared their behavior with branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines observed in patient samples and demonstrated our ability to chromographically resolve, and thus distinguish, octanoylcarnitine from branched-chain C8 acylcarnitines, correcting false positive MCADD results from expanded newborn screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Absolute Equilibrium Entropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1997-01-01

    The entropy associated with absolute equilibrium ensemble theories of ideal, homogeneous, fluid and magneto-fluid turbulence is discussed and the three-dimensional fluid case is examined in detail. A sigma-function is defined, whose minimum value with respect to global parameters is the entropy. A comparison is made between the use of global functions sigma and phase functions H (associated with the development of various H-theorems of ideal turbulence). It is shown that the two approaches are complimentary though conceptually different: H-theorems show that an isolated system tends to equilibrium while sigma-functions allow the demonstration that entropy never decreases when two previously isolated systems are combined. This provides a more complete picture of entropy in the statistical mechanics of ideal fluids.

  5. Bundle Branch Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  6. NCO Production Management Branch

    Science.gov Websites

    Climate Climate Prediction Climate Archives Weather Safety Storm Ready NOAA Central Library Photo Library Management Branch Production Management Branch About the Production Management Branch NCO REQUEST FOR CHANGE (RFC) DATABASE ACCESS NCO Request For Change (RFC) Archive [For INTERNAL Use Only] NCO Request For

  7. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments inmore » Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.« less

  8. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  9. Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

  10. Branching ratio measurements of B meson decays to J/psi meson eta meson kaon and charged B meson decays to neutral D meson charged kaon with neutral D meson decays to positive pion negative pion neutral pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qinglin

    Results are presented for the decays of B → J/psietaK and B+/- → DK+/-, respectively, with experimental data collected with BABAR detector at PEP-II, located at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). With 90 x 106 BB¯ events at the Upsilon(4S) resonance, we obtained branching fractions of B (B+/- → J/psietaK +/-) = [10.8 +/- 2.3(stat) +/- 2.4(syst)] x 10-5 and B (B0 → J/psieta K0S ) = [8.4 +/- 2.6(stat) +/- 2.7( syst)] x 10-5; and we set an upper limit of B [B+/- → X(3872) K+/- → J/psietaK +/-] < 7.7 x 10-6 at 90% confidence level. The branching fraction of decay chain B (B+/- → DK +/- → pi+pi-pi 0K+/-) = [5.5 +/- 1.0( stat) +/- 0.7(syst)] x 10-6 with 229 x 106 BB¯ events at Upsilon(4S) resonance, here D represents the neutral D meson. The decay rate asymmetry is A = 0.02 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.03(syst) for this full decay chain. This decay can be used to extract the unitarity angle gamma, a weak CP violation phase, through the interference of decay production of D0 and D¯ 0 to pi+pi-pi 0.

  11. First observation of B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) and measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+)/B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-)).

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-11-06

    A combined mass and particle identification fit is used to make the first observation of the decay B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) and measure the branching fraction of B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) relative to B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-). This analysis uses 1.2 fb(-1) integrated luminosity of pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We observe a B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) signal with a statistical significance of 8.1 sigma and measure B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+/-)K(-/+) /B(B(s)(0) --> D(s)(+)pi(-) 0.097+/-0.018(stat) +/- 0.009(syst).

  12. Randomized branch sampling

    Treesearch

    Harry T. Valentine

    2002-01-01

    Randomized branch sampling (RBS) is a special application of multistage probability sampling (see Sampling, environmental), which was developed originally by Jessen [3] to estimate fruit counts on individual orchard trees. In general, the method can be used to obtain estimates of many different attributes of trees or other branched plants. The usual objective of RBS is...

  13. Entanglement branching operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  14. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  15. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  16. Fine-Branched Ridges

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-14

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft shows numerous branching ridges with various degrees of sinuosity. These branching forms resemble tributaries funneling and draining into larger channel trunks towards the upper portion of the scene. The raised relief of these branching ridges suggests that these are ancient channels are inverted due to lithification and cementation of the riverbed sediment, which made it more resistant to erosion than the surrounding material. Wind-blown bedforms are abundant and resemble small ridges that are aligned in an approximately north-south direction. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20006

  17. Branches of the Facial Artery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Geun In; Park, Hye Jin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review the name of the branches, to review the classification of the branching pattern, and to clarify a presence percentage of each branch of the facial artery, systematically. In a PubMed search, the search terms "facial," AND "artery," AND "classification OR variant OR pattern" were used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 system was used for statistical analysis. Among the 500 titles, 18 articles were selected and reviewed systematically. Most of the articles focused on "classification" according to the "terminal branch." Several authors classified the facial artery according to their terminal branches. Most of them, however, did not describe the definition of "terminal branch." There were confusions within the classifications. When the inferior labial artery was absent, 3 different types were used. The "alar branch" or "nasal branch" was used instead of the "lateral nasal branch." The angular branch was used to refer to several different branches. The presence as a percentage of each branch according to the branches in Gray's Anatomy (premasseteric, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular) varied. No branch was used with 100% consistency. The superior labial branch was most frequently cited (95.7%, 382 arteries in 399 hemifaces). The angular branch (53.9%, 219 arteries in 406 hemifaces) and the premasseteric branch were least frequently cited (53.8%, 43 arteries in 80 hemifaces). There were significant differences among each of the 5 branches (P < 0.05) except between the angular branch and the premasseteric branch and between the superior labial branch and the inferior labial branch. The authors believe identifying the presence percentage of each branch will be helpful for surgical procedures.

  18. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  19. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  20. Fuzzy branching temporal logic.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2004-04-01

    Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example.

  1. Measurement of the branching ratio of B ¯ 0 → D * + τ - ν ¯ τ relative to B ¯ 0 → D * + ℓ - ν ¯ ℓ decays with a semileptonic tagging method

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Iijima, T.; Adamczyk, K.

    We report a measurement of the ratio R(D*) = B(more » $$\\bar{B}$$ 0→ D *+τ -$$\\bar{v}$$τ )/B($$\\bar{B}$$ 0→D *+ℓ -$$\\bar{v}$$ℓ), where ℓ denotes an electron or a muon. The results are based on a data sample containing 772 × 10 6 B$$\\bar{B}$$ pairs recorded at the (4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e +e - collider. We select a sample of B 0 $$\\bar{B}$$ 0pairs by reconstructing both B mesons in semileptonic decays to D *∓ℓ ±. We measure R(D*) = 0.302±0.030(stat) ±0.011(syst), which is within 1.6σ of the Standard Model theoretical expectation, where the standard deviation σ includes systematic uncertainties. We use this measurement to constrain several scenarios of new physics in a model-independent approach.« less

  2. Measurement of the branching ratio of B ¯ 0 → D * + τ - ν ¯ τ relative to B ¯ 0 → D * + ℓ - ν ¯ ℓ decays with a semileptonic tagging method

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Iijima, T.; Adamczyk, K.

    We report a measurement of the ratio R(D*)=B(more » $$\\bar{B}$$ 0→D* +τ -$$\\bar{v}$$$\\bar{τ}$$)/B($$\\bar{B}$$ 0→D* +ℓ -$$\\bar{v}$$ℓ), where ℓ denotes an electron or a muon. The results are based on a data sample containing 772×10 6 B$$\\bar{B}$$ pairs recorded at the Υ(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB e +e - collider. We select a sample of B0$$\\bar{B}$$ 0 pairs by reconstructing both B mesons in semileptonic decays to D* ∓ℓ ±. We measure R(D*)=0.302±0.030(stat)±0.011(syst), which is within 1.6σ of the Standard Model theoretical expectation, where the standard deviation σ includes systematic uncertainties. We use this measurement to constrain several scenarios of new physics in a model-independent approach.« less

  3. Enhancing the branching ratios in the dissociation channels for O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule by designing optimum laser pulses: A study using stochastic optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Talukder, Srijeeta; Chaudhury, Pinaki, E-mail: pinakc@rediffmail.com; Sen, Shrabani

    We propose a strategy of using a stochastic optimization technique, namely, simulated annealing to design optimum laser pulses (both IR and UV) to achieve greater fluxes along the two dissociating channels (O{sup 18} + O{sup 16}O{sup 16} and O{sup 16} + O{sup 16}O{sup 18}) in O{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup 18} molecule. We show that the integrated fluxes obtained along the targeted dissociating channel is larger with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. The flux ratios are also more impressive with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. We also look at the evolution contours of the wavefunctions alongmore » the two channels with time after the actions of both the IR and UV pulses and compare the profiles for unoptimized (initial) and optimized fields for better understanding the results that we achieve. We also report the pulse parameters obtained as well as the final shapes they take.« less

  4. Branch classification: A new mechanism for improving branch predictor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.Y.; Hao, E.; Patt, Y.

    There is wide agreement that one of the most significant impediments to the performance of current and future pipelined superscalar processors is the presence of conditional branches in the instruction stream. Speculative execution is one solution to the branch problem, but speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative work is discarded if a branch is mispredicted. For it to be effective, speculative execution requires a very accurate branch predictor; 95% accuracy is not good enough. This paper proposes branch classification, a methodology for building more accurate branch predictors. Branch classification allows anmore » individual branch instruction to be associated with the branch predictor best suited to predict its direction. Using this approach, a hybrid branch predictor can be constructed such that each component branch predictor predicts those branches for which it is best suited. To demonstrate the usefulness of branch classification, an example classification scheme is given and a new hybrid predictor is built based on this scheme which achieves a higher prediction accuracy than any branch predictor previously reported in the literature.« less

  5. Branched Hamiltonians and supersymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2014-03-21

    Some examples of branched Hamiltonians are explored both classically and in the context of quantum mechanics, as recently advocated by Shapere and Wilczek. These are in fact cases of switchback potentials, albeit in momentum space, as previously analyzed for quasi-Hamiltonian chaotic dynamical systems in a classical setting, and as encountered in analogous renormalization group flows for quantum theories which exhibit RG cycles. In conclusion, a basic two-worlds model, with a pair of Hamiltonian branches related by supersymmetry, is considered in detail.

  6. Theoretical branching ratios for the 5I7 to 5I7 levels of Ho(3+) in the garnets A3B2C3O12 (A = Y,La,Lu,Gd; B = Al,Lu,Sc,Ga; C = Al,Ga)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filer, Elizabeth D.; Morrison, Clyde A.; Turner, Gregory A.; Barnes, Norman P.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an experimental study investigating triply ionized holmium in 10 garnets using the point-change model to predict theoretical energy levels and temperature-dependent branching ratios for the 5I7 to 5I8 manifolds for temperatures between 50 and 400 K. Plots were made for the largest lines at 300 K. YScAG was plotted twice, once for each set of X-ray data available. Energy levels are predicted based on theoretical crystal-field parameters, and good agreement to experiment is found. It is suggested that the present set of theoretical crystal-field parameters provides good estimates of the energy levels for the other hosts on which there are no experimental optical data. X-ray and index-of-refraction data are used to evaluate the performance of 10 lasers via a quantum mechanical model to predict the position of the energy levels and the temperature-dependent branching rations of the 5I7 to 5I8 levels of holmium. The fractional population inversion required for threshold is also evaluated.

  7. New branched DNA constructs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Madhavaiah; Keller, Sascha; Gloeckner, Christian; Bornemann, Benjamin; Marx, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The Watson-Crick base pairing of DNA is an advantageous phenomenon that can be exploited when using DNA as a scaffold for directed self-organization of nanometer-sized objects. Several reports have appeared in the literature that describe the generation of branched DNA (bDNA) with variable numbers of arms that self-assembles into predesigned architectures. These bDNA units are generated by using cleverly designed rigid crossover DNA molecules. Alternatively, bDNA can be generated by using synthetic branch points derived from either nucleoside or non-nucleoside building blocks. Branched DNA has scarcely been explored for use in nanotechnology or from self-assembling perspectives. Herein, we wish to report our results for the synthesis, characterization, and assembling properties of asymmetrical bDNA molecules that are able to generate linear and circular bDNA constructs. Our strategy for the generation of bDNA is based on a branching point that makes use of a novel protecting-group strategy. The bDNA units were generated by means of automated DNA synthesis methods and were used to generate novel objects by employing chemical and biological techniques. The entities generated might be useful building blocks for DNA-based nanobiotechnology.

  8. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  9. First measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B({lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B({lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Maki, T.; Mehtala, P.

    2009-02-01

    This article presents the first measurement of the ratio of branching fractions B({lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B({lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}). Measurements in two control samples using the same technique B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) and B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*(2010){sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*(2010){sup +}{pi}{sup -}) are also reported. The analysis uses data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 172 pb{sup -1} of pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The relative branching fractions are measured to be (B({lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B({lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}{supmore » +}{pi}{sup -}))=16.6{+-}3.0(stat){+-}1.0(syst)(+2.6/-3.4)(PDG){+-}0.3 (EBR), (B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}))9.9{+-}1.0(stat){+-}0.6(syst){+-}0.4(PDG){+-}0.5(EBR), and (B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*(2010){sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}})/B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*(2010){sup +}{pi}{sup -}))=16.5{+-}2.3(stat){+-} 0.6(syst){+-}0.5(PDG){+-}0.8(EBR). The uncertainties are from statistics (stat), internal systematics (syst), world averages of measurements published by the Particle Data Group or subsidiary measurements in this analysis (PDG), and unmeasured branching fractions estimated from theory (EBR), respectively. This article also presents measurements of the branching fractions of four new {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} semileptonic decays: {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}, {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}, {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{nu}{sub {mu}}, and {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}{sigma}{sub c

  10. Physics of negative absolute temperatures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  11. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  12. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  13. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  14. Generalized and synthetic regression estimators for randomized branch sampling

    Treesearch

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2015-01-01

    In felled-tree studies, ratio and regression estimators are commonly used to convert more readily measured branch characteristics to dry crown mass estimates. In some cases, data from multiple trees are pooled to form these estimates. This research evaluates the utility of both tactics in the estimation of crown biomass following randomized branch sampling (...

  15. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

  16. Critical branching neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  17. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heft, R. E.; Koszykowski, R. F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials: flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, are analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  18. Absolute metrology for space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadé, Yves; Courteville, Alain; Dändliker, René

    2017-11-01

    The crucial issue of space-based interferometers is the laser interferometric metrology systems to monitor with very high accuracy optical path differences. Although classical high-resolution laser interferometers using a single wavelength are well developed, this type of incremental interferometer has a severe drawback: any interruption of the interferometer signal results in the loss of the zero reference, which requires a new calibration, starting at zero optical path difference. We propose in this paper an absolute metrology system based on multiplewavelength interferometry.

  19. Branching Ratio of the Electromagnetic Decay of the Σ +(1385)

    DOE PAGES

    Keller, D.; Hicks, K.; Adhikari, K. P.; ...

    2012-03-01

    The CLAS detector was used to obtain the first ever measurement of the electromagnetic decay of the Σ* +(1385) from the reaction γp → K 0 Σ* +(1385). A real photon beam with a maximum energy of 3.8 GeV was incident on a liquid-hydrogen target, resulting in the photoproduction of the kaon and Σ* hyperon. Kinematic fitting was used to separate the reaction channel from the background processes. The fitting algorithm exploited a new method to kinematically fit neutrons in the CLAS detector, leading to the partial width measurement of 250.0 ± 56.9(stat) -41.2 +34.3(sys) keV. A U-spin symmetry testmore » using the SU(3) flavor-multiplet representation yields predictions for the Σ* +(1385) → Σ +γ and Σ* 0(1385) → Λγ partial widths that agree with the experimental measurements.« less

  20. Branching Ratio of the Electromagnetic Decay of the Σ +(1385)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.; Hicks, K.; Adhikari, K. P.

    The CLAS detector was used to obtain the first ever measurement of the electromagnetic decay of the Σ* +(1385) from the reaction γp → K 0 Σ* +(1385). A real photon beam with a maximum energy of 3.8 GeV was incident on a liquid-hydrogen target, resulting in the photoproduction of the kaon and Σ* hyperon. Kinematic fitting was used to separate the reaction channel from the background processes. The fitting algorithm exploited a new method to kinematically fit neutrons in the CLAS detector, leading to the partial width measurement of 250.0 ± 56.9(stat) -41.2 +34.3(sys) keV. A U-spin symmetry testmore » using the SU(3) flavor-multiplet representation yields predictions for the Σ* +(1385) → Σ +γ and Σ* 0(1385) → Λγ partial widths that agree with the experimental measurements.« less

  1. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  2. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  3. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  4. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  5. Absolute measurements of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Peng

    The ability to produce mirrors for large astronomical telescopes is limited by the accuracy of the systems used to test the surfaces of such mirrors. Typically the mirror surfaces are measured by comparing their actual shapes to a precision master, which may be created using combinations of mirrors, lenses, and holograms. The work presented here develops several optical testing techniques that do not rely on a large or expensive precision, master reference surface. In a sense these techniques provide absolute optical testing. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) has been designed with a 350 m 2 collecting area provided by a 25 m diameter primary mirror made out from seven circular independent mirror segments. These segments create an equivalent f/0.7 paraboloidal primary mirror consisting of a central segment and six outer segments. Each of the outer segments is 8.4 m in diameter and has an off-axis aspheric shape departing 14.5 mm from the best-fitting sphere. Much of the work in this dissertation is motivated by the need to measure the surfaces or such large mirrors accurately, without relying on a large or expensive precision reference surface. One method for absolute testing describing in this dissertation uses multiple measurements relative to a reference surface that is located in different positions with respect to the test surface of interest. The test measurements are performed with an algorithm that is based on the maximum likelihood (ML) method. Some methodologies for measuring large flat surfaces in the 2 m diameter range and for measuring the GMT primary mirror segments were specifically developed. For example, the optical figure of a 1.6-m flat mirror was determined to 2 nm rms accuracy using multiple 1-meter sub-aperture measurements. The optical figure of the reference surface used in the 1-meter sub-aperture measurements was also determined to the 2 nm level. The optical test methodology for a 1.7-m off axis parabola was evaluated by moving several

  6. Mills' ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricz, Árpád

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we study the monotonicity properties of some functions involving the Mills' ratio of the standard normal law. From these we deduce some new functional inequalities involving the Mills' ratio, and we show that the Mills' ratio is strictly completely monotonic. At the end of this paper we present some Turán-type inequalities for Mills' ratio.

  7. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.P.P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony, E-mail: J.Pinto-Vieira@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ( w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contractingmore » counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.« less

  8. Giving More Realistic Definitions of Trigonometric Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharjee, Pramode Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Trigonometry is a well known branch of Mathematics. The study of trigonometry is of great importance in surveying, astronomy, navigation, engineering, and in different branches of science. This paper reports on the discovery of flaws in the traditional definitions of trigonometric ratios of an angle, which (in most cases) make use of the most…

  9. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Treesearch

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  10. Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.

    2011-11-01

    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -}, sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase {gamma}, using data from 7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K)=[22.0{+-}8.6(stat){+-}2.6(syst)]x10{sup -3}, R{sup +}(K)=[42.6{+-}13.7(stat){+-}2.8(syst)]x10{sup -3}, R{sup -}(K)=[3.8{+-}10.3(stat){+-}2.7(syst)]x10{sup -3} as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K)=-0.82{+-}0.44(stat){+-}0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantitiesmore » for B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -} decay are also reported.« less

  11. Demulsification. [branched polyalkylene polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, W.J.; Jenkins, F.W.

    1966-07-05

    A method of demulsification uses branched polyalkylene polyamines or their derivatives as demulsifiers for water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions. In addition to demulsification these products have a broad spectrum of uses. Among other uses are the following: (1) as corrosion inhibitors; (2) as fuel oil or lubricating oil additives; (3) as scale preventatives; (4) as acidizing additives; (5) as water-treating agents in waterflooding operations; (6) as mud additives; (7) as agents for the removal of mud filter cake from the walls of newly drilled wells; (8) as agents in paraffin solvents; (9) as additives in fracturing fluids; and (10) as agentsmore » in bactericides and fungicides. (8 claims)« less

  12. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of Ds+ --> tau+ nutau decay.

    PubMed

    Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G

    2008-04-25

    Using a sample of tagged D(s)(+) decays collected near the D(s)(*+/-)D(s)(-/+) peak production energy in e(+)e(-) collisions with the CLEO-c detector, we study the leptonic decay D(s)(+)-->tau(+)nu(tau) via the decay channel tau(+)-->e(+)nu(e)nu(tau). We measure B(D(s)(+)-->tau(+)nu(tau))=(6.17+/-0.71+/-0.34)%, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. Combining this result with our measurements of D(s)(+)-->mu(+)nu(mu) and D(s)(+)-->tau(+)nu(tau) (via tau(+)-->pi(+)nu(tau)), we determine f(D(s))=(274+/-10+/-5) MeV.

  13. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of Ds+→τ+ντ Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecklund, K. M.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sultana, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P.; Reed, J.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Mehrabyan, S.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Libby, J.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.

    2008-04-01

    Using a sample of tagged Ds+ decays collected near the Ds*±Ds∓ peak production energy in e+e- collisions with the CLEO-c detector, we study the leptonic decay Ds+→τ+ντ via the decay channel τ+→e+νeν¯τ. We measure B(Ds+→τ+ντ)=(6.17±0.71±0.34)%, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. Combining this result with our measurements of Ds+→μ+νμ and Ds+→τ+ντ (via τ+→π+ν¯τ), we determine fDs=(274±10±5)MeV.

  14. Effects of branch height on leaf gas exchange, branch hydraulic conductance and branch sap flux in open-grown ponderosa pine.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Robert M; Bond, Barbara J; Senock, Randy S; Ryan, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that stomata respond to changes in hydraulic conductance of the flow path from soil to leaf. In open-grown tall trees, branches of different heights may have different hydraulic conductances because of differences in path length and growth. We determined if leaf gas exchange, branch sap flux, leaf specific hydraulic conductance, foliar carbon isotope composition (delta13C) and ratios of leaf area to sapwood area within branches were dependent on branch height (10 and 25 m) within the crowns of four open-grown ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) trees. We found no difference in leaf gas exchange or leaf specific hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf between the upper and lower canopy of our study trees. Branch sap flux per unit leaf area and per unit sapwood area did not differ between the 10- and 25-m canopy positions; however, branch sap flux per unit sapwood area at the 25-m position had consistently lower values. Branches at the 25-m canopy position had lower leaf to sapwood area ratios (0.17 m2 cm-2) compared with branches at the 10-m position (0.27 m2 cm-2) (P = 0.03). Leaf specific conductance of branches in the upper crown did not differ from that in the lower crown. Other studies at our site indicate lower hydraulic conductance, sap flux, whole-tree canopy conductance and photosynthesis in old trees compared with young trees. This study suggests that height alone may not explain these differences.

  15. Measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions of $$B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}$$ and $$B^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$$ and $$\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp})/\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm})$$ in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 7 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-01-13

    The ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions (σ(B ± c)B(B ± c→J/ψπ ±))/(σ(B ±)B(B ±→J/ψK ±)) is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The kinematic region investigated requires B c ± and B ± mesons with transverse momentum p T > 15 GeV and rapidity |y|< 1.6. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb -1. The ratio is determined to be [0.48±0.05(stat)± 0.03(syst)±0.05 (τBc)]%. The B c ± → J/ψπ ± π ± π ∓ decay is also observedmore » in the same data sample. Using a model-independent method developed to measure the efficiency given the presence of resonant behaviour in the three-pion system, the ratio of the branching fractions B(B ± c→J/ψπ ±π ±π ∓)/B(B ± c→J/ψπ ±) is measured to be 2.55±0.80(stat)±0.33(syst) +0.04 -0.01(τ Bc), consistent with the previous LHCb result.« less

  16. Measurement of the ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions of $$B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}$$ and $$B^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi K^{\\pm}$$ and $$\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp})/\\mathcal{B}(B_{c}^{\\pm} \\to J/\\psi \\pi^{\\pm})$$ in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    The ratio of the production cross sections times branching fractions (σ(B ± c)B(B ± c→J/ψπ ±))/(σ(B ±)B(B ±→J/ψK ±)) is studied in proton-proton collisions at a center of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The kinematic region investigated requires B c ± and B ± mesons with transverse momentum p T > 15 GeV and rapidity |y|< 1.6. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb -1. The ratio is determined to be [0.48±0.05(stat)± 0.03(syst)±0.05 (τBc)]%. The B c ± → J/ψπ ± π ± π ∓ decay is also observedmore » in the same data sample. Using a model-independent method developed to measure the efficiency given the presence of resonant behaviour in the three-pion system, the ratio of the branching fractions B(B ± c→J/ψπ ±π ±π ∓)/B(B ± c→J/ψπ ±) is measured to be 2.55±0.80(stat)±0.33(syst) +0.04 -0.01(τ Bc), consistent with the previous LHCb result.« less

  17. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  18. The control of branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  19. Branch retinal arterial occlusion.

    PubMed

    Subedi, S; Shrestha, C

    2010-01-01

    Retinal arterial occlusion is an ocular emergency in which visual prognosis is poor mostly due to late presentation of the patient and macular involvement. The casee described, in this report is ane incidence of Branch Retinal Arterial Occlusion in a 22 year old female with grade II Mitral Regurgitation. The patiente presented witha complaint of painless, diminution of vision in the right eyn. She also presented with perception of black shadow in the superior visual fiel n of the same eye5 for five days. There was no significant systemic ord personal history. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/60 and 6/6 in the right and left eyes,y which did not improve with glasses or pin-hole. Anterior segment including papillary reaction was normal in both eyes while Fundus examination of the right eye revealed retinal whitening inside the inferotemporal vascular arcade that was encroaching foveolar avascular zone. Visual field defect was detected at superonasally inside arhade but Fundus Fluorescence Angiography was normal. An echoycardiograph revealed grade II Mitral Regurgitation. The patient was kept on observation and after two2 days of follow-up, vision in the right eye was improved to 6/6 unaided but visual field defect was remained same.

  20. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Precision determination of absolute neutron flux

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, A. T.; Anderson, E. S.; Dewey, M. S.; ...

    2018-06-08

    A technique for establishing the total neutron rate of a highly-collimated monochromatic cold neutron beam was demonstrated using an alpha–gamma counter. The method involves only the counting of measured rates and is independent of neutron cross sections, decay chain branching ratios, and neutron beam energy. For the measurement, a target of 10B-enriched boron carbide totally absorbed the neutrons in a monochromatic beam, and the rate of absorbed neutrons was determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on 10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. A second measurement based on Bragg diffraction from a perfect silicon crystal was performedmore » to determine the mean de Broglie wavelength of the beam to a precision of 0.024%. With these measurements, the detection efficiency of a neutron monitor based on neutron absorption on 6Li was determined to an overall uncertainty of 0.058%. We discuss the principle of the alpha–gamma method and present details of how the measurement was performed including the systematic effects. We further describe how this method may be used for applications in neutron dosimetry and metrology, fundamental neutron physics, and neutron cross section measurements.« less

  2. Precision determination of absolute neutron flux

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, A. T.; Anderson, E. S.; Dewey, M. S.

    A technique for establishing the total neutron rate of a highly-collimated monochromatic cold neutron beam was demonstrated using an alpha–gamma counter. The method involves only the counting of measured rates and is independent of neutron cross sections, decay chain branching ratios, and neutron beam energy. For the measurement, a target of 10B-enriched boron carbide totally absorbed the neutrons in a monochromatic beam, and the rate of absorbed neutrons was determined by counting 478 keV gamma rays from neutron capture on 10B with calibrated high-purity germanium detectors. A second measurement based on Bragg diffraction from a perfect silicon crystal was performedmore » to determine the mean de Broglie wavelength of the beam to a precision of 0.024%. With these measurements, the detection efficiency of a neutron monitor based on neutron absorption on 6Li was determined to an overall uncertainty of 0.058%. We discuss the principle of the alpha–gamma method and present details of how the measurement was performed including the systematic effects. We further describe how this method may be used for applications in neutron dosimetry and metrology, fundamental neutron physics, and neutron cross section measurements.« less

  3. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  4. The influence of branch order on optimal leaf vein geometries: Murray's law and area preserving branching.

    PubMed

    Price, Charles A; Knox, Sarah-Jane C; Brodribb, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    Models that predict the form of hierarchical branching networks typically invoke optimization based on biomechanical similitude, the minimization of impedance to fluid flow, or construction costs. Unfortunately, due to the small size and high number of vein segments found in real biological networks, complete descriptions of networks needed to evaluate such models are rare. To help address this we report results from the analysis of the branching geometry of 349 leaf vein networks comprising over 1.5 million individual vein segments. In addition to measuring the diameters of individual veins before and after vein bifurcations, we also assign vein orders using the Horton-Strahler ordering algorithm adopted from the study of river networks. Our results demonstrate that across all leaves, both radius tapering and the ratio of daughter to parent branch areas for leaf veins are in strong agreement with the expectation from Murray's law. However, as veins become larger, area ratios shift systematically toward values expected under area-preserving branching. Our work supports the idea that leaf vein networks differentiate roles of leaf support and hydraulic supply between hierarchical orders.

  5. Estimating the absolute wealth of households

    PubMed Central

    Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. Methods We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. Findings The median absolute wealth estimates of 1 403 186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723–6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R2 = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Conclusion Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality. PMID:26170506

  6. Absolute optical metrology : nanometers to kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, O. P.; Peters, R. D.; Liebe, C. C.

    2005-01-01

    We provide and overview of the developments in the field of high-accuracy absolute optical metrology with emphasis on space-based applications. Specific work on the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor is described along with novel applications of the sensor.

  7. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  8. Estimating the absolute wealth of households.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Gerkey, Drew; Hadley, Craig

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the absolute wealth of households using data from demographic and health surveys. We developed a new metric, the absolute wealth estimate, based on the rank of each surveyed household according to its material assets and the assumed shape of the distribution of wealth among surveyed households. Using data from 156 demographic and health surveys in 66 countries, we calculated absolute wealth estimates for households. We validated the method by comparing the proportion of households defined as poor using our estimates with published World Bank poverty headcounts. We also compared the accuracy of absolute versus relative wealth estimates for the prediction of anthropometric measures. The median absolute wealth estimates of 1,403,186 households were 2056 international dollars per capita (interquartile range: 723-6103). The proportion of poor households based on absolute wealth estimates were strongly correlated with World Bank estimates of populations living on less than 2.00 United States dollars per capita per day (R(2)  = 0.84). Absolute wealth estimates were better predictors of anthropometric measures than relative wealth indexes. Absolute wealth estimates provide new opportunities for comparative research to assess the effects of economic resources on health and human capital, as well as the long-term health consequences of economic change and inequality.

  9. Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…

  10. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  11. 49 CFR 236.709 - Block, absolute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Block, absolute. 236.709 Section 236.709 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Block, absolute. A block in which no train is permitted to enter while it is occupied by another train. ...

  12. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  13. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  14. Absolute Astrometry in the next 50 Years - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høg, E.

    2018-01-01

    With the Gaia astrometric satellite in orbit since December 2013 it is time to look at the future of fundamental astrometry and a time frame of 50 years is needed in this matter. A space mission with Gaia-like astrometric performance is required, but not necessarily a Gaia-like satellite. A dozen science issues for a Gaia successor mission in twenty years, with launch about 2035, are presented and in this context also other possibilities for absolute astrometry with milliarcsecond (mas) or sub-mas accuracies are discussed in my report at http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2190. In brief, the two missions (2013 and 2035) would provide an astrometric foundation for all branches of astronomy from the solar system and stellar systems, including exo-planet systems with long periods, to compact galaxies, quasars and Dark Matter substructures by data which cannot be surpassed in the next 50 years.

  15. Absolute and convective instabilities in combined Couette-Poiseuille flow past a neo-Hookean solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patne, Ramkarn; Shankar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Temporal and spatio-temporal stability analyses are carried out to characterize the occurrence of convective and absolute instabilities in combined Couette-Poiseuille flow of a Newtonian fluid past a deformable, neo-Hookean solid layer in the creeping-flow limit. Plane Couette flow of a Newtonian fluid past a neo-Hookean solid becomes temporally unstable in the inertia-less limit when the parameter Γ = V η/(GR) exceeds a critical value. Here, V is the velocity of the top plate, η is the fluid viscosity, G is the shear modulus of the solid layer, and R is the fluid layer thickness. The Kupfer-Bers method is employed to demarcate regions of absolute and convective instabilities in the Γ-H parameter space, where H is the ratio of solid to fluid thickness in the system. For certain ranges of the thickness ratio H, we find that the flow could be absolutely unstable, and the critical Γ required for absolute instability is very close to that for temporal instability, thus making the flow absolutely unstable at the onset of temporal instability. In some cases, there is a gap in the parameter Γ between the temporal and absolute instability boundaries. The present study thus shows that absolute instabilities are possible, even at very low Reynolds numbers in flow past deformable solid surfaces. The presence of absolute instabilities could potentially be exploited in the enhancement of mixing at low Reynolds numbers in flow through channels with deformable solid walls.

  16. Branch target buffer design and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perleberg, Chris H.; Smith, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to two major issues in the design of branch target buffers (BTBs), with the goal of achieving maximum performance for a given number of bits allocated to the BTB design. The first issue is BTB management; the second is what information to keep in the BTB. A number of solutions to these problems are reviewed, and various optimizations in the design of BTBs are discussed. Design target miss ratios for BTBs are developed, making it possible to estimate the performance of BTBs for real workloads.

  17. Globular Clusters: Absolute Proper Motions and Galactic Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, A. A.; Glushkova, E. V.; Dambis, A. K.; Rastorguev, A. S.; Yalyalieva, L. N.; Klinichev, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-match objects from several different astronomical catalogs to determine the absolute proper motions of stars within the 30-arcmin radius fields of 115 Milky-Way globular clusters with the accuracy of 1-2 mas yr-1. The proper motions are based on positional data recovered from the USNO-B1, 2MASS, URAT1, ALLWISE, UCAC5, and Gaia DR1 surveys with up to ten positions spanning an epoch difference of up to about 65 years, and reduced to Gaia DR1 TGAS frame using UCAC5 as the reference catalog. Cluster members are photometrically identified by selecting horizontal- and red-giant branch stars on color-magnitude diagrams, and the mean absolute proper motions of the clusters with a typical formal error of about 0.4 mas yr-1 are computed by averaging the proper motions of selected members. The inferred absolute proper motions of clusters are combined with available radial-velocity data and heliocentric distance estimates to compute the cluster orbits in terms of the Galactic potential models based on Miyamoto and Nagai disk, Hernquist spheroid, and modified isothermal dark-matter halo (axisymmetric model without a bar) and the same model + rotating Ferre's bar (non-axisymmetric). Five distant clusters have higher-than-escape velocities, most likely due to large errors of computed transversal velocities, whereas the computed orbits of all other clusters remain bound to the Galaxy. Unlike previously published results, we find the bar to affect substantially the orbits of most of the clusters, even those at large Galactocentric distances, bringing appreciable chaotization, especially in the portions of the orbits close to the Galactic center, and stretching out the orbits of some of the thick-disk clusters.

  18. Absolute determination of local tropospheric OH concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armerding, Wolfgang; Comes, Franz-Josef

    1994-01-01

    Long path absorption (LPA) according to Lambert Beer's law is a method to determine absolute concentrations of trace gases such as tropospheric OH. We have developed a LPA instrument which is based on a rapid tuning of the light source which is a frequency doubled dye laser. The laser is tuned across two or three OH absorption features around 308 nm with a scanning speed of 0.07 cm(exp -1)/microsecond and a repetition rate of 1.3 kHz. This high scanning speed greatly reduces the fluctuation of the light intensity caused by the atmosphere. To obtain the required high sensitivity the laser output power is additionally made constant and stabilized by an electro-optical modulator. The present sensitivity is of the order of a few times 10(exp 5) OH per cm(exp 3) for an acquisition time of a minute and an absorption path length of only 1200 meters so that a folding of the optical path in a multireflection cell was possible leading to a lateral dimension of the cell of a few meters. This allows local measurements to be made. Tropospheric measurements have been carried out in 1991 resulting in the determination of OH diurnal variation at specific days in late summer. Comparison with model calculations have been made. Interferences are mainly due to SO2 absorption. The problem of OH self generation in the multireflection cell is of minor extent. This could be shown by using different experimental methods. The minimum-maximum signal to noise ratio is about 8 x 10(exp -4) for a single scan. Due to the small size of the absorption cell the realization of an open air laboratory is possible in which by use of an additional UV light source or by additional fluxes of trace gases the chemistry can be changed under controlled conditions allowing kinetic studies of tropospheric photochemistry to be made in open air.

  19. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  20. Equations to convert compacted crown ratio to uncompacted crown ratio for trees in the Interior West

    Treesearch

    Chris Toney; Matthew C. Reeves

    2009-01-01

    Crown ratio is the proportion of total tree length supporting live foliage. Inventory programs of the US Forest Service generally define crown ratio in terms of compacted or uncompacted measurements. Measurement of compacted crown ratio (CCR) involves envisioning the transfer of lower branches of trees with asymmetric crowns to fill holes in the upper portion of the...

  1. Absolute quantification of microbial taxon abundances.

    PubMed

    Props, Ruben; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Rubbens, Peter; De Vrieze, Jo; Hernandez Sanabria, Emma; Waegeman, Willem; Monsieurs, Pieter; Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico

    2017-02-01

    High-throughput amplicon sequencing has become a well-established approach for microbial community profiling. Correlating shifts in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa with environmental gradients is the goal of many microbiome surveys. As the abundances generated by this technology are semi-quantitative by definition, the observed dynamics may not accurately reflect those of the actual taxon densities. We combined the sequencing approach (16S rRNA gene) with robust single-cell enumeration technologies (flow cytometry) to quantify the absolute taxon abundances. A detailed longitudinal analysis of the absolute abundances resulted in distinct abundance profiles that were less ambiguous and expressed in units that can be directly compared across studies. We further provide evidence that the enrichment of taxa (increase in relative abundance) does not necessarily relate to the outgrowth of taxa (increase in absolute abundance). Our results highlight that both relative and absolute abundances should be considered for a comprehensive biological interpretation of microbiome surveys.

  2. Low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Athena P; Bramson, Brian; van der Horst, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Yusuf; Chasela, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina; Knight, Rodney; Lugalia, Lebah; Tegha, Gerald; Joaki, George; Jafali, Robert; Jamieson, Denise J

    2005-07-01

    Infants of African origin have a lower normal range of absolute neutrophil counts than white infants; this fact, however, remains under appreciated by clinical researchers in the United States. During the initial stages of a clinical trial in Malawi, the authors noted an unexpectedly high number of infants with absolute neutrophil counts that would be classifiable as neutropenic using the National Institutes of Health's Division of AIDS toxicity tables. The authors argue that the relevant Division of AIDS table does not take into account the available evidence of low absolute neutrophil counts in African infants and that a systematic collection of data from many African settings might help establish the absolute neutrophil count cutpoints to be used for defining neutropenia in African populations.

  3. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  4. Absolute colorimetric characterization of a DSLR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Bianco, Simone; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    A simple but effective technique for absolute colorimetric camera characterization is proposed. It offers a large dynamic range requiring just a single, off-the-shelf target and a commonly available controllable light source for the characterization. The characterization task is broken down in two modules, respectively devoted to absolute luminance estimation and to colorimetric characterization matrix estimation. The characterized camera can be effectively used as a tele-colorimeter, giving an absolute estimation of the XYZ data in cd=m2. The user is only required to vary the f - number of the camera lens or the exposure time t, to better exploit the sensor dynamic range. The estimated absolute tristimulus values closely match the values measured by a professional spectro-radiometer.

  5. On the calculation of the absolute grand potential of confined smectic-A phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Baus, Marc; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determine the absolute grand potential Λ along a confined smectic-A branch of a calamitic liquid crystal system enclosed in a slit pore of transverse area A and width L, using the rod-rod Gay-Berne potential and a rod-wall potential favouring perpendicular orientation at the walls. For a confined phase with an integer number of smectic layers sandwiched between the opposite walls, we obtain the excess properties (excess grand potential Λexc, solvation force fs and adsorption Γ) with respect to the bulk phase at the same μ (chemical potential) and T (temperature) state point. While usual thermodynamic integration methods are used along the confined smectic branch to estimate the grand potential difference as μ is varied at fixed L, T, the absolute grand potential at one reference state point is obtained via the evaluation of the absolute Helmholtz free energy in the (N, L, A, T) canonical ensemble. It proceeds via a sequence of free energy difference estimations involving successively the cost of localising rods on layers and the switching on of a one-dimensional harmonic field to keep layers integrity coupled to the elimination of inter-layers and wall interactions. The absolute free energy of the resulting set of fully independent layers of interacting rods is finally estimated via the existing procedures. This work opens the way to the computer simulation study of phase transitions implying confined layered phases.

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application. PMID:26473855

  7. Space plasma branch at NRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  8. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  9. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  10. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  11. Structural development of redwood branches and its effects on wood growth.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Russell D; Sillett, Stephen C; Carroll, Allyson L

    2014-03-01

    Redwood branches provide all the carbohydrates for the most carbon-heavy forests on Earth, and recent whole-tree measurements have quantified trunk growth rates associated with complete branch inventories. Providing all of a tree's photosynthetic capacity, branches represent an increasing proportion of total aboveground wood production as trees enlarge. To examine branch development and its effects on wood volume growth, we dissected 31 branches from eight Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. and seven Sequoiadendron giganteum Lindl. trees. The cambium-area-to-leaf-area ratio was maintained with size and age but increased with light availability, whereas the heartwood-deposition-area-to-leaf-area ratio increased with size and age but was insensitive to light availability. The proportion of foliage mass arrayed in <1-cm-diameter epicormic shoots increased with decreasing light and was higher in Sequoia (20-60%) than in Sequoiadendron (3-16%). Well-illuminated branches concentrated leaves higher and distally, while shaded branches distributed leaves lower and proximally. In similar light environments, older branches distributed leaves lower and more proximally than younger branches. Branch size, light, species, heartwood area, a heartwood-area-species interaction, and ovulate cone mass predicted 87.5% of the variability in wood volume growth of branches. After accounting for the positive effects of size and light, wood volume growth declined with heartwood area and age. The effect of age was trivial compared to the effect of heartwood area, suggesting that heartwood expansion caused the age-related decline in wood volume growth. Additionally, Sequoiadendron branches of similar size and light environment with more ovulate cones produced less wood, even though these cones were long-lived and photosynthetic, reflecting the energetic cost of seed production. These results contributed to a conceptual model of branch development in which light availability, injury

  12. Stimulus probability effects in absolute identification.

    PubMed

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of presentation probability on both proportion correct and response times. The effects were moderated by the ubiquitous stimulus position effect. The accuracy and response time data were predicted by an exemplar-based model of perceptual cognition (Kent & Lamberts, 2005). The bow in discriminability was also attenuated when presentation probability for middle items was relatively high, an effect that will constrain future model development. The study provides evidence for item-specific learning in absolute identification. Implications for other theories of absolute identification are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Absolute gravimetry for monitoring geodynamics in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Strykowski, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here are presented the preliminary results of the absolute gravity measurements done in Greenland by DTU Space with their A10 absolute gravimeter (the A10-019). The purpose, besides establishing and maintaining a national gravity network, is to study geodynamics.The absolute gravity measurements are juxtaposed with the permanent GNET GNSS stations. The first measurements were conducted in 2009 and a few sites have been re-visited. As of present is there a gravity value at 18 GNET sites.There are challenges in interpreting the measurements from Greenland and several signals has to be taken into account, besides the geodynamical signals originating from the changing load of the ice, there is also a clear signal of direct attraction from different masses. Here are presented the preliminary results of our measurements in Greenland and attempts explain them through modelling of the geodynamical signals and the direct attraction from the ocean and ice.

  14. Beta decay of the fission product 125Sb and a new complete evaluation of absolute gamma ray transition intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, M. U.; Ali, N.; Hussain, S.; Mujahid, S. A.; MacMahon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The radionuclide 125Sb is a long-lived fission product, which decays to 125Te by negative beta emission with a half-life of 1008 day. The beta decay is followed by the emission of several gamma radiations, ranging from low to medium energy, that can suitably be used for high-resolution detector calibrations, decay heat calculations and in many other applications. In this work, the beta decay of 125Sb has been studied in detail. The complete published experimental data of relative gamma ray intensities in the beta decay of the radionuclide 125Sb has been compiled. The consistency analysis was performed and discrepancies found at several gamma ray energies. Evaluation of the discrepant data was carried out using Normalized Residual and RAJEVAL methods. The decay scheme balance was carried out using beta branching ratios, internal conversion coefficients, populating and depopulating gamma transitions to 125Te levels. The work has resulted in the consistent conversion factor equal to 29.59(13) %, and determined a new evaluated set of the absolute gamma ray emission probabilities. The work has also shown 22.99% of the delayed intensity fraction as outgoing from the 58 d isomeric 144 keV energy level and 77.01% of the prompt intensity fraction reaching to the ground state from the other excited states. The results are discussed and compared with previous evaluations. The present work includes additional experimental data sets which were not included in the previous evaluations. A new set of recommended relative and absolute gamma ray emission probabilities is presented.

  15. Volumetric vessel reconstruction method for absolute blood flow velocity measurement in Doppler OCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it not only relates to the properties of the laser and the scattering particles, but also relates to the geometry of both directions of the laser beam and the flow. In this paper, focusing on the analysis of cerebral hemodynamics, we presents a method to quantify the total absolute blood flow velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) based on volumetric vessel reconstruction from pure DOCT images. A modified region growing segmentation method is first used to localize the MCA on successive DOCT B-scan images. Vessel skeletonization, followed by an averaging gradient angle calculation method, is then carried out to obtain Doppler angles along the entire MCA. Once the Doppler angles are determined, the absolute blood flow velocity of each position on the MCA is easily found. Given a seed point position on the MCA, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV. Based on experiments conducted using a swept-source optical coherence tomography system, our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches in the rodent brain.

  16. Absolute Distance Measurement with the MSTAR Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Peters, Robert; Burger, Johan; Ahn, Seh-Won; Steier, William H.; Fetterman, Harrold R.; Chang, Yian

    2003-01-01

    The MSTAR sensor (Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging) is a new system for measuring absolute distance, capable of resolving the integer cycle ambiguity of standard interferometers, and making it possible to measure distance with sub-nanometer accuracy. The sensor uses a single laser in conjunction with fast phase modulators and low frequency detectors. We describe the design of the system - the principle of operation, the metrology source, beamlaunching optics, and signal processing - and show results for target distances up to 1 meter. We then demonstrate how the system can be scaled to kilometer-scale distances.

  17. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  18. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within... below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction...

  19. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  20. Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D-FL-20

    2009-06-17

    10/01/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-68. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  3. Dependency of branch diameter growth in young Acer trees on light availability and shoot elongation.

    PubMed

    Sone, Kosei; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Many biomechanical and theoretical studies have been based on the pipe-model theory, according to which a tree is regarded as an assemblage of pipes, each having the same amount of leaf area or leaf mass. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the theory have not been extensively examined, particularly at the branch level. We analyzed how branches and trunks thickened in nine young Acer mono Maxim. var. marmoratum (Nichols) Hara f. dissectum (Wesmael) Rehder. and A. rufinerve (Siebold & Zucc.) trees. In particular, we examined the roles of light, allocation of photosynthates and shoot heterogeneity. The cross-sectional area (A) of a branch was proportional to cumulative leaf mass or leaf area of the branch, and cumulative cross-sectional area of the daughter branches (SigmaA) above a branching point was equal to the A of the mother branch. These results indicate the validity of the pipe-model theory. However, the theory was invalid for current-year growth of branch cross-sectional area (DeltaA). The DeltaA/SigmaDeltaA for a branching point was greatest (nearly equal to 1) at the crown surface, decreased with crown depth, and tended to increase again at the trunk base, and DeltaA strongly depended on light interception and the yearly increment of leaves on the branch. We examined factors that influenced DeltaA with multiple regression analysis. The ratio of DeltaA of a branch to branch leaf area depended on both relative irradiance and mean current-year shoot length of the branch, suggesting that diameter growth of a branch is determined by the balance between supply of photosynthates, which depends on light interception by the branch, and demand for photosynthates, which is created by the high cambial activity associated with vigorous shoot elongation.

  4. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  5. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  6. Increasing Capacity: Practice Effects in Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Pennie; Donkin, Christopher; Brown, Scott D.; Heathcote, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In most of the long history of the study of absolute identification--since Miller's (1956) seminal article--a severe limit on performance has been observed, and this limit has resisted improvement even by extensive practice. In a startling result, Rouder, Morey, Cowan, and Pfaltz (2004) found substantially improved performance with practice in the…

  7. On Relative and Absolute Conviction in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Conviction is a central construct in mathematics education research on justification and proof. In this paper, we claim that it is important to distinguish between absolute conviction and relative conviction. We argue that researchers in mathematics education frequently have not done so and this has lead to researchers making unwarranted claims…

  8. Absolute Points for Multiple Assignment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V.; Kowalski, K.

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to solve multiple assignment problems in which a cost is incurred only when an assignment is made at a given cell. The proposed method recursively searches for single/group absolute points to identify cells that must be loaded in any optimal solution. Unlike other methods, the first solution is the optimal solution. The…

  9. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  10. Measurement of prominent eta-decay branching fractions.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Mehrabyan, S; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-09-21

    The decay psi(2S) --> etaJ/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi(+)pi(-)pi(0), 3pi(0), pi(+)pi(-)gamma and e(+)e(-)gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precision of several of the branching fractions and their ratios is improved. Two channels, pi(+)pi(-)gamma and e(+)e(-)gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  11. Measurement of Prominent η-Decay Branching Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez, J.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Sanghi, B.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Anderson, M.; Cummings, J. P.; Danko, I.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.; Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Li, J.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Nisar, S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Sia, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Dubrovin, M.; Lincoln, A.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Naik, P.; Briere, R. A.; Ferguson, T.; Tatishvili, G.; Vogel, H.; Watkins, M. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Mohapatra, D.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Wilksen, T.; Athar, S. B.; Patel, R.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Eisenstein, B. I.; Karliner, I.; Lowrey, N.; Selen, M.; White, E. J.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Lang, B. W.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tomaradze, A.; Ernst, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; Severini, H.; Love, W.; Savinov, V.

    2007-09-01

    The decay ψ(2S)→ηJ/ψ is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent η-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for η decays to γγ, π+π-π0, 3π0, π+π-γ and e+e-γ, accounting for 99.9% of all η decays. The precision of several of the branching fractions and their ratios is improved. Two channels, π+π-γ and e+e-γ, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  12. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent... are not under a retirement system. An absolute coverage group may include positions which were...

  14. RIAD visual imaging branch assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, Sherilee F.

    1993-01-01

    Every year the demand to visualize research efforts increases. The visualization provides the means to effectively analyze data and present the results. The technology support for visualization is constantly changing, improving, and being made available to users everywhere. As such, many researchers are entering into the practice of doing their own visualization in house - sometimes successfully, sometimes not. In an effort to keep pace with the visualization needs of researchers, the Visual Imaging Branch of the Research, Information, and Applications Division at NASA Langley Research Center has conducted an investigation into the current status of imaging technology and imaging production throughout the various research branches at the center. This investigation will allow the branch to evaluate its current resources and personnel in an effort to identify future directions for meeting the needs of the researchers at the center. The investigation team, which consisted of the ASEE fellow, the head of the video section, and the head of the photo section, developed an interview format that could be accomplished during a short interview period with researchers, and yet still provide adequate statistics about items such as in-house equipment and usage.

  15. 237Np absolute delayed neutron yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doré, D.; Ledoux, X.; Nolte, R.; Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Thulliez, L.; Litaize, O.; Roettger, S.; Serot, O.

    2017-09-01

    237Np absolute delayed neutron yields have been measured at different incident neutron energies from 1.5 to 16 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) facility where the Van de Graaff accelerator and the cyclotron CV28 delivered 9 different neutron energy beams using p+T, d+D and d+T reactions. The detection system is made up of twelve 3He tubes inserted into a polyethylene cylinder. In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method are described. The evolution of the absolute DN yields as a function of the neutron incident beam energies are presented and compared to experimental data found in the literature and data from the libraries.

  16. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  17. An absolute measure for a key currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  18. 7 CFR 51.578 - Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.578 Branch. Branch means the leaf of a stalk and consists of the edible stem-like portion and the tops or leaf blades. ...

  19. 7 CFR 51.578 - Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.578 Branch. Branch means the leaf of a stalk and consists of the edible stem-like portion and the tops or leaf blades. ...

  20. Bird exclosures for branches and whole trees.

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Campbell; Torolf R. Torgersen; Steven C. Forrest; Lorna C. Youngs

    1981-01-01

    Two types of lightweight, portable bird exclosures are described. One is for individual branches or branch tips; the other is for whole trees up to 9 m tall. Several alternative configurations and uses of these exclosures are discussed.

  1. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Measurements of Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, R. D., Jr.; Rabb, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon isotope variations (reported as δ30Si and δ29Si, relative to NBS28) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The resolution and comparability of such measurements depend on the quality of the isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs) defining the delta scale. We report new absolute Si isotopic measurements on the iRMs NBS28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, and Big Batch using the Avogadro measurement approach and comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs. The Avogadro Si measurement technique was developed by the German Physikalish-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) to provide a precise and highly accurate method to measure absolute isotopic ratios in highly enriched 28Si (99.996%) material. These measurements are part of an international effort to redefine the kg and mole based on the Planck constant h and the Avogadro constant NA, respectively (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach produces absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement calibration. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 where absolute Si isotopic measurements on SRM 990, separated by 40+ years of advances in instrumentation, are compared. The availability of this new technique does not say that absolute Si isotopic ratios are or ever will be better for normal Si isotopic measurements when seeking isotopic variations in nature, because they are not. However, by determining the absolute isotopic ratios of all the Si iRM scale artifacts, such iRMs become traceable to the metric system (SI); thereby automatically conferring on all the artifact-based δ30Si and δ29Si measurements traceability to the base SI unit, the mole. Such traceability should help reduce the potential of bias between different iRMs and facilitate the replacement of delta

  2. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  3. Absolute detector calibration using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2012-07-01

    A method for the determination of absolute quantum detection efficiency is suggested based on the measurement of photocount statistics of twin beams. The measured histograms of joint signal-idler photocount statistics allow us to eliminate an additional noise superimposed on an ideal calibration field composed of only photon pairs. This makes the method superior above other approaches presently used. Twin beams are described using a paired variant of quantum superposition of signal and noise.

  4. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  5. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  6. The absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Wolfgang; Savcenko, Roman

    The sea surface slopes relative to the geoid (an equipotential surface) basically carry the in-formation on the absolute velocity field of the surface circulation. Pure oceanographic models may remain unspecific with respect to the absolute level of the ocean topography. In contrast, the geodetic approach to estimate the ocean topography as difference between sea level and the geoid gives by definition an absolute dynamic ocean topography (ADOT). This approach requires, however, a consistent treatment of geoid and sea surface heights, the first being usually derived from a band limited spherical harmonic series of the Earth gravity field and the second observed with much higher spectral resolution by satellite altimetry. The present contribution shows a procedure for estimating the ADOT along the altimeter profiles, preserving as much sea surface height details as the consistency w.r.t. the geoid heights will allow. The consistent treatment at data gaps and the coast is particular demanding and solved by a filter correction. The ADOT profiles are inspected for their innocent properties towards the coast and compared to external estimates of the ocean topography or the velocity field of the surface circulation as derived, for example, by ARGO floats.

  7. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  8. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  9. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma) and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label). In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC) or based on absolute pitch memory (APM). A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC) that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM), only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them. PMID:29085275

  10. Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang

    2015-08-01

    A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.

  11. Experimental radiative lifetimes, branching fractions, and oscillator strengths of some levels in Co I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinghao; Yu, Qi; Li, Qiu; Gao, Yang; Dai, Zhenwen

    2018-04-01

    The radiative lifetime measurements by the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique are reported for 24 levels of Co I with the energy range of 283 45.86-55 922.3 cm-1, amongst which the lifetimes of 20 levels are reported for the first time. The branching fraction measurements by the emission spectrum of a hollow cathode lamp were performed for 11 levels of them together with other two levels reported in the literature, and branching fractions of 39 transitions were obtained. By combining them with lifetime values, the transition probabilities and absolute oscillator strengths of these lines were determined.

  12. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section 166.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION CUSTOMER PROTECTION RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the...

  13. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  14. 12 CFR 545.92 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Branch offices. 545.92 Section 545.92 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS § 545.92 Branch offices. (a) Definition. A branch office of a Federal savings association (“you”) is any...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403...

  16. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  17. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  18. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    0.41 mPai and a 0.18 MPa, and predicted a theoretical kinking angle of 84°whichagreed well with experimentally measured angle. After crack kinking...Consistent crack branching’at KIb = 2.04 MPaI -i- and r = 1.3 mm verified this crack branching criterion. The crack branching angle predicted by--.’ DD

  19. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M.; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D.; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement. PMID:26977365

  20. Fully distributed absolute blood flow velocity measurement for middle cerebral arteries using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Zhu, Jiang; Hancock, Aneeka M; Dai, Cuixia; Zhang, Xuping; Frostig, Ron D; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is considered one of the most promising functional imaging modalities for neuro biology research and has demonstrated the ability to quantify cerebral blood flow velocity at a high accuracy. However, the measurement of total absolute blood flow velocity (BFV) of major cerebral arteries is still a difficult problem since it is related to vessel geometry. In this paper, we present a volumetric vessel reconstruction approach that is capable of measuring the absolute BFV distributed along the entire middle cerebral artery (MCA) within a large field-of-view. The Doppler angle at each point of the MCA, representing the vessel geometry, is derived analytically by localizing the artery from pure DOCT images through vessel segmentation and skeletonization. Our approach could achieve automatic quantification of the fully distributed absolute BFV across different vessel branches. Experiments on rodents using swept-source optical coherence tomography showed that our approach was able to reveal the consequences of permanent MCA occlusion with absolute BFV measurement.

  1. Anomalous gain in an isotopically mixed CO2 laser and application to absolute wavelength calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewagama, Tilak; Oppenheim, Uri P.; Mumma, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements are reported on a grating-tuned CO2 laser, containing an isotropic mixture of O-16C-12O-16, O-16C-12O-18, and O-18C-12O-18. The P6 and R14 lines of O-16C-12O-16 were found to have anomalously high intensities. These anomalies are produced by the near coincidence of the transition frequencies in two distinct isotopes, permitting them to act as a single indistinguishable population. These two lines can be used to identify the rotational quantum numbers in the P and R branch spectra, thereby permitting absolute wavelength calibration to be achieved.

  2. Directed branch growth in aligned nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, Allan L; LaForge, Joshua M; Tucker, Ryan T; Sorge, Jason B; Adamski, Nicholas L; Li, Peng; Taschuk, Michael T; Brett, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Branch growth is directed along two, three, or four in-plane directions in vertically aligned nanowire arrays using vapor-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) flux engineering. In this work, a dynamically controlled collimated vapor flux guides branch placement during the self-catalyzed epitaxial growth of branched indium tin oxide nanowire arrays. The flux is positioned to grow branches on select nanowire facets, enabling fabrication of aligned nanotree arrays with L-, T-, or X-branching. In addition, a flux motion algorithm is designed to selectively elongate branches along one in-plane axis. Nanotrees are found to be aligned across large areas by X-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and through branch length and orientation measurements collected over 140 μm(2) from scanning electron microscopy images for each array. The pathway to guided assembly of nanowire architectures with controlled interconnectivity in three-dimensions using VLS-GLAD is discussed.

  3. Absolute cross-section measurements of inner-shell ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Hans; Tobehn, Ingo; Ebel, Frank; Hippler, Rainer

    1994-12-01

    Cross section ratios for K- and L-shell ionization of thin silver and gold targets by positron and electron impact have been determined at projectile energies of 30 70 keV. The experimental results are confirmed by calculations in plane wave Born approximation (PWBA) which include an electron exchange term and account for the deceleration or acceleration of the incident projectile in the nuclear field of the target atom. We report first absolute cross sections for K- and L-shell ionization of silver and gold targets by lepton impact in the threshold region. We have measured the corresponding cross sections for electron (e-) impact with an electron gun and the same experimental set-up.

  4. Absolute and geometric parameters of contact binary GW Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Gökay, G.; Saral, G.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.; Cerit, S.; Terzioğlu, Z.

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system GW Cnc. We analyzed the photometric data obtained in 2010 and 2011 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and the spectroscopic data obtained in 2010 at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) by using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain the absolute and geometrical parameters. We derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.257M⊙ , M2 = 0.971M⊙ , R1 = 0.526R⊙ and R2 = 0.961R⊙ with an orbital inclination i(∘) = 83.38 ± 0.25 and we determined the GW Cnc system to be a W-type W UMa over-contact binary with a mass ratio of q = 3.773 ± 0.007 .

  5. Ensuring long-term stability of infrared camera absolute calibration.

    PubMed

    Kattnig, Alain; Thetas, Sophie; Primot, Jérôme

    2015-07-13

    Absolute calibration of cryogenic 3-5 µm and 8-10 µm infrared cameras is notoriously instable and thus has to be repeated before actual measurements. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio of the imagery is lowered, decreasing its quality. These performances degradations strongly lessen the suitability of Infrared Imaging. These defaults are often blamed on detectors reaching a different "response state" after each return to cryogenic conditions, while accounting for the detrimental effects of imperfect stray light management. We show here that detectors are not to be blamed and that the culprit can also dwell in proximity electronics. We identify an unexpected source of instability in the initial voltage of the integrating capacity of detectors. Then we show that this parameter can be easily measured and taken into account. This way we demonstrate that a one month old calibration of a 3-5 µm camera has retained its validity.

  6. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F., E-mail: chengfe@hust.edu.cn; Hou, S. Y.

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a highermore » signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.« less

  7. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  8. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  9. Continuum limit of electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian-Zhou

    2012-06-01

    Electrostatic gyrokinetic absolute equilibria with continuum velocity field are obtained through the partition function and through the Green function of the functional integral. The new results justify and explain the prescription for quantization/discretization or taking the continuum limit of velocity. The mistakes in the Appendix D of our earlier work [J.-Z. Zhu and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 17, 122307 (2010)] are explained and corrected. If the lattice spacing for discretizing velocity is big enough, all the invariants could concentrate at the lowest Fourier modes in a negative-temperature state, which might indicate a possible variation of the dual cascade picture in 2D plasma turbulence.

  10. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  11. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. The absolute threshold of cone vision

    PubMed Central

    Koeing, Darran; Hofer, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute threshold of cone vision, which has been previously underestimated due to sub-optimal conditions or overly strict subjective response criteria. We avoided these limitations by using optimized stimuli and experimental conditions while having subjects respond within a rating scale framework. Small (1′ fwhm), brief (34 msec), monochromatic (550 nm) stimuli were foveally presented at multiple intensities in dark-adapted retina for 5 subjects. For comparison, 4 subjects underwent similar testing with rod-optimized stimuli. Cone absolute threshold, that is, the minimum light energy for which subjects were just able to detect a visual stimulus with any response criterion, was 203 ± 38 photons at the cornea, ∼0.47 log units lower than previously reported. Two-alternative forced-choice measurements in a subset of subjects yielded consistent results. Cone thresholds were less responsive to criterion changes than rod thresholds, suggesting a limit to the stimulus information recoverable from the cone mosaic in addition to the limit imposed by Poisson noise. Results were consistent with expectations for detection in the face of stimulus uncertainty. We discuss implications of these findings for modeling the first stages of human cone vision and interpreting psychophysical data acquired with adaptive optics at the spatial scale of the receptor mosaic. PMID:21270115

  13. Why to compare absolute numbers of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Sabine; Schulz, Sabine; Schropp, Eva-Maria; Eberhagen, Carola; Simmons, Alisha; Beisker, Wolfgang; Aichler, Michaela; Zischka, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Prompted by pronounced structural differences between rat liver and rat hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria, we suspected these mitochondrial populations to differ massively in their molecular composition. Aiming to reveal these mitochondrial differences, we came across the issue on how to normalize such comparisons and decided to focus on the absolute number of mitochondria. To this end, fluorescently stained mitochondria were quantified by flow cytometry. For rat liver mitochondria, this approach resulted in mitochondrial protein contents comparable to earlier reports using alternative methods. We determined similar protein contents for rat liver, heart and kidney mitochondria. In contrast, however, lower protein contents were determined for rat brain mitochondria and for mitochondria from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line McA 7777. This result challenges mitochondrial comparisons that rely on equal protein amounts as a typical normalization method. Exemplarily, we therefore compared the activity and susceptibility toward inhibition of complex II of rat liver and hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria and obtained significant discrepancies by either normalizing to protein amount or to absolute mitochondrial number. Importantly, the latter normalization, in contrast to the former, demonstrated a lower complex II activity and higher susceptibility toward inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma mitochondria compared to liver mitochondria. These findings demonstrate that solely normalizing to protein amount may obscure essential molecular differences between mitochondrial populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Relational versus absolute representation in categorization.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Darren J; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Perlman, Amotz

    2012-01-01

    This study explores relational-like and absolute-like representations in categorization. Although there is much evidence that categorization processes can involve information about both the particular physical properties of studied instances and abstract (relational) properties, there has been little work on the factors that lead to one kind of representation as opposed to the other. We tested 370 participants in 6 experiments, in which participants had to classify new items into predefined artificial categories. In 4 experiments, we observed a predominantly relational-like mode of classification, and in 2 experiments we observed a shift toward an absolute-like mode of classification. These results suggest 3 factors that promote a relational-like mode of classification: fewer items per group, more training groups, and the presence of a time delay. Overall, we propose that less information about the distributional properties of a category or weaker memory traces for the category exemplars (induced, e.g., by having smaller categories or a time delay) can encourage relational-like categorization.

  15. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  17. Branched-chain higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Wei; Shi, Ai-Qin; Tu, Ran; Zhang, Xue-Li; Wang, Qin-Hong; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-01-01

    China's energy requirements and environmental concerns have stimulated efforts toward developing alternative liquid fuels. Compared with fuel ethanol, branched-chain higher alcohols (BCHAs), including isopropanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, exhibit significant advantages, such as higher energy density, lower hygroscopicity, lower vapor pressure, and compatibility with existing transportation infrastructures. However, BCHAs have not been synthesized economically using native organisms, and thus their microbial production based on metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offers an alternative approach, which presents great potential for improving production efficiency. We review the current status of production and consumption of BCHAs and research progress regarding their microbial production in China, especially with the combination of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology.

  18. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  19. Pressure difference-flow rate variation in a femoral artery branch casting of man for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Crawford, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    In-vitro, steady flow in a casting of the profunda femoris branch of the femoral artery of man was studied by measuring pressure differences in the main lumen and also in the branch over a large Reynolds number range from 200 to 1600. Effects of viscous and inviscid flows in this femoral artery branch were demonstrated quantitatively. The critical ratio of the flow rate in the branch to the upstream main lumen in this casting was found to be 0.4, above which the inviscid flow analysis indicated a pressure rise and below which it yielded a pressure drop in the main lumen across the branch junction. Pressure rises were experimentally found to occur both in the main lumen and in the branch for certain ranges of the aforementioned ratio.

  20. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  1. Using, Seeing, Feeling, and Doing Absolute Value for Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2008-01-01

    Using sticky notes and number lines, a hands-on activity is shared that anchors initial student thinking about absolute value. The initial point of reference should help students successfully evaluate numeric problems involving absolute value. They should also be able to solve absolute value equations and inequalities that are typically found in…

  2. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1205 - Absolute coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absolute coverage groups. 404.1205 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Coverage of Employees of State and Local Governments What Groups of Employees May Be Covered § 404.1205 Absolute coverage groups. (a) General. An absolute coverage group is a permanent...

  5. Modeling absolute plate and plume motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodinier, G. P.; Wessel, P.; Conrad, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Paleomagnetic evidence for plume drift has made modeling of absolute plate motions challenging, especially since direct observations of plume drift are lacking. Predictions of plume drift arising from mantle convection models and broadly satisfying observed paleolatitudes have so far provided the only framework for deriving absolute plate motions over moving hotspots. However, uncertainties in mantle rheology, temperature, and initial conditions make such models nonunique. Using simulated and real data, we will show that age progressions along Pacific hotspot trails provide strong constraints on plume motions for all major trails, and furthermore that it is possible to derive models for relative plume drift from these data alone. Relative plume drift depends on the inter-hotspot distances derived from age progressions but lacks a fixed reference point and orientation. By incorporating paleolatitude histories for the Hawaii and Louisville chains we add further constraints on allowable plume motions, yet one unknown parameter remains: a longitude shift that applies equally to all plumes. To obtain a solution we could restrict either the Hawaii or Louisville plume to have latitudinal motion only, thus satisfying paleolatitude constraints. Yet, restricting one plume to latitudinal motion while all others move freely is not realistic. Consequently, it is only possible to resolve the motion of hotspots relative to an overall and unknown longitudinal shift as a function of time. Our plate motions are therefore dependent on the same shift via an unknown rotation about the north pole. Yet, as plume drifts are consequences of mantle convection, our results place strong constraints on the pattern of convection. Other considerations, such as imposed limits on plate speed, plume speed, proximity to LLSVP edges, model smoothness, or relative plate motions via ridge-spotting may add further constraints that allow a unique model of Pacific absolute plate and plume motions to be

  6. Superlinear scaling of offspring at criticality in branching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2014-01-01

    For any branching process, we demonstrate that the typical total number rmp(ντ) of events triggered over all generations within any sufficiently large time window τ exhibits, at criticality, a superlinear dependence rmp(ντ)˜(ντ)γ (with γ >1) on the total number ντ of the immigrants arriving at the Poisson rate ν. In branching processes in which immigrants (or sources) are characterized by fertilities distributed according to an asymptotic power-law tail with tail exponent 1<γ ⩽2, the exponent of the superlinear law for rmp(ντ) is identical to the exponent γ of the distribution of fertilities. For γ >2 and for standard branching processes without power-law distribution of fertilities, rmp(ντ)˜(ντ)2. This scaling law replaces and tames the divergence ντ /(1-n) of the mean total number R¯t(τ) of events, as the branching ratio (defined as the average number of triggered events of first generation per source) tends to 1. The derivation uses the formalism of generating probability functions. The corresponding prediction is confirmed by numerical calculations, and an heuristic derivation enlightens its underlying mechanism. We also show that R¯t(τ) is always linear in ντ even at criticality (n =1). Our results thus illustrate the fundamental difference between the mean total number, which is controlled by a few extremely rare realizations, and the typical behavior represented by rmp(ντ).

  7. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizesmore » a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.« less

  8. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  9. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizesmore » a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.« less

  10. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  11. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  12. Driven tracer with absolute negative mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.

    2018-02-01

    Instances of negative mobility, where a system responds to a perturbation in a way opposite to naive expectation, have been studied theoretically and experimentally in numerous nonequilibrium systems. In this work we show that absolute negative mobility (ANM), whereby current is produced in a direction opposite to the drive, can occur around equilibrium states. This is demonstrated with a simple one-dimensional lattice model with a driven tracer. We derive analytical predictions in the linear response regime and elucidate the mechanism leading to ANM by studying the high-density limit. We also study numerically a model of hard Brownian disks in a narrow planar channel, for which the lattice model can be viewed as a toy model. We find that the model exhibits negative differential mobility (NDM), but no ANM.

  13. Measurement of absolute gamma emission probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumithrarachchi, Chandana S.; Rengan, Krish; Griffin, Henry C.

    2003-06-01

    The energies and emission probabilities (intensities) of gamma-rays emitted in radioactive decays of particular nuclides are the most important characteristics by which to quantify mixtures of radionuclides. Often, quantification is limited by uncertainties in measured intensities. A technique was developed to reduce these uncertainties. The method involves obtaining a pure sample of a nuclide using radiochemical techniques, and using appropriate fractions for beta and gamma measurements. The beta emission rates were measured using a liquid scintillation counter, and the gamma emission rates were measured with a high-purity germanium detector. Results were combined to obtain absolute gamma emission probabilities. All sources of uncertainties greater than 0.1% were examined. The method was tested with 38Cl and 88Rb.

  14. Absolute calibration of ultraviolet filter photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Fairchild, T.; Code, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    The essential features of the calibration procedure can be divided into three parts. First, the shape of the bandpass of each photometer was determined by measuring the transmissions of the individual optical components and also by measuring the response of the photometer as a whole. Secondly, each photometer was placed in the essentially-collimated synchrotron radiation bundle maintained at a constant intensity level, and the output signal was determined from about 100 points on the objective. Finally, two or three points on the objective were illuminated by synchrotron radiation at several different intensity levels covering the dynamic range of the photometers. The output signals were placed on an absolute basis by the electron counting technique described earlier.

  15. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  16. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, F. A.; Whitley, T. A.; Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.

    1991-07-01

    Absolute partial photoionization cross sections for ionization out of the first four valence orbitals to the X 2B 3u, A 2B 3g, B 2A g and C 2B 2u states of the C 2H 4+ ion are presented as a function of photon energy over the energy range from 12 to 26 eV. The experimental results have been compared to previously published relative partial cross sections for the first two bands at 18, 21 and 24 eV. Comparison of the experimental data with continuum multiple scattering Xα calculations provides evidence for extensive autoionization to the X 2B 3u state and confirms the predicted shape resonances in ionization to the A 2B 3g and B 2A g states. Identification of possible transitions for the autoionizing resonances have been made using multiple scattering transition state calculations on Rydberg excited states.

  17. Absolute measurements of fast neutrons using yttrium.

    PubMed

    Roshan, M V; Springham, S V; Rawat, R S; Lee, P; Krishnan, M

    2010-08-01

    Yttrium is presented as an absolute neutron detector for pulsed neutron sources. It has high sensitivity for detecting fast neutrons. Yttrium has the property of generating a monoenergetic secondary radiation in the form of a 909 keV gamma-ray caused by inelastic neutron interaction. It was calibrated numerically using MCNPX and does not need periodic recalibration. The total yttrium efficiency for detecting 2.45 MeV neutrons was determined to be f(n) approximately 4.1x10(-4) with an uncertainty of about 0.27%. The yttrium detector was employed in the NX2 plasma focus experiments and showed the neutron yield of the order of 10(8) neutrons per discharge.

  18. Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.

  19. Absolute GPS Positioning Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramillien, G.

    A new inverse approach for restoring the absolute coordinates of a ground -based station from three or four observed GPS pseudo-ranges is proposed. This stochastic method is based on simulations of natural evolution named genetic algorithms (GA). These iterative procedures provide fairly good and robust estimates of the absolute positions in the Earth's geocentric reference system. For comparison/validation, GA results are compared to the ones obtained using the classical linearized least-square scheme for the determination of the XYZ location proposed by Bancroft (1985) which is strongly limited by the number of available observations (i.e. here, the number of input pseudo-ranges must be four). The r.m.s. accuracy of the non -linear cost function reached by this latter method is typically ~10-4 m2 corresponding to ~300-500-m accuracies for each geocentric coordinate. However, GA can provide more acceptable solutions (r.m.s. errors < 10-5 m2), even when only three instantaneous pseudo-ranges are used, such as a lost of lock during a GPS survey. Tuned GA parameters used in different simulations are N=1000 starting individuals, as well as Pc=60-70% and Pm=30-40% for the crossover probability and mutation rate, respectively. Statistical tests on the ability of GA to recover acceptable coordinates in presence of important levels of noise are made simulating nearly 3000 random samples of erroneous pseudo-ranges. Here, two main sources of measurement errors are considered in the inversion: (1) typical satellite-clock errors and/or 300-metre variance atmospheric delays, and (2) Geometrical Dilution of Precision (GDOP) due to the particular GPS satellite configuration at the time of acquisition. Extracting valuable information and even from low-quality starting range observations, GA offer an interesting alternative for high -precision GPS positioning.

  20. Absolute Bioavailability of Osimertinib in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Karthick; So, Karen; Thomas, Karen; Bramley, Alex; English, Stephen; Collier, Jo

    2018-04-23

    Osimertinib is a third-generation, central nervous system-active, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) selective for EGFR-TKI sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations. This phase 1, open-label study (NCT02491944) investigated absolute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral and intravenous (IV) osimertinib. Ten healthy subjects (21-61 years) received a single oral 80-mg dose concomitantly with a 100 μg (containing 1 μCi) IV microtracer dose of [ 14 C]osimertinib. Oral and IV PK were determined simultaneously for osimertinib and its active metabolites, AZ5104 and AZ7550. High-performance liquid chromatography and accelerator mass spectrometry were used to characterize IV dose PK. Geometric mean absolute oral bioavailability of osimertinib was 69.8% (90% confidence interval, 66.7, 72.9). Oral osimertinib was slowly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration [t max ] 7.0 hours). Following t max , plasma concentrations fell in an apparent monophasic manner. IV clearance and volume of distribution were 16.8 L/h and 1285 L, respectively. Arithmetic mean elimination half-life estimates were 59.7, 52.6, and 72.6 hours for osimertinib, AZ5104, and AZ7550, respectively (oral dosing), and 54.9, 68.4, and 99.7 hours for [ 14 C]osimertinib, [ 14 C]AZ5104, and [ 14 C]AZ7550, respectively (IV dosing). Oral osimertinib was well absorbed. Simultaneous IV and oral PK analysis proved useful for complete understanding of osimertinib PK and showed that the first-pass effect was minimal for osimertinib. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  2. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  3. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  4. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, R.M.; Petracci, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates. PMID:21643476

  5. Spectral Line Shapes in the ν_3 Q Branch of ^{12}CH_4 Near 3.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Gamache, Robert R.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Sams, Robert L.

    2017-06-01

    Detailed knowledge of spectroscopic parameters for prominent Q branches of methane is necessary for interpretation and modeling of high resolution infrared spectra of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres. We have measured air-broadened line shape parameters in the Q branch of ^{12}CH_4 in the ν_3 fundamental band for a large number of transitions in the 3000 to 3023 cm^{-1} region by analyzing 13 room-temperature laboratory absorption spectra. Twelve of these spectra were recorded with 0.01 cm^{-1} resolution using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, and one higher-resolution (˜0.0011 cm^{-1}) low pressure (˜1 Torr) spectrum of methane was obtained using the Bruker IFS 120HR FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA. The air-broadened spectra were recorded using various absorption cells with path lengths of 5, 20, 25, and 150 cm, total sample pressures between 50 and 500 Torr, and CH_4 volume mixing ratios of 0.01 or less. All 13 spectra were fit simultaneously covering the 3000-3023 cm^{-1} spectral region using a multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique to retrieve accurate line positions, absolute intensities, Lorentz air-broadened widths and pressure-shift coefficients. Line mixing using the off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism was measured for a number of pairs of transitions for the CH_4-air collisional system. The results will be compared to values reported in the literature. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. A. Levy, N. Lacome, C. Chackerian, Collisional line mixing, in Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium, Academic Press, Inc., Boston (1992) 261-337.

  6. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1,200 usingmore » a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed.« less

  7. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  8. Branching fractions for psi(2S)-to-J/psi transitions.

    PubMed

    Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Crede, V; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Williams, J; Wiss, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Li, S Z; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Mahmood, A H; Severini, H; Asner, D M; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Chasse, M; Cravey, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Dambasuren, E; Dorjkhaidav, O; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2005-06-17

    We describe new measurements of the inclusive and exclusive branching fractions for psi(2S) transitions to J/psi using e(+)e(-) collision data collected with the CLEO detector operating at CESR. All branching fractions and ratios of branching fractions reported here represent either the most precise measurements to date or the first direct measurements. Indirectly and in combination with other CLEO measurements, we determine B(chi(cJ) --> gamma(J/psi)) and B[psi(2S) --> light hadrons].

  9. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... between diesel and other (electric). The costs for these accounts for yard locomotives shall be assigned to the branch separately for diesel and electric locomotives on the basis of the ratio of branch diesel and electric yard locomotive unit-hours to the total system diesel and electric yard locomotive...

  10. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... between diesel and other (electric). The costs for these accounts for yard locomotives shall be assigned to the branch separately for diesel and electric locomotives on the basis of the ratio of branch diesel and electric yard locomotive unit-hours to the total system diesel and electric yard locomotive...

  11. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... between diesel and other (electric). The costs for these accounts for yard locomotives shall be assigned to the branch separately for diesel and electric locomotives on the basis of the ratio of branch diesel and electric yard locomotive unit-hours to the total system diesel and electric yard locomotive...

  12. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... between diesel and other (electric). The costs for these accounts for yard locomotives shall be assigned to the branch separately for diesel and electric locomotives on the basis of the ratio of branch diesel and electric yard locomotive unit-hours to the total system diesel and electric yard locomotive...

  13. 49 CFR 1152.33 - Apportionment rules for the assignment of expenses to on-branch costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... between diesel and other (electric). The costs for these accounts for yard locomotives shall be assigned to the branch separately for diesel and electric locomotives on the basis of the ratio of branch diesel and electric yard locomotive unit-hours to the total system diesel and electric yard locomotive...

  14. Impact of stone branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn calculi.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shiyong; Li, Li; Liu, Ranlu; Qiao, Baomin; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2014-02-01

    To determine the impact of staghorn calculi branch number on outcomes of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Retrospectively, we evaluated 371 patients (386 renal units) who underwent PNL for staghorn calculi. All calculi were showed with CT three-dimensional reconstruction (3DR) imaging preoperatively. From 3DR images, the number of stone branching into minor renal calices was recorded. According to the number, patients were divided into four groups. Group 1: the branch number 2-4; Group 2: the branch number 5-7; Group 3: the branch number 8-10; Group 4: the branch number >10. The number of percutaneous tract, operative time, staged PNL, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, complications, main stone composition, and stone clearance rate were compared. A significantly higher ratio of multitract (p<0.001) and staged PNL (p<0.001), a longer operative time (p<0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (p=0.043), and a lower rate of stone clearance (p<0.05) were found in PNL for calculi with a stone branch number ≥5. There was no statistical difference in intraoperative blood loss (p=0.101) and main stone composition (p=0.546). There was no statistically meaningful difference among the four groups based on the Clavien complication system (p=0.46). With the stone branch number more than five, the possibility of multitract and staged PNL, lower rate of stone clearance, and a longer postoperative hospital stay increases for staghorn calculi.

  15. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403...

  17. On an Integral with Two Branch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, E. Capelas; Chiacchio, Ary O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers a class of real integrals performed by using a convenient integral in the complex plane. A complex integral containing a multi-valued function with two branch points is transformed into another integral containing a pole and a unique branch point. As a by-product we obtain a new class of integrals which can be calculated in a…

  18. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  19. Postoperative Biliary Leak Treated with Chemical Bile Duct Ablation Using Absolute Ethanol: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Maho; Hori, Tomohide; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Ito, Tatsuo; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichi; Kitano, Taku; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2017-08-08

    BACKGROUND Postoperative bile duct leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery can be intractable, and the postoperative course can be prolonged. However, if the site of the leak is in the distal bile duct in the main biliary tract, the therapeutic options may be limited. Injection of absolute ethanol into the bile duct requires correct identification of the bile duct, and balloon occlusion is useful to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak. CASE REPORT Two cases of non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak are presented; one case following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure), and one case following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both cases were successfully managed by chemical bile duct ablation with absolute ethanol. In the first case, the biliary leak occurred from a fistula of the right posterior biliary tract following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cannulation of the leaking bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a percutaneous route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. In the second case, perforation of the bile duct branch draining hepatic segment V occurred following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cannulation of the bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a transhepatic route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. CONCLUSIONS Chemical ablation of the bile duct using absolute ethanol is an effective treatment for biliary leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula. Identification of the bile duct leak is required before ethanol injection to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues.

  20. Existing branches correlatively inhibit further branching in Trifolium repens: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R. G.; Hay, M. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In Trifolium repens removal of any number of existing branches distal to a nodal root stimulates development of axillary buds further along the stem such that the complement of branches distal to a nodal root remains constant. This study aimed to assess possible mechanisms by which existing branches correlatively inhibit the outgrowth of axillary buds distal to them. Treatments were applied to basal branches to evaluate the roles of three postulated inhibitory mechanisms: (I) the transport of a phloem-mobile inhibitory feedback signal from branches into the main stem; (II) the polar flow of auxin from branches into the main stem acting to limit further branch development; or (III) the basal branches functioning as sinks for a net root-derived stimulatory signal (NRS). Results showed that transport of auxin, or of a non-auxin phloem-mobile signal, from basal branches did not influence regulation of correlative inhibition and were consistent with the possibility that the intra-plant distribution of NRS could be involved in the correlative inhibition of distal buds by basal branches. This study supports existing evidence that regulation of branching in T. repens is dominated by a root-derived stimulatory signal, initially distributed via the xylem, the characterization of which will progress the generic understanding of branching regulation. PMID:21071681

  1. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  2. Gyrokinetic statistical absolute equilibrium and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Jianzhou; Hammett, Gregory W.

    2010-12-15

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: a finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N+1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperaturemore » states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  3. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, correspondingmore » to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.« less

  4. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  5. Absolute flux measurements for swift atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M.; Kohl, D. A.; Keto, J. W.; Antoniewicz, P.

    1987-01-01

    While a torsion balance in vacuum can easily measure the momentum transfer from a gas beam impinging on a surface attached to the balance, this measurement depends on the accommodation coefficients of the atoms with the surface and the distribution of the recoil. A torsion balance is described for making absolute flux measurements independent of recoil effects. The torsion balance is a conventional taut suspension wire design and the Young modulus of the wire determines the relationship between the displacement and the applied torque. A compensating magnetic field is applied to maintain zero displacement and provide critical damping. The unique feature is to couple the impinging gas beam to the torsion balance via a Wood's horn, i.e., a thin wall tube with a gradual 90 deg bend. Just as light is trapped in a Wood's horn by specular reflection from the curved surfaces, the gas beam diffuses through the tube. Instead of trapping the beam, the end of the tube is open so that the atoms exit the tube at 90 deg to their original direction. Therefore, all of the forward momentum of the gas beam is transferred to the torsion balance independent of the angle of reflection from the surfaces inside the tube.

  6. [Tobacco and plastic surgery: An absolute contraindication?

    PubMed

    Matusiak, C; De Runz, A; Maschino, H; Brix, M; Simon, E; Claudot, F

    2017-08-01

    Smoking increases perioperative risk regarding wound healing, infection rate and failure of microsurgical procedures. There is no present consensus about plastic and aesthetic surgical indications concerning smoking patients. The aim of our study is to analyze French plastic surgeons practices concerning smokers. A questionnaire was send by e-mail to French plastic surgeons in order to evaluate their own operative indications: patient information about smoking dangers, pre- and postoperative delay of smoking cessation, type of intervention carried out, smoking cessation supports, use of screening test and smoking limit associated to surgery refusing were studied. Statistical tests were used to compare results according to practitioner activity (liberal or public), own smoking habits and time of installation. In 148 questionnaires, only one surgeon did not explain smoking risk. Of the surgeons, 49.3% proposed smoking-cessation supports, more frequently with public practice (P=0.019). In total, 85.4% of surgeons did not use screening tests. Years of installation affected operative indication with smoking patients (P=0.02). Pre- and postoperative smoking cessation delay were on average respectively 4 and 3 weeks in accordance with literature. Potential improvements could be proposed to smoking patients' care: smoking cessation assistance, screening tests, absolute contraindication of some procedures or level of consumption to determine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.

  8. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  9. Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a mission, led and developed by NASA, that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to quantify and attribute climate change. CLARREO consists of three separate instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer, a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer, and a radio occultation (RO) instrument. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy, including on orbit verification, to calibrate other space-based instrumentation, increasing their respective accuracy by as much as an order of magnitude. The IR spectrometer is a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) working in the 5 to 50 microns wavelength region with a goal of 0.1 K (k = 3) accuracy. The FTS will achieve this accuracy using phase change cells to verify thermistor accuracy and heated halos to verify blackbody emissivity, both on orbit. The RS spectrometer will measure the reflectance of the atmosphere in the 0.32 to 2.3 microns wavelength region with an accuracy of 0.3% (k = 2). The status of the instrumentation packages and potential mission options will be presented.

  10. Synergistic amylomaltase and branching enzyme catalysis to suppress cassava starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sorndech, Waraporn; Meier, Sebastian; Jansson, Anita M; Sagnelli, Domenico; Hindsgaul, Ole; Tongta, Sunanta; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-11-05

    Starch provides our main dietary caloric intake and over-consumption of starch-containing foods results in escalating life-style disease including diabetes. By increasing the content of α-1,6 branch points in starch, digestibility by human amylolytic enzymes is expected to be retarded. Aiming at generating a soluble and slowly digestible starch by increasing the content and changing the relative positioning of the branch points in the starch molecules, we treated cassava starch with amylomaltase (AM) and branching enzyme (BE). We performed a detailed molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility. Step-by-step enzyme catalysis was the most efficient treatment, and it generated branch structures even more extreme than those of glycogen. All AM- and BE-treated samples showed increased resistance to degradation by porcine pancreatic α-amylase and glucoamylase as compared to cassava starch. The amylolytic products showed chain lengths and branching patterns similar to the products obtained from glycogen. Our data demonstrate that combinatorial enzyme catalysis provides a strategy to generate potential novel soluble α-glucan ingredients with low dietary digestibility assets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  12. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  13. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  14. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  15. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ˜ 28 000, T2 ˜ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ˜ 36 000, T2 ˜ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ˜2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  16. Evaluation of the Absolute Regional Temperature Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP) is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90-28degS, 28degS-28degN, 28-60degN and 60-90degN) as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within +/-20%of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90-28degS and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the +/-20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39-45% and 9-39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  17. Planck absolute entropy of a rotating BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, S. M. Jawwad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the Planck absolute entropy and the Bekenstein-Smarr formula of the rotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole are presented via a complex thermodynamical system contributed by its inner and outer horizons. The redefined entropy approaches zero as the temperature of the rotating BTZ black hole tends to absolute zero, satisfying the Nernst formulation of a black hole. Hence, it can be regarded as the Planck absolute entropy of the rotating BTZ black hole.

  18. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  19. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  20. Communication: Direct measurements of nascent O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) fine-structure distributions and branching ratios of correlated spin-orbit resolved product channels CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) in VUV photodissociation of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong

    2014-06-21

    We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO{sub 2} to the 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm{sup −1}. The total kinetic energy releasemore » (TKER) spectra obtained from the O{sup +} VMI-PI images of O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) with well-resolved v = 0–2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to form the spin-allowed CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +})  with significant vibrational populations for v = 18–26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO{sub 2} 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.« less

  1. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1). PMID:27248566

  2. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    PubMed

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  3. Absolute Infrared Calibration of Standard Stars by the Midcourse Space Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    analytic expressions have been adopted for limb darkening (see the discussion and references in Neckel, 1996 , for examples) the fact is that the ratio...expression is of little consequence. Spickler, Benner and Russell ( 1996 ) noted that their measurements showed more infrared limb darkening than the...that calculated by Neckel and Labs (1981) from absolute radiances at the center of the Sun. However, Colina, Bohlin and Castelli ( 1996 ) questioned the

  4. Disassortativity of random critical branching trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.

    2009-06-01

    Random critical branching trees (CBTs) are generated by the multiplicative branching process, where the branching number is determined stochastically, independent of the degree of their ancestor. Here we show analytically that despite this stochastic independence, there exists the degree-degree correlation (DDC) in the CBT and it is disassortative. Moreover, the skeletons of fractal networks, the maximum spanning trees formed by the edge betweenness centrality, behave similarly to the CBT in the DDC. This analytic solution and observation support the argument that the fractal scaling in complex networks originates from the disassortativity in the DDC.

  5. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.

    1985-08-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, andmore » apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references.« less

  6. [Application and analysis of abdominal aortic branch malperfusion pattern in thoracic endovascular aortic repair for Stanford B aortic dissection].

    PubMed

    Han, X F; Guo, X; Li, T Z; Liu, G R; Huang, L J

    2017-12-18

    To evaluate the efficiency of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in dealing with abdominal aortic branch malperfusion based on the analysis of aortic computed tomography angiography (CTA) images in pre- and post-TEVAR. Retrospective analysis from September 2015 to March 2016 in single institution to 32 patients, diagnosed as Stanford B aortic dissection with abdominal aortic branch malperfusion, CTA images in pre- and post-TEVAR were collected. Based on the aortic branch malperfusion pattern redefined by Nagamine, we identified and characterized branch malperfusion pattern for four abdominal aortic branches (celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, bilateral renal artery) in statistical analysis. In the four abdominal aortic branches (total 128 branches), 86 branches (67.2%) expressed with Class I patterns, in which subtype I-b presented with 0.8%, subtype I-c with 5.5%; 14 branches (10.9%) expressed with Class II patterns, in which subtype II-b-1 with 3.9%, subtype II-b-2 with 3.1%; 16 branches (12.5%) expressed with Class III patterns, all with subtype III-a, no subtype III-b and III-c presented. The remaining 12 branches were normal. The 100% successful rate of TEVAR obtained in 32 patients performed. The mean following-up was 4 months. Aortic CTA showed that among the 14 "high-risk" abdominal aortic branch malperfusion, 13 (92.9%) with obvious branch malperfusion in post-TEVAR were observed to improve, and the remaining one branch malperfusion (7.1%) was observed to change from subtype I-b to I-c. Few ratios in abdominal aortic branches suffered with obvious malperfusion complicated by Stanford B aortic dissection. For branches with "high-risk" malperfusion pattern, optimal changes were observed in abdominal aortic branch without revascularization in post-TEVAR, as well other branches with non-"high-risk" pattern perfusion were mostly stable in post-TEVAR. It could be of profound benefit to extend branch malperfusion patterns redefined by Nagamine in

  7. Absolute Calibration of Si iRMs used for Si Paleo-nutrient proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2016-04-01

    The Avogadro Project is an ongoing international effort, coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the International Avogadro Coordination (IAC) to redefine the SI unit mole in terms of the Avogadro constant and the SI unit kg in terms of the Planck constant. One of the outgrowths of this effort has been the development of a novel, precise and highly accurate method to measure calibrated (absolute) isotopic ratios that are traceable to the SI (Vocke et al., 2014 Metrologia 51, 361, Azuma et al., 2015 Metrologia 52 360). This approach has also been able to produce absolute Si isotope ratio data with lower levels of uncertainty when compared to the traditional "Atomic Weights" method of absolute isotope ratio measurement. Silicon isotope variations (reported as delta(Si30)and delta(Si29)) in silicic acid dissolved in ocean waters, in biogenic silica and in diatoms are extremely informative paleo-nutrient proxies. The utility and comparability of such measurements however depends on calibration with artifact isotopic Reference Materials (iRMs). We will be reporting new measurements on the iRMs NBS-28 (RM 8546 - Silica Sand), Diatomite, Big Batch and SRM 990 using the Avogadro measurement approach, comparing them with prior assessments of these iRMs.

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 usingmore » a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  10. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  11. Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mission of NASA Johnson Space Center is Human Spaceflight. In support of the mission the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch has several technical competencies that include aerodynamic characterization, aerothermodynamic heating, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator (parachute) systems.

  12. Effects of open-entry spike-bull, limited-entry branched-bull harvesting on elk composition in Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Fowler, P.E.; Bernatowicz, J.A.; Musser, J.L.; Stream, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented an open-entry spike-bull, limited-entry branched-bull elk (Cervus elaphus) harvest strategy in the Blue Mountains (1989), Yakima (1994), and Colockum (1994) herd areas of Washington state with goals of increasing numbers of adult bulls to increase breeding efficiency and possibly calf recruitment. Numbers of total bulls/100 cows (x??=5.4) and branched bulls/100 cows (x??=5.3) increased with the change in harvest strategy, while yearling bulls/100 cows remained unchanged; calves/100 cows declined (x??=-8.6). Calves/100 cows were always negatively correlated with both total bulls/100 cows and branched bulls/100 cows in each area; correlations were significant in 5 of 9 comparisons with total-bull ratios and 5 of 9 comparisons with branched-bull ratios. Open-entry spike-bull, limited-entry branched-bull harvesting can be used to increase total-bull and branched-bulls ratios in hunted elk populations. However, the increased ratios of bulls and branched bulls were unimportant in influencing calf recruitment, likely because of the importance of female condition on production and survival of young.

  13. Branch and foliage morphological plasticity in old-growth Thuja plicata.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Zoe R; Ford, E David

    2003-07-01

    At the Wind River Canopy Crane Facility in southeastern Washington State, USA, we examined phenotypic variation between upper- and lower-canopy branches of old-growth Thuja plicata J. Donn ex D. Don (western red cedar). Lower-canopy branches were longer, sprouted fewer daughter branches per unit stem length and were more horizontal than upper-canopy branches. Thuja plicata holds its foliage in fronds, and these had less projected area per unit mass, measured by specific frond area, and less overlap, measured by silhouette to projected area ratio (SPARmax), in the lower canopy than in the upper canopy. The value of SPARmax, used as an indicator of sun and shade foliage in needle-bearing species, did not differ greatly between upper- and lower-canopy branches. We suggest that branching patterns, as well as frond structure, are important components of morphological plasticity in T. plicata. Our results imply that branches of old-growth T. plicata trees have a guerilla growth pattern, responding to changes in solar irradiance in a localized manner.

  14. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  15. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  16. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  17. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The distinction between the uses of relative and absolute spectroradiometric calibration of remote sensing systems is discussed. The advantages of detector-based absolute calibration are described, and the categories of relative and absolute system calibrations are listed. The limitations and problems associated with three common methods used for the absolute calibration of remote sensing systems are addressed. Two methods are proposed for the in-flight absolute calibration of advanced multispectral linear array systems. One makes use of a sun-illuminated panel in front of the sensor, the radiance of which is monitored by a spectrally flat pyroelectric radiometer. The other uses a large, uniform, high-radiance reference ground surface. The ground and atmospheric measurements required as input to a radiative transfer program to predict the radiance level at the entrance pupil of the orbital sensor are discussed, and the ground instrumentation is described.

  19. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  20. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  1. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  2. Measurement of the Branching Fraction B(Λ + c→pK -π +)

    SciTech Connect

    Zupanc, A.; Bartel, Colin F.; Gabyshev, N.

    2014-07-25

    We present the first model-independent measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Λ + c→pK -π + decay using a data sample of 978 fb -1 collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e +e - collider. The number of Λ + c baryons is determined by reconstructing the recoiling D(*) -p¯π + system in events of the type e +e -→D(*) -p¯π +Λ + c. The branching fraction is measured to be B(Λ + c→pK -π +)=(6.84±0.24 +0.21 -0.27)%, where the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  3. Inferior alveolar nerve canal and branches detected with dental cone beam computed tomography in lower third molar region.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahisa; Ishihama, Kohji; Yasuda, Kouichi; Hasumi-Nakayama, Yoko; Ito, Kana; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the course of the inferior alveolar nerve and its branches, the detectable branches were investigated with dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients in whom the lower third molar (M3) and inferior alveolar nerve canal showed overlapping in the initial panoramic image were included. One hundred twelve impacted lower M3s were extracted after examination with dental CBCT. The detection ratio, the course of the branches, and their relation with the M3 were retrospectively investigated. One hundred fifty-five branches were observed in 106 cases (94.6%, 106/112) around the M3. Most branches coursed under the M3 (55.5%, 86/155), and 85 branches (54.8%, 85/155) were in contact with the M3. The inferior alveolar nerve canal and branch(es) were mostly in contact with the M3 (57.5%, 61/106). Dental CBCT can detect most tubular structures representing branches in the impacted lower M3 region. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of biopolymers on the solubility of branched-chain amino acids and stability of their solutions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chi Rac; Lee, Gyu Whan; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Choi, Seung Jun

    2018-01-15

    This study confirmed the possibility of biopolymer-type stabilizers to increase the saturation concentration of branched-chain amino acids by preventing their crystallization/precipitation. Although microfluidization increased the initial solubility, it failed to increase the saturation concentration of the branched-chain amino acids. The saturation concentration of the branched-chain amino acids increased from 3.81% to 4.42% and 4.85% after the incorporation of food hydrocolloids and proteins, respectively. However, the branched-chain amino acids:stabilizer ratio did not affect the solubility. In the case of food hydrocolloid-based solutions, crystal formation and growth of branched-chain amino acids occurred during storage, resulting in the precipitation of branched-chain amino acid crystals. However, food proteins effectively increased the stability of the solubilized branched-chain amino acids. The improved solubility and stability of the solubilized branched-chain amino acids could be attributed to interactions between the functional groups (carboxyl, amine, sulfate, aliphatic, aromatic, etc.) of the stabilizer and the branched-chain amino acid molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative and Absolute Availability of Healthier Food and Beverage Alternatives Across Communities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Rimkus, Leah; Isgor, Zeynep; Barker, Dianne C.; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between the relative and absolute availability of healthier food and beverage alternatives at food stores and community racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and urban–rural characteristics. Methods. We analyzed pooled, annual cross-sectional data collected in 2010 to 2012 from 8462 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 US states. Relative availability was the ratio of 7 healthier products (e.g., whole-wheat bread) to less healthy counterparts (e.g., white bread); we based absolute availability on the 7 healthier products. Results. The mean healthier food and beverage ratio was 0.71, indicating that stores averaged 29% fewer healthier than less healthy products. Lower relative availability of healthier alternatives was associated with low-income, Black, and Hispanic communities. Small stores had the largest differences: relative availability of healthier alternatives was 0.61 and 0.60, respectively, for very low-income Black and very low-income Hispanic communities, and 0.74 for very high-income White communities. We found fewer associations between absolute availability of healthier products and community characteristics. Conclusions. Policies to improve the relative availability of healthier alternatives may be needed to improve population health and reduce disparities. PMID:25211721

  6. Absolute and Relative Carnitine Deficiency in Patients on Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mitra; Mottaghi Moghadam Shahri, Hasan; Horri, Mohsen; Esmaeeli, Mohammad; Ghaneh Sherbaf, Fatemeh; Jahanshahi, Shohre; Moeenolroayaa, Giti; Rasoli, Zahra; Salemian, Farzaneh; Pour Hasan, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine deficiency is commonly seen in dialysis patients. This study assessed the association dialysis and pediatric patients' characteristics with plasma carnitines levels. Plasma carnitine concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 46 children on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. The total carnitine, free carnitine (FC), and L-acyl carnitine (AC) levels of 40 µmol/L and less, less than 7 µmol/L, and less than 15 µmol/L were defined low, respectively. An FC less than 20 µmol/L and an AC/FC ratio greater than 0.4 were considered as absolute and relative carnitine deficiencies. The correlation between carnitines levels and AC/FC ratio and age, duration of dialysis, characteristics of dialysis, and blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin concentrations were assessed. Absolute carnitine deficiency, low total carnitine, and low AC concentrations were found in 66.7%, 82.6%, and 51% of the patients, respectively. All of the patients had relative carnitine deficiency. Carnitine measurements were not significantly different between the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis groups. More severe relative carnitine deficiency was found in those with lower blood urea nitrogen levels and those on peritoneal dialysis. No linear correlation was found between carnitine levels and age, duration of dialysis, characteristics of dialysis, serum albumin level, or blood urea nitrogen level. Absolute and relative carnitine deficiencies are common among children on dialysis. Patients with lower blood urea nitrogen levels and peritoneal dialysis patients are more prone to severe relative carnitine deficiency.

  7. Thermoelectric effects in disordered branched nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piriatinskiy, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    We shall develop formalism of thermal and electrical transport in Si1 - x Gex and BiTe nanowires. The key feature of those nanowires is the possibility of dendrimer type branching. The branching tree can be of size comparable to the short wavelength of phonons and by far smaller than the long wavelength of conducting electrons. Hence it is expected that the branching may suppress thermal and let alone electrical conductance. We demonstrate that the morphology of branches strongly affects the electronic conductance. The effect is important to the class of materials known as thermoelectrics. The small size of the branching region makes large temperature and electrical gradients. On the other hand the smallness of the region would allow the electrical transport being ballistic. As usual for the mesoscopic systems we have to solve macroscopic (temperature) and microscopic ((electric potential, current)) equations self-consistently. Electronic conductance is studied via NEGF formalism on the irreducible electron transfer graph. We also investigate the figure of merit ZT as a measure of the suppressed electron conductance.

  8. Branch breakage under snow and ice loads.

    PubMed

    Cannell, M G; Morgan, J

    1989-09-01

    Measurements were made on branches and trunks of Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. to determine the relationship between (i) the bending moment at the bases of branches that cause breakage, and (ii) midpoint diameter cubed. The theory for cantilever beams was then used to calculate the basal bending moments and midpoint diameters of branches with different numbers of laterals and endpoint deflections, given previously measured values of Young's modulus, taper and weights of foliage and wood. Snow and ice loads (equal to 2 and 4 g cm(-1) of shoot, respectively) were then included in the calculation to determine whether the basal bending moments exceeded the breakage values. The likelihood of breakage increased with an increase in (i) number of laterals, and (ii) endpoint deflection under self weight (without snow or ice)-features that had previously been shown to lessen the amount of branch wood required to support a unit of foliage. However, branches which deflected moderately (> 10% of their length) under their own weight deflected greatly under snow or ice loads and might shed powdery snow before breakage occurs.

  9. Empirical photometric calibration of the Gaia red clump: Colours, effective temperature, and absolute magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Dern, L.; Babusiaux, C.; Arenou, F.; Turon, C.; Lallement, R.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 allows the recalibration of standard candles such as the red clump stars. To use those stars, they first need to be accurately characterised. In particular, colours are needed to derive interstellar extinction. As no filter is available for the first Gaia data release and to avoid the atmosphere model mismatch, an empirical calibration is unavoidable. Aims: The purpose of this work is to provide the first complete and robust photometric empirical calibration of the Gaia red clump stars of the solar neighbourhood through colour-colour, effective temperature-colour, and absolute magnitude-colour relations from the Gaia, Johnson, 2MASS, HIPPARCOS, Tycho-2, APASS-SLOAN, and WISE photometric systems, and the APOGEE DR13 spectroscopic temperatures. Methods: We used a 3D extinction map to select low reddening red giants. To calibrate the colour-colour and the effective temperature-colour relations, we developed a MCMC method that accounts for all variable uncertainties and selects the best model for each photometric relation. We estimated the red clump absolute magnitude through the mode of a kernel-based distribution function. Results: We provide 20 colour versus G-Ks relations and the first Teff versus G-Ks calibration. We obtained the red clump absolute magnitudes for 15 photometric bands with, in particular, MKs = (-1.606 ± 0.009) and MG = (0.495 ± 0.009) + (1.121 ± 0.128)(G-Ks-2.1). We present a dereddened Gaia-TGAS HR diagram and use the calibrations to compare its red clump and its red giant branch bump with Padova isochrones. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A116

  10. Absolute quantum yield measurement of powder samples.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A

    2012-05-12

    Measurement of fluorescence quantum yield has become an important tool in the search for new solutions in the development, evaluation, quality control and research of illumination, AV equipment, organic EL material, films, filters and fluorescent probes for bio-industry. Quantum yield is calculated as the ratio of the number of photons absorbed, to the number of photons emitted by a material. The higher the quantum yield, the better the efficiency of the fluorescent material. For the measurements featured in this video, we will use the Hitachi F-7000 fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with the Quantum Yield measuring accessory and Report Generator program. All the information provided applies to this system. Measurement of quantum yield in powder samples is performed following these steps: 1. Generation of instrument correction factors for the excitation and emission monochromators. This is an important requirement for the correct measurement of quantum yield. It has been performed in advance for the full measurement range of the instrument and will not be shown in this video due to time limitations. 2. Measurement of integrating sphere correction factors. The purpose of this step is to take into consideration reflectivity characteristics of the integrating sphere used for the measurements. 3. Reference and Sample measurement using direct excitation and indirect excitation. 4. Quantum Yield calculation using Direct and Indirect excitation. Direct excitation is when the sample is facing directly the excitation beam, which would be the normal measurement setup. However, because we use an integrating sphere, a portion of the emitted photons resulting from the sample fluorescence are reflected by the integrating sphere and will re-excite the sample, so we need to take into consideration indirect excitation. This is accomplished by measuring the sample placed in the port facing the emission monochromator, calculating indirect quantum yield and correcting the direct

  11. Role of TCP Gene BRANCHED1 in the Control of Shoot Branching in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Poza-Carrión, César; Aguilar-Martínez, José Antonio; Cubas, Pilar

    2007-11-01

    Branching patterns are major determinants of plant architecture. They depend both on leaf phillotaxy (branch primordia are formed in the axils of leaves) and on the decision of buds to grow out to give a branch or to remain dormant. In Arabidopsis, several genes involved in the long-distance signalling of the control of branch outgrowth have been identified. However, the genes acting inside the buds to cause growth arrest remained unknown until now. In the February issue of Plant Cell we have described the function of BRANCHED1 (BRC1), an Arabidopsis gene coding for a plant-specific transcription factor of the TCP family that is expressed in the buds and prevents their development. Loss of BRC1 function leads to accelerated AM initiation, precocious progression of bud development and excess of shoot branching. BRC1 transcription is affected by endogenous and environmental signals controlling branching and we have shown that BRC1 function mediates the response to these stimuli. Therefore we have proposed that BRC1 function represents the point at which signals controlling branching are integrated within axillary buds.

  12. Computational models of airway branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-07-01

    The bronchial network of the mammalian lung consists of millions of dichotomous branches arranged in a highly complex, space-filling tree. Recent computational models of branching morphogenesis in the lung have helped uncover the biological mechanisms that construct this ramified architecture. In this review, we focus on three different theoretical approaches - geometric modeling, reaction-diffusion modeling, and continuum mechanical modeling - and discuss how, taken together, these models have identified the geometric principles necessary to build an efficient bronchial network, as well as the patterning mechanisms that specify airway geometry in the developing embryo. We emphasize models that are integrated with biological experiments and suggest how recent progress in computational modeling has advanced our understanding of airway branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncertainty and probability for branching selves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Peter J.

    Everettian accounts of quantum mechanics entail that people branch; every possible result of a measurement actually occurs, and I have one successor for each result. Is there room for probability in such an account? The prima facie answer is no; there are no ontic chances here, and no ignorance about what will happen. But since any adequate quantum mechanical theory must make probabilistic predictions, much recent philosophical labor has gone into trying to construct an account of probability for branching selves. One popular strategy involves arguing that branching selves introduce a new kind of subjective uncertainty. I argue here that the variants of this strategy in the literature all fail, either because the uncertainty is spurious, or because it is in the wrong place to yield probabilistic predictions. I conclude that uncertainty cannot be the ground for probability in Everettian quantum mechanics.

  14. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluoropolymer Dynamics: Effects of Perfluoromethyl Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eby, R. K.; Holt, D. B.; Farmer, B. L.; Adams, D. D.

    1997-03-01

    Previous simulations of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in the solid state showed that the interaction and movement of helix reversals plays an important role in the dynamic behavior of this important polymer. Copolymers of TFE and hexafluoropropylene (HFP), which can be viewed as PTFE with perfluoromethyl (PFM) group branch defects, is also widely used. Molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations have been performed with PTFE chain clusters containing PFM branches to investigate the effect of these defects on the local crystalline environment (and vice versa) and on the motions and interactions of helix reversals. Initial results indicate that helix reversals are attracted to sites of PFM branches in a chain. Such an interaction will impede the motions of helix reversals and have an impact on macroscopic mechanical properties such as resistance to plastic deformation under shear.

  16. Patterns and determinants of functional and absolute iron deficiency in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation following heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Tramarin, Roberto; Pistuddi, Valeria; Maresca, Luigi; Pavesi, Marco; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; de Vincentiis, Carlo; Ranucci, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Background Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent following major surgery. The present study aims to identify the iron deficiency patterns in cardiac surgery patients at their admission to a cardiac rehabilitation programme, and to determine which perioperative risk factor(s) may be associated with functional and absolute iron deficiency. Design This was a retrospective study on prospectively collected data. Methods The patient population included 339 patients. Functional iron deficiency was defined in the presence of transferrin saturation <20% and serum ferritin ≥100 µg/l. Absolute iron deficiency was defined in the presence of serum ferritin values <100 µg/l. Results Functional iron deficiency was found in 62.9% of patients and absolute iron deficiency in 10% of the patients. At a multivariable analysis, absolute iron deficiency was significantly ( p = 0.001) associated with mechanical prosthesis mitral valve replacement (odds ratio 5.4, 95% confidence interval 1.9-15) and tissue valve aortic valve replacement (odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.9-11). In mitral valve surgery, mitral repair carried a significant ( p = 0.013) lower risk of absolute iron deficiency (4.4%) than mitral valve replacement with tissue valves (8.3%) or mechanical prostheses (22.5%). Postoperative outcome did not differ between patients with functional iron deficiency and patients without iron deficiency; patients with absolute iron deficiency had a significantly ( p = 0.017) longer postoperative hospital stay (median 11 days) than patients without iron deficiency (median nine days) or with functional iron deficiency (median eight days). Conclusions Absolute iron deficiency following cardiac surgery is more frequent in heart valve surgery and is associated with a prolonged hospital stay. Routine screening for iron deficiency at admission in the cardiac rehabilitation unit is suggested.

  17. Calibration of the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thome, Kurtis; Barnes, Robert; Baize, Rosemary; O'Connell, Joseph; Hair, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) plans to observe climate change trends over decadal time scales to determine the accuracy of climate projections. The project relies on spaceborne earth observations of SI-traceable variables sensitive to key decadal change parameters. The mission includes a reflected solar instrument retrieving at-sensor reflectance over the 320 to 2300 nm spectral range with 500-m spatial resolution and 100-km swath. Reflectance is obtained from the ratio of measurements of the earth s surface to those while viewing the sun relying on a calibration approach that retrieves reflectance with uncertainties less than 0.3%. The calibration is predicated on heritage hardware, reduction of sensor complexity, adherence to detector-based calibration standards, and an ability to simulate in the laboratory on-orbit sources in both size and brightness to provide the basis of a transfer to orbit of the laboratory calibration including a link to absolute solar irradiance measurements.

  18. Crack branching in cross-ply composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Saponara, Valeria

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this research work is to examine the behavior of an interface crack in a cross-ply laminate which is subject to static and fatigue loading. The failure mechanism analyzed here is crack branching (or crack kinking or intra-layer crack): the delamination located between two different plies starts growing as an interface crack and then may branch into the less tough ply. The specimens were manufactured from different types of Glass/Epoxy and Graphite/Epoxy, by hand lay-up, vacuum bagging and cure in autoclave. Each specimen had a delamination starter. Static mixed mode tests and compressive fatigue tests were performed. Experiments showed the scale of the problem, one ply thickness, and some significant features, like contact in the branched crack. The amount of scatter in the experiments required use of statistics. Exploratory Data Analysis and a factorial design of experiments based on a 8 x 8 Hadamard matrix were used. Experiments and statistics show that there is a critical branching angle above which crack growth is greatly accelerated. This angle seems: (1) not to be affected by the specimens' life; (2) not to depend on the specimen geometry and loading conditions; (3) to strongly depend on the amount of contact in the branched crack. Numerical analysis was conducted to predict crack propagation based on the actual displacement/load curves for static tests. This method allows us to predict the total crack propagation in 2D conditions, while neglecting branching. Finally, the existence of a solution based on analytic continuation is discussed.

  19. The development of the red giant branch. II - Astrophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.; Greggio, Laura; Renzini, Alvio

    1990-01-01

    Evolutionary sequences developed in another paper are used here to investigate the properties of the red giant branch (RGB) phase transition. Results are found for compositions in the range Y(MS) between 0.20 and 0.30 and Z between 0.004 and 0.04. The transition mass M(HeF) increases as either Y(MS) decreases or Z increases. The stellar population transition age t(HeF) is virtually independent of composition and close to 0.6 Gyr. The RGB phase transition occurs almost abruptly over a mass range of only a few tenths of a solar mass or, equivalently, over a time interval of about 0.2 Gyr in the life of a stellar population. During the RGB phase transition the core mass Mc at helium ignition increases very rapidly by about 0.15 solar mass, while the luminosity at the tip of the RGB increases by about one order of magnitude. Absolute minima are found for the values of Mc and the RGB tip luminosity.

  20. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Slavonski Brod].

    PubMed

    Mahovne, Zvonimir

    2014-01-01

    The branch of the Croatian Medical Association in Slav. Brod was founded in 1953. The economic and social progress in subsequent years led to the increased number of health institutions, health professionals and owing to their activity to better health care. The branch survived very difficult war years from 1991 to 1995. Our members treated thousands of wounded and ill and gave the best of their skill and humanity. In the last decade our members took part in educational and scientific activities of School of Medicine, J. J. Strossmayer University in Osijek.

  1. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR part 211). (3) Public notice of branch applications. (i) Location of... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208... maintenance of national bank branches (12 U.S.C. 36 and 1831u), except that approval of such branches shall be...

  2. Building Virtual Spaces for Children in the Digital Branch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBroy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A digital branch is just like a physical branch except that content is delivered digitally via the web. A digital branch has staff, a collection, a community, and a building. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of building individual spaces for different user groups, specifically children, within a digital branch.…

  3. 39 CFR 241.2 - Stations and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... number, letter or name. As a general rule, branches are named. (2) Stations and branches transact... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stations and branches. 241.2 Section 241.2 Postal... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.2 Stations and branches. (a) Description. (1) Stations are established within the corporate...

  4. 39 CFR 241.2 - Stations and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... number, letter or name. As a general rule, branches are named. (2) Stations and branches transact... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stations and branches. 241.2 Section 241.2 Postal... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.2 Stations and branches. (a) Description. (1) Stations are established within the corporate...

  5. 39 CFR 241.2 - Stations and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... number, letter or name. As a general rule, branches are named. (2) Stations and branches transact... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stations and branches. 241.2 Section 241.2 Postal... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.2 Stations and branches. (a) Description. (1) Stations are established within the corporate...

  6. 39 CFR 241.2 - Stations and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... number, letter or name. As a general rule, branches are named. (2) Stations and branches transact... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stations and branches. 241.2 Section 241.2 Postal... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.2 Stations and branches. (a) Description. (1) Stations are established within the corporate...

  7. 39 CFR 241.2 - Stations and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... number, letter or name. As a general rule, branches are named. (2) Stations and branches transact... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stations and branches. 241.2 Section 241.2 Postal... DISCONTINUANCE § 241.2 Stations and branches. (a) Description. (1) Stations are established within the corporate...

  8. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseev, D.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Stange, T.; Braune, H.; Erckmann, V.; Gellert, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m2 per MW injected beam power is measured.

  9. Absolute calibration of sniffer probes on Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Moseev, D; Laqua, H P; Marsen, S; Stange, T; Braune, H; Erckmann, V; Gellert, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the first measurements of the power levels of stray radiation in the vacuum vessel of Wendelstein 7-X using absolutely calibrated sniffer probes. The absolute calibration is achieved by using calibrated sources of stray radiation and the implicit measurement of the quality factor of the Wendelstein 7-X empty vacuum vessel. Normalized absolute calibration coefficients agree with the cross-calibration coefficients that are obtained by the direct measurements, indicating that the measured absolute calibration coefficients and stray radiation levels in the vessel are valid. Close to the launcher, the stray radiation in the empty vessel reaches power levels up to 340 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power. Furthest away from the launcher, i.e., half a toroidal turn, still 90 kW/m(2) per MW injected beam power is measured.

  10. Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.

  11. Probative value of absolute and relative judgments in eyewitness identification.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E; Erickson, Michael A; Breneman, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    It is well-accepted that eyewitness identification decisions based on relative judgments are less accurate than identification decisions based on absolute judgments. However, the theoretical foundation for this view has not been established. In this study relative and absolute judgments were compared through simulations of the WITNESS model (Clark, Appl Cogn Psychol 17:629-654, 2003) to address the question: Do suspect identifications based on absolute judgments have higher probative value than suspect identifications based on relative judgments? Simulations of the WITNESS model showed a consistent advantage for absolute judgments over relative judgments for suspect-matched lineups. However, simulations of same-foils lineups showed a complex interaction based on the accuracy of memory and the similarity relationships among lineup members.

  12. Temporal Dynamics of Microbial Rhodopsin Fluorescence Reports Absolute Membrane Voltage

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jennifer H.; Venkatachalam, Veena; Cohen, Adam E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma membrane voltage is a fundamentally important property of a living cell; its value is tightly coupled to membrane transport, the dynamics of transmembrane proteins, and to intercellular communication. Accurate measurement of the membrane voltage could elucidate subtle changes in cellular physiology, but existing genetically encoded fluorescent voltage reporters are better at reporting relative changes than absolute numbers. We developed an Archaerhodopsin-based fluorescent voltage sensor whose time-domain response to a stepwise change in illumination encodes the absolute membrane voltage. We validated this sensor in human embryonic kidney cells. Measurements were robust to variation in imaging parameters and in gene expression levels, and reported voltage with an absolute accuracy of 10 mV. With further improvements in membrane trafficking and signal amplitude, time-domain encoding of absolute voltage could be applied to investigate many important and previously intractable bioelectric phenomena. PMID:24507604

  13. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.

  14. Reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach for 3D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Chen, Deyun

    2017-11-01

    The wrapped phase of phase-shifting approach can be unwrapped by using Gray code, but both the wrapped phase error and Gray code decoding error can result in period jump error, which will lead to gross measurement error. Therefore, this paper presents a reliable absolute analog code retrieval approach. The combination of unequal-period Gray code and phase shifting patterns at high frequencies are used to obtain high-frequency absolute analog code, and at low frequencies, the same unequal-period combination patterns are used to obtain the low-frequency absolute analog code. Next, the difference between the two absolute analog codes was employed to eliminate period jump errors, and a reliable unwrapped result can be obtained. Error analysis was used to determine the applicable conditions, and this approach was verified through theoretical analysis. The proposed approach was further verified experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform reliable analog code unwrapping.

  15. Control over the branched structures of platinum nanocrystals for electrocatalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Chengming; Gong, Ming; Liao, Lingwen; Long, Ran; Wang, Jinguo; Wu, Di; Zhong, Wei; Kim, Moon J; Chen, Yanxia; Xie, Yi; Xiong, Yujie

    2012-11-27

    Structural control of branched nanocrystals allows tuning two parameters that are critical to their catalytic activity--the surface-to-volume ratio, and the number of atomic steps, ledges, and kinks on surface. In this work, we have developed a simple synthetic system that allows tailoring the numbers of branches in Pt nanocrystals by tuning the concentration of additional HCl. In the synthesis, HCl plays triple functions in tuning branched structures via oxidative etching: (i) the crystallinity of seeds and nanocrystals; (ii) the number of {111} or {100} faces provided for growth sites; (iii) the supply kinetics of freshly formed Pt atoms in solution. As a result, tunable Pt branched structures--tripods, tetrapods, hexapods, and octopods with identical chemical environment--can be rationally synthesized in a single system by simply altering the etching strength. The controllability in branched structures enables to reveal that their electrocatalytic performance can be optimized by constructing complex structures. Among various branched structures, Pt octopods exhibit particularly high activity in formic acid oxidation as compared with their counterparts and commercial Pt/C catalysts. It is anticipated that this work will open a door to design more complex nanostructures and to achieve specific functions for various applications.

  16. Branching ratios for TlBr photodissociation with 2660 A radiation

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Zdasiuk, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    Radiation from a Nd:YAG laser was used to study the selective photodissociation of TlBr into the Tl metastable state, 6p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/, as a potential candidate for stimulated Roman up-converters.(AIP)

  17. Pyrolysis of Cyclopentadienone: Mechanistic Insights from a Direct Measurement of Product Branching Ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Ormond, Thomas K.; Scheer, Adam M.; Nimlos, Mark R.

    2015-07-16

    The thermal decomposition of cyclopentadienone (C5H4-O) has been studied in a flash pyrolysis continuous flow microreactor. Passing dilute samples of o-phenylene sulfite (C6H4O2SO) in He through the microreactor at elevated temperatures yields a relatively clean source of C5H4-O. The pyrolysis of C5H4-O was investigated over the temperature range 1000-2000 K.

  18. Computationally Aided Absolute Stereochemical Determination of Enantioenriched Amines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Gholami, Hadi; Ding, Xinliang; Chun, Minji; Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Nehira, Tatsuo; Borhan, Babak

    2017-03-17

    A simple and efficient protocol for sensing the absolute stereochemistry and enantiomeric excess of chiral monoamines is reported. Preparation of the sample requires a single-step reaction of the 1,1'-(bromomethylene)dinaphthalene (BDN) with the chiral amine. Analysis of the exciton coupled circular dichroism generated from the BDN-derivatized chiral amine sample, along with comparison to conformational analysis performed computationally, yields the absolute stereochemistry of the parent chiral monoamine.

  19. Absolute and Convective Instability of a Liquid Jet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Sung P.; Vihinen, I.; Honohan, A.; Hudman, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    The transition from convective to absolute instability is observed in the 2.2 second drop tower of the NASA Lewis Research Center. In convective instability the disturbance grows spatially as it is convected downstream. In absolute instability the disturbance propagates both downstream and upstream, and manifests itself as an expanding sphere. The transition Reynolds numbers are determined for two different Weber numbers by use of Glycerin and a Silicone oil. Preliminary comparisons with theory are made.

  20. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  1. Structure elucidation and absolute stereochemistry of isomeric monoterpene chromane esters.

    PubMed

    Batista, João M; Batista, Andrea N L; Mota, Jonas S; Cass, Quezia B; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Freedman, Teresa B; López, Silvia N; Furlan, Maysa; Nafie, Laurence A

    2011-04-15

    Six novel monoterpene chromane esters were isolated from the aerial parts of Peperomia obtusifolia (Piperaceae) using chiral chromatography. This is the first time that chiral chromane esters of this kind, ones with a tethered chiral terpene, have been isolated in nature. Due to their structural features, it is not currently possible to assess directly their absolute stereochemistry using any of the standard classical approaches, such as X-ray crystallography, NMR, optical rotation, or electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Herein we report the absolute configuration of these molecules, involving four chiral centers, using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31G*) calculations. This work further reinforces the capability of VCD to determine unambiguously the absolute configuration of structurally complex molecules in solution, without crystallization or derivatization, and demonstrates the sensitivity of VCD to specify the absolute configuration for just one among a number of chiral centers. We also demonstrate the sufficiency of using the so-called inexpensive basis set 6-31G* compared to the triple-ζ basis set TZVP for absolute configuration analysis of larger molecules using VCD. Overall, this work extends our knowledge of secondary metabolites in plants and provides a straightforward way to determine the absolute configuration of complex natural products involving a chiral parent moiety combined with a chiral terpene adduct.

  2. Turing mechanism underlying a branching model for lung morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung develops through branching morphogenesis. Two primary forms of branching, which occur in order, in the lung have been identified: tip bifurcation and side branching. However, the mechanisms of lung branching morphogenesis remain to be explored. In our previous study, a biological mechanism was presented for lung branching pattern formation through a branching model. Here, we provide a mathematical mechanism underlying the branching patterns. By decoupling the branching model, we demonstrated the existence of Turing instability. We performed Turing instability analysis to reveal the mathematical mechanism of the branching patterns. Our simulation results show that the Turing patterns underlying the branching patterns are spot patterns that exhibit high local morphogen concentration. The high local morphogen concentration induces the growth of branching. Furthermore, we found that the sparse spot patterns underlie the tip bifurcation patterns, while the dense spot patterns underlies the side branching patterns. The dispersion relation analysis shows that the Turing wavelength affects the branching structure. As the wavelength decreases, the spot patterns change from sparse to dense, the rate of tip bifurcation decreases and side branching eventually occurs instead. In the process of transformation, there may exists hybrid branching that mixes tip bifurcation and side branching. Since experimental studies have reported that branching mode switching from side branching to tip bifurcation in the lung is under genetic control, our simulation results suggest that genes control the switch of the branching mode by regulating the Turing wavelength. Our results provide a novel insight into and understanding of the formation of branching patterns in the lung and other biological systems.

  3. Branch Input Resistance and Steady Attenuation for Input to One Branch of a Dendritic Neuron Model

    PubMed Central

    Rall, Wilfrid; Rinzel, John

    1973-01-01

    Mathematical solutions and numerical illustrations are presented for the steady-state distribution of membrane potential in an extensively branched neuron model, when steady electric current is injected into only one dendritic branch. Explicit expressions are obtained for input resistance at the branch input site and for voltage attenuation from the input site to the soma; expressions for AC steady-state input impedance and attenuation are also presented. The theoretical model assumes passive membrane properties and the equivalent cylinder constraint on branch diameters. Numerical examples illustrate how branch input resistance and steady attenuation depend upon the following: the number of dendritic trees, the orders of dendritic branching, the electrotonic length of the dendritic trees, the location of the dendritic input site, and the input resistance at the soma. The application to cat spinal motoneurons, and to other neuron types, is discussed. The effect of a large dendritic input resistance upon the amount of local membrane depolarization at the synaptic site, and upon the amount of depolarization reaching the soma, is illustrated and discussed; simple proportionality with input resistance does not hold, in general. Also, branch input resistance is shown to exceed the input resistance at the soma by an amount that is always less than the sum of core resistances along the path from the input site to the soma. PMID:4715583

  4. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  5. Genetic interactions underlying tree branch orientation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Expanding our understanding of the molecular and genetic mechanisms behind branch orientation in trees both addresses a fundamental developmental phenomenon and can lead to significant impacts on tree crop agriculture and forestry. Using the p-nome (pooled genome) sequencing-based mapping approac...

  6. Branching instability in expanding bacterial colonies.

    PubMed

    Giverso, Chiara; Verani, Marco; Ciarletta, Pasquale

    2015-03-06

    Self-organization in developing living organisms relies on the capability of cells to duplicate and perform a collective motion inside the surrounding environment. Chemical and mechanical interactions coordinate such a cooperative behaviour, driving the dynamical evolution of the macroscopic system. In this work, we perform an analytical and computational analysis to study pattern formation during the spreading of an initially circular bacterial colony on a Petri dish. The continuous mathematical model addresses the growth and the chemotactic migration of the living monolayer, together with the diffusion and consumption of nutrients in the agar. The governing equations contain four dimensionless parameters, accounting for the interplay among the chemotactic response, the bacteria-substrate interaction and the experimental geometry. The spreading colony is found to be always linearly unstable to perturbations of the interface, whereas branching instability arises in finite-element numerical simulations. The typical length scales of such fingers, which align in the radial direction and later undergo further branching, are controlled by the size parameters of the problem, whereas the emergence of branching is favoured if the diffusion is dominant on the chemotaxis. The model is able to predict the experimental morphologies, confirming that compact (resp. branched) patterns arise for fast (resp. slow) expanding colonies. Such results, while providing new insights into pattern selection in bacterial colonies, may finally have important applications for designing controlled patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  8. Characterization of branch complexity by fractal analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The comparison between complexity in the sense of space occupancy (box-counting fractal dimension D(c) and information dimension D1) and heterogeneity in the sense of space distribution (average evenness index f and evenness variation coefficient J(cv)) were investigated in mathematical fractal objects and natural branch structures. In general, increased fractal dimension was paired with low heterogeneity. Comparisons between branch architecture in Anthyllis cytisoides under different slope exposure and grazing impact revealed that branches were more complex and more homogeneously distributed for plants on northern exposures than southern, while grazing had no impact during a wet year. Developmental instability was also investigated by the statistical noise of the allometric relation between internode length and node order. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that fractal dimension of branch structure can be used to analyze the structural organization of plants, especially if we consider not only fractal dimension but also shoot distribution within the canopy (lacunarity). These indexes together with developmental instability analyses are good indicators of growth responses to the environment.

  9. Re-Envisioning New York's Branch Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Estima, Jeanette; Francois, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two years ago, the Center for an Urban Future published "Branches of Opportunity," a report documenting that New York City's public libraries have become more vital than ever, and are serving more New Yorkers in more ways than ever before. This new report provides an exhaustive analysis of the libraries' capital needs and offers a…

  10. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Epicormic branching on pruned white fir

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Cosens

    1952-01-01

    Epicormic branches have developed on white fir (Abies concolor) one to two years after part of the live limbs were removed in a pruning experiment. The appearance of an average of six epicormic sprouts per tree raises some doubt as to the desirability of planting this species.

  12. Tribology and Mechanical Components Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of NASA Glenn Research Center's Tribology & Mechanical Components Branch is provided. Work in space mechanisms, seals, oil-free turbomachinery, and mechanical components is presented. An overview of current research for these technology areas is contained in this overview.

  13. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Contents of Application. The application must include a business plan, written approval by the...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... evidencing written permission from the host country to establish the branch that explicitly recognizes NCUA's...

  14. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  15. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States unless the foreign branch is located on a United States military instillation or.... (b) Contents of Application. The application must include a business plan, written approval by the...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market...

  16. Branch President gives evidence at Scottish Parliament.

    PubMed

    2017-07-01

    As the Scottish Government moves forward with its recently announced package of measures on animal health and welfare, Hayley Atkin, BVA Policy Officer, describes a busy month for the President of BVA Scottish Branch representing members in the Scottish Parliament. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Evaluation of popliteal artery branching patterns and a new subclassification of the 'usual' branching pattern.

    PubMed

    Celtikci, Pinar; Ergun, Onur; Durmaz, Hasan Ali; Conkbayir, Isik; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2017-09-01

    To determine the frequency of popliteal artery branching variations in a wide study cohort and to investigate the relationship between these variations and infrapopliteal peripheral arterial disease (PAD). A subclassification was proposed for the most encountered type I-A, utilizing tibio-fibular trunk (TFT) length. A total number of 1184 lower extremity digital subtraction angiography (DSA) studies of 669 patients were evaluated. Following exclusion, 863 lower extremity DSA studies (431 right, 432 left) of 545 patients were enrolled. Popliteal artery branching type, patency of anterior tibial artery (ATA), fibular artery (FA) and posterior tibial artery (PTA) in each extremity and TFT length for type I-A extremities were recorded. Percentages of branching patterns, mean length and cut-off value of TFT and incidence of PAD in different types of branching were calculated. Type I-A was the most common type of branching (81.3%). Frequency of branching pattern variation was 18.7%, the most common variation category was category III (12.2%) and the most common variation type was type III-A (5.6%). ATA and PTA had higher percentages of PAD in extremities with variant branching types. Cut-off value of 3 cm for TFT length was proposed in order to subclassify type I-A. Our study cohort presents a higher incidence of popliteal artery branching variations. Some branching variations might have effect on the involvement pattern of the infrapopliteal arteries by PAD. We propose a subclassification for type I-A; type I-A-S (TFT < 3 cm) and type I-A-L (TFT ≥ 3 cm) which might have impact on interventional procedures.

  18. Absolute Paleointensity Techniques: Developments in the Last 10 Years (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, J. A.; Brown, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to determine variations in absolute intensity of the Earth’s paleomagnetic field has greatly enhanced our understanding of geodynamo processes, including secular variation and field reversals. Igneous rocks and baked clay artifacts that carry a thermal remanence (TRM) have allowed us to study field variations over timescales ranging from decades to billions of years. All absolute paleointensity techniques are fundamentally based on repeating the natural process by which the sample acquired its magnetization, i.e. a laboratory TRM is acquired in a controlled field, and the ratio of the natural TRM to that acquired in the laboratory is directly proportional to the ancient field. Techniques for recovering paleointensity have evolved since the 1930s from relatively unsophisticated (but revolutionary for their time) single step remagnetizations to the various complicated, multi-step procedures in use today. These procedures can be broadly grouped into two categories: 1) “Thellier-type” experiments that step-wise heat samples at a series of temperatures up to the maximum unblocking temperature of the sample, progressively removing the natural remanence (NRM) and acquiring a laboratory-induced TRM; and 2) “Shaw-type” experiments that combine alternating field demagnetization of the NRM and laboratory TRM with a single heating to a temperature above the sample’s Curie temperature, acquiring a total TRM in one step. Many modifications to these techniques have been developed over the years with the goal of identifying and/or accommodating non-ideal behavior, such as alteration and multi-domain (MD) remanence, which may lead to inaccurate paleofield estimates. From a technological standpoint, perhaps the most significant development in the last decade is the use of microwave (de)magnetization in both Thellier-type and Shaw-type experiments. By using microwaves to directly generate spin waves within the magnetic grains (rather than using phonons

  19. Crack stability and branching at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Robb

    1995-11-01

    The various events that occur at a crack on an interface are explored, and described in terms of a simple graphical construction called the crack stability diagram. For simple Griffith cleavage in a homogeneous material, the stability diagram is a sector of a circle in the space of stress intensity factors, KI/KII. The Griffith circle is limited in both positive and negative KII directions by nonblunting dislocation emission on the cleavage plane. For a branching plane inclined at an angle to the original cleavage plane, both cleavage and emission (which blunts the crack) can be described as a balance between an elastic driving force and a lattice resistance for the event. We use an analytic expression obtained by Cotterell and Rice for cleavage, and show that it is an excellent approximation, but show that the lattice resistance includes a cornering resistance, in addition to the standard surface energy in the final cleavage criterion. Our discussion of the lattaice resistance is derived from simulations in two-dimensional hexagonal lattices with UBER force laws with a variety of shapes. Both branching cleavage and blunting emission can be described in terms of a stability diagram in the space of the remote stress intensity factors, and the competition between events on the initial cleavage plane and those on the branching plane can be described by overlays of the two appropriate stability diagrams. The popular criterion that kII=0 on the branching plane is explored for lattices and found to fail significantly, because the lattice stabilizes cleavage by the anisotropy of the surface energy. Also, in the lattice, dislocation emission must must always be considered as an alternative competing event to branching.

  20. Sex Ratios at Birth and Environmental Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    The relationship between average monthly air temperature and sex ratios at birth (SRB) was analyzed for children born in Germany during the period 1946-1995. Both the absolute temperature and - more markedly - the monthly temperature deviations from the overall mean were significantly positively correlated with the SRB (P<0.01) when temperatures were time-lagged against the SRB data by -10 or -11months. It is concluded that the sex of the offspring is partially determined by environmental temperatures prior to conception.

  1. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  2. Crack Branching and Fracture Mirror Data of Glasses and Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1998-01-01

    The fracture mirror and crack branching constants were determined from three glasses and nine advanced ceramics tested under various loading and specimen configurations in an attempt to use the constants as a data base for fractography. The ratios of fracture mirror or crack branching constant to fracture toughness were found to be approximately two for most ceramic materials tested. A demonstration of how to use the two constants as a tool for verifying stress measurements was presented for silicon nitride disk specimens subjected to high-temperature, constant stress-rate biaxial flexure testing.

  3. Morphometry of medial gaps of human brain artery branches.

    PubMed

    Canham, Peter B; Finlay, Helen M

    2004-05-01

    The bifurcation regions of the major human cerebral arteries are vulnerable to the formation of saccular aneurysms. A consistent feature of these bifurcations is a discontinuity of the tunica media at the apex of the flow divider. The objective was to measure the 3-dimensional geometry of these medial gaps or "medial defects." Nineteen bifurcations and 2 junctions of human cerebral arteries branches (from 4 male and 2 female subjects) were formalin-fixed at physiological pressure and processed for longitudinal serial sectioning. The apex and adjacent regions were examined and measurements were made from high-magnification photomicrographs, or projection microscope images, of the gap dimensions at multiple levels through the bifurcation. Plots were made of the width of the media as a function of distance from the apex. The media at each edge of the medial gap widened over a short distance, reaching the full width of the media of the contiguous daughter vessel. Medial gap dimensions were compared with the planar angle of the bifurcation, and a strong negative correlation was found, ie, the acute angled branches have the more prominent medial gaps. A discontinuity of the media at the apex was seen in all the bifurcations examined and was also found in the junction regions of brain arteries. We determined that the gap width is continuous with well-defined dimensions throughout its length and average length-to-width ratio of 6.9. The gaps were generally centered on the prominence of the apical ridge.

  4. Calculating Absolute Transition Probabilities for Deformed Nuclei in the Rare-Earth Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratman, Anne; Casarella, Clark; Aprahamian, Ani

    2017-09-01

    Absolute transition probabilities are the cornerstone of understanding nuclear structure physics in comparison to nuclear models. We have developed a code to calculate absolute transition probabilities from measured lifetimes, using a Python script and a Mathematica notebook. Both of these methods take pertinent quantities such as the lifetime of a given state, the energy and intensity of the emitted gamma ray, and the multipolarities of the transitions to calculate the appropriate B(E1), B(E2), B(M1) or in general, any B(σλ) values. The program allows for the inclusion of mixing ratios of different multipolarities and the electron conversion of gamma-rays to correct for their intensities, and yields results in absolute units or results normalized to Weisskopf units. The code has been tested against available data in a wide range of nuclei from the rare earth region (28 in total), including 146-154Sm, 154-160Gd, 158-164Dy, 162-170Er, 168-176Yb, and 174-182Hf. It will be available from the Notre Dame Nuclear Science Laboratory webpage for use by the community. This work was supported by the University of Notre Dame College of Science, and by the National Science Foundation, under Contract PHY-1419765.

  5. High-resolution absolute position detection using a multiple grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Ulrich; Drabarek, Pawel; Kuehnle, Goetz; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1996-08-01

    To control electro-mechanical engines, high-resolution linear and rotary encoders are needed. Interferometric methods (grating interferometers) promise a resolution of a few nanometers, but have an ambiguity range of some microns. Incremental encoders increase the absolute measurement range by counting the signal periods starting from a defined initial point. In many applications, however, it is not possible to move to this initial point, so that absolute encoders have to be used. Absolute encoders generally have a scale with two or more tracks placed next to each other. Therefore, they use a two-dimensional grating structure to measure a one-dimensional position. We present a new method, which uses a one-dimensional structure to determine the position in one dimension. It is based on a grating with a large grating period up to some millimeters, having the same diffraction efficiency in several predefined diffraction orders (multiple grating). By combining the phase signals of the different diffraction orders, it is possible to establish the position in an absolute range of the grating period with a resolution like incremental grating interferometers. The principal functionality was demonstrated by applying the multiple grating in a heterodyne grating interferometer. The heterodyne frequency was generated by a frequency modulated laser in an unbalanced interferometer. In experimental measurements an absolute range of 8 mm was obtained while achieving a resolution of 10 nm.

  6. Absolute irradiance of the Moon for on-orbit calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, T.C.; Kieffer, H.H.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The recognized need for on-orbit calibration of remote sensing imaging instruments drives the ROLO project effort to characterize the Moon for use as an absolute radiance source. For over 5 years the ground-based ROLO telescopes have acquired spatially-resolved lunar images in 23 VNIR (Moon diameter ???500 pixels) and 9 SWIR (???250 pixels) passbands at phase angles within ??90 degrees. A numerical model for lunar irradiance has been developed which fits hundreds of ROLO images in each band, corrected for atmospheric extinction and calibrated to absolute radiance, then integrated to irradiance. The band-coupled extinction algorithm uses absorption spectra of several gases and aerosols derived from MODTRAN to fit time-dependent component abundances to nightly observations of standard stars. The absolute radiance scale is based upon independent telescopic measurements of the star Vega. The fitting process yields uncertainties in lunar relative irradiance over small ranges of phase angle and the full range of lunar libration well under 0.5%. A larger source of uncertainty enters in the absolute solar spectral irradiance, especially in the SWIR, where solar models disagree by up to 6%. Results of ROLO model direct comparisons to spacecraft observations demonstrate the ability of the technique to track sensor responsivity drifts to sub-percent precision. Intercomparisons among instruments provide key insights into both calibration issues and the absolute scale for lunar irradiance.

  7. The Absolute Magnitude of the Sun in Several Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a table with estimates of the absolute magnitude of the Sun and the conversions from vegamag to the AB and ST systems for several wide-band filters used in ground-based and space-based observatories. These estimates use the dustless spectral energy distribution (SED) of Vega, calibrated absolutely using the SED of Sirius, to set the vegamag zero-points and a composite spectrum of the Sun that coadds space-based observations from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared with models of the Solar atmosphere. The uncertainty of the absolute magnitudes is estimated by comparing the synthetic colors with photometric measurements of solar analogs and is found to be ∼0.02 mag. Combined with the uncertainty of ∼2% in the calibration of the Vega SED, the errors of these absolute magnitudes are ∼3%–4%. Using these SEDs, for three of the most utilized filters in extragalactic work the estimated absolute magnitudes of the Sun are M B = 5.44, M V = 4.81, and M K = 3.27 mag in the vegamag system and M B = 5.31, M V = 4.80, and M K = 5.08 mag in AB.

  8. Ratios and effect size.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jasper

    2017-10-01

    Responding to a related pair of measurements is often expressed as a single discrimination ratio. Authors have used various discrimination ratios; yet, little information exists to guide their choice. A second use of ratios is to correct for the influence of a nuisance variable on the measurement of interest. I examine 4 discrimination ratios using simulated data sets. Three ratios, of the form a/(a + b), b/(a + b), and (a - b)/(a + b), introduced distortions to their raw data. The fourth ratio, (b - a)/b largely avoided such distortions and was the most sensitive at detecting statistical differences. Effect size statistics were also often improved with a correction ratio. Gustatory sensory preconditioning experiments involved measurement of rats' sucrose and saline consumption; these flavors served as either a target flavor or a control flavor and were counterbalanced across rats. However, sensory preconditioning was often masked by a bias for sucrose over saline. Sucrose and saline consumption scores were multiplied by the ratio of the overall consumption to the consumption of that flavor alone, which corrected the bias. The general utility of discrimination and correction ratios for data treatment is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses at Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch, Columbia, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outlaw, George S.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbia, Tennessee, conducted hydrologic and hydraulic analyses at Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch in the Little Bigby Creek watershed, Columbia, Tennessee, from 1990 through 1991. Results of the analyses can be used by city planners in the development of plans to replace several deteriorating and inadequate drainage structures. Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch drain small watersheds of 1.69 and 1.04 square miles, respectively. Flood discharges for 5-, lo-, and 25-year recurrence-interval storm events were calculated at the stream mouths using flood-frequency relations developed for use at small urban streams in Tennessee. For each stream, flood discharges at locations upstream from the mouth were calculated by subdividing the watershed and assigning a percentage of the discharge at the mouth, based on drainage area, to each subarea. Flood profiles for the selected recurrence-interval flood discharges were simulated for Akin Branch and Cayce Valley Branch for existing conditions and conditions that might exist if drainage improvements such as larger culverts and bridges and channel improvements are constructed. The results of the simulations were used to predict changes in flood elevations that might result from such drainage improvements. Analyses indicate that reductions in existing flood elevations of as much as 2.1 feet for the 5-year flood at some sites on Akin Branch and as much as 3.8 feet for the 5-year flood at some sites on Cayce Valley Branch might be expected with the drainage improvements.

  10. Absolute cardiovascular risk in a Fiji medical zone.

    PubMed

    Gyaneshwar, Rajat; Naidu, Swaran; Raban, Magdalena Z; Naidu, Sheetal; Linhart, Christine; Morrell, Stephen; Tukana, Isimeli; Taylor, Richard

    2016-02-09

    The population of Fiji has experienced emergence of non-communicable disease (NCD) and a plateau in life expectancy over the past 20 years. A mini-STEPS survey (n = 2765) was conducted in Viseisei in Western Fiji to assess NCD risk factors (RFs) in i-Taukei (Melanesians) and those of Indian descent aged 25-64 years (response 73 %). Hypertension (HT) was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on medication for HT; type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or on medication for T2DM; and obesity as a body mass index (kilograms/height(metres)(2)) ≥30. Data were age-adjusted to 2007 Fiji Census. Associations between RFs and ethnicity/education were investigated. Comparisons with Fiji STEPS surveys were undertaken, and the absolute risk of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) event/death in 10 years was estimated from multiple RF charts. NCD/RFs increased with age except excessive alcohol intake and daily smoking (women) which declined. Daily smoking was higher in men 33 % (95 % confidence interval: 31-36) than women 14 % (12-116); women were more obese 40 % (37-43) than men 23 % (20-26); HT was similar in men 37 % (34-40) and women 34 % (31-36), as was T2DM in men 15 % (13-17) and women 17 % (15-19). i-Taukei men had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for T2DM compared to Indians (1.00); and i-Taukei (both sexes) had a higher OR for obesity and low fruit/vegetable intake, daily smoking, excessive alcohol intake and HT in females. Increasing education correlated with lesser smoking, but with higher obesity and lower fruit/vegetable intake. Compared to the 2011 Fiji STEPS survey, no significant differences were evident in obesity, HT or T2DM prevalences. The proportion (40-64 years) classified at high or very high risk (≥20 %) of a CVD event/death (over 10 years) based on multiple RFs was 8.3 % for men (8.1 % i-Taukei, 8.5 % Indian), and 6.7 % for women (7.9 % i-Taukei, 6.0 % Indian). The results

  11. Detector for measuring the π + → e +v branching fraction

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; ...

    2015-04-13

    The PIENU experiment at TRIUMF is aimed at a measurement of the branching ratio R e/u = Γ((π + → e +v e) + (π + → e +v eγ))/Γ((π + → μ +v μ) + (π + → μ +v μγ)) with precision < 0.1%. Incident pions, delivered at the rate of 60 kHz with momentum 75 MeV/c, were degraded and stopped in a plastic scintillator target. Pions and their decay product positrons were detected with plastic scintillators and tracked with multiwire proportional chambers and silicon strip detectors. The energies of the positrons were measured in a spectrometer consistingmore » of a large NaI(Tℓ) crystal surrounded by an array of pure CsI crystals. This paper provides a description of the PIENU experimental apparatus and its performance in pursuit of R e/u« less

  12. Delivery of siRNA using ternary complexes containing branched cationic peptides: the role of peptide sequence, branching and targeting.

    PubMed

    Kudsiova, Laila; Welser, Katharina; Campbell, Frederick; Mohammadi, Atefeh; Dawson, Natalie; Cui, Lili; Hailes, Helen C; Lawrence, M Jayne; Tabor, Alethea B

    2016-03-01

    Ternary nanocomplexes, composed of bifunctional cationic peptides, lipids and siRNA, as delivery vehicles for siRNA have been investigated. The study is the first to determine the optimal sequence and architecture of the bifunctional cationic peptide used for siRNA packaging and delivery using lipopolyplexes. Specifically three series of cationic peptides of differing sequence, degrees of branching and cell-targeting sequences were co-formulated with siRNA and vesicles prepared from a 1 : 1 molar ratio of the cationic lipid DOTMA and the helper lipid, DOPE. The level of siRNA knockdown achieved in the human alveolar cell line, A549-luc cells, in both reduced serum and in serum supplemented media was evaluated, and the results correlated to the nanocomplex structure (established using a range of physico-chemical tools, namely small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurement); the conformational properties of each component (circular dichroism); the degree of protection of the siRNA in the lipopolyplex (using gel shift assays) and to the cellular uptake, localisation and toxicity of the nanocomplexes (confocal microscopy). Although the size, charge, structure and stability of the various lipopolyplexes were broadly similar, it was clear that lipopolyplexes formulated from branched peptides containing His-Lys sequences perform best as siRNA delivery agents in serum, with protection of the siRNA in serum balanced against efficient release of the siRNA into the cytoplasm of the cell.

  13. Ka-Band Waveguide Hybrid Combiner for MMIC Amplifiers With Unequal and Arbitrary Power Output Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2009-01-01

    The design, simulation and characterization of a novel Ka-band (32.05 +/- 0.25 GHz) rectangular waveguide branch-line hybrid unequal power combiner is presented. The manufactured combiner was designed to combine input signals, which are in phase and with an amplitude ratio of two. The measured return loss and isolation of the branch-line hybrid are better than 22 and 27 dB, respectively. The application of the branch-line hybrid for combining two MMIC power amplifiers with output power ratio of two is demonstrated. The measured combining efficiency is approximately 93 percent over the above frequency band.

  14. Absolute rather than relative income is a better socioeconomic predictor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Swedish adults.

    PubMed

    Axelsson Fisk, Sten; Merlo, Juan

    2017-05-04

    While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined. We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to COPD. Even though both absolute (SEP) and relative income (SES) were associated with COPD risk, only absolute income (SEP) presented a clear gradient, so the poorest had a three-fold higher COPD risk than the richest individuals. While the AUC for a model including only age was 0.54 and 0.55 when including relative income (SES), it increased to 0.65 when accounting for absolute income (SEP). SEP rather than SES demonstrated a consistent association with COPD. Our study supports the materialistic theory. Access to material resources seems more relevant to COPD risk than the consequences of low relative income.

  15. System and method for calibrating a rotary absolute position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes a rotary device, a rotary absolute position (RAP) sensor generating encoded pairs of voltage signals describing positional data of the rotary device, a host machine, and an algorithm. The algorithm calculates calibration parameters usable to determine an absolute position of the rotary device using the encoded pairs, and is adapted for linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters. A method of calibrating the RAP sensor includes measuring the rotary position as encoded pairs of voltage signals, linearly-mapping an ellipse defined by the encoded pairs to thereby calculate the calibration parameters, and calculating an absolute position of the rotary device using the calibration parameters. The calibration parameters include a positive definite matrix (A) and a center point (q) of the ellipse. The voltage signals may include an encoded sine and cosine of a rotary angle of the rotary device.

  16. Determining absolute protein numbers by quantitative fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verdaasdonk, Jolien Suzanne; Lawrimore, Josh; Bloom, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Biological questions are increasingly being addressed using a wide range of quantitative analytical tools to examine protein complex composition. Knowledge of the absolute number of proteins present provides insights into organization, function, and maintenance and is used in mathematical modeling of complex cellular dynamics. In this chapter, we outline and describe three microscopy-based methods for determining absolute protein numbers--fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stepwise photobleaching, and ratiometric comparison of fluorescence intensity to known standards. In addition, we discuss the various fluorescently labeled proteins that have been used as standards for both stepwise photobleaching and ratiometric comparison analysis. A detailed procedure for determining absolute protein number by ratiometric comparison is outlined in the second half of this chapter. Counting proteins by quantitative microscopy is a relatively simple yet very powerful analytical tool that will increase our understanding of protein complex composition. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Method and apparatus for two-dimensional absolute optical encoding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention presents a two-dimensional absolute optical encoder and a method for determining position of an object in accordance with information from the encoder. The encoder of the present invention comprises a scale having a pattern being predetermined to indicate an absolute location on the scale, means for illuminating the scale, means for forming an image of the pattern; and detector means for outputting signals derived from the portion of the image of the pattern which lies within a field of view of the detector means, the field of view defining an image reference coordinate system, and analyzing means, receiving the signals from the detector means, for determining the absolute location of the object. There are two types of scale patterns presented in this invention: grid type and starfield type.

  18. Transfer of absolute and relative predictiveness in human contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Previous animal-learning studies have shown that the effect of the predictive history of a cue on its associability depends on whether priority was set to the absolute or relative predictiveness of that cue. The present study tested this assumption in a human contingency-learning task. In both experiments, one group of participants was trained with predictive and nonpredictive cues that were presented according to an absolute-predictiveness principle (either continuously or partially reinforced cue configurations), whereas a second group was trained with co-occurring cues that differed in predictiveness (emphasizing the relative predictive validity of the cues). In both groups, later test discriminations were learned more readily if the discriminative cues had been predictive in the previous learning stage than if they had been nonpredictive. These results imply that both the absolute and relative predictiveness of a cue lead positive transfer with regard to its associability. The data are discussed with respect to attentional models of associative learning.

  19. Absolute marine gravimetry with matter-wave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bidel, Y; Zahzam, N; Blanchard, C; Bonnin, A; Cadoret, M; Bresson, A; Rouxel, D; Lequentrec-Lalancette, M F

    2018-02-12

    Measuring gravity from an aircraft or a ship is essential in geodesy, geophysics, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and navigation. Today, only relative sensors are available for onboard gravimetry. This is a major drawback because of the calibration and drift estimation procedures which lead to important operational constraints. Atom interferometry is a promising technology to obtain onboard absolute gravimeter. But, despite high performances obtained in static condition, no precise measurements were reported in dynamic. Here, we present absolute gravity measurements from a ship with a sensor based on atom interferometry. Despite rough sea conditions, we obtained precision below 10 -5  m s -2 . The atom gravimeter was also compared with a commercial spring gravimeter and showed better performances. This demonstration opens the way to the next generation of inertial sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope) based on atom interferometry which should provide high-precision absolute measurements from a moving platform.

  20. Absolute Coefficients and the Graphical Representation of Airfoil Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max

    1921-01-01

    It is argued that there should be an agreement as to what conventions to use in determining absolute coefficients used in aeronautics and in how to plot those coefficients. Of particular importance are the absolute coefficients of lift and drag. The author argues for the use of the German method over the kind in common use in the United States and England, and for the Continental over the usual American and British method of graphically representing the characteristics of an airfoil. The author notes that, on the whole, it appears that the use of natural absolute coefficients in a polar diagram is the logical method for presentation of airfoil characteristics, and that serious consideration should be given to the advisability of adopting this method in all countries, in order to advance uniformity and accuracy in the science of aeronautics.

  1. Dielectric response of branched copper phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamam, Khalil J.; Al-Amar, Mohammad M.; Mezei, Gellert; Guda, Ramakrishna; Burns, Clement A.

    2017-09-01

    The dielectric constant of pressed pellets and thin films of branched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was investigated as a function of frequency from 0.1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature from 20 °C to 100 °C. Surface morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The high-frequency values of the dielectric constant of pellets and thin films are ~3.5 and ~5.8, respectively. The response was only weakly dependent on frequency and temperature. The branched structure of the CuPc molecules helped to cancel out the effects of low-frequency polarization mechanisms. A planar delocalized charge system with two-dimensional localization was found using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  2. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  3. Biotechnological Production of Methyl-Branched Aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Goldmann, Michael; Geissler, Torsten; Gross, Egon; Backes, Michael; Hilmer, Jens-Michael; Ley, Jakob; Rost, Johanna; Francke, Alexander; Zorn, Holger

    2018-03-14

    A number of methyl-branched aldehydes impart interesting flavor impressions, and especially 12-methyltridecanal is a highly sought after flavoring compound for savory foods. Its smell is reminiscent of cooked meat and tallow. For the biotechnological production of 12-methyltridecanal, the literature was screened for fungi forming iso-fatty acids. Suitable organisms were identified and successfully grown in submerged cultures. The culture medium was optimized to increase the yields of branched fatty acids. A recombinant carboxylic acid reductase was used to reduce 12-methyltridecanoic acid to 12-methyltridecanal. The efficiency of whole-cell catalysis was compared to that of the purified enzyme preparation. After lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the fungal lipid extracts, the released fatty acids were converted to the corresponding aldehydes, including 12-methyltridecanal and 12-methyltetradecanal.

  4. Entrenched geographical and socioeconomic disparities in child mortality: trends in absolute and relative inequalities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Durham, Jo; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key supply and demand side barriers to accessing maternal and child

  5. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  6. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  7. Diffusion pseudotime robustly reconstructs lineage branching.

    PubMed

    Haghverdi, Laleh; Büttner, Maren; Wolf, F Alexander; Buettner, Florian; Theis, Fabian J

    2016-10-01

    The temporal order of differentiating cells is intrinsically encoded in their single-cell expression profiles. We describe an efficient way to robustly estimate this order according to diffusion pseudotime (DPT), which measures transitions between cells using diffusion-like random walks. Our DPT software implementations make it possible to reconstruct the developmental progression of cells and identify transient or metastable states, branching decisions and differentiation endpoints.

  8. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  9. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  10. Overview of Glenn Mechanical Components Branch Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrajsek, James

    2002-09-01

    Mr. James Zakrajsek, chief of the Mechanical Components Branch, gave an overview of research conducted by the branch. Branch members perform basic research on mechanical components and systems, including gears and bearings, turbi